Gezi Park protests
|Gezi Park protests|
Demonstrators in Taksim Square, 15 June 2013
|Date||27 May 2013– 20 August 2013|
|Methods||sit-ins, strike actions, demonstrations, online activism, protest marches, civil disobedience, civil resistance, cacerolazo|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Injuries||at least 8,163 (during the Gezi Park protests)|
(at least 63 in serious or critical condition with at least 3 having a risk of death)
|Arrested||at least 4,900 with 81 people being held in custody (during the Gezi Park protests)|
|Detained||at least 134 (during the Gezi Park protests)|
A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Turkey began on 28 May 2013, initially to contest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park. The protests were sparked by outrage at the violent eviction of a sit-in at the park protesting the plan. Subsequently, supporting protests and strikes took place across Turkey, protesting a wide range of concerns at the core of which were issues of freedom of the press, of expression, assembly, and the government's encroachment on Turkey's secularism. With no centralised leadership beyond the small assembly that organized the original environmental protest, the protests have been compared to the Occupy movement and the May 1968 events. Social media played a key part in the protests, not least because much of the Turkish media downplayed the protests, particularly in the early stages. Three and a half million people (out of Turkey's population of 80 million) are estimated to have taken an active part in almost 5,000 demonstrations across Turkey connected with the original Gezi Park protest. Twenty-two people were killed and more than 8,000 were injured, many critically.
The sit-in at Taksim Gezi Park was restored after police withdrew from Taksim Square on 1 June, and developed into a protest camp, with thousands of protesters in tents, organising a library, medical center, food distribution, and their own media. After the Gezi Park camp was cleared by riot police on 15 June, protesters began to meet in other parks all around Turkey and organised public forums to discuss ways forward for the protests. Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan dismissed the protesters as "a few looters" on 2 June. Police suppressed the protests with tear gas and water cannons. In addition to the 11 deaths and over 8,000 injuries, more than 3,000 arrests were made. Excessive use of force by police and the overall absence of government dialogue with the protesters was criticized by some foreign countries and international organisations.
The range of the protesters was described as being broad, encompassing both right- and left-wing individuals. Their complaints ranged from the original local environmental concerns to such issues as the authoritarianism of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, curbs on alcohol, a recent row about kissing in public, and the war in Syria. Protesters called themselves çapulcu (looters), reappropriating Erdoğan's insult for themselves (and coined the derivative "chapulling", given the meaning of "fighting for your rights"). Many users on Twitter also changed their screenname and used çapulcu instead. According to various analysts, the protests are the most challenging events for Erdoğan's ten-year term and the most significant nationwide disquiet in decades.
- 1 Background
- 2 Timeline
- 3 Protesters
- 4 Types of protest
- 5 Responses
- 6 Casualties
- 7 Media censorship and disinformation
- 8 International reaction
- 9 Impact
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The Justice and Development Party (AKP) led by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has governed since 2002, winning the 2002, 2007 and 2011 elections by large margins. Under its rule the economy of Turkey recovered from the 2001 financial crisis and recession, driven in particular by a construction boom. At the same time, particularly since 2011, it has been accused of driving forward an Islamist agenda, having undermined the secularist influence of the Turkish Army. During the same period it also increased a range of restrictions on human rights, most notably freedom of speech and freedom of the press, despite improvements resulting from the accession process to the European Union.
Since 2011, the AKP has increased restrictions on freedom of speech, freedom of the press, Internet use, television content, and the right to free assembly. It has also developed links with Turkish media groups, and used administrative and legal measures (including, in one case, a $2.5 billion tax fine) against critical media groups and journalists: "over the last decade the AKP has built an informal, powerful, coalition of party-affiliated businessmen and media outlets whose livelihoods depend on the political order that Erdoğan is constructing. Those who resist do so at their own risk."
The government has been seen by certain constituencies as increasingly Islamist and authoritarian, An education reform strengthening Islamic elements and courses in public primary and high schools was approved by the parliament in 2012, with Erdoğan saying that he wanted to foster a "pious generation." The sale and consumption of alcohol in university campuses has been banned. People have been given jail sentences for blasphemy.
While construction in Turkey has boomed and has been a major driver for the economy, this has involved little to no local consultation. For example, major construction projects in Istanbul have been "opposed by widespread coalitions of diverse interests. Yet in every case, the government has run roughshod over the projects' opponents in a dismissive manner, asserting that anyone who does not like what is taking place should remember how popular the AKP has been when elections roll around." Corruption concerns have also been raised, particularly relating to the Kanal İstanbul.
Environmental issues, especially since the 2010 decision of the government to build additional nuclear power plants and the third bridge, led to continued demonstrations in Istanbul and Ankara. The Black Sea Region has seen dozens of protests against the construction of waste-dumps, nuclear and coal power plants, mines, factories and hydroelectric dams. 24 local musicians and activists in 2012 created a video entitled "Diren Karadeniz" ("Resist, Black Sea"), which prefigured the ubiquitous Gezi Park slogan "Diren Gezi".
Controversy within progressive communities has been sparked by plans to turn Turkey's former Christian Hagia Sophia churches (now museums) in Trabzon and possibly Istanbul into mosques, a plan which failed to gain the support of prominent Muslim leaders from Trabzon.
In 2012 and 2013, structural weaknesses in Turkey's economy were becoming more apparent. Economic growth slowed considerably in 2012 from 8.8% in 2011 to 2.2% in 2012 and forecasts for 2013 were below trend. Unemployment remained high at at least 9% and the current account deficit was growing to over 6% of GDP.
A key issue Erdoğan campaigned for prior to the 2011 election was to rewrite the military-written constitution from 1982. Key amongst Erdoğan's demands were for Turkey to transform the role of President from that of a ceremonial role to an executive presidential republic with emboldened powers and for him to be elected president in the 2014 presidential elections. To submit such proposals to a referendum needs 330 out of 550 votes in the Grand National Assembly and to approve without referendum by parliament requires 367 out of 550 votes (a two-thirds majority) - The AKP currently holds only 326 seats. As such the constitutional commission requires agreement from opposition parties, namely the CHP, MHP and BDP who have largely objected to such proposals. Moreover, the constitutional courts have ruled that current president Abdullah Gül is permitted to run for the 2014 elections, who is widely rumoured to have increasingly tense relations and competition with Erdoğan. Furthermore, many members of parliament in the governing AKP have internally also objected by arguing that the current presidential system suffices. Erdoğan himself is currently barred from running for a fourth term as prime minister in the 2015 general elections due to current AKP by-laws, largely sparking accusations from the public that Erdoğan's proposals were stated in light of him only intending to prolong his rule as the most dominant figure in politics. The constitutional proposals have mostly so far been delayed in deliberations or lacked any broad agreement for reforms.
Events leading up to the protests
- 29 October 2012: The governor of Ankara bans a planned Republic Day march organised by secularist opposition groups. Despite the ban, thousands of people, including the leader of Turkey's largest opposition party CHP gather at Ulus Square. Riot police forces attack the protesters with tear gas and watercannon, despite the fact that there were many children and elderly people in the crowd.
- Early February 2013: The government attempts to make abortion virtually unobtainable. This follows Erdoğan's sparking his campaign against abortion in June 2012, which later saw various protests by feminist groups and individuals.
- 19 February: A survey conducted by Kadir Has University (incorporating up to 20 000 interviewees from 26 of 81 provinces and having a low margin of error) shows considerable disapproval of Erdoğan's strongly advocated proposed change from a parliamentary system to an American-style executive presidential system by 2014 - 65.8% opposed and 21.2% in support.
- February–March: A large bank in Turkey, Ziraat Bank, changes its name from "T.C. Ziraat Bankası" to simply "Ziraat Bankası", thus omitting the acronym of the Republic of Turkey, T.C., (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti). The Turkish Ministry of Health also stops using T.C. in signs. In protest, thousands of people start using TC in front of their names on Facebook and Twitter as a silent protest. Some people believe that the AKP is trying to change the name or the regime of the country while others believe that this omission of the letters TC is a sign of privatization of the Ziraat bank and hospitals.
- Late March: The Nawroz celebrations where missing the Turkish flag. Many view this as a denigration of the republic. Opposition members of parliament protest by bringing personal flags into the chamber whilst seated.
- 2 April: The AKP's Istanbul branch head, Aziz Babuşçu, broadly hints that he expects his own party to lose liberal support.
- 3 April: Excavation for construction begins for the hugely controversial giant Camlica Mosque in Istanbul. It is a signature policy ambition of Erdoğan - planned to be 57,511 square metres, have capacity for up to 30,000 simultaneous worshipers and to have minarets as tall as 1071 metres (representing the year of the Turkish victory in the Battle of Manzikert). Residents of Istanbul have long complained that the project is unnecessary and would disfigure the skyline and environment by the logging involved. Even many highly religious lobbies and figures object to the plan, with one religiously conservative intellectual in late 2012 calling such plans a "cheap replica" of the Blue Mosque and wrote to Erdoğan imploring him not to embarrass coming generations with such "unsightly work".
- 15 April: World-renowned Turkish pianist Fazıl Say is handed a suspended 10-month prison sentence for "insulting religious beliefs held by a section of the society," bringing to a close a controversial case while sparking fiery reaction and disapproval in Turkey and abroad. Fazıl Say is an atheist and a self-proclaimed opponent of Erdoğan.
- 1 May: Riot police uses water cannon and tear gas to prevent May Day marchers reaching the Taksim square. The government cites renovation work as the reason for closing the square.
- 11 May: Twin car bombs kill 52 people and wounded 140 in Reyhanlı near the Syrian border. The government claims Syrian government involvement, but many locals blame government policies.
- 16 May: Erdoğan pays an official visit to the United States to visit Barack Obama to discuss the crisis in Syria amidst other matters. Both leaders reaffirm their commitment to topple the Assad regime, despite the growing unpopularity of the policy amongst Turkish citizens.
- 18 May: Protesters clash with police in Reyhanlı.
- 22 May: Turkish hacker group RedHack released secret documents which belongs to Turkish Gendarmerie. According to documents, National Intelligence Organization (Turkey), Turkish Gendarmerie and General Directorate of Security knew the attack would be one month in advance.
- 22 May An official from the ruling AKP, Mahmut Macit, sparks considerable controversy after calling for the "annihilation of atheists" on his Twitter account.
- Armenian-Turkish writer, Sevan Nişanyan, is charged with 58 weeks in jail for an alleged insult to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad in a blog post, under similar charges to those Fazil Say was charged with.
- 24 May: The government votes to ban the sale of alcohol in shops between 22:00 and 06:00, sponsorship of events by drinks companies and any consumption of alcohol within 100m of mosques. The laws are passed less than two weeks after public announcement with no public consultation.
- 25 May: In response to Erdoğan's warning against couples displaying romantic displays of affection in public, dozens of couples gathered in an Ankara subway station to protest by kissing. The police quickly intervened and violently tried to end it.
- 27 May: The undebated decision to name the Third Bosphorus Bridge Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, for Selim I, is criticised by Alevi groups (some 15–30% of Turkey's population), as Alevis consider the Sultan responsible for the deaths of dozens of Alevis after the Battle of Chaldiran. Some "democrats and liberals" also would have preferred a more politically neutral name, with Mario Levi suggesting naming the bridge after Rumi or Yunus Emre.
