2012 CAF Confederation Cup qualifying rounds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The 2012 CAF Confederation Cup qualifying rounds decided the eight teams which played in the group stage.

The schedule for the tournament was released in October 2011,[1] and the draw for the first three rounds was held in Cairo on 9 December 2011.[2]

Qualification ties were decided over two legs, with aggregate goals used to determine the winner. If the sides were level on aggregate after the second leg, the away goals rule was applied, and if still level, the tie proceeded directly to a penalty shootout (no extra time was played).[3]

Preliminary round[edit]

This was a knock-out stage of the 32 teams that did not receive byes to the first round.

First legs: 17–19 February; Second legs: 2–4 March.


19 February 2012
16:00 UTC+01:00
Dragons Benin 1–0 Burkina Faso Étoile Filante
Zinaba Goal 67' Report
Stade Charles de Gaulle, Porto-Novo
Referee: William Agbovi (Ghana)

3 March 2012
14:00 UTC±00:00
Étoile Filante Burkina Faso 2–0 Benin Dragons
Sanfo Goal 68'
Yédan Goal 76'
Report
Stade du 4-Août, Ouagadougou
Referee: Mehdi Abid-Charef (Algeria)

Étoile Filante won 2–1 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


FC Séquence advanced to the first round after Nania withdrew.[4]


18 February 2012
15:00 UTC+01:00
Union Douala Cameroon 1–0 Sierra Leone FC Kallon
Babanda Goal 75' Report
Stade de la Réunification, Douala
Referee: Mounir Mabrouk (Morocco)

3 March 2012
16:30 UTC±00:00
FC Kallon Sierra Leone 2–0 Cameroon Union Douala
Kallon Goal 41'
Kamara Goal 46'
Report
National Stadium, Freetown
Referee: Aboubacar Bangoura (Guinea)

FC Kallon won 2–1 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


18 February 2012
15:00 UTC+02:00
Black Leopards South Africa 1–1 Zimbabwe Motor Action
Xakane Goal 72' Report Moyo Goal 84' (pen.)
Peter Mokaba Stadium, Polokwane
Referee: Bernard Chabala (Zambia)

4 March 2012
15:00 UTC+02:00
Motor Action Zimbabwe 0–2 South Africa Black Leopards
Report Mongalo Goal 43'49'
Rufaro Stadium, Harare
Referee: Simanga Nhleko (Swaziland)

Black Leopards won 3–1 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


18 February 2012
16:00 UTC+02:00
Red Arrows Zambia 0–0 Swaziland Royal Leopards
Report
Nkoloma Stadium, Lusaka
Referee: Norman Matemera (Zimbabwe)

Royal Leopards won 1–0 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


Saint George SA won 5–0 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


18 February 2012
15:30 UTC+02:00
Kiyovu Sports Rwanda 1–1 Tanzania Simba
Ndayishmiye Goal 12' Report Kazimoto Goal 11'
Stade Régional Nyamirambo, Kigali
Referee: Thierry Nkurunziza (Burundi)

4 March 2012
16:00 UTC+03:00
Simba Tanzania 2–1 Rwanda Kiyovu Sports
Sunzu Goal 19'32' Report Mayanja Goal 79'

Simba won 3–2 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


18 February 2012
19:00 UTC+02:00
Ferroviário de Maputo Mozambique 3–0 Kenya Gor Mahia
Baugue Goal 4'
Nzili Goal 59'
Diogo Goal 85'
Report
Estádio do Zimpeto, Maputo
Referee: Kalyoto Ngosi (Malawi)

Note: Second leg postponed per request from Ferroviário de Maputo.[5]

Ferroviário de Maputo won 4–0 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


18 February 2012
15:30 UTC±00:00
Séwé Sports Ivory Coast 0–1 Cameroon Unisport Bafang
Report Nganou Goal 45'
Stade Robert Champroux, Abidjan
Referee: Youssef Essrayri (Tunisia)

Unisport Bafang won 1–0 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


19 February 2012
16:30 UTC+01:00
AC Léopards Republic of the Congo 2–0 Central African Republic AS Tempête Mocaf
Komara Goal 10'78' (pen.) Report
Stade Denis Sassou Nguesso, Dolisie
Referee: Achille Madila (Congo DR)

