|Part of a series on|
The 2012 phenomenon was a range of eschatological beliefs that cataclysmic or otherwise transformative events would occur on or around 21 December 2012. This date was regarded as the end-date of a 5,126-year-long cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, and as such, festivities to commemorate the date took place on 21 December 2012 in the countries that were part of the Maya civilization (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador), with main events at Chichén Itzá in Mexico, and Tikal in Guatemala.
Various astronomical alignments and numerological formulae were proposed as pertaining to this date. A New Age interpretation held that the date marked the start of a period during which Earth and its inhabitants would undergo a positive physical or spiritual transformation, and that 21 December 2012 would mark the beginning of a new era. Others suggested that the date marked the end of the world or a similar catastrophe. Scenarios suggested for the end of the world included the arrival of the next solar maximum, an interaction between Earth and the black hole at the center of the galaxy, or Earth's collision with a planet called Nibiru.
Scholars from various disciplines quickly dismissed predictions of concomitant cataclysmic events as they arose. Professional Mayanist scholars stated that no extant classic Maya accounts forecast impending doom, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar ends in 2012 misrepresented Maya history and culture, while astronomers rejected the various proposed doomsday scenarios as pseudoscience, easily refuted by elementary astronomical observations.
- 1 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar
- 2 Maya references to b'ak'tun 13
- 3 New Age beliefs
- 4 Doomsday theories
- 5 Public reaction
- 6 Cultural influence
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 Citations
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Mesoamerican Long Count calendar
December 2012 marked the conclusion of a b'ak'tun—a time period in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, used in Central America prior to the arrival of Europeans. Although the Long Count was most likely invented by the Olmec, it has become closely associated with the Maya civilization, whose classic period lasted from 250 to 900 AD. The writing system of the classic Maya has been substantially deciphered, meaning that a corpus of their written and inscribed material has survived from before the European conquest.
Unlike the 260-day tzolk'in still used today among the Maya, the Long Count was linear rather than cyclical, and kept time roughly in units of 20: 20 days made a uinal, 18 uinals (360 days) made a tun, 20 tuns made a k'atun, and 20 k'atuns (144,000 days or roughly 394 years) made up a b'ak'tun. Thus, the Maya date of 184.108.40.206.15 represents 8 b'ak'tuns, 3 k'atuns, 2 tuns, 10 uinals and 15 days.
There is a strong tradition of "world ages" in Maya literature, but the record has been distorted, leaving several possibilities open to interpretation. According to the Popol Vuh, a compilation of the creation accounts of the K'iche' Maya of the Colonial-era highlands, we are living in the fourth world. The Popol Vuh describes the gods first creating three failed worlds, followed by a successful fourth world in which humanity was placed. In the Maya Long Count, the previous world ended after 13 b'ak'tuns, or roughly 5,125 years.[Note a] The Long Count's "zero date"[Note b][Note c] was set at a point in the past marking the end of the third world and the beginning of the current one, which corresponds to 11 August 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. This means that the fourth world reached the end of its 13th b'ak'tun, or Maya date 220.127.116.11.0, on 21 December 2012. In 1957, Mayanist and astronomer Maud Worcester Makemson wrote that "the completion of a Great Period of 13 b'ak'tuns would have been of the utmost significance to the Maya." In 1966, Michael D. Coe wrote in The Maya that "there is a suggestion ... that Armageddon would overtake the degenerate peoples of the world and all creation on the final day of the 13th [b'ak'tun]. Thus ... our present universe [would] be annihilated ... when the Great Cycle of the Long Count reaches completion."[Note e]
Coe's interpretation was repeated by other scholars through the early 1990s. In contrast, later researchers said that, while the end of the 13th b'ak'tun would perhaps be a cause for celebration, it did not mark the end of the calendar. "There is nothing in the Maya or Aztec or ancient Mesoamerican prophecy to suggest that they prophesied a sudden or major change of any sort in 2012," said Mayanist scholar Mark Van Stone. "The notion of a 'Great Cycle' coming to an end is completely a modern invention." In 1990, Mayanist scholars Linda Schele and David Freidel argued that the Maya "did not conceive this to be the end of creation, as many have suggested." Susan Milbrath, curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, stated that, "We have no record or knowledge that [the Maya] would think the world would come to an end" in 2012. Sandra Noble, executive director of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, said, "For the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle," and, "The 2012 phenomenon is a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in." "There will be another cycle," said E. Wyllys Andrews V, director of the Tulane University Middle American Research Institute. "We know the Maya thought there was one before this, and that implies they were comfortable with the idea of another one after this." Commenting on the new calendar found at Xultún, one archaeologist said "The ancient Maya predicted the world would continue – that 7,000 years from now, things would be exactly like this. We keep looking for endings. The Maya were looking for a guarantee that nothing would change. It's an entirely different mindset."
Several prominent individuals representing Maya of Guatemala decried the suggestion that the world would end with the 13th b'ak'tun. Ricardo Cajas, president of the Colectivo de Organizaciones Indígenas de Guatemala, said the date did not represent an end of humanity but that the new cycle "supposes changes in human consciousness." Martín Sacalxot, of the office of the Procurador de los Derechos Humanos (Guatemala's Human Rights Ombudsman, PDH), said that the end of the calendar has nothing to do with the end of the world or the year 2012.
The European association of the Maya with eschatology dates back to the time of Christopher Columbus, who was compiling a work called Libro de las profecías during the voyage in 1502 when he first heard about the "Maia" on Guanaja, an island off the north coast of Honduras. Influenced by the writings of Bishop Pierre d'Ailly, Columbus believed that his discovery of "most distant" lands (and, by extension, the Maya themselves) was prophesied and would bring about the Apocalypse. End-times fears were widespread during the early years of the Spanish Conquest as the result of popular astrological predictions in Europe of a second Great Flood for the year 1524.
In the early 1900s, German scholar Ernst Förstemann interpreted the last page of the Dresden Codex as a representation of the end of the world in a cataclysmic flood. He made reference to the destruction of the world and an apocalypse, though he made no reference to the 13th b'ak'tun or 2012 and it was not clear that he was referring to a future event. His ideas were repeated by archaeologist Sylvanus Morley, who directly paraphrased Förstemann and added his own embellishments, writing, "Finally, on the last page of the manuscript, is depicted the Destruction of the World ... Here, indeed, is portrayed with a graphic touch the final all-engulfing cataclysm" in the form of a great flood. These comments were later repeated in Morley's book, The Ancient Maya, the first edition of which was published in 1946.
Maya references to b'ak'tun 13
It is not certain what significance the classic Maya gave to the 13th b'ak'tun. Most classic Maya inscriptions are strictly historical and do not make any prophetic declarations. Two items in the Maya classical corpus, however, do mention the end of the 13th b'ak'tun: Tortuguero Monument 6 and La Corona Hieroglyphic Stairway 12.
The Tortuguero site, which lies in southernmost Tabasco, Mexico, dates from the 7th century AD and consists of a series of inscriptions mostly in honor of the contemporary ruler Bahlam Ajaw. One inscription, known as Tortuguero Monument 6, is the only inscription known to refer to b'ak'tun 13 in any detail. It has been partially defaced; Sven Gronemeyer and Barbara MacLeod have given this translation:
Very little is known about the god B'olon Yokte'. According to an article by Mayanists Markus Eberl and Christian Prager in British Anthropological Reports, his name is composed of the elements "nine", 'OK-te' (the meaning of which is unknown), and "god". Confusion in classical period inscriptions suggests that the name was already ancient and unfamiliar to contemporary scribes. He also appears in inscriptions from Palenque, Usumacinta, and La Mar as a god of war, conflict, and the underworld. In one stele he is portrayed with a rope tied around his neck, and in another with an incense bag, together signifying a sacrifice to end a cycle of years.
Based on observations of modern Maya rituals, Gronemeyer and MacLeod claim that the stela refers to a celebration in which a person portraying Bolon Yokte' K'uh was wrapped in ceremonial garments and paraded around the site. They note that the association of Bolon Yokte' K'uh with b'ak'tun 13 appears to be so important on this inscription that it supersedes more typical celebrations such as "erection of stelae, scattering of incense" and so forth. Furthermore, they assert that this event was indeed planned for 2012 and not the 7th century. Mayanist scholar Stephen Houston contests this view by arguing that future dates on Maya inscriptions were simply meant to draw parallels with contemporary events, and that the words on the stela describe a contemporary rather than a future scene.
In April–May 2012, a team of archaeologists unearthed a previously unknown inscription on a stairway at the La Corona site in Guatemala. The inscription, on what is known as Hieroglyphic Stairway 12, describes the establishment of a royal court in Calakmul in 635 AD, and compares the then-recent completion of 13 k'atuns with the future completion of the 13th b'ak'tun. It contains no speculation or prophecy as to what the scribes believed would happen at that time.