- 28 May Erdoğan derides controversy regarding alcohol restrictions stating "Given that a law made by two drunkards is respected, why should a law that is commanded by religion be rejected by your side". By many, this is seen as a reference to Atatürk and Inonu, founders of the Turkish Republic.
- 29 May: In a parliamentary debate, the government opposes a proposed extension of LGBT rights in Turkey.
The initial cause of the protests was the plan to remove Gezi Park, one of the few remaining green spaces in the center of the European side of Istanbul. The plan involved pedestrianising Taksim Square and rebuilding the Ottoman-era Taksim Military Barracks, which had been demolished in 1940. Development projects in Turkey involve "cultural preservation boards" which are supposed to be independent of the government, and in January such a board rejected the project as not serving the public interest. However a higher board overturned this on 1 May, in a move park activists said was influenced by the government. The ground floor of the rebuilt barracks was expected to house a shopping mall, and the upper floors luxury flats, although in response to the protests the likelihood of a shopping mall was downplayed, and the possibility of a museum raised. The main contractor for the project is the Kalyon Group, described in 2013 by the BBC as "a company which has close ties with the governing Justice and Development (AK) Party."
The Gezi Park protests began in April, having started with a petition in December 2012. The protests were renewed on 27 May, culminating in the creation of an encampment occupying the park. A raid on this encampment on 29 May prompted outrage and wider protests. Although Turkey has a history of police brutality, the attack on a peaceful sit-in by environmentalists was different enough to spur wider outrage than such previous incidents, developing into the largest protests in Turkey in decades.
The large number of trees that were cut in the forests of northern Istanbul for the construction of the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Third Bosphorus Bridge) and the new Istanbul International Airport (the world's largest airport, with a capacity for 150 million passengers per year) were also influential in the public sensitivity for protecting Gezi Park. According to official Turkish government data, a total of 2,330,012 trees have been cut for constructing the Erdoğan Airport and its road connections; and a total of 381,096 trees have been cut for constructing the highway connections of the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge; reaching an overall total of 2,711,108 trees which were cut for the two projects.
- 2013 May On the morning of 28 May, around 50 environmentalists are camping out in Gezi Park in order to prevent its demolition. The protesters initially halt attempts to bulldoze the park by refusing to leave.
Police use tear gas to disperse the peaceful protesters and burn down their tents in order to allow the bulldozing to continue. Photos of the scene, such as an image of a young female protester (later nicknamed the "woman in red") holding her ground while being sprayed by a policeman, quickly spread throughout the world media. The Washington Post reports that the image "encapsulates Turkey's protests and the severe police crackdown", while Reuters calls the image an "iconic leitmotif."
The size of the protests grows.
Police carry out another raid on the encampment in the early morning of 31 May, using water cannons and tear gas to disperse the protesters to surrounding areas and setting up barricades around the park to prevent re-occupation. Throughout the day, the police continue to fire tear gas, pepper spray and water cannons at demonstrators, resulting in reports of more than 100 injuries. MP Sırrı Süreyya Önder and journalist Ahmet Şık were hospitalised after being hit by tear gas canisters.
The executive order regarding the process decided earlier had been declared as "on-hold".
10,000 gather in Istiklal Avenue. According to governor Hüseyin Avni Mutlu, 63 people are arrested and detained. Police use of tear gas is criticised for being "indiscriminate." The interior minister, Muammer Guler, says the claims of the use of disproportionate force would be investigated.
- 2013 June Heavy clashes between protesters and police continue until early morning around İstiklal Avenue. Meantime, around 5,000 people gather at the Asian side of İstanbul and march through Kadıköy Bağdat Avenue. Around 1,000 people continue to march towards the European side and they cross the Bosphorus Bridge on foot. Protesters reach Beşiktaş in the morning and police disperse them with tear gas.
Clashes continue throughout the day. Republican People's Party leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu announce that they will move their planned rally to Taksim Square instead of Kadıköy. Prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan says he has approved that decision. Around 15:45 police forces retreat from Taksim Square. Thousands of protesters gather at Gezi Park and Taksim Square.
At night, police forces try to disperse protesters gathered at Beşiktaş district. Clashes between police and protesters continue until next morning. Beşiktaş football team supporter group Çarşı members hijack a bulldozer and chase police vehicles.
Front side of AKM (Atatürk Cultural Center) building at Taksim Square gets covered with banners.
In Ankara, police tries to disperse thousands of protesters who are attempting to march on the prime minister's office there.
PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan speaks to reporters at the airport before leaving for a three-day trip to North Africa. He threatens the protesters saying "We are barely holding the 50 percent (that voted for us) at home."
PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan speaks to his supporters outside of İstanbul Atatürk Airport on his return from a four-day trip to North Africa. Erdoğan blames "interest rate lobbies" claiming they are behind Gezi protests. His supporters chant "Give us the way, we will crush Taksim Square".
Riot police forces enter Taksim square early in the morning. They make announcements that they will not be entering Gezi Park and their mission is to open Taksim Square to traffic again. Most protesters gather at Gezi Park, but a small group carrying banners of the Socialist Democracy Party retaliate using molotov cocktails and slingshots. Some people like Luke Harding from The Guardian claims that undercover police threw molotov cocktails, "staging a not very plausible 'attack' on their own for the benefit of the cameras." These claims were rejected by the governor of Istanbul, Hüseyin Avni Mutlu.
After police tries to enter Gezi park, clashes continue throughout the night and CNN International makes an eight-hour live coverage. Pro-government media accuses CNN and Christiane Amanpour of deliberately showing Turkey in a state of civil war.
PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan holds a meeting with the members of Taksim Solidarity in Ankara. When a member says that those protests have a sociological aspect, he gets angry and leaves the meeting saying "We are not going to learn what sociology is from you!".
Justice and Development Party organises a mass rally called "Respect to National Will" in Ankara. Talking at the rally, PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan says that "If protesters don't move out of Gezi Park, police forces will intervene".
At about 17:30, Police forces begin making announcents to protesters telling to leave Gezi Park. Police forces make an assault about 20:50 and clear Gezi Park. Protesters move to areas around İstiklal Street and clash with police.
Meanwhile, about 5,000 protesters gather at the Asian side of İstanbul and begin marching towards the European side. Riot police forces disperse the protesters with tear gas before reaching the Bosphorus Bridge.
A general strike and protests organised by five trade unions take place in almost every part of Turkey. Strikes doesn't have any negative effect on the daily life which led criticism of unions and their power.
Violence and mass demonstrations spread again in the country, after police attacks on thousands of protesters who threw carnations at them and called for brotherhood. Mass demonstrations occur again in Taksim Square, Istanbul and also in Güvenpark and Dikmen in Ankara to protest against the release of police officer Ahmet Şahbaz who fatally shot Ethem Sarısuluk in the head, as well as against events in Lice, Diyarbakır and Cizre, Şırnak. Riot police suppress the protesters partially with plastic bullets and some tear gas bombs and some protesters are detained. There is also a major police intervention in Ankara. The Istanbul LGBT Pride 2013 parade at Taksim Square attracts almost 100,000 people. Participants were joined by Gezi Park protesters, making the 2013 Istanbul Pride the biggest pride ever held in Turkey and eastern Europe. The European Union praises Turkey that the parade went ahead without disruption.
- 2013 July A machete-wielding man attacks the Gezi park protesters at Taksim Square. He is detained by the police, but gets released the same day. After being released, he flees to Morocco on 10 July.
Thousands of people stage the "1st Gas Man Festival" (1. Gazdanadam Festivali) in Kadıköy to protest against the police crackdown on anti-government and nature-supporting demonstrations across the country. With the arrival of Ramadan, protesters in Istanbul hold mass iftar (the ceremonial meal breaking the daily fast) for all comers. 19-year-old Ali İsmail Korkmaz, who was in a coma since 4 June dies. He was severely battened by a group of casually dressed people on 3 June while running away from police intervention.
- 2013 August The scale and frequency of demonstrations dies down in the summer. Human chains are organised for peace and against intervention in Syria. Protesters begin painting steps in rainbow colours.
The initial protests in Istanbul at the end of May were led by about 50 environmentalists, opposing the replacement of Taksim Gezi Park with a shopping mall and possible residence as well as reconstruction of the historic Taksim Military Barracks (demolished in 1940) over the adjacent Taksim Square. The protests developed into riots when a group occupying the park was attacked with tear gas and water cannons by police. The subjects of the protests then broadened beyond the development of Taksim Gezi Park into wider anti-government demonstrations. The protests also spread to other cities in Turkey, and protests were seen in other countries with significant Turkish communities, including European countries, the U.S. and elsewhere. Protesters took to Taksim Square in Istanbul and to streets in Ankara as well as İzmir, Bursa, Antalya, Eskişehir, Balıkesir, Edirne, Mersin, Adana, İzmit, Konya, Kayseri, Samsun, Antakya, Trabzon, Isparta, Tekirdağ, Bodrum, and Mardin.
The overall number of protesters involved was reported to be at least 2.5 million by the Turkish Interior Ministry over the 3 weeks from the start of the events. The hashtag #OccupyGezi trended in social media. On 3 June unions announced strikes for 4 and 5 June. Some Turkish-American supporters of the protests took a full-page advertisement in The New York Times on 7 June co-created and crowd-funded within days by thousands of people on the Internet. The ad and The New York Times drew criticism from the Turkish Prime Minister, necessitating the newspaper to respond.
The range of the protesters was noted as being broad, encompassing both right and left-wing individuals. The Atlantic described the participants as "the young and the old, the secular and the religious, the soccer hooligans and the blind, anarchists, communists, nationalists, Kurds, gays, feminists, and students." Der Spiegel said that protests were "drawing more than students and intellectuals. Families with children, women in headscarves, men in suits, hipsters in sneakers, pharmacists, tea-house proprietors – all are taking to the streets to register their displeasure." It added that there was a notable absence of political party leadership: "There have been no party flags, no party slogans and no prominent party functionaries to be seen. Kemalists and communists have demonstrated side-by-side with liberals and secularists." Opposition parties told members not to participate, leaving those who joined in doing so as private individuals.
Protesters applaud a whirling Sufi wearing a gas mask.
Many women in headscarves attended the protests, despite the fact that pro-AKP media spread disinformation that they were being attacked by the protesters
The Guardian observed that "Flags of the environmentalist movement, rainbow banners, flags of Atatürk, of Che Guevara, of different trade unions, all adorn the Gezi park." Flag of PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan's posters and were also seen. Hürriyet noted that even the football supporter clubs of the three major teams (not least Beşiktaş' Çarşı), normally greatly antagonistic towards each other, had agreed to join the protests together; a Turkish sports reporter suggested that the supporters clubs' experience in battling police played a significant role. A photo report from RT showed graffiti in Taksim Square in support of internationalism. The Economist noted that there were as many women as men, and said that "Scenes of tattooed youths helping women in headscarves stricken by tear gas have bust tired stereotypes about secularism versus Islam." Across political divides, protesters supported each other against the police.