4 March 2012
15:00 UTC+01:00
AS Tempête Mocaf Central African Republic 2–2 Republic of the Congo AC Léopards
Kelebona Goal 36' (pen.)
Grengou Goal 43'
Report Nyamba Goal 38'
Makita Goal 74'
Barthelemy Boganda Stadium, Bangui
Referee: Adam Cordier (Chad)

AC Léopards won 4–2 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


LLB Académic won 5–0 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


19 February 2012
15:00 UTC+01:00
Renaissance Chad 2–0 Niger Sahel SC
Arnaud Goal 45+1'
Kazimir Goal 48'
Report

4 March 2012
15:00 UTC+01:00
Sahel SC Niger 2–2 Chad Renaissance
 ? Goal ?'
? Goal ?'
Report  ? Goal ?'
? Goal ?'
Stade Général Seyni Kountché, Niamey
Referee: Bunmi Ogunkolade (Nigeria)

Renaissance won 4–2 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


Invincible Eleven advanced to the first round after ADR Desportivo de Mansabá withdrew.[6]


19 February 2012
16:00 UTC±00:00
Gamtel The Gambia 1–0 Senegal Casa Sport
Sarr Goal 72' Report

4 March 2012
17:00 UTC±00:00
Casa Sport Senegal 1–0 The Gambia Gamtel
Sané Goal 70' Report
  Penalties  
3–4
Stade Demba Diop, Dakar
Referee: Antonio Manuel Fortes Rodrigues (Cape Verde)

1–1 on aggregate. Gamtel won the penalty shootout and advanced to the first round.


18 February 2012
19:00 UTC+02:00
Extension Gunners Botswana 2–1 Madagascar Tana Formation
Ditshupo Goal 85'
Moalosi Goal 87'
Report Claudel Goal 30'
University of Botswana Stadium, Gaborone
Referee: Antonio Muachihuissa Caxala (Angola)

Tana Formation won 3–2 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.


4 March 2012
15:00 UTC+02:00
Hwange Zimbabwe 4–1 Zanzibar Jamhuri
Tavarwisa Goal 25'
Chinyengetere Goal 45'
Mpofu Goal 49'73'
Report Ali Nuhu Goal 85'
Colliery Stadium, Hwange
Referee: Kutlwano Leso (Botswana)

Hwange won 7–1 on aggregate and advanced to the first round.

First round[edit]

This was a knock-out stage of 32 teams; the 16 teams advancing from the preliminary round, and 16 teams that received byes into this round.

First legs: 23–25 March; Second legs: 6–9 April.


24 March 2012
16:00 UTC±00:00
Étoile Filante Burkina Faso 2–2 Ivory Coast ASEC Mimosas
Bambara Goal 25'
Soulama Goal 49'
Report Seri Goal 21'
Diabaté Goal 69'
Stade du 4-Août, Ouagadougou
Referee: Ousmane Fall (Senegal)

6 April 2012
15:30 UTC±00:00
ASEC Mimosas Ivory Coast 2–0 Burkina Faso Étoile Filante
Seri Goal 35'43' Report
Stade Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan
Referee: Crespin Aguidissou (Benin)

ASEC Mimosas won 4–2 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


8 April 2012
16:00 UTC±00:00
CODM Meknès Morocco 3–0 Guinea FC Séquence
N'Diaye Goal 5'32'
Eddine Goal 47' (pen.)
Report
Stade d'Honneur, Meknes
Referee: Abdel Alla Omar (Egypt)

CODM Meknès won 5–0 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


24 March 2012
16:30 UTC±00:00
FC Kallon Sierra Leone 0–0 Nigeria Warri Wolves
Report
National Stadium, Freetown
Referee: Mohamed Hamada (Mauritania)

6 April 2012
16:00 UTC+01:00
Warri Wolves Nigeria 2–0 Sierra Leone FC Kallon
Atulewa Goal 53'
Okoyoh Goal 85'
Report
Warri Township Stadium, Warri
Referee: Adam Cordier (Chad)