Dates beyond b'ak'tun 13
Maya inscriptions occasionally mention predicted future events or commemorations that would occur on dates far beyond the completion of the 13th b'ak'tun. Most of these are in the form of "distance dates"; Long Count dates together with an additional number, known as a Distance Number, which when added to them makes a future date. On the west panel at the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque, a section of text projects forward to the 80th 52-year Calendar Round from the coronation of the ruler K'inich Janaab' Pakal. Pakal's accession occurred on 18.104.22.168.8, equivalent to 27 July 615 AD in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. The inscription begins with Pakal's birthdate of 22.214.171.124.0 (24 March, 603 AD Gregorian) and then adds the Distance Number 10.11.10.5.8 to it, arriving at a date of 21 October 4772 AD, more than 4,000 years after Pakal's time.
Another example is Stela 1 at Coba which marks the date of creation as 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.0.0.0.0, or nineteen units above the b'ak'tun. According to Linda Schele, these 13s represent "the starting point of a huge odometer of time", with each acting as a zero and resetting to 1 as the numbers increase.[Note c] Thus this inscription anticipates the current universe lasting at least 2021×13×360 days, or roughly 2.687×1028 years; a time span equal to 2 quintillion times the age of the universe as determined by cosmologists. Others have suggested, however, that this date marks creation as having occurred after that time span.
In 2012, researchers announced the discovery of a series of Maya astronomical tables in Xultún, Guatemala which plot the movements of the Moon and other astronomical bodies over the course of 17 b'ak'tuns.
New Age beliefs
Many assertions about the year 2012 form part of Mayanism, a non-codified collection of New Age beliefs about ancient Maya wisdom and spirituality.[excessive citations] The term is distinct from "Mayanist," used to refer to an academic scholar of the Maya. Archaeoastronomer Anthony Aveni says that while the idea of "balancing the cosmos" was prominent in ancient Maya literature, the 2012 phenomenon did not draw from those traditions. Instead, it was bound up with American concepts such as the New Age movement, millenarianism, and the belief in secret knowledge from distant times and places. Themes found in 2012 literature included "suspicion towards mainstream Western culture", the idea of spiritual evolution, and the possibility of leading the world into the New Age by individual example or by a group's joined consciousness. The general intent of this literature was not to warn of impending doom but "to foster counter-cultural sympathies and eventually socio-political and 'spiritual' activism." Aveni, who has studied New Age and search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) communities, describes 2012 narratives as the product of a "disconnected" society: "Unable to find spiritual answers to life's big questions within ourselves, we turn outward to imagined entities that lie far off in space or time—entities that just might be in possession of superior knowledge."
In 1975, the ending of b'ak'tun 13 became the subject of speculation by several New Age authors, who asserted it would correspond with a global "transformation of consciousness". In Mexico Mystique: The Coming Sixth Age of Consciousness, Frank Waters tied Coe's original date of 24 December 2011[Note e] to astrology and the prophecies of the Hopi, while both José Argüelles (in The Transformative Vision) and Terence McKenna (in The Invisible Landscape) discussed the significance of the year 2012 without mentioning a specific day.
In 1983, with the publication of Robert J. Sharer's revised table of date correlations in the 4th edition of Morley's The Ancient Maya,[Note e] each became convinced that 21 December 2012 had significant meaning. By 1987, the year in which he organized the Harmonic Convergence event, Arguelles was using the date 21 December 2012 in The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology. He claimed that on 13 August 3113 BC the Earth began a passage through a "galactic synchronization beam" that emanated from the center of our galaxy, that it would pass through this beam during a period of 5200 tuns (Maya cycles of 360 days each), and that this beam would result in "total synchronization" and "galactic entrainment" of individuals "plugged into the Earth's electromagnetic battery" by 22.214.171.124.0 (21 December 2012). He believed that the Maya aligned their calendar to correspond to this phenomenon. Anthony Aveni has dismissed all of these ideas.
In 2006, author Daniel Pinchbeck popularized New Age concepts about this date in his book 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl, linking b'ak'tun 13 to beliefs in crop circles, alien abduction, and personal revelations based on the use of hallucinogenic drugs and mediumship. Pinchbeck claims to discern a "growing realization that materialism and the rational, empirical worldview that comes with it has reached its expiration date ... [w]e're on the verge of transitioning to a dispensation of consciousness that's more intuitive, mystical and shamanic."
There is no significant astronomical event tied to the Long Count's start date. However, its supposed end date was tied to astronomical phenomena by esoteric, fringe, and New Age literature that placed great significance on astrology, especially astrological interpretations associated with the phenomenon of axial precession. Chief among these ideas is the astrological concept of a "galactic alignment".
In the Solar System, the planets and the Sun lie roughly within the same flat plane, known as the plane of the ecliptic. From our perspective on Earth, the ecliptic is the path taken by the Sun across the sky over the course of the year. The twelve constellations that line the ecliptic are known as the zodiacal constellations and, annually, the Sun passes through all of them in turn. Additionally, over time, the Sun's annual cycle appears to recede very slowly backward by one degree every 72 years, or by one constellation approximately every 2,160 years. This backward movement, called "precession", is due to a slight wobble in the Earth's axis as it spins, and can be compared to the way a spinning top wobbles as it slows down. Over the course of 25,800 years, a period often called a Great Year, the Sun's path completes a full, 360-degree backward rotation through the zodiac. In Western astrological traditions, precession is measured from the March equinox, one of the two annual points at which the Sun is exactly halfway between its lowest and highest points in the sky. At the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st, the Sun's March equinox position was in the constellation Pisces moving back into Aquarius. This signaled the end of one astrological age (the Age of Pisces) and the beginning of another (the Age of Aquarius).
Similarly, the Sun's December solstice position (in the northern hemisphere, the lowest point on its annual path; in the southern hemisphere, the highest) was in the constellation of Sagittarius, one of two constellations in which the zodiac intersects with the Milky Way. Every year, on the December solstice, the Sun and the Milky Way, appeared (from the surface of the Earth) to come into alignment, and every year precession caused a slight shift in the Sun's position in the Milky Way. Given that the Milky Way is between 10° and 20° wide, it takes between 700 and 1,400 years for the Sun's December solstice position to precess through it. In 2012 it was about halfway through the Milky Way, crossing the galactic equator. In 2012, the Sun's December solstice fell on 21 December.
Mystical speculations about the precession of the equinoxes and the Sun's proximity to the center of the Milky Way appeared in Hamlet's Mill (1969) by Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Deschend. These were quoted and expanded upon by Terence and Dennis McKenna in The Invisible Landscape (1975). The significance of a future "galactic alignment" was noted in 1991 by astrologer Raymond Mardyks, who asserted that the winter solstice would align with the galactic plane in 1998/1999. He wrote that this event "only occurs once each 26,000-year cycle and would be most definitely of utmost significance to the top flight ancient astrologers." Astrologer Bruce Scofield noted, "The Milky Way crossing of the winter solstice is something that has been neglected by Western astrologers, with a few exceptions. Charles Jayne made a very early reference to it, and in the 1970s Rob Hand mentioned it in his talks on precession but didn't elaborate on it. Ray Mardyks later made a point of it, and after that John [Major] Jenkins, myself, and Daniel Giamario began to talk about it."
Adherents to the idea, following a theory first proposed by Munro Edmonson, alleged that the Maya based their calendar on observations of the Great Rift or Dark Rift, a band of dark dust clouds in the Milky Way, which, according to some scholars, the Maya called the Xibalba be or "Black Road". John Major Jenkins claims that the Maya were aware of where the ecliptic intersected the Black Road and gave this position in the sky a special significance in their cosmology. Jenkins said that precession would align the Sun precisely with the galactic equator at the 2012 winter solstice. Jenkins claimed that the classical Maya anticipated this conjunction and celebrated it as the harbinger of a profound spiritual transition for mankind. New Age proponents of the galactic alignment hypothesis argued that, just as astrology uses the positions of stars and planets to make claims of future events, the Maya plotted their calendars with the objective of preparing for significant world events. Jenkins attributed the insights of ancient Maya shamans about the galactic center to their use of psilocybin mushrooms, psychoactive toads, and other psychedelics. Jenkins also associated the Xibalba be with a "world tree", drawing on studies of contemporary (not ancient) Maya cosmology.
Astronomers such as David Morrison argue that the galactic equator is an entirely arbitrary line and can never be precisely drawn, because it is impossible to determine the Milky Way's exact boundaries, which vary depending on clarity of view. Jenkins claimed he drew his conclusions about the location of the galactic equator from observations taken at above 11,000 feet (3,400 m), an altitude that gives a clearer image of the Milky Way than the Maya had access to. Furthermore, since the Sun is half a degree wide, its solstice position takes 36 years to precess its full width. Jenkins himself noted that even given his determined location for the line of the galactic equator, its most precise convergence with the center of the Sun already occurred in 1998, and so asserts that, rather than 2012, the galactic alignment instead focuses on a multi-year period centered in 1998.