According to Erdoğan's 4 June speech from Morocco, the demonstrators are mostly looters, political losers and extremist fringe groups. He went on to say they went hand-in-hand with 'terrorists' and 'extremists'. He indicated that these protests were organised by the Republican Peoples Party (even though the CHP had initially supported construction on the Gezi-park). Turkey analysts however suggested the demonstrations arose from bottom-up processes, lacking leadership.
A Bilgi University survey asked protesters about events that influenced them to join in the protests. Most cited were the prime minister's "authoritarian attitude" (92%), the police's "disproportionate use of force" (91%), the "violation of democratic rights" (91%), and the "silence of the media" (84%). Half the protesters were under 30, and 70% had no political affiliation; another poll found 79% had no affiliation with any organisation.
On 4 June a solidarity group associated with the Occupy Gezi movement, Taksim Dayanışması ("Taksim Solidarity"), issued several demands:
- the preservation of Gezi Park;
- an end to police violence, the right to freedom of assembly and the prosecution of those responsible for the violence against demonstrators;
- an end to the sale of "public spaces, beaches, waters, forests, streams, parks and urban symbols to private companies, large holdings and investors";
- the right of people to express their "needs and complaints without experiencing fear, arrest or torture."
- for the media "whose professional duty is to protect the public good and relay correct information ... to act in an ethical and professional way."
- ruling authorities to realise that the reaction of the citizens is also about the third airport in Istanbul, the third bridge over The Bosporus, the construction on Atatürk Forest Farm, and the hydro-electric power plants (HEPP)
Types of protest
Gezi Park camp
With the police abandoning attempts to clear the Gezi Park encampment on 1 June, the area began to take on some of the characteristics associated with the Occupy movement. The number of tents swelled, to the point where a hand-drawn map was set up at the entrance. Access roads to the park and to Taksim Square have been blocked by protesters against the police with barricades of paving stones and corrugated iron.
By evening on 4 June there were again tens of thousands in Taksim Square; Al Jazeera reported that "there are many families with their children enjoying the demonstration that has developed the feeling of a festival." There were also signs of a developing infrastructure reminding some observers of Occupy Wall Street, with "a fully operational kitchen and first-aid clinic... carved out of an abandoned concession stand in the back of the park," complete with rotas and fundraising for people's travel expenses. Protesters brought food to donate, and dozens of volunteers organised themselves into four shifts.
A makeshift "protester library" was also created (soon reaching 5000 books), and Şebnem Ferah gave a concert. A "makeshift outdoor movie screen" was set up, together with a stage with microphones and speakers, and a generator. A symbolic "street" was named after Hrant Dink, the journalist murdered in 2007; the street connects the Peace Square with the children's playground. Sellers of watermelons mingle with sellers of swimming goggles and surgical masks (to protect against tear gas); a yoga teacher provides classes. The crowds swell in the evening as office workers join.
With 5 June being the Lailat al Miraj religious holiday, protesters distributed "kandil simidi" (a pastry specific to the holiday), and temporarily declared the park a no-alcohol zone. Celebration of the holiday included a Quran reading.
Peter Gelderloos argues that the camp was a small, anarchist community that heavily emphasied mutual aid. He also argues that large cultural changes occurred within the camp. He argues that the Gezi Park was one of the most successful examples of social activism in recent history, mainly due to its refusal to be represented by political parties, trade unions and the media.
Symbols and humour
One photograph taken by Reuters photographer Osman Orsal of a woman in a red dress being pepper-sprayed became one of the iconic images of the protests: "In her red cotton summer dress, necklace and white bag slung over her shoulder she might have been floating across the lawn at a garden party; but before her crouches a masked policeman firing teargas spray that sends her long hair billowing upwards." Orsal himself was later injured by a tear gas canister. In June 2015 the police officer who sprayed pepper gas in the face of "the woman in red" was sentenced to 20 months in jail and to plant 600 trees by a criminal court in Istanbul.
The protesters have also made significant use of humour, both in graffiti and online, in what the BBC called "an explosion of expression... in the form of satire, irony and outright mockery of the popular leader on Istanbul's streets and social media." It gave as an example a parody of the Turkish auction site sahibinden.com as "tayyibinden.com", listing Gezi Park for sale. Examples of slogans include "Enough! I'm calling the police", as well as pop culture references: "Tayyip – Winter is Coming" (a reference to Game of Thrones) and "You're messing with the generation that beats cops in GTA." (a reference to Grand Theft Auto).
Protesters had previously mocked Erdoğan's recommendation to have at least 3 children and policy of restricting alcohol with the slogan "at least 3 beers" even though this is criticised on social media for Erdoğan's recommendation of having 3 children is his personal view and not a government policy.
Penguins were also adopted as a symbol, referring to CNN Turk's showing a penguin documentary while CNN International provided live coverage of the protests; examples include "We are all penguins" T-shirts.
In response to Erdoğan's description of the protesters as looters (üç beş çapulcu, "a few [literally: three to five] looters"), demonstrators took up the name as a symbol of pride, describing their peaceful and humorous civil disobedience actions as chapulling. A majority of social-media users participating in the protests also changed their Twitter screen names after Erdogan calling them looters, adding çapulcu as if a professional title.
Other parks and public forums
After the violent clearing of Gezi Park on 15–16 June by riot police and Turkish Gendarmerie, Beşiktaş JK's supporter group Çarşı, declared the Abbasağa Park, in Beşiktaş district as the second Gezi Park and called for people to occupy it on 17 June. After this call, thousands started to gather at Abbasağa Park, holding public forums to discuss and vote on the situation of the resistance and actions to be taken. Shortly after this, democracy forums and meetings spread to many parks in Istanbul and then to the other cities, like Ankara, Izmir, Mersin, etc.
As the protests mostly took place on the beginning of summer, on the time all schools makes their students graduate, the protests and humour have hit hundreds of universities' and high schools' graduations too.
As lots of fan associations from various parts of Turkey supported and participated in protests actively on the ground and also supported the resistance against AKP government and its various policies, in the stadiums with their chants, clothes, slogans, banners and posters, the stadiums became practical places of Gezi protests and where fans can do even more political expressions than before, mostly opposing to the government and its ideologies. As this continued to happen during the off-season friendly and continental trophy matches, government took lots of precautions with an organising law for stadiums that passed from the assembly with AKP votes, banning to bring politics into stadiums, but soon after the start of the Turkish sports leagues, as most of the fans continued to their protests, this time even more organised and loud, first punishments on the opposing fans and clubs were given, but there were lots of criticism both from Turkish and foreigner experts about the law banning bringing "opposition" into stadiums, not "politics", as some fan groups opened banners that openly support AKP in Konya and supported Morsi of Egypt in Bursa.
Demonstrations and strikes
Demonstrations were held in many cities in Turkey. According to the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey around 640,000 people had participated in the demonstrations as of 5 June. Protests took place in 78 of Turkey's 81 provinces. The biggest protests have been in Istanbul, with reports of more than 100,000 protesters. Inside of the city, protests have been concentrated in the central neighbourhoods of Beyoğlu (around Taksim square and İstiklal Avenue), Beşiktaş (from Dolmabahçe to Ortaköy) and Üsküdar (From Maltepe to Kadıköy, Beylerbeyi to Çengelköy). Also in Zeytinburnu, traditionally seen as a conservative working-class neighbourhood to the west of the old city, tens of thousands marched in protest. Among the suburbs that saw demonstrations were Beylikdüzü and Küçükçekmece on the far-western side of the city, Pendik and Kartal at the far east and Ümraniye, Beykoz and Esenler to the North.
Gazi (not to be confused with Gezi Park), a small neighborhood in Istanbul and part of the Sultangazi district, was one of the major points of counter-protests.
Other cities outside Turkey with protests include:
Geo-spatial analysis of protest shows support from all over the world and mainly concentrated in Turkey, Europe and East coast of US.
Advertising and petition
Within 24 hours on 3 June, a New York Times advertisement led by Murat Aktihanoglu surpassed its $54,000 crowd-funding target on Indiegogo. The ad featured demands for "an end to police brutality"; "a free and unbiased media"; and "an open dialogue, not the dictate of an autocrat." An early draft sparked debate among Gezi protesters for its references to Atatürk, which was not a common value of the protesters. The editing of the final advertisement involved thousands of people, and the ad was published on 7 June. Despite its financing by 2,654 online funders, Erdoğan and his administration blamed a domestic and foreign "bond interest lobby" and The New York Times for the ad. Full Page Ad for Turkish Democracy in Action: OccupyGezi for the World
An Avaaz petition similarly asked for an end to violence against protesters, the preservation of Gezi Park, and of "the remaining green areas in Istanbul."
On 24 July The Times newspaper published a full-page open letter, drafted and spearheaded by Fuad Kavur, addressed to Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, which condemned the Turkish authorities' heavy-handed crackdown on the Gezi Park protests. The letter was signed by internationally renowned artists and scholars such as Sean Penn, Susan Sarandon, Ben Kingsley, David Lynch and Andrew Mango. PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan accused The Times of "renting out its pages for money" and threatened to sue the newspaper.
Standing Man/Woman protest
After the clearing of Gezi Park camp on 15 June a new type of protest developed, dubbed the "Standing Man" or "Standing Woman". A lone protester, Erdem Gündüz, initiated it on 17 June 2013 by standing in Taksim Square for hours, staring at the Turkish flags on the Ataturk Cultural Center. The Internet distributed images of such protest widely; other persons imitated the protest style and artists took up the theme. A type of dilemma action, the initial Standing Man protest soon inspired others to do the same. The Human Rights Foundation announces 2 May the recipients of the 2014 Václav Havel Prize for Creative Dissent. The 2014 laureates are Turkish performance artist Erdem Gündüz - Standing Man - together with Russian punk protest group Pussy Riot.
An additional form of protest developed under the name "Boykot Listesi", as a boycott of businesses which had failed to open their doors to protesters seeking refuge from tear gas and water cannon, and of companies such as Doğuş Holding (owner of NTV) which owned media that had not given sufficient coverage of the protests. The hashtag #boykotediyoruz was used.
Violence and vandalism
Even though protests were definitely peaceful in the first days and were generally so but in some occasions, there were accusations of violence and vandalism as the protests continued. According to the journalist Gülay Göktürk, "the Gezi Park protesters damaged 103 police cruisers, 207 automobiles, 15 ambulances and 280 buildings and buses in demonstrations across the country." though no other sources confirm these figures.
On 29 May, after the initial protests, Erdoğan gave a speech at the groundbreaking ceremony for the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge reiterating his commitment to the redevelopment plan, saying "Whatever you do, we've made our decision and we will implement it." On 31 May Istanbul mayor Kadir Topbaş stated that the environmental campaign had been manipulated by "political agendas."
On 1 June Erdoğan gave a televised speech condemning the protesters and vowing that "where they gather 20, I will get up and gather 200,000 people. Where they gather 100,000, I will bring together one million from my party." On 2 June he described the protesters as "çapulcular" ("looters").
On 1 June Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Arınç criticised the use of tear gas against demonstrators and stated, "It would have been more helpful to try and persuade the people who said they didn't want a shopping mall, instead of spraying them with tear gas." On 4 June an official tweet summarising new comments by Arınç said "We have been monitoring the non-violent demonstrations with respect." Arınç later apologised for use of "excessive force."