Warri Wolves won 2–0 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


24 March 2012
15:00 UTC+02:00
Black Leopards South Africa 4–2 Democratic Republic of the Congo Saint Eloi Lupopo
Khoza Goal 9'43'
Obaje Goal 45'
Madimba Goal 52'
Report Oprica Goal 26'
Djunga Goal 62'
Giyani Stadium, Giyani
Referee: Wellington Kaoma (Zambia)

6 April 2012
15:30 UTC+02:00
Saint Eloi Lupopo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2–2 South Africa Black Leopards
Ngomba Goal 53'
Mpiana Goal 66'
Report Zulu Goal 16'
Nkhatha Goal 90'
Stade Frederic Kibassa Maliba, Lubumbashi
Referee: Romualdo Do Rasario Baltazar (Angola)

Black Leopards won 6–4 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


24 March 2012
16:00 UTC+02:00
Royal Leopards Swaziland 1–1 Democratic Republic of the Congo US Tshinkunku
Gama Goal 70' Report Lomboto Goal 55'
Mavuso Sports Centre, Manzini
Referee: Jose Maria Rachide (Mozambique)

Royal Leopards won 3–2 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


24 March 2012
16:00 UTC+03:00
Saint George SA Ethiopia 1–1 Tunisia Club Africain
Shimelis Goal 53' Report Messaadi Goal 60'
Addis Ababa Stadium, Addis Ababa
Referee: Badr El Din Abdel Ghadir (Sudan)

7 April 2012
16:00 UTC+01:00
Club Africain Tunisia 2–0 Ethiopia Saint George SA
Bechikh Goal 3'
Massaoued Goal 29' (pen.)
Report
Stade El Menzah, Tunis
Referee: Rédouane Jiyed (Morocco)

Club Africain won 3–1 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


25 March 2012
16:00 UTC+03:00
Simba Tanzania 2–0 Algeria ES Sétif
Okwi Goal 77'
Sunzu Goal 80'
Report

6 April 2012
18:00 UTC+01:00
ES Sétif Algeria 3–1 Tanzania Simba
Aoudia Goal 34'46'
Benmoussa Goal 52'
Report Okwi Goal 90+3'
Stade 8 Mai 1945, Sétif
Referee: Mohamed Ben Hassana (Tunisia)

3–3 on aggregate. Simba won on the away goals rule and advanced to the second round.


Al-Ahly Shendi won 3–0 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


24 March 2012
15:30 UTC+01:00
Unisport Bafang Cameroon 0–0 Nigeria Heartland
Report
Stade de la Réunification, Douala
Referee: Fuengi Claude Ntuntu (Congo DR)

8 April 2012
16:00 UTC+01:00
Heartland Nigeria 2–1 Cameroon Unisport Bafang
Umar Goal 50'
Ogbu Goal 90+'
Report Fardice Goal 79'
Dan Anyiam Stadium, Owerri
Referee: Kokou Fagla (Togo)

Heartland won 2–1 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


25 March 2012
15:30 UTC+01:00
AC Léopards Republic of the Congo 1–2 Tunisia CS Sfaxien
Komara Goal 31' Report Haddad Goal 10'
Soumah Goal 14'
Stade Denis Sassou Nguesso, Dolisie
Referee: Waziri Sheha Waziri (Tanzania)

7 April 2012
17:00 UTC+01:00
CS Sfaxien Tunisia 0–2 Republic of the Congo AC Léopards
Report Nyamba Goal 43'78'
Stade Taïeb Mhiri, Sfax
Referee: Ousmane Karembe (Mali)

AC Léopards won 3–2 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


24 March 2012
15:30 UTC+02:00
LLB Académic Burundi 1–1 Egypt ENPPI
Nasef Goal 59' (o.g.) Report Mostafa Goal 90'

7 April 2012
19:00 UTC+02:00
ENPPI Egypt 4–1 Burundi LLB Académic
El-Zaher Goal 7'
Raouf Goal 37'45'75'
Report Youssef Goal 90'
Petro Sport Stadium, Cairo
Referee: Bamlak Tessema Weyesa (Ethiopia)