There is no clear evidence that the classic Maya were aware of precession. Some Maya scholars, such as Barbara MacLeod, Michael Grofe, Eva Hunt, Gordon Brotherston, and Anthony Aveni, have suggested that some Mayan holy dates were timed to precessional cycles, but scholarly opinion on the subject remains divided. There is also little evidence, archaeological or historical, that the Maya placed any importance on solstices or equinoxes. It is possible that only the earliest among Mesoamericans observed solstices, but this is also a disputed issue among Mayanists. There is also no evidence that the classic Maya attached any importance to the Milky Way; there is no glyph in their writing system to represent it, and no astronomical or chronological table tied to it.
Timewave zero and the I Ching
"Timewave zero" is a numerological formula that purports to calculate the ebb and flow of "novelty", defined as increase over time in the universe's interconnectedness, or organized complexity. Terence McKenna claimed that the universe has a teleological attractor at the end of time that increases interconnectedness. He believed this which would eventually reach a singularity of infinite complexity in 2012, at which point anything and everything imaginable would occur simultaneously. He conceived this idea over several years in the early to mid-1970s whilst using psilocybin mushrooms and DMT. The scientific community considers novelty theory to be pseudoscience.
McKenna expressed "novelty" in a computer program which produces a waveform known as "timewave zero" or the "timewave". Based on McKenna's interpretation of the King Wen sequence of the I Ching, an ancient Chinese book on divination, the graph purports to show great periods of novelty corresponding with major shifts in humanity's biological and sociocultural evolution. He believed that the events of any given time are resonantly related to the events of other times, and chose the atomic bombing of Hiroshima as the basis for calculating his end date of November 2012. When he later discovered this date's proximity to the end of the 13th b'ak'tun of the Maya calendar, he revised his hypothesis so that the two dates matched.
The 1975 first edition of The Invisible Landscape referred to 2012 (but no specific day during the year) only twice. In the 1993 second edition, McKenna employed Sharer's date[Note e] of 21 December 2012 throughout.
Novelty theory has been criticized for "rejecting countless ideas presumed as factual by the scientific community", depending "solely on numerous controversial deductions that contradict empirical logic", and encompassing "no suitable indication of truth", with the conclusion that novelty theory is a pseudoscience.
The idea that the year 2012 presaged a world cataclysm, the end of the world, or the end of human civilization, became a subject of popular media speculation as the date of 21 December 2012 approached. This idea was promulgated by many pages on the Internet, particularly on YouTube. The Discovery Channel was criticized for its "quasi-documentaries" about the subject that "sacrifice[d] accuracy for entertainment."
Some people interpreted the galactic alignment apocalyptically, claiming that its occurrence would somehow create a combined gravitational effect between the Sun and the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy (known as Sagittarius A*), creating havoc on Earth. Apart from the "galactic alignment" already having happened in 1998, the Sun's apparent path through the zodiac as seen from Earth did not take it near the true galactic center, but rather several degrees above it. Even were this not the case, Sagittarius A* is 30,000 light years from Earth; it would have to have been more than 6 million times closer to cause any gravitational disruption to Earth's Solar System. This reading of the alignment was included on the History Channel documentary Decoding the Past. John Major Jenkins complained that a science fiction writer co-authored the documentary, and he went on to characterize it as "45 minutes of unabashed doomsday hype and the worst kind of inane sensationalism".
Some believers in a 2012 doomsday used the term "galactic alignment" to describe a different phenomenon proposed by some scientists to explain a pattern in mass extinctions supposedly observed in the fossil record. According to the Shiva Hypothesis, mass extinctions are not random, but recur every 26 million years. To account for this, it was suggested that vertical oscillations made by the Sun on its 250-million-year orbit of the galactic center cause it to regularly pass through the galactic plane. When the Sun's orbit takes it outside the galactic plane which bisects the galactic disc, the influence of the galactic tide is weaker. However, when re-entering the galactic disc—as it does every 20–25 million years—it comes under the influence of the far stronger "disc tides", which, according to mathematical models, increase the flux of Oort cloud comets into the inner Solar System by a factor of 4, thus leading to a massive increase in the likelihood of a devastating comet impact. However, this "alignment" takes place over tens of millions of years, and could never be timed to an exact date. Evidence shows that the Sun passed through the plane bisecting the galactic disc three million years ago and in 2012 was moving farther above it.
A third suggested alignment was some sort of planetary conjunction occurring on 21 December 2012; however, conventional astronomy did not predict a conjunction on that date. Multi-planet alignments did occur in both 2000 and 2010, each with no ill result for the Earth. Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System; larger than all other planets combined. When Jupiter is near opposition, the difference in gravitational force that the Earth experiences is less than 1% of the force that the Earth feels daily from the Moon.
Another idea tied to 2012 involved a geomagnetic reversal (often incorrectly referred to as a pole shift by proponents), possibly triggered by a massive solar flare, that would release an energy equal to 100 billion atomic bombs. This belief was supposedly supported by observations that the Earth's magnetic field was weakening, which could precede a reversal of the north and south magnetic poles, and the arrival of the next solar maximum, which was expected sometime around 2012.
Most scientific estimates, however, say that geomagnetic reversals take between 1,000 and 10,000 years to complete, and do not start on any particular date. Furthermore, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration predicted that the solar maximum would peak in late 2013 or 2014, and that it would be fairly weak, with a below-average number of sunspots. In any case, there was no scientific evidence linking a solar maximum to a geomagnetic reversal, which is driven by forces entirely within the Earth. Instead, a solar maximum would be mostly notable for its effects on satellite and cellular phone communications. David Morrison attributed the rise of the solar storm idea to physicist and science popularizer Michio Kaku, who claimed in an interview with Fox News that a solar peak in 2012 could be disastrous for orbiting satellites, and to NASA's headlining a 2006 webpage as "Solar Storm Warning", a term later repeated on several doomsday pages.
Some believers in a 2012 doomsday claimed that a planet called Planet X, or Nibiru, would collide with or pass by the Earth. This idea, which appeared in various forms since 1995, initially predicted Doomsday in May 2003, but proponents abandoned that date after it passed without incident. The idea originated from claims of channeling alien beings and is widely ridiculed. Astronomers calculated that such an object so close to Earth would be visible to anyone looking up at the night sky.
Author Graham Hancock, in his book Fingerprints of the Gods, interpreted Coe's remarks in Breaking the Maya Code as evidence for the prophecy of a global cataclysm. Filmmaker Roland Emmerich later credited the book with inspiring his 2009 disaster film 2012.
Other speculations regarding doomsday in 2012 included predictions by the Web Bot project, a computer program that purports to predict the future by analyzing Internet chatter. However, commentators have rejected claims that the bot is able to predict natural disasters, as opposed to human-caused disasters like stock market crashes.
The 2012 date was also loosely tied to the long-running concept of the Photon Belt, which predicted a form of interaction between Earth and Alcyone, the largest star of the Pleiades cluster. Critics argued that photons cannot form belts, that the Pleiades, located more than 400 light years away, could have no effect on Earth, and that the Solar System, rather than getting closer to the Pleiades, was in fact moving farther away from it.
Some media outlets tied the fact that the red supergiant star Betelgeuse would undergo a supernova at some point in the future to the 2012 phenomenon. However, while Betelgeuse was certainly in the final stages of its life, and would die as a supernova, there was no way to predict the timing of the event to within 100,000 years. To be a threat to Earth, a supernova would need to be no further than 25 light years from the Solar System. Betelgeuse is roughly 600 light years away, and so its supernova would not affect Earth. In December 2011, NASA's Francis Reddy issued a press release debunking the possibility of a supernova occurring in 2012.
Another claim involved alien invasion. In December 2010, an article, first published in examiner.com and later referenced in the English-language edition of Pravda claimed, citing a Second Digitized Sky Survey photograph as evidence, that SETI had detected three large spacecraft due to arrive at Earth in 2012. Astronomer and debunker Phil Plait noted that by using the small-angle formula, one could determine that if the object in the photo were as large as claimed, it would have had to be closer to Earth than the Moon, which would mean it would already have arrived. In January 2011, Seth Shostak, chief astronomer of SETI, issued a press release debunking the claims.