On 2 June it was reported that Turkey's President Abdullah Gül contacted other senior leaders urging "moderation." After the call, Interior Minister Muammer Güler ordered police to withdraw from Taksim, allowing protesters to re-occupy the square. On 3 June Gül defended the right to protest, saying that "Democracy does not mean elections alone."
On 4 June Deputy Prime Minister for the Economy Ali Babacan "said the government respects the right to non-violent protest and free speech, but that it must also protect its citizens against violence."
On 8 June "We are definitely not thinking of building a shopping mall there, no hotel or residence either. It can be... a city museum or an exhibition center," Istanbul mayor Kadir Topbas told reporters.
In a press release on 17 June, Egemen Bağış, Minister For EU Affairs, criticised "the use of the platform of the European Parliament to express the eclipse of reason through disproportionate, unbalanced and illogical statements..." and said that "Rather than allowing this, it would be wiser for the EU officials to put an end to it."
3 July, Cancellation of the planned construction, in Taksim area, that sparked the protests was finally made public. The court order was made in mid-June at the height of the protest but inexplicably not released for weeks.
Erdoğan gave a number of speeches dismissing the protesters, and on 3 June left the country on a planned 3-day diplomatic tour of North African countries, a move that was criticised as irresponsible by opposing political leaders. On 4 June, Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Arınç apologised to protesters for "excessive violence" used by the police in the beginning of the riots, but said he would not apologise for the police violence that came after. On 6 June, PM Erdoğan said the redevelopment plans would go ahead despite the protests.
The government has claimed that a wide variety of shadowy forces were behind the protests. In a speech on 18 June, Erdoğan accused "internal traitors and external collaborators", saying that "It was prepared very professionally... Social media was prepared for this, made equipped. The strongest advertising companies of our country, certain capital groups, the interest rate lobby, organisations on the inside and outside, hubs, they were ready, equipped for this." Erdoğan implicitly included the main opposition CHP in the category of "internal traitors", claiming that three-quarters of protest participants had voted for the CHP,[n 1] and accusing CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu "of acting like the head of a terrorist organisation by calling on the police not to obey orders." Erdoğan also claimed that Taksim protests were linked to the Reyhanlı bombings, and accused the CHP of complicity in the bombings, calling on Kılıçdaroğlu to resign.
In late June it was announced that the National Intelligence Organisation was investigating foreign elements in the protests. The Foreign Ministry also demanded "a report detailing which efforts these countries took to create a perception against Turkey, which instruments were used in this process, what our embassies did and what were our citizens' reactions".
On 1 July, Deputy Prime Minister Besir Atalay accused foreign agents and the Jewish diaspora of orchestrating the protests. "There are some circles that are jealous of Turkey's growth," Atalay said. "They are all uniting, on one side the Jewish Diaspora. You saw the foreign media's attitude during the Gezi Park incidents; they bought it and started broadcasting immediately, without doing an evaluation of the [case]." A number of Turkish commentators and lower-level officials have accused Jewish groups and others of conspiring to engineer the protests and bring about Erdoğan's downfall. On 2 July, the Turkish Jewish Community made a statement that this was an unfounded anti-Semitic generalization
AKP lawmaker and PM Burhan Kuzu accused Germany of being behind the Gezi protests to stop construction of Istanbul's third airport. He stated that "When it is completed, Frankfurt Airport in Germany will lose its importance. Hence, in the recent Gezi incidents, Germany, along with agents, has a major role."
Mehmet Eymür, a retired officer from Turkish National Intelligence Organisation claimed that Mossad was behind Gezi protests. During a televised interview at one of the pro-government television channels, he stated that some Turkish Jews who did their military service in Israel were Mossad agents and active during gezi protests.
Protests intensified after (on the morning of 30 May) undercover police burnt the tents of protesters who had organised a sit-in at Gezi Park. Çevik Kuvvet riot police internal messages compared the events to the 1916 Gallipoli Campaign. Amnesty International said on 1 June that "It is clear that the use of force by police is being driven not by the need to respond to violence – of which there has been very little on the part of protesters – but by a desire to prevent and discourage protest of any kind." By 14 June 150,000 tear gas cartridges and 3000 tons of water had been used. In mid-June Amnesty International said that it had "received consistent and credible reports of demonstrators being beaten by police during arrest and transfer to custody and being denied access to food, water, and toilet facilities for up to 12 hours during the current protests in Istanbul which have taken place for almost three weeks." Hundreds of protesters were detained.
As protests continued in early June, tear gas was used so extensively that many residents of central Istanbul had to keep windows closed even in the heat of summer, or use respirators and then struggle to decontaminate homes of tear gas residue. Police even water cannoned a man in a wheelchair. The Turkish Doctors' Association said that by 15 June, over 11,000 people had been treated for tear gas exposure, and nearly 800 for injuries caused by tear gas cartridges. On the weekend of 15 June, police action escalated significantly. Police were seen adding Jenix Pepper Spray to their water cannons, and the Istanbul Doctors Association later said that there was "a high but an unknown number of first and second-degree burn injuries because of some substance mixed in pressurised water cannons". On the night of 15/16 June police repeatedly tear-gassed the lobby of the Divan Istanbul hotel, where protesters had taken refuge, causing a pregnant woman to miscarry. They also water-cannoned and tear gassed the Taksim German Hospital.
Doctors and medical students organised first aid stations. In some cases the stations and medical personnel were targeted by police with tear gas, and one medical student volunteer was left in intensive care after being beaten by police, despite telling them that he was a doctor trying to help. Medical volunteers were also arrested. "[Police] are now patrolling the streets at night and selectively breaking ground-floor windows of apartments and throwing tear gas into people's homes. They have been joined by groups of AKP sympathisers with baseball bats." One volunteer medic working at a tent in Taksim Square said that "They promised us that they would not attack our field hospital, but they did anyway, firing six rounds of teargas directly into our tent."
Lawyers were also targeted by police. On 11 June at least 20 lawyers gathering at the Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace to make a press statement about Gezi Park were detained by police, including riot police. The arrests of total 73–74 lawyers were described as "very brutal and anti-democratic" by one lawyer present, with many injured: "They even kicked their heads, the lawyers were on the ground. They were hitting us they were pushing. They built a circle around us and then they attacked."
There were also reports of journalists being targeted by police, and a Russian journalist "beaten and detained by suspected Turkish intelligence services, as he was taking pictures of empty police cars on Taksim Square". The New York Times reported on 16 June that "One foreign photographer documenting the clashes Saturday night said a police officer had torn his gas mask off him while in a cloud of tear gas, and forced him to clear his memory card of photographs." Reporters without Borders reported eight journalists arrested, some violently, and several forced to delete photographs from their digital cameras.
A spokesman for the police union Emniyet-Sen said poor treatment of officers by the police was partly to blame for the violence: "Fatigue and constant pressure lead to inattentiveness, aggression and a lack of empathy. It's irresponsible to keep riot police on duty for such long hours without any rest."
On 2 October, the Amnesty International released a full report about police brutality at Gezi Park protests with the title of "Gezi Park Protests: Brutal Denıal Of The Rıght To Peaceful Assembly In Turkey".
On 16 October, the European Union released its progress report on Turkey, with Gezi protests putting a mark on crucial parts of the document. Report stated that "The excessive use of force by police and the overall absence of dialogue during the protests in May/June have raised serious concerns".
On 26 November, commissioner for human rights of the Council of Europe released a full report about Turkey and Gezi protests. The report said that "The Commissioner considers that impunity of law-enforcement officials committing human rights violations is an entrenched problem in Turkey".
Although in most cities there were no counter-protests during the first week, some cities (e.g. Konya) saw minor disagreements and scuffles between nationalists and left-wing groups. When a small group of people wanted to read a statement in front of Atatürk's statue in Trabzon's central Meydan/Atatürk square another small group of far-right nationalists chased them off, the police separated the groups to prevent violence. Nonetheless, during day and night time there were marches and other kinds of protests in the city, but mostly without political banners.
Lists of prominent individuals who had supported the protests (e.g. actor Memet Ali Alabora) were circulated, and images of protest damage circulated under the heading #SenOde ("You pay for it"). The daily Yeni Şafak criticised prominent government critics such as Ece Temelkuran, with a piece on 18 June headlined "Losers' Club".
Hasan Karakaya, an author of the pro-AKP newspaper Akit, wrote about the events going on in Turkey, finding them similar to the latest situation in Egypt, and used the terms "dog" (köpek), "pimp" (pezevenk), and "whore" (kaltak) to describe the protesters.
As protests continued across Turkey, police use of tear gas and water cannons led to injuries running into thousands, including critical injuries, loss of sight, and a number of deaths. Over three thousand arrests were made. Police forces repeatedly used unnecessary and abusive force to prevent and disperse peaceful demonstrations. As a result, it is estimated that there were 11 fatalities.
Media censorship and disinformation
Foreign media noted that, particularly in the early days (31 May – 2 June), the protests attracted relatively little mainstream media coverage in Turkey, due to either government pressure on media groups' business interests or simply ideological sympathy by media outlets. The BBC noted that while some outlets are aligned with the AKP or are personally close to Erdoğan, "most mainstream media outlets – such as TV news channels HaberTurk and NTV, and the major centrist daily Milliyet – are loath to irritate the government because their owners' business interests at times rely on government support. All of these have tended to steer clear of covering the demonstrations." Ulusal Kanal and Halk TV provided extensive live coverage from Gezi park.
On 14 February 2014, released video footage revealed that there had in fact been no attack on a woman wearing a headscarf by protesters on 1 June. The woman and Prime Minister Erdoğan had claimed in press conferences and political rallies that protesters had attacked her and her baby.
The AKP government's handling of the protests has been roundly criticised by other nations and international organisations, including the European Union, the United Nations, the United States, the UK, and Germany.
According to Koray Çalışkan, a political scientist at Istanbul's Boğaziçi University, the protests are "a turning point for the AKP. Erdoğan is a very confident and a very authoritarian politician, and he doesn't listen to anyone anymore. But he needs to understand that Turkey is no kingdom, and that he cannot rule Istanbul from Ankara all by himself." Çalışkan also suggested that the prospects for Erdoğan's plan to enact a new constitution based on a presidential system, with Erdoğan becoming the first President under this system, might have been damaged.
Despite the AKP's support lying with religious conservatives, some conservative and Islamist organisations stood against Erdoğan. Groups such as the Anti-Capitalist Muslims and Revolutionist Muslims performed Friday prayers (salat) in front of the mescid çadırı (mosque tent) in Gezi Park on 7 and 14 June, one day before the police eviction. Mustafa Akyol, a liberal Islamist journalist, described the events as the cumulative reaction of the people to Erdoğan. Significant conservative opponents of the government include the religious writer İhsan Eliaçık, who accused Erdoğan of being a dictator, Fatma Bostan Ünsal, one of the co-founders of the AKP, who expressed support to protests. and Abdüllatif Şener, the former AKP Deputy Prime Minister, who strongly criticised the government in an interview with the left-wing Halk TV.
Faruk Birtek, a sociology professor at Boğaziçi University, criticised the actions of Turkish police against protesters and likened them to the SS of Nazi Germany. Daron Acemoglu, a professor of economics at M.I.T., wrote an op-ed for The New York Times about the protests, saying: "if the ballot box doesn't offer the right choices, democracy advances by direct action."