ENPPI won 5–2 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


Cercle Olympique won 5–4 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


7 April 2012
17:30 UTC±00:00
Wydad Casablanca Morocco 4–1 Liberia Invincible Eleven
Iajour Goal 28'
El Amrani Goal 65'
Koné Goal 76'
Houassi Goal 88'
Report Herron Goal 53'
Stade Mohamed V, Casablanca
Referee: Boukari Ouédraogo (Burkina Faso)

Wydad Casablanca won 6–1 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


9 April 2012
17:00 UTC±00:00
AS Real Bamako Mali 3–1 The Gambia Gamtel
Souso Goal 18'
B. Coulibaly Goal 57'
Kondé Goal 63'
Report Soîdé Goal 72'
Stade 26 mars, Bamako
Referee: Yakhouba Keita (Guinea)

AS Real Bamako won 3–2 on aggregate and advanced to the second round.


8 April 2012
15:30 UTC+01:00
Inter Luanda Angola 2–0 Madagascar Tana Formation
Joél Goal 44' (pen.)
Moco Goal 76'
Report
  Penalties  
6–5
Estádio Joaquim Dinis, Luanda
Referee: Lazard Tsiba Kamba (Congo)

2–2 on aggregate. Inter Luanda won the penalty shootout and advanced to the second round.


25 March 2012
15:00 UTC+02:00
Hwange Zimbabwe 1–1 Sudan Alamal Atbara
Chinyengetere Goal 44' Report Mahbob Goal 7'
Colliery Stadium, Hwange
Referee: Anthony Ramsy Raphael (Malawi)

8 April 2012
19:30 UTC+03:00
Alamal Atbara Sudan 0–0 Zimbabwe Hwange
Report
Stade Al-Amal Atbara, Atbarah
Referee: Mensur Maeruf Kherseed (Eritrea)

1–1 on aggregate. Alamal Atbara won on the away goals rule and advanced to the second round.

Second round[edit]

This was a knock-out stage of the 16 teams that advanced from the first round; winners advanced to the play-off round, where they were joined by the eight losers from the CAF Champions League second round.

First legs: 27–29 April; Second legs 11–13 May.


13 May 2012
18:00 UTC+01:00
CODM Meknès Morocco 0–0 Ivory Coast ASEC Mimosas
Report
Stade d'Honneur, Meknes
Referee: William Agbovi (Ghana)

1–1 on aggregate. CODM Meknès won on the away goals rule and advanced to the play-off round.


29 April 2012
16:00 UTC+01:00
Warri Wolves Nigeria 3–1 South Africa Black Leopards
Amutu Goal 25', Goal 47'
Atulewa Goal 55'
Report Monama Goal 20'
Warri Township Stadium, Warri
Referee: Ousmane Fall (Senegal)

13 May 2012
15:00 UTC+02:00
Black Leopards South Africa 2–0 Nigeria Warri Wolves
Nkhatha Goal 25'67' Report
Peter Mokaba Stadium, Polokwane
Referee: Waziri Sheha Waziri (Tanzania)

3–3 on aggregate. Black Leopards won on the away goals rule and advanced to the play-off round.


28 April 2012
15:30 UTC+02:00
Royal Leopards Swaziland 0–1 Tunisia Club Africain
Report Ndouassel Goal 14'
Mavuso Sports Centre, Manzini
Referee: Anthony Ramsy Raphael (Malawi)

12 May 2012
16:00 UTC+01:00
Club Africain Tunisia 4–2 Swaziland Royal Leopards
Ndouassel Goal 15'54'62'
Agrebi Goal 69' (pen.)
Report Gama Goal 6'
Nxumalo Goal 30'
Stade Olympique de Radès, Radès
Referee: Mal Souley Mohamadou (Cameroon)

Club Africain won 5–2 on aggregate and advanced to the play-off round.