The phenomenon spread widely after coming to public notice, particularly on the Internet. Hundreds of thousands of websites were posted on the subject. "Ask an Astrobiologist", a NASA public outreach website, received over 5,000 questions from the public on the subject from 2007, some asking whether they should kill themselves, their children or their pets. In May 2012, an Ipsos poll of 16,000 adults in 21 countries found that 8 percent had experienced fear or anxiety over the possibility of the world ending in December 2012, while an average of 10 percent agreed with the statement "the Mayan calendar, which some say 'ends' in 2012, marks the end of the world", with responses as high as 20 percent in China, 13 percent in Russia, Turkey, Japan and Korea, and 12 percent in the United States. At least one suicide was directly linked to fear of a 2012 apocalypse, with others anecdotally reported. Jared Lee Loughner, the perpetrator of the 2011 Tucson shooting, followed 2012-related predictions. A panel of scientists questioned on the topic at a plenary session at the Astronomical Society of the Pacific contended that the Internet played a substantial role in allowing this doomsday date to gain more traction than previous similar panics.
Beginning in 2000, the small French village of Bugarach, population 189, began receiving visits from "esoterics"—mystic believers who had concluded that the local mountain, Pic de Bugarach, was the ideal location to weather the transformative events of 2012. In 2011, the local mayor, Jean-Pierre Delord, began voicing fears to the international press that the small town would be overwhelmed by an influx of thousands of visitors in 2012, even suggesting he might call in the army. "We've seen a huge rise in visitors", Delord told The Independent in March 2012. "Already this year more than 20,000 people have climbed right to the top, and last year we had 10,000 hikers, which was a significant rise on the previous 12 months. They think Pic de Bugarach is 'un garage à ovnis' [a garage for UFOs]. The villagers are exasperated: the exaggerated importance of something which they see as completely removed from reality is bewildering. After 21 December, this will surely return to normal." In December 2012, the French government placed 100 police and firefighters around both Bugarach and Pic de Bugarach, limiting access to potential visitors. Ultimately, only about 1,000 visitors appeared at the height of the "event". Two raves were foiled, 12 people had to be turned away from the peak, and 5 people were arrested for carrying weapons. Jean-Pierre Delord was criticised by members of the community for failing to take advantage of the media attention and promote the region.
The Turkish village of Şirince, near Ephesus, expected to receive over 60,000 visitors on 21 December 2012, as New Age mystics believed its "positive energy" would aid in weathering the catastrophe. Only a fraction of that number actually arrived, with a substantial component being police and journalists, and the expected windfall failed to materialise.
Similarly, the pyramid-like mountain of Rtanj, in the Serbian Carpathians, attracted much apocalyptic attention, as many believed an artificial pyramid structure buried within it would emit a powerful force shield on the day, protecting those within it. Hotels around the base received up to 500 bookings a piece for rooms.
In Russia, inmates of a women's prison experienced "a collective mass psychosis" in the weeks leading up to the supposed doomsday, while residents of a factory town near Moscow reportedly emptied a supermarket of matches, candles, food and other supplies. The Minister of Emergency Situations declared in response that according to "methods of monitoring what is occurring on the planet Earth", there would be no apocalypse in December. When asked when the world would end in a press conference, Russian President Vladimir Putin said, "In about 4.5 billion years."
Asia and Australia
In China, up to one thousand members of the Christian cult Almighty God were arrested after claiming that the end of b'ak'tun 13 marked the end of the world, and that it was time to overthrow Communism. Shoppers were reported to be hoarding supplies of candles in anticipation of coming darkness, while online retailer Taobao sold tickets to board Noah's Ark to customers. Bookings for wedding ceremonies on 21 December 2012 were saturated in several cities. On 14 December 2012, a man in Henan province attacked and wounded twenty-three children with a knife. Authorities suspected the man had been "influenced" by the prediction of the upcoming apocalypse. Academics in China attributed the widespread belief in the 2012 doomsday in their country to a lack of scientific literacy and a mistrust of the government-controlled media.
On 6 December 2012, Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard delivered a hoax speech for the radio station triple J in which she declared "My dear remaining fellow Australians; the end of the world is coming. Whether the final blow comes from flesh-eating zombies, demonic hell-beasts or from the total triumph of K-Pop, if you know one thing about me it is this - I will always fight for you to the very end." Radio announcer Neil Mitchell described the hoax as "immature" and pondered whether it demeaned her office.
Mexico and Central America
Those Mesoamerican countries that once formed part of the Maya civilization, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, all organized festivities to commemorate the end of b'ak'tun 13 at the largest Maya sites. On 21 December 2011, the Maya town of Tapachula in Chiapas activated an eight-foot digital clock counting down the days until the end of b'ak'tun 13. On 21 December 2012, major events took place at Chichén Itzá in Mexico and Tikal in Guatemala. In El Salvador, the largest event was held at Tazumal, and in Honduras, at Copán. In all of these archaeological sites, Maya rituals were held at dawn led by shamans and Maya priests.
On the final day of b'ak'tun 13, residents of Yucatán and other regions formerly dominated by the ancient Maya celebrated what they saw as the dawn of a new, better era. According to official figures from Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), about 50,000 people visited Mexican archaeological sites on 21 December 2012. Of those, 10,000 visited Chichén Itzá in Yucatán, 9,900 visited Tulum in Quintana Roo, and 8,000 visited Palenque in Chiapas. An additional 10,000 people visited Teotihuacan near Mexico City, which is not a Maya site. The main ceremony in Chichén Itzá was held at dawn in the plaza of the Temple of Kukulkán, one of the principal symbols of Maya culture. The archaeological site was opened two hours early to receive thousands of tourists, mostly foreigners who came to participate in events scheduled for the end of b'ak'tun 13.
The fire ceremony at Tikal was held at dawn in the main plaza of the Temple of the Great Jaguar. The ceremony was led by Guatemalan and foreign priests. The President of Guatemala, Otto Pérez, and of Costa Rica, Laura Chinchilla, participated in the event as special guests. During the ceremony the priests asked for unity, peace and the end of discrimination and racism, with the hope that the start of a new cycle will be a "new dawn". About 3,000 people participated in the event.
Most of these events were organized by agencies of the Mexican and Central American governments, and their respective tourism industries expected to attract thousands of visitors. Mexico is visited by about 22 million foreigners in a typical year. However, in 2012, the national tourism agency expected to attract 52 million visitors just to the regions of Chiapas, Yucatán, Quintana Roo, Tabasco and Campeche. A Maya activist group in Guatemala, Oxlaljuj Ajpop, objected to the commercialization of the date. A spokesman from the Conference of Maya Ministers commented that for them the Tikal ceremony is not a show for tourists but something spiritual and personal. The secretary of the Great Council of Ancestral Authorities commented that living Maya felt they were excluded from the activities in Tikal. This group held a parallel ceremony, and complained that the date has been used for commercial gain. In addition, before the main Tikal ceremony, about 200 Maya protested the celebration because they felt excluded. Most modern Maya were indifferent to the ceremonies, and the small number of people still practising ancient rites held solemn, more private ceremonies.
Osvaldo Gomez, a technical advisor to the Tikal site, complained that many visitors during the celebration had illegally climbed the stairs of the Temple of the Masks, causing "irreparable" damage.
In Brazil, Décio Colla, the Mayor of the City of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, mobilized the population to prepare for the end of the world by stocking up on food and supplies. In the city of Corguinho, in the Mato Grosso do Sul, a colony was built for survivors of the expected tragedy. In Alto Paraíso de Goiás, the hotels also made specific reservations for prophetic dates. On 11 October 2012, in the Brazilian city of Teresina, police interrupted what was believed to have been an attempted mass suicide by up to one hundred members of a cult headed by self-proclaimed prophet Luis Pereira dos Santos, who predicted the end of the world on the feast day of Our Lady of Aparecida. Santos was subsequently arrested.
In Bolivia, President Evo Morales participated in Quechua and Aymara rituals, organized with government support, to commemorate the Southern solstice that took place in Isla del Sol, in the southern part of Lake Titicaca. During the event, Morales proclaimed the beginning of "Pachakuti", meaning the world's wake up to a culture of life and the beginning of the end to wild capitalism, and he proposed to dismantle the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
In the United States, sales of private underground blast shelters increased noticeably after 2009, with many construction companies' advertisements calling attention to the 2012 apocalypse. In Michigan, schools were closed for the Christmas holidays two days early, in part because rumours of the 2012 apocalypse were raising fears of repeat shootings similar to that at Sandy Hook. American reality TV stars Heidi Montag and Spencer Pratt revealed that they had spent most of their $10 million of accumulated earnings by 2010 because they believed the world would end in 2012.
The 2012 phenomenon was discussed or referenced in several media. Several TV documentaries, as well as some contemporary fictional references to the year 2012, referred to 21 December as the day of a cataclysmic event.
The UFO conspiracy TV series The X-Files cited 22 December 2012 as the date for an alien colonization of the Earth and mentioned the Mayan calendar "stopping" on this date. The History Channel aired a handful of special series on doomsday that included analysis of 2012 theories, such as Decoding the Past (2005–2007), 2012, End of Days (2006), Last Days on Earth (2006), Seven Signs of the Apocalypse (2009), and Nostradamus 2012 (2008). The Discovery Channel also aired 2012 Apocalypse in 2009, suggesting that massive solar storms, magnetic pole reversal, earthquakes, supervolcanoes, and other drastic natural events could occur in 2012. In 2012, the National Geographic Channel launched a show called Doomsday Preppers, a documentary series about survivalists preparing for various cataclysms, including the 2012 doomsday.