The Taiwanese Next Media Animation satirised Erdoğan over Gezi Protests with 3 humorous CGI-animated coverage series that included lots of symbols from the ongoing protests. They also made an animation about Melih Gokcek, the mayor of Ankara, who accused Next Media Animation of controlling the protesters. Those animations got reaction in the Turkish media as well.
Former Pink Floyd member Roger Waters, during his "The Wall Live" concert in Istanbul on 4 August 2013, expressed his support and offered condolences to the protesters in Turkish, projecting the pictures of the people killed during the protests in the background.
The Colbert Report host Stephen Colbert had a segment on the protests creating the "autocratic anagram" Pro Gay Centipede Ray for Erdoğan and continued referring to him as "Prime Minister Centipede" multiple times which was criticised by some of the Turkish Media.
Internationally known Turkish electropop musician Bedük, composed, recorded and released a song named "It's A Riot" describing the protests and the fight for freedom in Turkey and released an official music video on 28 June, which has been created with all anonymous footages from different parts of Turkey, during the ongoing protests.
Ozbi, a Turkish rapper (and member of the band Kaos), gained national fame by composing and recording a song named "Asi" (Rebel).
During their concert at Istanbul, Massive Attack named those who died in protests on the outdoor screen at their back with following sentences, Their killers are still out there and We won't forget Soma.
In 2011, Turkey attracted more than 31.5 million foreign tourists, ranking as the 6th most popular tourist destination in the world. Tourism has been described as "one of the most vital sources of income for Turkey", raising concerns that "unrest would have a dire effect on Istanbul [...] and the larger tourism economy." On 4 June, Hotel and Tourism investors from Istanbul reported that "more than 40 percent of hotel reservations" had been cancelled.
Mark Almond, visiting professor in International Relations at Bilkent University in Ankara, said on Russia Today: "This is a city that has huge numbers of foreign tourists – many of them have been affected, many of them sought medical help. It's a public relations disaster with huge economic implications."
- A spokesperson for the US State Department was reported to have noted that "the crackdown of the police forces armed with tear gas and water cannons happened in one of the most touristic places where many of the biggest hotels are located, indirectly warning that a travel advisory for U.S. citizens could be issued." On 1 June 2013, the US Embassy in Turkey did indeed issue such a warning that "U.S. citizens traveling or residing in Turkey should be alert to the potential for violence."
- The German Foreign Office issued a warning urging its citizens to avoid affected areas.
Many world renowned and award-winning film-makers were in Istanbul for the 2013 Documentarist Film Festival, which had been postponed indefinitely due to the violent reaction of the Turkish authorities to peaceful protests there. The first two days of the festival, 1 and 2 June, did not occur due to the social upheaval and one of the main sites, Akbank Sanat, was unable to show films for an extended period of time due to its proximity to the protests. Petra Costa, the Brazilian director of the documentary film Elena, and Egyptian director of photography Muhammed Hamdy began filming the protests and reporting from the field.
2013 Mediterranean Games Scandals
Since the beginning of the protests, demonstrations had taken place in Mersin, the city which was to host the 2013 Mediterranean Games. Since Erdoğan was due to speak at the opening ceremony of the games, there was speculation that protesters would take the opportunity to embarrass the government. Just 15 minutes after the tickets went on sale online they were all sold to an anonymous buyer and apparently distributed to various AKP organisations. Combined with a boycott by local people of the games, this meant that the stadium was frequently nearly empty. Protesters were prevented from approaching the stadium by riot police, and were evicted from Mersin's Peace Park (Barış Parkı) the night before the games. Tear gas, water cannons and rubber bullets were used against protesters.
Other scandals which surrounded the games included: eight Turkish weight-lifters found to have performance-enhancing drugs in their blood and subsequently being disqualified And a van belonging to the Games organisation transporting staff and athletes being seen in front of a brothel in Mersin.
2020 Summer Olympics Bid
Istanbul mayor Kadir Topbaş gave an interview expressing concern that the police's actions would jeopardise Istanbul's bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics, saying "As Istanbul's mayor going through such an event, the fact that the whole world watched saddens me. How will we explain it? With what claims will we host the 2020 Olympic Games?" As it turned out, "political unrest" was cited as one of the reasons for the failure of Istanbul's bid to host the Olympics, along with worries about the economy, the Syrian crisis and scandals surrounding the Mediterranean Games.
On 3 June, Istanbul's stock exchange experienced a loss of 10.5% in a single day—the drop was "the biggest one-day loss in a decade." The fall of BIST 100 index was the sharpest since August 2011, and the yield on two-year lira bonds rose 71 basis points to 6.78 percent, the biggest jump since 2005. Turkish central bank had to auction out and buy Turkish Lira`s in order to keep the exchange rate going. Next 11 funds have also dropped due to the Turkish prime minister’s opposing views on freedom and democracy
Temporary block of EU accession talks
On 25 June 2013 EU foreign ministers backed Germany's proposal to postpone further EU membership talks with Turkey for about four months due to the government's handling of the protests. This delay raised new doubts about whether Turkey should ever be admitted to the European Union. In early June, in comments on Turkey's possible membership, German Chancellor Angela Merkel did not address the compromise proposal but said Turkey must make progress on its relations with EU member Cyprus to give impetus to its membership ambitions.
- Taksim Square massacre (1977)
- Environmental issues in Turkey
- Human rights in Turkey
- Turkish local elections, 2014
- Turkish presidential election, 2014
- According to a survey by GENAR, 74.6% of Gezi Park protesters who voted for a party in the previous elections voted for CHP. "Geziciler ile ilgili en kapsamlı anket" (in Turkish). T24. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- "Gezi Park Protests: Brutal Denial Of The Rıght To Peaceful Assembly In Turkey". Amnesty International. 2 October 2013.
- Holly Williams (1 June 2013). "Massive, violent crowds protest Turkish leader's policies". CBS News. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Turkey protests spread from Istanbul to Ankara". Euronews. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Turkey: Istanbul clashes rage as violence spreads to Ankara". The Guardian. London. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Letsch, Constanze (31 May 2013). "Turkey protests spread after violence in Istanbul over park demolition". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Protesters are young, libertarian and furious at Turkish PM, says survey". Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Gezi Park Protests:Brutal Denial Of The Tight To Peaceful Assembly In Turkey" (PDF). Amnesty International. 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- "'Gezi Parkı eylemlerinde orantısız güç kullanıldı' - Genel Bakış- ntvmsnbc.com". ntvmsnbc.com.
- "Polisin orantısız gücüne bir tepki de Karşıyaka Platformu'ndan geldi". Malatya Gerçeği. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014.
- Efe Can Gürcan; Efe Peker, " Challenging Neoliberalism at Turkey's Gezi Park" p83. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- https://www.economist.com/blogs/charlemagne/2013/06/turkish-politics Turkish politics: Resentment against Erdogan explodes
- Administrator. "- How to predict a revolution using the center-periphery dissonance factor".
- The Daily Dot, 4 June 2013, Refusing oppression, Turkish protesters release a list of demands
- avrupagazete editor (1 April 2014). "Anakara'da Gerginlik, CHP'den YSK'Ya Seçim Sonucu 'Hile Protestosu'". avrupagazete.com.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- "Mahkeme, Gezi Parkı'nda yürütmeyi durdurdu". zaman.com.tr. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "Beyoğlu Belediye Başkanı: Gezi Parkı eylemleri geride kaldı (Turkish)/Mayor of Beyoğlu: Gezi Park Protests in the past". Hürriyet. 2013-08-23. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- "Turkey-EU relations exponentially decelerated especialy after Gezi Park protests". eurodialogue.eu. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "Turkish Foreign Policy after Gezi Park Protests". academia.edu. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "Turkey: Gezi Park protests on year on - police remain unpunished, demonstrators go on trial". amnesty.org.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "The Last Chance to Stop Turkey's Harsh New Internet Law". pulitzercenter.org. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "Explained: Turkey's controversial security bill". hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "bbc.com". Turkish court acquits Gezi Park protest leaders. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "Gezi Parkı'nda öfke kardeşliği". Aksiyon. 10 June 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
- "Who are the protestors?". 2 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "GEZİ PARKI İŞGALİ VE ANARŞİSTLERİN BİLDİRİSİ". itaatsiz dergi.
- "Feminists join protests in Turkey as they call for equality". Reuters. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Gays in the park". Vocativ. 14 June 2013. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Turkey police clash with Istanbul Gezi Park protesters". BBC. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Kotsev, Victor (2 June 2013). "How the Protests Will Impact Turkey at Home and Abroad". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Libertarians in Turkey support protests". Studentsforliberty. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Supporter groups of Istanbul's three major teams join forces for Gezi Park". Hürriyet Daily News. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Why the 3H Sides with the Gezi Park Protests?". 3H Movement. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Turkey unrest: Unions call strike over crackdown". BBC. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "İstanbul Barosu vatandaşlara gönüllü olarak avukatlık yapacak". Milliyet. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "DİSK, KESK, TMMOB, TTB, TDB iş bıraktı". CNN Türk. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Gazeteci Örgütlerinden Polis Şiddetine Protesto - bianet". Bianet - Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi.
- "Intervention in Taksim will carry on until full security is ensured: Istanbul governor". hurriyetdailynews. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Gezi'ye rekor katılım: 7.5 milyon yurttaş". Aydinlik. 13 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Türkiye İnsan Hakları Vakfı: 'Gezi Parkı gözaltı sayısı 3 bin 773, tutuklu sayısı 125′". Dag Medya. 2 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "2.5 million people attended Gezi protests across Turkey: Interior Ministry". Hürriyet Daily News. 23 June 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "2.5 milyon insan 79 ilde sokağa indi". Milliyet. 23 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "A Graphic History of the Gezi Resistance". Bianet. 10 June 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- "Gül understands it while Erdoğan doesn't". Radikal. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Devrimci Müslümanlar'da "marjinal" oldu! - Aktif en az 3,545,000 kişi". Yurt. 20 September 2013. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Batuman, Elif (1 June 2013). "Occupy Gezi: Police against Protesters in Istanbul". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Adana polisinden Gezi raporu: 93 bin 950 kişi katıldı". Radikal. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Burası da Ankara". Hürriyet Daily News. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "İzmir'deki gösterilerde korkulan olmadı". Hürriyet Daily News. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Tüm yurtta Gezi protestosu". mynet yurt haber. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Direniş büyüdü Çorlulular gece gündüz eylemde" (in Turkish). Ulusal Kanal. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "Eskişehir'de 30bin". ensonhaber. 16 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "5 Haziran il Eylemleri/23.03/Antakya". Sendika.org. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "Gaziantep Böyle Gece Görmedi. Tam 20 Bin Kişi Yürüdü". GaziantepHaberler.com. 4 June 2013.