29 April 2012
16:00 UTC+03:00
Simba Tanzania 3–0 Sudan Al-Ahly Shendi
Moshi Goal 66'
Mafisango Goal 81'
Okwi Goal 90'
Report

13 May 2012
20:00 UTC+03:00
Al-Ahly Shendi Sudan 3–0 Tanzania Simba
Frid Goal 46'60'
Subahi Goal 49'
Report
  Penalties  
9–8
Shendi Stadium, Shendi
Referee: Mensur Maeruf Kherseed (Eritrea)

3–3 on aggregate. Al-Ahly Shendi won the penalty shootout and advanced to the play-off round.


13 May 2012
15:30 UTC+01:00
AC Léopards Republic of the Congo 2–1 Nigeria Heartland
Bhebey Ndey Goal 43'
Mombo Goal 90' (pen.)
Report Kabiru Goal 80'
Stade Denis Sassou Nguesso, Dolisie
Referee: Hudu Munyemana (Rwanda)

4–4 on aggregate. AC Léopards won on the away goals rule and advanced to the play-off round.


27 April 2012
19:00 UTC+02:00
ENPPI Egypt 3–1 Mali Cercle Olympique de Bamako
El Halwani Goal 2'
Die Foneye Goal 28'75'
Report Diarra Goal 77'
Cairo Military Academy Stadium, Cairo
Referee: Badr El Din Abdel Ghadir (Sudan)

13 May 2012
16:00 UTC±00:00
Cercle Olympique de Bamako Mali 3–0 Egypt ENPPI
Diarra Goal 58'70'
Traoré Goal 81'
Report
Stade Modibo Kéïta, Bamako
Referee: Mohamed Ben Hassana (Tunisia)

Cercle Olympique de Bamako won 4–3 on aggregate and advanced to the play-off round.


29 April 2012
19:00 UTC+01:00
Wydad Casablanca Morocco 3–0 Mali AS Real Bamako
Lakhal Goal 9'
Fettah Goal 53'
Houassi Goal 67'
Report
Stade Mohamed V, Casablanca
Referee: Eric Otogo Castane (Gabon)

Wydad Casablanca won 3–1 on aggregate and advanced to the play-off round.


29 April 2012
17:00 UTC+01:00
Inter Luanda Angola 4–1 Sudan Alamal Atbara
Moco Goal 31'53'
Alex Goal 72'
Amari Goal 90' (o.g.)
Report Sayed Goal 34'
Estádio Joaquim Dinis, Luanda
Referee: Rainhold Shikongo (Namibia)

13 May 2012
19:30 UTC+03:00
Alamal Atbara Sudan 0–2 Angola Inter Luanda
Report Kialunda Goal 27'
Paty Goal 73'
Stade Al-Amal Atbara, Atbarah
Referee: Adam Cordier (Chad)

Inter Luanda won 6–1 on aggregate and advanced to the play-off round.

Play-off round[edit]

This was a knock-out stage of 16 teams: the eight teams that advanced from the second round, and the eight teams that were eliminated in the CAF Champions League second round.[3] In each tie, a winner from the Confederation Cup second round played against a loser from the Champions League second round, with the Confederation Cup winner hosting the second leg at home. Winners advanced to the group stage.

The draw for the play-off round and group stage was held on 15 May 2012, 14:00 UTC+02:00, at the CAF Headquarters in Cairo.[7] For the play-off round draw, two teams were seeded (using their individual 2007–2011 5-Year team Ranking).[8][9]

First legs: 29 June–1 July; Second legs: 13–15 July.


30 June 2012
20:00 UTC+01:00
Maghreb de Fès Morocco 1–0 Republic of the Congo AC Léopards
Abourazzouk Goal 50' Report
Fez Stadium, Fes
Referee: Aboubacar Bangoura (Guinea)

14 July 2012
15:30 UTC+01:00
AC Léopards Republic of the Congo 2–0 Morocco Maghreb de Fès
Kombo Goal 40'
Guolelida Goal 90+20' (pen.)
Report
Stade Denis Sassou Nguesso, Dolisie
Referee: Romualdo Do Rasario Baltazar (Angola)

AC Léopards won 2–1 on aggregate and advanced to the group stage.


Al-Hilal won 3–0 on aggregate and advanced to the group stage.


Wydad Casablanca won 1–0 on aggregate and advanced to the group stage.