Hundreds of books were published on the topic. The bestselling book of 2009, Dan Brown's The Lost Symbol, featured a coded mock email number (2456282.5) that decoded to the Julian date for 21 December 2012.
In cinema, the 2009 disaster film 2012 was inspired by the phenomenon, and advance promotion prior to its release included a stealth marketing campaign in which TV spots and websites from the fictional "Institute for Human Continuity" called on people to prepare for the end of the world. As these promotions did not mention the film itself, many viewers believed them to be real and contacted astronomers in panic. Although the campaign was heavily criticized, the film became one of the most successful of its year, grossing nearly $770 million worldwide. An article in The Daily Telegraph attributed the widespread fear of the 2012 phenomenon in China to the film, which was a smash hit in that country because it depicted the Chinese building "survival arks". Lars von Trier's 2011 film Melancholia featured a plot in which a planet emerges from behind the Sun on a collision course with Earth. Announcing his company's purchase of the film, the head of Magnolia Pictures said in a press release, "As the 2012 apocalypse is upon us, it is time to prepare for a cinematic last supper".
The phenomenon also inspired several rock and pop music hits. As early as 1997, "A Certain Shade of Green" by Incubus referred to the mystical belief that a shift in perception would arrive in 2012 ("Are you gonna stand around till 2012 A.D.? / What are you waiting for, a certain shade of green?"). More recent hits include "2012 (It Ain't the End)" (2010) performed by Jay Sean and "Till the World Ends" (2011) performed by Britney Spears. Towards mid-December 2012, an internet hoax related to South Korean singer Psy being one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse was widely circulated around social media platforms. The hoax purported that once Psy's "Gangnam Style" YouTube video amassed a billion views, the world would end. Indian composer A. R. Rahman, known for Slumdog Millionaire, released his single "Infinite Love" to "instill faith and optimism in people" prior to the predicted doomsday.
A number of brands ran commercials tied to the 2012 apocalypse in the months and days leading to the date. In February 2012, American automotive company GM aired an advertisement during the annual Super Bowl football game in which a group of friends drove Chevrolet Silverados through the ruins of human civilization following the 2012 apocalypse, while on 17 December 2012, Jell-O ran an ad saying that offering Jell-O to the Mayan gods would appease them into sparing the world. John Verret, Professor of Advertising at Boston University, questioned the utility of tying large sums of money to such a unique and short-term event.
- List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
- Dreamspell calendar
- Unlucky 13
- Doomsday cult
- 2011 end times prediction
- List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events
- Risks to civilization, humans, and planet Earth
- a The number 13 plays an important role in Mesoamerican calendrics; the tzolk'in, or sacred calendar, was divided into 13 months of 20 days each. The Mayan may cycle consisted of 13 k'atuns. The reason for the number's importance is uncertain, though correlations to the phases of the moon and to the human gestation period have been suggested.
- b The Mayan calendar, unlike the Western calendar, used a zero.
- c Rather than "0.0.0.0.0", the Mayan Long Count represented the date of creation as "126.96.36.199.0"
- d Most Mayanist scholars, such as Mark Van Stone and Anthony Aveni, adhere to the "GMT (Goodman-Martinez-Thompson) correlation" with the Long Count, which places the start date at 11 August 3114 BC and the end date of b'ak'tun 13 at 21 December 2012. This date was also the overwhelming preference of those who believed in 2012 eschatology, arguably, Van Stone suggests, because it was a solstice, and was thus astrologically significant. Some Mayanist scholars, such as Michael D. Coe, Linda Schele and Marc Zender, adhere to the "Lounsbury/GMT+2" correlation, which sets the start date at 13 August and the end date at 23 December. Which of these is the precise correlation has yet to be conclusively settled.
- e Coe's initial date was "24 December 2011." He revised it to "11 January AD 2013" in the 1980 2nd edition of his book, not settling on 23 December 2012 until the 1984 3rd edition. The correlation of b'ak'tun 13 as 21 December 2012 first appeared in Table B.2 of Robert J. Sharer's 1983 revision of the 4th edition of Sylvanus Morley's book The Ancient Maya (Morley 1983, p. 603, Table B2).
- Robert K. Sitler (February 2006). "The 2012 Phenomenon: New Age Appropriation of an Ancient Mayan Calendar". Novo Religio: the Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. Berkeley: University of California Press. 9 (3): 24–38. ISSN 1092-6690. OCLC 357082680. doi:10.1525/nr.2006.9.3.024.
- Sacha Defesche (2007). "'The 2012 Phenomenon': A historical and typological approach to a modern apocalyptic mythology". skepsis. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- G. Jeffrey MacDonald (27 March 2007). "Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?". USA Today. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Hoopes 2011a
- "2012 Maya Calendar Mystery and Math, Surviving Yucatan". Yucalandia.com. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
- "Miles llegan a Chichén Itzá con la esperanza de una nueva era mejor" [Thousands arrive to Chichén Itzá with the hope of a new better era]. La Nación (Costa Rica) (in Spanish). Agence France-Presse. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Randal C. Archibold (21 December 2012). "As Doomsday Flops, Rites in Ruins of Mayan Empire". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Mark Stephenson (21 December 2012). "End Of The World 2012? Not Just Yet". Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Benjamin Anastas (1 July 2007). "The Final Days" (reproduced online, at KSU). The New York Times Magazine. New York: The New York Times Company: Section 6, p. 48. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- "2012: Shadow of the Dark Rift". NASA. 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- David Stuart, The Order of Days: The Maya World and the Truth about 2012, Harmony Books, 2011
- David Webster (25 September 2007). "The Uses and Abuses of the Ancient Maya" (PDF). The Emergence of the Modern World Conference, Otzenhausen, Germany: Penn State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Brown, Mike (2008). "SI do not ♥ pseudo-science". Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- David Morrison (2012). "Nibiru and Doomsday 2012: Questions and Answers". NASA: Ask an Astrobiologist. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "2012: Beginning of the End or Why the World Won't End?". NASA. 2009. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
- de Lara and Justeson 2006
- Andrew K. Scherer (2007). "Population structure of the classic period Maya". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 132 (3): 367–380. PMID 17205548. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20535.
- Marcus, Joyce (1976). "The Origins of Mesoamerican Writing". Annual Review of Anthropology. 5: 25–67. JSTOR 2949303. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.05.100176.000343.
- Schele & Freidel 1990, p. 246.
- Vincent H. Malmström (19 March 2003). "The Astronomical Insignificance of Maya Date 188.8.131.52.0" (PDF). Dartmouth College. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- Severin 1981, p. 75.
- Schele & Freidel 1990, pp. 429–430.
- Freidel, Schele & Parker 1993, p. 63.
- Aveni 2009, p. 46.
- Makemson 1957, p. 4
- Coe 1966, p. 149.
- Carrasco 1990 p. 39; Gossen and Leventhal 1993 p. 191
- Milbrath 1999, p. 4
- Mark Van Stone. "2012 FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)". FAMSI. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Schele & Freidel 1990, pp. 81–82, 430–431.
- Ryan Rivet (25 June 2008). "The Sky Is Not Falling". Tulane University. Archived from the original on 18 April 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
- Vance, Eric (10 May 2012). "Unprecedented Maya Mural Found, Contradicts 2012 "Doomsday" Myth". National Geographic. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- Àngels Maso (2010). "La controversia detrás de la profecía del 2012". Prensa Libre. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Hoopes 2011
- Förstemann 1906: 264
- Morley 1915: 32
- Stephen Houston; David Stuart (1996). "Of gods, glyphs and kings: divinity and rulership among the Classic Maya". Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Antiquity Publications. 70 (268): 289–312. ISSN 0003-598X. OCLC 206025348.
- Gronemeyer & MacLeod 2010, p. 8.
- Eberl and Prager 2005, p. 28
- Eberl and Prager 2005, pp. 29–30, citing Hieroglyphic Stairway E7-H12 at Palenque, plate 104 in Karl Herbert Mayer, Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance, Supplement 4 [in which the Sajal Niil is depicted in his costume], and Stele 1 from La Mar.
- Gronemeyer & MacLeod 2010, pp. 11, 36–37.
- MacLeod 2011.
- Gronemeyer & MacLeod 2010, pp. 24, 35.
- Stephen Houston (20 December 2008). "What Will Not Happen in 2012". Maya Decipherment. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Stuart, David (2012). "Notes on a New Text from La Corona". Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Schele 1992, pp. 93–95.
- Schele & Freidel 1990, p. 430.