- "20 bin kişi sokağa döküldü". denizli haber. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
- "Bodrum"Da Gezi Parkı Eylemine 15 Bin Kişi Katıldı". Haberler. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Çorum'da 3. günde 15 bin kişi". evrensel.net. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "Göstericilerin Sağlık Durumları (Demonstrators' Health Conditions) as of 15.07.2013 18:00". TTB (Turkish Medical Association). 15 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Protests 'no Turkish Spring', says PM Erdogan". BBC News. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- "Policeman dies after falling off bridge during protests in southern Turkey". 6 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Polisin Biber Gazı Bir Can Daha Aldı". 6 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Ali İsmail Korkmaz Hayatını Kaybetti". 10 July 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- "Armutlu'da polis saldırısı, 22 yaşındaki Ahmet Atakan hayatını kaybetti". SoL. 9 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Polisin biber gazı bir can daha aldı!". Ulusalkanal.com.tr. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- "Gülsuyu'nda zehir tacirleri kan dökmeye devam ediyor - Hürriyet Avrupa". Hürriyet. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- "Oğluna kelepçe ile getirdiler - Hürriyet GÜNDEM". Hürriyet. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- "Berkin Elvan'ı kaybettik". 11 March 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Gazdan etkilenen polis öldü". 12 March 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "İstanbul'da gergin gece: 1 ölü". ntvmsnbc.com.
- "Biber gazı bir can daha aldı". odatv.com. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Okmeydanı'ndaki eylemlerde bir kişi başından vuruldu!". t24.com.tr. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- turkiyegazetesi editor (23 May 2014). "Okmeydanı'nda bir ölüm daha!". turkiyegazetesi.com.tr. Retrieved 31 October 2014.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- "Biber gazlı müdahale sonrası komaya giren Elif Çermik öldü". BBC News. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Two Kurds die in protest over new Turkish army posts". BBC News. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "Boy killed in clashes with Turkish police in latest protest-related child death". hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- "2.5 milyon insan 79 ilde sokağa indi". Milliyet. 23 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Turkish protests: it started with a tree". Globalnews.ca. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Avcılar'da Bir Kişi Protestolarda Hayatını Kaybetti" (in Turkish). Sözcü. 15 June 2013. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "5 ölü, 8,163 yaralı, 3,699 gözaltı, 134 tutuklama". BirGün. 29 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 August 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Gezi Parkı Direnişi ve Sonrasında Yaşananlara İlişkin Değerlendirme Raporu 17.07.2013". Human Rights Association Turkey. 17 July 2013. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Gezi Parkı Direnişi ve Sonrasında Yaşananlara İlişkin Değerlendirme Raporu 17.07.2013 – PDF" (PDF). 17 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.[permanent dead link]
- (in French) « Istanbul : les Indignés de Taksim », Laurène Perrussel-Morin, Le Journal International, 29 mai 2013
- de Bellaigue, Christopher (19 December 2013). "Turkey: 'Surreal, Menacing…Pompous'". New York Review of Books. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Tim Phillips, "New Report on Human Rights Violations During Turkey’s Response to Gezi Park Protests", Activist Defense, 4 October 2013.
- Hurriyet Daily News, 19 June 2013, Group stands against 'standing man' in Istanbul protest square
- bianet, 19 June 2013, Every Park Become Gezi Park in Turkey
- "Gezi puts its mark on EU Progress Report". Hurriyet Daily News. 16 October 2013.
- "Orhan Pamuk says Erdoğan's government authoritarian". Todayszaman.com. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Patrick Cockburn (7 June 2013). "Turkey's protests and Erdogan's brutal crackdown: How long can defiant Prime Minister last?". London: The Independent. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Board, Editorial (3 June 2013). "Prime Minister Erdogan's strongman tactics in Turkey". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Hacaoglu, Selcan (28 May 2013). "Erdogan Denies Turkey's New Alcohol Curbs Encroach on Lifestyle". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Varol, O.; Ferrara, E.; Ogan, C.; Menczer, F.; Flammini, A. (2014). "Evolution of online user behavior during a social upheaval". Proceedings of the 2014 ACM conference on Web science. Bloomington, IN. pp. 81–90.
- "Clashes rage for second day in Istanbul". The Gulf News. Agence France-Presse. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Turkish protests: view from the ground". Euronews. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Seibert, Thomas (26 May 2013). "Turkey's alcohol law renews accusations of Erdogan's Islamist agenda". The National (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Inching away from democracy?". 19 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- Bilefsky, Dan; Arsu, Sebnem (4 January 2012). "Charges Against Journalists Dim the Democratic Glow in Turkey". The New York Times.
- "In Erdogan's Turkey, Censorship Finds Fertile Ground". Al-Monitor. 13 January 2013.
- "Erdogan Visit to Berlin Betrays Tensions". Der Spiegel. 2013.
- Cook, Steven A.; Michael Koplow (3 June 2013). "How Democratic Is Turkey?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Fresh anti-government clashes hit Turkey". Al Jazeera. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Seymour, Richard (31 May 2013). "Istanbul park protests sow the seeds of a Turkish spring". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Turkish ruling party 'to leave liberals out'". Hürriyet Daily News. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Turkish protesters have long list of complaints". Daily Star. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- "On Turkey's proposed alcohol restrictions". Yahoo news. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Letsch, Constanze (16 April 2013). "Turkish composer and pianist convicted of blasphemy on Twitter". The Guardian. London.
- "Turkish-Armenian blogger sentenced to Turkish prison for blasphemy". CNN. 23 May 2013.
- Craig Murray, 2 June 2013, Talking Turkey
- "No Nukes: Anti-Nuclear Activists Condemn Turkey's Plans To Build Second Atomic Plant". International Business Times. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Turkey's Tree Revolution – part 2 Everyday I'm chapulling". ejolt. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "Diren Karadeniz". Yurt. 2 July 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Emre Peker; Joe Parkinson (1 June 2013). "Turkey Prepares for More Protests". The Wall Street Journal. Istanbul. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "Bartholomew I: Do not transform Hagia Sophia in Trabzon into a mosque". Asia News. 17 August 2012.
- "The world tonight". BBC. 21 June 2013.
- "Police, protesters clash at Republic Day march in Turkey". CNN. 29 October 2012.
- Letsch, Constanze (1 February 2013). "Turkish law will make legal abortion impossible, say campaigners". The Guardian. London.
- "Turkey: 65.8% oppose Erdogan's presidential reform proposal - Politics - ANSAMed.it". Ansa.it. 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- "MHP'den 'Bayraksız Nevruz' protestosu". Zaman. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- "Turkish ruling party 'to leave liberals out'". Hurriyet Daily News. 2 April 2013.
- "Istanbul drowning in traffic chaos.. Construction work begins for the giant Çamlıca Mosque… Istanbul news… " Erkan's Field Diary". Erkansaka.net. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- Robinson, Matt (29 November 2012). "In Istanbul, a mosque fit for a sultan". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- Constanze Letsch. "Turkish composer and pianist convicted of blasphemy on Twitter". the Guardian.
- "Istanbul march clashes mar May Day in Turkey". BBC News. 1 May 2013.
- "Blasts kill dozens in Turkish town Reyhanli on Syria border". BBC News. 11 May 2013.
- "Obama, Erdogan Discuss Syria In White House Meeting". Huffington Post.
- "Turkish protesters clash with police in bomb-hit border town - CNN.com". CNN. 19 May 2013.
- "Hatay Reyhanlı Askeri İstihbaharat Belgeleri - redleaks.blogspot.com". RedHack. 22 May 2013.
- "Ruling party member calls for the 'annihilation of atheists' on Twitter, sparking controversy - LOCAL". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- "Turkish-Armenian blogger sentenced to Turkish prison for blasphemy - CNN.com". CNN. 23 May 2013.
- "Alcohol in Turkey: Not so good for you". The Economist. 30 May 2013.
- "'Kiss protest' held at Turkey subway station". aljazeera.com.
- Today's Zaman, 30 May 2013, Name of third bridge causes outrage among Alevis. mi-/ekonomi/detay/1715922/default.htm |language=Turkish |publisher=Milliyet |title=Suriye mesajı mı? |date=30 May 2013 |accessdate=25 June 2013}}
- Elif Şafak (3 June 2013). "The view from Taksim Square: why is Turkey now in turmoil?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "'Who are the two drunks,' Turkish politicians ask after PM's remarks - POLITICS". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- "Main opposition urges protection of LGBT's, ruling party calls them 'immoral'". Hürriyet Daily News. 29 May 2013.
- "Taksim Gezi Parkı'nın Tarihçesi". Aktif Haber (in Turkish). 1 June 2013. Archived from the original on 11 July 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Alexander Christie-Miller, The Christian Science Monitor, 10 June 2013, In Turkey, echoes of US-style clashes over glitzy redevelopment
- The New York Times, 31 May 2013, Police Attack Protesters in Istanbul’s Taksim Square
- "Turkish PM Erdoğan retires mall project, vows mosque in Taksim". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- BBC, 5 June 2013, Turkey clashes: Why are Gezi Park and Taksim Square so important?
- Hurriyet Daily News, 5 June 2013, Istanbul Gezi Park
- globalvoices.org, 4 June 2013, Turkey: A Social Media Chronology of Occupy Gezi
- Jay Cassano, Global Research, 4 June 2013, The Right to the City Movement and the Turkish Summer
- "Police use tear gas early in morning, Taksim park protesters again halt demolition". Good Morning Turkey. 31 May 2013. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Letsch, Constanze (1 June 2013). "Turkey prime minister faces fury as Istanbul erupts into mass protest". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Newsweek: "Istanbul's New Erdoğan-Backed Airport to Be Named After... Erdoğan"". Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Today's Zaman: "İstanbul's new airport to be named after Erdoğan"". TodaysZaman. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "International Business Times: "Erdogan Airport: Istanbul's Super Hub 'to be Named After Turkey's President-Elect'"". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Hürriyet Daily News: "Turkey's largest airport is worthy of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's name, minister says"". Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Dünyanın en büyük havalimanı İstanbul'a yapılıyor". Star. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- "Oda TV: "İstanbul'da 2 milyon 700 bin ağaç kesilecek"". odatv.com. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "T24: "Veysel Eroğlu, CHP'li Gürkut Acar'ın sorularını yanıtladı"". t24.com.tr. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "İnternet Haber: "Yeni köprü için kaç ağaç kesildi?"". Internethaber. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Gezi Parkı'ndaki nöbete biber gazı" (in Turkish). NTV. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Raid on 'Occupy Taksim Park' demonstrators triggers outcry". Hürriyet Daily News. 30 May 2013.
- Fisher, Max (3 June 2013). "The photo that encapsulates Turkey's protests and the severe police crackdown". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "Turkey Protests: Horrifying image of 'woman in red' being sprayed with tear gas becomes symbol of unrest". Daily Mail. London. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "Eylemciler Gezi Parkı'nda sabahladı". Sabah (in Turkish). 29 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Raiding the Dawn". Hürriyet Daily News. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "From Taksim to everywhere". Hürriyet Daily News (in Turkish). 31 May 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Turkish Weekly, 1 June 2013, ‘Occupy Taksim’ grows in spite of crackdown Archived 15 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Scores injured as police clash with protesters in Istanbul". France 24. 1 June 2013.
- "Deputy Önder injured after being hit by canister in Gezi Park protests". Hurriyet Daily News. 31 May 2013.
- "Topçu Kışlası'nda yürütmeyi durdurma kararı". Hürriyet Daily News (in Turkish). 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Chaos on the streets of Istanbul as police disperse 10,000 peaceful protesters". New York Post. 31 May 2013.