30 June 2012
20:00 UTC+03:00
Al-Merreikh Sudan 3–2 South Africa Black Leopards
Sheighel Goal 41'
El-Basha Goal 51'57'
Report Bobe Goal 82'
Zulu Goal 85'
Al-Merreikh Stadium, Omdurman
Referee: Mahmoud Ashour (Egypt)

Al-Merreikh won 3–2 on aggregate and advanced to the group stage.


2 July 2012
16:00 UTC±00:00
Djoliba Mali 2–0 Tunisia Club Africain
Traoré Goal 6'
Abouta Goal 45' (pen.)
Report
Stade Modibo Kéïta, Bamako
Referee: Henry Ogunyamodi (Nigeria)

14 July 2012
19:00 UTC+01:00
Club Africain Tunisia 2–0 Mali Djoliba
Agrebi Goal 31'
Massaoued Goal 90+7' (pen.)
Report
  Penalties  
3–4
Stade Olympique de Radès, Radès
Referee: Eric Otogo Castane (Gabon)

Note: First leg postponed due to heavy rains in Bamako.[10]

2–2 on aggregate. Djoliba won the penalty shootout and advanced to the group stage.


1 July 2012
15:00 UTC+02:00
Dynamos Zimbabwe 0–0 Angola Inter Luanda
Report
Rufaro Stadium, Harare
Referee: Hamada Nampiandraza (Madagascar)

15 July 2012
17:00 UTC+01:00
Inter Luanda Angola 1–0 Zimbabwe Dynamos
Manucho Goal 36' Report
Estádio Joaquim Dinis, Luanda
Referee: Joshua Bondo (Botswana)

Inter Luanda won 1–0 on aggregate and advanced to the group stage.


30 June 2012
17:00 UTC±00:00
Stade Malien Mali 3–0 Morocco CODM Meknès
Diawara Goal 45+1'
M. Coulibaly Goal 62' (pen.)
Cissé Goal 90+1'
Report
Stade Modibo Kéïta, Bamako
Referee: Kokou Djaoupe (Togo)

14 July 2012
21:00 UTC+01:00
CODM Meknès Morocco 1–1 Mali Stade Malien
Semlali Goal 22' Report Diawara Goal 43'
Stade d'Honneur, Meknes
Referee: Aly Lemghaifry (Mauritania)

Stade Malien won 4–1 on aggregate and advanced to the group stage.


1 July 2012
15:30 UTC+01:00
Coton Sport Cameroon 1–0 Sudan Al-Ahly Shendi
Bapidi Goal 8' (pen.) Report
Roumdé Adjia Stadium, Garoua
Referee: Ousmane Karembe (Mali)

15 July 2012
20:00 UTC+03:00
Al-Ahly Shendi Sudan 2–0 Cameroon Coton Sport
Pathero Goal 22'
Yakubu Goal 50'
Report
Shendi Stadium, Shendi
Referee: Janny Sikazwe (Zambia)

Al-Ahly Shendi won 2–1 on aggregate and advanced to the group stage.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dates fixed for Inter-clubs Competitions 2012" (PDF). Confédération Africaine de Football. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  2. ^ "Fixtures of the preliminary round - 16th CC 2012" (PDF). Confédération Africaine de Football. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "Regulations of the CAF Confederation Cup" (PDF). Confédération Africaine de Football. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  4. ^ "Ghana legend's club pull out of Confederation Cup". BBC Sport. 17 February 2012. 
  5. ^ "Gor Mahia's date with Ferroviario pushed back by a week". the-star.co.ke. 24 February 2012. 
  6. ^ "LISCR vs. Berekum Chelsea Sunday". LiberianSoccer.com. 
  7. ^ "CAF interclubs final draw result". Confédération Africaine de Football. 15 May 2012. 
  8. ^ "Orange Champions League and Orange Confederation Cup club ranking" (PDF). Confédération Africaine de Football. 15 May 2012. 
  9. ^ "Orange Confederation Cup Draw procedure" (PDF). Confédération Africaine de Football. 15 May 2012. 
  10. ^ "CDC : Djoliba-Club Africain reporté". footafrica365.fr. 1 July 2012. 

External links[edit]