- Wagner, Elizabeth (2000). "Maya Creation Myths and Cosmography". In Grube, Nikolai. Maya: Divine Kings of the Rainforest. Konemann. p. 283. ISBN 3-8290-4150-0.
- Aveni 2009, p. 49.
- William A. Saturno; David Stuart; Anthony F. Aveni; Franco Rossi (11 May 2012). "Ancient Maya Astronomical Tables from Xultun, Guatemala". Science. 336 (6082): 714–717. Bibcode:2012Sci...336..714S. PMID 22582260. doi:10.1126/science.1221444.
- "No hint of world's end in oldest Mayan calendar". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- Hoopes 2009
- Hoopes 2011b
- Hoopes 2012
- Carlson & Van Stone 2011
- Gelfer 2011
- Jenkins 2009: 223–229
- Aveni 2009, pp. 32–33, 156–157.
- Aveni 2009, p. 161.
- See in particular, chapter 6 ("The Great Cycle: Its Projected Beginning"), chapter 7 ("The Great Cycle – Its Projected End") and the Appendix, in Waters 1975, pp. 256–264, 265–271, 285
- Argüelles 1975
- McKenna and McKenna 1975
- (the more specific date of 21 December appeared in the 1993 revision of The Invisible Landscape)(McKenna&McKenna 1993)
- Philip J. Hilts; Mary Battiata (16 August 1987). "Planets Won't Attend Astronomical Celebration". New York Post. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- Argüelles 1987
- "The Great 2012 Doomsday Scare". NASA. 2009. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- Aveni 2009, pp. 17–27.
- Pinchbeck 2006
- Kurt Andersen (24 September 2006). "The End of the World As They Know It". New York. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
- Aveni 2009, p. 83.
- "Precession". NASA. Archived from the original on 18 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
- Spencer 2000, pp. 115–127.
- McClure, Bruce. "Teapot of Sagittarius points to galactic center". EarthSky. Archived from the original on 18 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
- "What's going to happen on December 21st 2012?". Cornell University. 2006. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Geoff Gaherty (2008). "Starry Night looks at doomsday". Starry Night Times. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
- Mark Van Stone. "Questions and comments". FAMSI. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- Mardyks 1991
- Plumb 2010: 59
- Edmonson 1988, p. 119.
- Brian Stross. "Xibalba or Xibalbe". University of Texas. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
- John Major Jenkins. "What is the Galactic Alignment?". alignment2012.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- John Major Jenkins (January 2005). "The Mayan Calendar and the Transformation of Consciousness". alignement2012.com. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- For an in-depth look at this subject, see Coe 1992, Miller 1993, Pinchbeck 2006
- Jenkins 1998, pp. 191–206
- Aveni 2009, p. 62.
- John Major Jenkins. "Introduction to Maya Cosmogenesis". Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- John Major Jenkins (June 1999). "The True Alignment Zone". Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Meeus 1997, pp. 301–303
- Grofe 2011
- Jenkins 2009, p. 215
- J. J. Aimers; P. M. Rice (2006). "Astronomy, ritual and the interpretation of Maya E-Group architectural assemblages". Ancient Mesoamerica. 17 (1): 79–96. doi:10.1017/S0956536106060056.
- Aveni 2009, pp. 54–55, citing Aveni & Hartung 2000.
- Aveni 2009, p. 57.
- Art Bell (22 May 1997). "Terence McKenna with Art Bell". archive.org. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- Bruce, A. (2009). 2012: Science Or Superstition (the Definitive Guide to the Doomsday Phenomenon). The Disinformation Company. ISBN 978-1-934708-51-4.
- Normark, Johan. "2012: Prophet of nonsense #8: Terence McKenna – Novelty theory and timewave zero".
- Ralph Abraham; Terence McKenna (June 1983). "Dynamics of Hyperspace". Santa Cruz, California: Ralph Abraham. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Smith II D. A. "The TimeWave-Zero Apocalypse Theory" (PDF). The Scientia Review.
- "David Morrison: Surviving 2012 and Other Cosmic Disasters". FORA.tv. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- D.W. Nutt. "Cornell Maya expert: World probably won't end Dec. 21". Press & Sun-Bulletin. Gannet. Retrieved 21 December 2012.[dead link]
- E. C. Krupp. "The Great 2012 Scare" (PDF). Sky and Telescope. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- Sherry Seethaler (6 December 2007). "Questions answered". U-T San Diego. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
- Christopher Springob (28 March 2003). "What would happen if a supermassive black hole came close to the Earth?". Cornell University. Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- John Major Jenkins (28 July 2006). "How Not to Make a 2012 Documentary". Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- "Questions Show: Alignment with the Galactic Plane, Destruction from Venus, and the Death of the Solar System". Universe Today. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Michael Szpir. "Perturbing the Oort Cloud". American Scientist. The Scientific Research Society. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- Fraser Cain (11 May 2009). "Galactic Plane". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- John N. Bahcall; Safi Bahcall (22 August 1985). "The Sun's motion perpendicular to the galactic plane". Nature. 316 (6030): 706–708. Bibcode:1985Natur.316..706B. doi:10.1038/316706a0.
- Abby Cessna (5 July 2009). "Planetary Alignment". Universe Today. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Phil Plait (5 March 2011). "Good astronomy: Planetary alignments have relatively little to do with earthquakes". Bad Astronomy. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Ian O'Neill (21 June 2008). "2012: No Killer Solar Flare". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Nils Olsen; Mioara Mandea (18 May 2008). "Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core". Nature Geoscience. Nature Geocscience. 1 (6): 390–394. Bibcode:2008NatGe...1..390O. doi:10.1038/ngeo203.
- "Solar Storm Warning". NASA. 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Merrill, Ronald T.; McElhinny, Michael W.; McFadden, Philip L. (1998). The magnetic field of the earth: paleomagnetism, the core, and the deep mantle. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-491246-5.
- Abby Cessna (2 November 2009). "Geomagnetic Reversal". Universe Today. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
- "Solar Maximum: Three Solar Flares And A Coronal Mass Ejection As The Sun Reaches Peak Solar Activity". NASA. 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
- O'Neill, Ian (3 October 2008). "2012: No Geomagnetic Reversal". Universe Today. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
- Tony Phillips (10 March 2006). "Solar Storm Warning". NASA. Archived from the original on 14 October 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- David Morrison (October 2008). "The Myth of Nibiru and the End of the World in 2012". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- Schilling 2008, p. 111.
- Coe 1992, pp. 275–276.
- Hancock 1995, p. 499, ff. 27.
- "2012 (2009) – Credit List" (PDF). chicagoscifi.com. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
- Tom Chivers (24 September 2009). "'Web-bot project' makes prophecy of 2012 apocalypse". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- David Morrison. "NASA Ask An Astrobiologist". NASA. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- "Is the earth about to enter the Photon Belt, causing the end of life as we know it?". The Straight Dope. 13 September 1996. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- Connelly, Claire (19 January 2011). "Tatooine's twin suns – coming to a planet near you just as soon as Betelgeuse explodes". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Phil Plait (2011). "Betelgeuse and 2012". Bad Astronomy. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Phil Plait (2011). "Is Betelgeuse about to blow?". Bad Astronomy. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Reddy, Francis (2011). "2012: Fear No Supernova". NASA. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Seth Shostak (2011). "NO Spaceships Headed for Earth". SETI. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Phil Plait (2011). "Giant spaceships to attack December 2012?". Discover Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "One in Seven (14%) Global Citizens Believe End of the World is Coming in Their Lifetime". Ipsos. 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- "Teenager who feared the world was about to end". Western Daily Press. May 18, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- "Cosmophobia and the End of the World". NASA Lunar Science Institute. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Maïa de la Baume (30 January 2011). "For End of the World, a French Peak Holds Allure". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- Samuel, Henry (21 December 2010). "French village which will 'survive 2012 Armageddon' plagued by visitors". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- Oliver Pickup (25 March 2012). "Hippies head for Noah's Ark: Queue here for rescue aboard alien spaceship". The Independent. London. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- Hanna Osborne. "Mayan Doomsday: French Police Block Access to Survivors' Refuge Pic de Bugarach". International Business Times. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Alexandra Guillet (2012). "Bugarach is slowly regaining its peace". TFI News. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Chronic end of the world: Bugarach, the Apocalypse can pay big ... or not". France 24. 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Ungaro, Cosima (11 December 2012). "Mayan Apocalypse 2012: Sirince, Turkish Village, Flooded By Doomsday Believers". Huffington Post. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "Şirince misses crowds on Dec 21 'doomsday'". Hürriyet Daily News. 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Matt Blake (11 December 2012). "Mayan armageddon tourists flock to ANOTHER mountain which believers say houses an 'alien pyramid with magic powers'". London: Mail Online. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- Ellen Barry (1 December 2012). "In Panicky Russia, It's Official: End of World Is Not Near". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Miriam Elder (20 December 2012). "Putin offers alternative to Mayan prophecy for date of apocalypse". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- "Vatican assures world not ending". 3 News NZ. 12 December 2012.