- "Tear gas fired at protesters in Istanbul". The Daily Telegraph. London. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Tuysuz, Gul (31 May 2013). "Report: Court to hear case at center of Istanbul protests". CNN. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Protestors cross Bosphorus Bridge on foot". Dogan News Agency. 1 June 2013.
- "Erdoğan: Taksim'e yürüceklermiş dediler Bırakın yürüsünler dedim... - Milliyet Haber". Milliyet. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- "Police retreat from Gezi Park, thousands flock to Taksim". TodaysZaman. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013.
- Stuart, Hunter (5 June 2013). "Turkish Protester Ethem Sarısülük Is Dead, Family Says". Huffington Post.
- "Turkey protests: Clashes rage in Istanbul's Besiktas". BBC. 3 June 2013.
- "Turkey protests: Clashes rage in Istanbul's Besiktas". BBC. 3 June 2013.
- "Erdoğan Threatens Vigilante Justice". Commentary. 5 June 2013.
- Suzan Fraser (4 June 2013). "Turkish gov't offers apology as protests continue". Yahoo news. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Abdullah Comert 2nd Turkish Protester Killed During Turkey Demonstrations". Huffington Post. 4 June 2013.
- "Gezi protester died from tear gas canister, says forensic report". Hurriyet Daily News. 6 October 2013.
- "urkish PM Erdoğan calls for 'immediate end' to Gezi Park protests". The Guardian. 7 June 2013.
- "Istanbul riot police move in to clear Taksim Square". The Guardian. 11 June 2013.
- Luke Harding, the Guardian, 11 June 2013, Erdoğan's reaction to Turkey protests reveals ominous Putin parallels
- "Molotov-throwing protesters in Taksim not our members, says socialist party". Hürriyet Daily News. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Governor Reveals identity of Molotov Cocktail Thrower". todayszaman. 11 June 2013. Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Tear gas, fire, stun grenades: Chaos in Istanbul as police, protesters clash". CNN. 12 June 2013.
- "Sanki iç savaş planlanıyor". Bugün. 13 June 2013. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013.
- "Turkey protests: Turkey protests: Erdogan meets Gezi Park activists". BBC. 14 June 2013.
- "Erdoğan toplantıyı terk etmiş". Milliyet. 15 June 2013.
- "Turkey's Erdogan issues sit-in deadline". Al Jazeera. 15 June 2013.
- "Turkey's Taksim Square Stormed By Riot Police". Huffington Post. 15 June 2013.
- "Turkey protests: Istanbul erupts as Gezi Park cleared". BBC. 16 June 2013.
- "Sporadic clashes in Turkey as Erdogan asserts authority". Reuters. 16 June 2013.
- "Erdoğan Kazlıçeşme mitinginde konuştu". Milliyet. 16 June 2013.
- "Five Turkish trade unions begin nationwide demonstrations with one-day strike". Hurriyet Daily News. 16 June 2013.
- Richard Seymour. "Turkey's 'standing man' shows how passive resistance can shake a state". the Guardian.
- Craggs, Ryan. "'Standing Man' Protest Spreads Across Turkey". Huffington Post.
- "Standing Man and te Impromptu Performance of Hope: An Interview with Erdem Gunduz" by Erin B. Mee. TDR 58:3, T223, 69-83.
- Fikret Bila (19 June 2013). "Gezi Parkı projesi askıya alındı". Milliyet. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "4 municipal police officers suspended for burning tents in Gezi Park". Today's Zaman. 20 June 2013. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Vali Mutlu'dan Gezi açıklaması". Sabah. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Police intervene with water cannons against protesters gathered at Taksim Square - LOCAL". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- Thousands in Turkey protest demonstrator's death - World - CBC News. Cbc.ca (2013-06-29). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- "Gay Pride in Istanbul groot succes - TV | Altijd op de hoogte van het laatste nieuws met Telegraaf.nl [tv]". Telegraaf.nl. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- "Taksim'deki Onur Yürüyüşü'ne BBC yorumu: Bugüne kadar... - Milliyet Haber". Dunya.milliyet.com.tr. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Turkish court releases 'men with machetes' who attacked Gezi Protesters - LOCAL". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- "Assailant with machete attacking Gezi protesters in Istanbul flees to Morocco - LOCAL". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- "Crowds denounce police crackdowns in 'Man Made of Tear Gas' Festival on Istanbul's Asian shore - LOCAL". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- "Turkey's Gezi Park Protesters Regroup for Ramadan - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor.
- "Death toll in Turkey protests increased to 5". Fox News. 10 July 2013.
- "Ali Ismail Korkmaz, Gezi Resistance Protestor, Dies at 19 - Beyza Kural - english". Bianet - Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi.
- "Istanbul's Gezi Park Closed Again On World Peace Day Protests". Hürriyet English. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- Arsu, Sebnem; Mackey, Robert (3 September 2013). "With a Burst of Color, Turkey's Public Walkways Become A Focus of Quiet Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Taksim'le baţladý yurdun dört yanýna yayýldý". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Yackley, Ayla Jean (3 July 2013). "Turkish court blocks disputed park project". Reuters. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Jethro Mullen and Susannah Cullinane. What's driving unrest and protests in Turkey? CNN, 4 June 2013". CNN. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Turkey arrests anti-government protesters". Al Jazeera. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Solidarity protests with Gezi Park held across Turkey". Hürriyet Daily News. 31 May 2013.
- "US House Subcommittee on Europe, Eurasia and Emerging Threats Hearing on "Turkey at a Crossroads: What do the Gezi Park Protests Mean for Democracy in the Region?"" (PDF). 26 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Protesters #OccupyGezi to save Istanbul park". Al Jazeera. 31 May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Turkey's trade unions gather to coordinate general strike". Good Morning Turkey. 3 June 2013. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Konrad, Alex (4 May 2013). "Full-Page Ad Inspired By Turkish Protests Is One of Indiegogo's Fastest Campaigns Ever". Forbes. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- "New York Times responds to Turkish PM's criticism over Gezi Park ad". Hurriyet Daily News. 8 June 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Der Spiegel, 3 June 2013, Revolt in Turkey: Erdogan's Grip on Power Is Rapidly Weakening
- haberler.com, 6 June 2013, Erdogan Faces Growing Criticism
- Letsch, Constanze (3 June 2013). "Turkey protests unite a colourful coalition of anger against Erdogan". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Taksim Meydanı'nda 'Abdullah Öcalan' resimleri" (in Turkish). Sabah.com.tr. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- James M. Dorsey, Middle East Online, 4 June 2013, Tahrir’s lesson for Taksim: Police brutality unites battle-hardened fans
- Galushko, Irina. "Turkey protest frontline: RT's photo report form inside #OccupyGezi". RT. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
Direct link to image; meaning of ICFI and WSWS unclear
- The Economist, 7 June 2013, The new young Turks
- Radikal, 11 June 2013, Taksim'den 'olağandışı' bir direniş karesi
- "Turkish PM accuses protesters of walking 'arm-in-arm with terrorism'". abc.net.au. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Wij zijn de soldaten van Atatürk". NOS.nl. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Pelin Turgut, Time, 5 June 2013, Live from ‘Occupied’ Gezi Park: In Istanbul, a New Turkish Protest Movement Is Born
- bianet, 13 June 2013, 94 Percent of Gezi Resisters Participate Individually, Poll Says
- "Taksim Solidarity's immediate demands – What is happening in Istanbul?". Whatishappeninginistanbul.com. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "Taksim Solidarity Press Release". Cryptome. 5 June 2013.
- Al Jazeera, 5 June 2013, Turkey protests continue despite apology
- Kimmelman, Michael (7 June 2013). "In Istanbul's Heart, Leader's Obsession, Perhaps Achilles' Heel". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- Huffington Post, 6 June 2013, Turkey Protests Snapshots: Yoga, Trash Crews And Barricades
- Reuters, 8 June 2013, Stop now, Prime Minister Erdogan tells Turkish protesters
- Al Jazeera 4 June 2013, c 9.30pm, Turkey Protests Live Blog
- Ben Pomeroy, The Week, 4 June 2013, Dispatch from Istanbul: Occupy Gezi Park digs in
- Ayla Jean Yackley, Reuters, 6 June 2013, Istanbul protesters hunker down with yoga and books Archived 10 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Hurriyet Daily News, 4 June 2013, Publishing houses to unite in Gezi Park to distribute major resistance material: Books
- "Gezi Kütüphanesi". Gezikutuphanesi.blogspot.de. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Hurriyet Daily News, 5 June 2013, Tensions decrease despite some clashes in Gezi Park protests
- Hurriyet Daily News, 5 June 2013, Protesters dedicate a street to slain journalist Hrant Dink in Gezi Park
- Associated Press, 5 June 2013, A snapshot of protesters who have gathered in Istanbul's Taksim Square
- Hurriyet Daily News, 5 June 2013, Atypical day of protest at Gezi Park with religious ceremony, Quran reading
- Gelderloos, Peter (2015). The Failure of Nonviolence.
- Reuters, 3 June 2013, Woman in red becomes leitmotif for Istanbul's female protesters
- "Lady in Red became a Capulcu". InEnArt. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "Lady in Red became a Capulcu". InEnArt. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- New Statesman, 6 June 2013, How #OccupyGezi could transform Turkish society
- Jody Sabral and Zeynep Erdim, BBC, 8 June 2013, Will Istanbul's protesters have the last laugh?
- lemoustache, buzzfeed.com, 25 Examples Of The Best Street Humour From Istanbul, Gezi Park (#occupygezi) Protests
- Yaman Kayabali, Victoria and Albert Museum blog, 16 June 2013, #occupygezi: Gezi Protests in Turkey
- Belgin Akaltan, Hurriyet Daily News, 22 June 2013, That's it, I'll call the police
- AFP, The Express Tribune, 8 June 2013, 'Chapulling': Turkish protesters spread the edgy word
- Radio Free Europe, 5 June 2013, In Turkey, Penguins Become Symbol Of How Media Missed The Story
- "What Is Capuling? 'Everyday I'm Çapuling' Turkish Protest Video Goes Viral". International Business Times. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Tear Gas and Graffiti". InEnArt. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Hurriyet Daily News, 15 June 2013, Ankara stands solid, Kuğulu becomes symbol of resistance
- Hurriyet Daily News, 20 June 2013, Police raid protesters’ tents in Izmir, supporters released
- "Çarşı: 2.Taksim ve 2.Gezi Parkı Abbasağa'dır, Orada Bekleyeceğiz" (in Turkish). T24. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Arsu, Sebnem (7 July 2013). "After Protests, Forums Sprout in Turkey's Parks". The New York Times.
- "Every Park Become Gezi Park in Turkey - Çiçek Tahaoğlu, Yüce Yöney - english". Bianet - Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi.