- "Almost 1,000 doomsday cult members arrested in China". BBC News. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- Dunn, Emily (November 2016). "Reincarnated Religion? The Eschatology of the Church of Almighty God in Comparative Perspective". Studies in World Christianity. 22 (3): 216–233. doi:10.3366/swc.2016.0157.
- "大劫"将至 中国出现末日喧嚣, cn.wsj.com
- Ford, Peter (December 2012). "Chinese police suspect man who stabbed 23 kids 'influenced' by doomsday rumor". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- "Julia Gillard warns of 'zombie, K-Pop' doomsday". The Australian. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- Ellen Feely (2012). "Neil Mitchell uncomfortable with 'immature' end of world video". 3AW693. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "Mayans launch apocalypse countdown". Associated Press. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Mayas guatemaltecos inician ceremonia de fuego para recibir nueva era" [Guatemalan Mayans begin fire ceremony to welcome new era]. La Nación (Costa Rica) (in Spanish). Agence France-Presse. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- EFE (22 December 2012). "Salvadoreños celebran el 13 B'aktun entre danzas, ceremonias y deseos de paz" [Salvadoreans commemorate the B'aktun 13 with dancing, ceremonials and wishes for peace]. Fox News Latino (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Gustavo Banegas (22 December 2012). "Turistas invaden Copán Ruinas en cierre del 13 baktun" [Tourists invade the Copan Ruins for the end of the baktun 13]. El Heraldo (Tegucigalpa) (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Planas, Roque (21 December 2012). "Mayan Celebrations Held Across Latin America, As Baktun 13 Ends And New Era Begins (PHOTOS)". Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Notimex (22 December 2012). "Sin incidentes el fin del Baktún 13: INAH" [INAH: The end of Baktún 13 was without incidents]. Diario de Yucatán (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Celebraciones marcan el cambio de era del calendario maya" [Celebrations marking the change of the Mayan calendar era]. La Nación (Costa Rica) (in Spanish). Agence France-Presse. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Mayan Temple damaged at end of the world party". news.com.au. 24 December 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
- Tometto, Mauricio (14 March 2012). "RS: prefeito orienta população a se preparar para 'fim do mundo'". Terra. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- Rebello, Vinicius (2012). "Prefeito mobiliza São Francisco de Paula, RS, para 'fim do mundo'". Globo.
- Assumpção, Isabela (2012). "Cidade está sendo construída para refugiar sobreviventes de 'tragédia'". Globo Reporter. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- Carvalho, Versanna (2012). "Hotéis de Alto Paraíso de Goiás já fazem reservas para 'datas proféticas'". Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- Mackenzie, Craig (12 October 2012). "Shots fired as police swoop 10 minutes before 100 followers of Brazilian doomsday cult were due to commit mass suicide over end of the world". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- EFE (21 December 2012). "Evo Morales criticó al sistema capital durante celebración maya" [Evo Morales criticized capitalism during Mayan celebration]. El Tiempo (Colombia) (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Cerrarían el Uritorco el próximo viernes por temor a suicidio masivo". Telefe Noticias (in Spanish). 17 December 2012. Archived from the original on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- Matheny, Keith (28 July 2010). "Doomsday shelters making a comeback". USA Today. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- Tracy Connor; Maureen Mullen (2012). "Newtown, Mayan end-of-world rumors prompt Michigan officials to close 33 schools". NBC News. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
- "Heidi Montag and Spencer Pratt spent fortune ahead of Mayan apocalypse prophecy". SFGate. 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-30.
- "Armageddon series". The History Channel. 2008. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
- "2012 Apocalypse". The Discovery Channel. 2009. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
- "Doomsday Preppers". National Geographic. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Best-Selling Books of 2009". marketingcharts.com. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- Dan Bernstein; Arne de Kiuzer (2012). Secrets of The Lost Symbol. Weidenfield and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-86060-0. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Mike Brown (7 June 2009). "Sony Pictures and the End of the World". Mike Brown's Planets. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- Connor, Steve (17 October 2009). "Relax, the end isn't nigh". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 20 October 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
- "2009 Worldwide Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- Malcolm Moore (7 December 2012). "China fears end of the world is nigh". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Andrea Magrath (18 May 2011). "Sunny Kirsten Dunst is picture perfect at the Cannes photocall for her provocative new film Melancholia". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Borys Kit (13 February 2011). "Magnolia Picks Up North American Rights to Lars von Trier's 'Melancholia'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Suat Ling, Chok (20 December 2012). "Much ado about apocalypse". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- "AR Rahman's special song for Doomsday". The Times of India. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- Wong, Vanessa (19 December 2012). "Brands Capitalize on 'Impending Apocalypse'". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- Rice 2007, pp. 44, 59.
- Duncan McLean Earl; Dean R Snow. "The Origin of the 260-day calendar: the gestation hypothesis reconsidered in light of its use among the Quiche Maya" (PDF). State University of New York at Albany. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
- Peter Matthews. "Who's Who in the Maya World". famsi.org. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Coe 1980, p. 151.
- Coe 1984. This correlation, which differs two days from Sharer's, is repeated in subsequent editions of Coe's book.
- Argüelles, José (1992). The Transformative Vision: Reflections on the Nature and History of Human Expression (1st ed.). Flagstaff, AZ: Light Technology Publications. ISBN 978-0-9631750-0-7.
- Argüelles, José (1987). The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions/Bear and Company. ISBN 978-0-939680-38-2.
- Aveni, Anthony; Hartung, H. (2000). "Water, Mountain, Sky: The Evolution of Site Orientations in Southeastern Mesoamerica". In Keber, E. Quiñones. Precious Greenstone Precious Feather. Lancaster, CA: Labyrinthos.
- Aveni, Anthony (2009). The End of Time: The Maya Mystery of 2012. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado. ISBN 978-0-87081-961-2.
- Barkun, Michael (2006). A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America. Comparative studies in religion and society series, no. 15 (1st pbk print ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24812-0. OCLC 255948700.
- Boone, Elizabeth H. (1982). Zelia Nuttall, ed. The Book of the Life of the Ancient Mexicans, Containing an Account of Their Rites and Superstitions: An Anonymous Hispano-Mexican Manuscript Preserved at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence, Italy (Reprint of 1903 edition with additional commentary). Berkeley.: University of California Press.
- Callaway, Carl (2011). "Cosmogony and Prophecy: Maya Era Day Cosmology in the Context of the 2012 Prophecy". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 7: 192–202. doi:10.1017/S1743921311012622.
- Campion, Nicholas (2011). "The 2012 Mayan Calendar Prophecies in the Context of the Western Millenarian Tradition". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 7: 249–254. doi:10.1017/S1743921311012671.
- Carrasco, David (1990). Religions of Mesoamerica: Cosmovision and Ceremonial Centers. Religious traditions of the world [series]. San Francisco, California: Harper and Row. ISBN 978-0-06-061325-9. OCLC 20996347.
- Carlson, John B. (2011). "Lord of the Maya Creations on His Jaguar Throne: The Eternal Return of Elder Brother God L to Preside Over the 21 December 2012 Transformation". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 7: 203–213. doi:10.1017/S1743921311012634.
- Carlson, John S.; Mark Van Stone (2011). "The 2012 Phenomenon: Maya Calendar, Astronomy, and Apocalypticism in the Worlds of Scholarship and Global Popular Culture". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 7: 178–185. doi:10.1017/S1743921311012609.
- Coe, Michael D. (1966). The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series, no. 52 (1st ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05061-3. OCLC 318157568.
- Coe, Michael D. (1980). The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series, no. 10 (2nd ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05061-3.
- Coe, Michael D. (1984). The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series (3rd ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05061-3.
- Coe, Michael D. (1992). Breaking the Maya Code. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05061-3. OCLC 26605966.
- Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya. Ancient peoples and places series (6th, fully revised and expanded ed.). London and New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28066-9. OCLC 59432778.
- Jorge Pérez de Lara; John Justeson (2006). "Photographic Documentation of Monuments with Epi-Olmec Script/Imagery" (PDF). Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
- Eberl, Markus; Christian Prager (2005). "B'olon Yokte' K'uh: Maya conceptions of war, conflict, and the underworld". In Peter Eeckhout; Geneviève Le Fort. Wars and Conflicts in Prehispanic Mesoamerica and the Andes: Selected Proceedings of the Conference Organized by the Société des Américanistes de Belgique with the Collaboration of Wayeb (European Association of Mayanists), Brussels, 16–17 November 2002. British Archaeological Reports International Series, no. 1385. Oxford, UK: John and Erika Hedges Ltd. pp. 28–36. ISBN 978-1-84171-706-7. OCLC 254728446.
- Edmonson, Munro S. (1982). The Ancient Future of the Itza: The Book of Chilam Balam of Tizimin. The Texas Pan American series (Text of Chilam Balam de Tizimín MS. translated and annotated by Munro S. Edmonson; 1st English trans. ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-70353-7. OCLC 11318551. (in Yukatek Maya) (in English)
- Edmonson, Munro S. (1988). The Book of the Year: Middle American Calendrical Systems. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-0-87480-288-7. OCLC 17650412.
- Freidel, David; Schele, Linda; Parker, Joy (1993). Maya Cosmos: Three thousand years on the shaman's path. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-688-10081-0. OCLC 27430287.
- Gelfer, Joseph, ed. (2011). 2012: Decoding the Counterculture Apocalypse. London: Equinox Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84553-639-8.
- Gossen, Gary; Richard M. Leventhal (1993). "The topography of ancient Maya religious pluralism: a dialogue with the present". In Jeremy A. Sabloff; John S. Henderson. Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century A.D.: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 7th and 8 October 1989. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. pp. 185–217. ISBN 978-0-88402-206-0. OCLC 25547151.
- Grofe, Michael (2011). "Measuring Deep Time: The Sidereal Year and the Tropical Year in Maya Inscriptions". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 7: 214–230. doi:10.1017/S1743921311012646.
- Gronemeyer, Sven; MacLeod, Barbara (2010). "What Could Happen in 2012: A Re-Analysis of the 13-Bak'tun Prophecy on Tortuguero Monument 6" (PDF). Wayeb Notes. University of Copenhagen: European Association of Mayanists. 34: 1–68. ISSN 1379-8286. OCLC 298471525.
- Hancock, Graham (1995). Fingerprints of the Gods. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-517-59348-6.
- Hanegraaff, Wouter (1996). New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought. Studies in the histories of religions series (ISSN 0169-8834), no. 72. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10695-6. OCLC 35229227.
- Hoopes, John W. (2009). "Review – The End of Time: The Maya Mystery of 2012, by Anthony Aveni and 2012: Science and Prophecy of the Ancient Maya, by Mark Van Stone" (PDF). Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. 22: 139–145. ISSN 0190-9940.
- Hoopes, John W. (2011a). "A Critical History of 2012 Mythology" (PDF). Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 7: 240–248. doi:10.1017/S174392131101266X.
- Hoopes, John W. (2011b). "Mayanism Comes of (New) Age". In Joseph Gelfer. 2012: Decoding the Counterculture Apocalypse. London: Equinox Publishing. pp. 38–59. ISBN 978-1-84553-639-8.
- Hoopes, John W. (2011c). "New Age Sympathies and Scholarly Complicities: The History and Promotion of 2012 Mythology". Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture. 24: 180–201. ISSN 0190-9940.
- Hoopes, John W. (30 December 2011). "What You Should Know About 2012: Answers to 13 Questions". Psychology Today.
- Hoopes, John W. (2012). "The Hidden History of 2012". Fortean Times. 285: 40–43.
- Jenkins, John Major (1998). Maya Cosmogenesis 2012: The True Meaning of the Maya Calendar End-Date. Rochester, VT: Bear and Company. ISBN 978-1-879181-48-9.
- Jenkins, John Major (2009). The 2012 Story: The Myths, Fallacies, and Truth Behind the Most Intriguing Date in History. Los Angeles, CA: Tarcher. ISBN 978-1-58542-766-6.
- Luxton, Richard N. (1996). The Book of Chumayel: The Counsel Book of the Yucatec Maya, 1539–1638. Walnut Creek, CA: Agaean Park Press. ISBN 978-0-89412-244-6.
- MacLeod, Barbara (2011). "The God's Grand Costume Ball: A Classic Maya Prophecy for the Close of the Thirteenth Bak'tun". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 7: 231–239. doi:10.1017/S1743921311012658.
- Makemson, Maude Worcester (1951). The Book of the Jaguar Priest: a translation of the Book of Chilam Balam of Tizimin, with commentary. New York: H. Schuman. OCLC 537810.
- Makemson, Maude Worcester (June 1957). "The miscellaneous dates of the Dresden Codex". Publications of the Vassar College Observatory. 6: 1. Bibcode:1957PVasO...6....1M.
- Mardyks, Raymond (1991). "When Stars Touch the Earth: An Astrologer Looks at the New Age Through the Year 2012". The Mountain Astrologer: 1–4, 47–48.
- McKenna, Terence and Dennis (1975). The Invisible Landscape: Mind, Hallucinogens, and the I Ching (1st ed.). Seabury. ISBN 978-0-8164-9249-7.
- McKenna, Terence and Dennis (1993). The Invisible Landscape: Mind, Hallucinogens, and the I Ching. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-250635-1.
- Meeus, Jean (1997). Ecliptic and galactic equator. Mathematical Astronomy Morsels. Richmond, VA: Willmann-Bell. ISBN 978-0-943396-51-4. OCLC 36126686.
- Milbrath, Susan (1999). Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars. The Linda Schele series in Maya and pre-Columbian studies. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-75225-2. OCLC 40848420.
- Miller, Mary; Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05068-2. OCLC 27667317.
- Morley, Sylvanus (1983). The Ancient Maya (4th ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1288-0.
- Nuttall, Zelia, ed. (1903). The Book of the Life of the Ancient Mexicans, Containing an Account of Their Rites and Superstitions: An Anonymous Hispano-Mexican Manuscript Preserved at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence, Italy. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
- Pinchbeck, Daniel (2006). 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl. New York: Tarcher. ISBN 978-1-58542-483-2. OCLC 62421298.
- Plumb, Mary (2010). "Biology, Cosmology, and 2012: A Conversation with Bruce Scofield". The Mountain Astrologer (October/November).
- Roys, Ralph (1967). The Book of Chilam Balam of Chuyamel. Charleston, South Carolina: Forgotten Books. ISBN 978-1-60506-858-9.
- Rice, Prudence M. (2007). Maya calendar origins: monuments, mythistory, and the materialization of time. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71692-6.
- Schele, Linda (1992). "A New Look at the Dynastic History of Palenque". In Victoria R. Bricker (Volume), with Patricia A. Andrews. Supplement to the Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 5: Epigraphy. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 82–109. ISBN 0-292-77650-0. OCLC 23693597.
- Schele, Linda; Freidel, David (1990). A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya (pbk reprint ed.). New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-688-11204-2. OCLC 145324300.
- Severin, Gregory M. (1981). "The Paris Codex: Decoding an Astronomical Ephemeris". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 71 (5): 1–101. JSTOR 1006397. doi:10.2307/1006397.
- Schilling, Govert (2008). The Hunt For Planet X: New Worlds and the Fate of Pluto. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-77804-4.
- Matthew J. Sharps; Schuyler W. Liao; Megan R. Herrera (January–February 2013). "It's the End of the World and They Don't Feel Fine: The Psychology of December 21, 2012". 37.1. Skeptical Inquirer.
- South, Stephanie (2009). 2012: Biography of a Time Traveler, The Journey of José Argüelles. Franklin Lakes, New Jersey: New Page Books. ISBN 978-1-60163-065-0.
- Spencer, Neil (2000). "Love Shall Steer the Stars – The Long Dawning of the Age of Aquarius". True as the Stars Above. ISBN 978-0-575-06769-1.
- Van Stone, Mark (2008). "It's Not the End of the World: What the Ancient Maya Tell Us About 2012". FAMSI.
- Van Stone, Mark (2011). "It's Not the End of the World: Emic Evidnce for Local Diversity in the Maya Long Count". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 7: 186–191. doi:10.1017/S1743921311012610.
- Voss, Alexander (2006). "Astronomy and Mathematics". In Nikolai Grube. Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest. Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (assistant eds.). Cologne: Könemann. pp. 130–143. ISBN 978-3-8331-1957-6. OCLC 71165439.
- Wagner, Elizabeth (2006). "Maya Creation Myths and Cosmography". In Nikolai Grube. Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest. Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (assistant eds.). Cologne: Könemann. pp. 280–293. ISBN 978-3-8331-1957-6. OCLC 71165439.
- Waters, Frank (1975). Mexico Mystique: The Coming Sixth World of Consciousness. Chicago, Illinois: Sage Books/Swallow Press. ISBN 978-0-8040-0663-7. OCLC 1364766.
- Whitesides, Kevin; John W. Hoopes (2012). "Seventies Dreams and 21st Century Realities: The Emergence of 2012 Mythology". Zeitschrift für Anomalistik. 12: 50–74.
- Wright, Ronald (2005). Stolen Continents: 500 Years of Conquest and Resistance in the Americas. Mariner. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-618-49240-4.
- York, Michael (1995). The Emerging Network: A Sociology of the New Age and Neo-Pagan Movements. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-8000-9. OCLC 31604796.