- "TİHV: 'Gezi Parkı'na 640 bin kişi katıldı; 4 bin gözaltı, 3 bin yaralı var". t24.com.tr. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "Police withdraw from Taksim after violent crackdown as protesters remain defiant on 5th day". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Al Jazeera, 7 June 2013, Turkey PM calls for end to protests
- "5 Haziran – Antakya". Nadir. 5 June 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- "Kadıköy'de Yaklaşık 1 Milyon Kişi gazdanadam Festivali'nde Buluştu". Dunya48. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- "Gazdan Adam Festivali'nden Canlı Yayın". Oda TV. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- "16 Haziran il Eylemleri/21.36/Samandağ". Sendika.org. 16 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- SoL, 26 June 2013, p.9
- "Adana'da Taksim protestocularına polis müdahalesi". Bugün. 1 June 2013. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Polisin Taksim'den çekilmesi Antalya'da da kutlandı". radikal. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Turkish Dictatorship Protested in San Francisco". The Epoch Times. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Local demonstration supports Turkey protests". Chicago Tribute. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "NY protesters march against Turkey's government". GlobalPost. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Rally outside White House in support of protesters in Turkey". Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- "Турски студенти в България протестираха по повод стълкновенията в Истанбул". Focus news. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Ruim duizend Turken betogen in Amsterdam". NOS. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Jos De Greef. "Turkse betogers eisen dat regering-Erdogan opstapt, 1 June 2013". De Redactie. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Milano, la protesta dei turchi per salvare il parco Gezi". 1 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "İsviçre de taksim protesto eylemleri". 3 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Solidarität mit Istanbuler Demonstranten". Berliner Zeitung (in German). 2 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Hunderte zeigen Solidarität mit Gezi-Demonstranten". Stuttgarter Zeitung (in German). 1 June 2013.
- "Manifestations: les turcs de France s'associent au mouvement". Itele. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- "Hyde Park Taksim protest". Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Ottawa demonstrators rally in support of protestors in Turkey". 2 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Greeks rally in support of Turkish protesters B92, 4 June 2013
- indiegogo, Full Page Ad for Turkish Democracy in Action: OccupyGezi for the World; survey
- The Guardian, 5 June 2013, What's happening in Turkey?
- "NYT ilanı Taksim eylemcilerini böldü". Timetürk. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- "Letter to PM of Turkey published in The Times". newsworks.org.uk.
- "Penn, Sarandon and intellectuals condemn Gezi crackdown in letter to Turkish PM - POLITICS". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- "Turkish PM Erdogan threatens to sue Times over open letter". BBC News. 26 July 2013.
- AbOhlheiser. "Ohlheiser, Abby, "The Turkish Protests Have a Meme: The Standing Man", The Atlantic, 17 June 2013". The Wire. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "Media Award for Standing Man". InEnArt. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "Creative Dissent". InEnArt. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- sueddeutsche.de, 20 June 2013, Freiheit statt Fastfood
- boykotlistesi.com, #boykotediyoruz Archived 19 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Aydin, Tugba. "Gezi Park, damage and profanity". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013.
- "Başbakan'dan süre pazarlığı". Hürriyet (in Turkish). 29 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Shrivastava, Sanskar (3 June 2013). "Inside Story: Occupy Gezi Movement in Turkey; Development Is Not Always Good". The World Reporter. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Erdogan: For every 100,000 protesters, I will bring out a million from my party". Haaretz. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- The New York Times, 2 June 2013, Turkish Leader Says Protests Will Not Stop Plans for Park
- Bar'el, Zvi (1 June 2013). "At height of political career, Edrogan's powers put to test". Haaretz. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Financial Times, 4 June 2013, Turkish union to join anti-government protests
- "President Gül calls PM, minister as police withdraw from Taksim". Hürriyet Daily News. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- The Guardian, 3 June 2013, Turkish president defends people's right to protest
- "Mayor: Istanbul protest park 'won't become shopping mall' – Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- abgs.gov.tr, 17 June 2013, Message by Egemen Bağış, Minister For EU Affairs And Chief Negotiator on the Recent Developments Archived 17 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Turkish premier lashes out at protesters, calls them vandals". Los Angeles Times. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Recep Tayyip Erdoğan dismisses Turkey protesters as vandals". London: The Guardian. Associated Press. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Arsu, Sebnem (4 June 2013). "Turkish Official Apologises for Force Used at Start of Riots". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Turkish Deputy PM Apologises to Injured Protesters". Good Morning Turkey. Retrieved 4 June 2013.[permanent dead link]
- BBC, 6 June 2013, Istanbul Gezi Park plan to proceed – Turkish PM Erdogan
- Hurriyet Daily News, 18 June 2013, Turkish prime minister vows to increase police force
- "Başbakan Erdoğan: Gezi Parkı mesajı alınmıştır" (in Turkish). Hurriyet. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Sabah, 29 May 2013, PM ERDOĞAN CALLS ON OPPOSITION LEADER KıLıÇDAROĞLU TO RESIGN.
- Hurriyet Daily News, 22 June 2013, Turkey’s intelligence service begins probe into 'foreign links' of Gezi Park protests
- "Gezi Parkı olaylarının perde arkası". Sabah. 6 June 2013.
- "Is Turkey, After Gezi Protests, On Path to Democratization? - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor.
- "Turkish actor threatened over his Gezi Park support - LOCAL". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- Today's Zaman, 23 June 2013, Ankara mayor launches campaign against BBC Turkish correspondent Archived 23 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Issacharoff, Avi. (2013-07-02) Turkish deputy PM blames Jews for Gezi protests. The Times of Israel. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- "Turkish Jews worried after politician links diaspora to protests". Reuters. 2 July 2013.
- "Germany behind Gezi protests to stop Istanbul's third airport: Ruling AKP lawmaker - POLITICS". hurriyetdailynews.com.
- "Eymür: Gezi'de Mossad ajanları vardı". Haber7. 30 September 2014.
- bianet, 30 May 2013, Taksim Gezi Park Protestors Speak Up on Police Raid
- soL, 14 June 2013, Çevik kuvvete skandal mesaj: 'Çanakkale'den sonra 2. destanı sizler yazıyorsunuz'
- "Turkey: Disgraceful use of excessive police force in Istanbul". Amnesty International. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Bursadabugun.com, 14 June 2013, İşte eylemlerin bilançosu
- Amnesty International, 16 June 2013, Turkey: End the incommunicado detention of Istanbul protesters
- Victor Kostev, What It Feels Like To Be Hit With Turkish Tear Gas
- Claire Berlinski, The Spectator, 14 June 2013, Turkey’s agony – how Erdogan turned a peaceful protest into a violent nightmare
- Turkish Doctors' Association, 16 June 2013, TÜRK TABİPLERİ BİRLİĞİ’NDEN ACİL ÇAĞRI !
- Corriere della Sera, 16 June 2013, "Negli idranti c'è urticante, ecco le prove"
- Hurriyet Daily News, 18 June 2013, Substance in water cannons in Gezi Park protests harmful and criminal, experts say
- The New York Times, 17 June 2013, Turkish Leader Said He Had a ‘Duty’ to Clear Istanbul Park
- The New York Times, 16 June 2013, Police Storm Turkish Park Occupied by Protesters
- Firat News Agency, 16 June 2013, Police brutality increasing against Gezi Park protestors Archived 13 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- soL, 16 June 2013, water cannon attack on German Hospital during 2013 Gezi Park protests
- Taksim-Platz: "Das ist erst der Anfang, unser Widerstand wird weitergehen!" | ZEIT ONLINE. Zeit.de (2013-06-16). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- Human Rights Watch, 17 June 2013, Turkey: A Weekend of Police Abuse
- "Name and address supplied, During Turkish protests, medical personnel targeted". The Lancet. 381: 2067. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61223-4. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- The Guardian, 16 June 2013, Turkey unrest: violent clashes in Istanbul as Erdoğan holds rally
- "Lawyers detained for joining Gezi Park protests released". Hurriyet Daily News. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Weaver, Matthew (11 June 2013). "Lawyer describes violent arrests". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- Reporters without Borders, 11 June 2013, Journalists scapegoated in "Occupy Gezi" crisis
- rt.com, 14 June 2013, Turkish police clamp down on anti-government protests: LIVE UPDATES, 20:25
- The New York Times, 16 June 2013, Turkey Expands Violent Reaction to Street Unrest
- Vice, June 2013, I Was Slapped About Then Arrested by Turkish Riot Police
- Reporters without Borders, 17 June 2013, Mounting police violence against journalists covering "Occupy Gezi"
- Constanze Letsch, The Guardian, 14 June 2013, Turkish police: we're fighting inhuman work conditions, not protesters
- "Council on Europe Cites Rights Abuses in Turkey". ABC News. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- Reuters, 21 June 2013, In Turkey's pious heartland, protests seem world away
- "Trabzon'da ülkücüler eylemcilere saldırdı: 1 yaralı". FocusHaber. Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- Ersu Ablak, Hurriyet Daily News, 20 June 2013, Difficult times for all of us in the digital realm
- New Statesman, 21 June 2013, New Statesman contributor from Turkey threatened by pro-government media
- "Akit'çi Hasan Karakaya'dan Şok Gezi Yazısı". Muhalif Gazete. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
- "Turkey: Gezi Park protests: Brutal denial of the right to peaceful assembly in Turkey". Amnesty International. 2 October 2013.
- Hurriyet Daily News, 10 June 2013, Turkish police admits suicides, denies link to Gezi Park protests
- BBC, 4 June 2013, Turks deprived of TV turn to Twitter for protest news
- Deutsche Welle, 1 June 2013, Solidarity with Istanbul protesters grows in Turkey and abroad
- "Released footage shows no physical attack on headscarf-wearing woman during Gezi protests". Turkish Weekly. 14 February 2014.
- "Video casts doubt over alleged attack on headscarved woman". The Daily Star. 14 February 2014.
- "EU voices concern over violent clashes in İstanbul's Taksim". Today's Zaman. 1 June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Human rights office expresses concern over use of excessive force against peaceful protestors in Turkey".
- Sonumut, Guldenay. "Turkey: Protesters and Police Clash over Park". SKY News. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "Germany's Westerwelle urges Turkish change of tack". Deutsche Welle. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- The Guardian, 2 June 2013 Turkish protesters control Istanbul square after two days of clashes
- "Gezi Parkı'nda İkinci Cuma Namazı (2nd Friday Salat in Gezi Park)" (in Turkish). Milliyet. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Friday Salat in Gezi Park" (in Turkish). Sabah. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Gezi Parkı'nda ilk Cuma Namazı (First Friday Salat in Gezi Park)" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. 8 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Ivan Watson; Gul Tuysuz (1 June 2013). "Police crackdown triggers anti-government riots". CNN. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- ""Bu Basbayağı Firavunluktur" – Bianet /" (in Turkish). Bianet. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "AK Parti kurucusu Ünsal: Milletin üzerinden ölü toprağı kalktı – Radikal Türkiye" (in Turkish). Radikal.com.tr. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Abdüllatif Şener gezi parkı (TV broadcast) (in Turkish). Halk TV. 6 September 2013. Retrieved 7 Sep 2013.
- "Kemale ermiş bir sivil toplum hareketidir bu!". Gazete Vatan (in Turkish). Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Acemoglu, Daron (5 June 2013). "Development Won't Ensure Democracy in Turkey". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "turkey.setimes.com". SES Türkiye. 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- "omidsafi - sounds of protest". What Would Muhammad Do?. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Turkey's Tayyip Erdoğan gets brutal on protests in Istanbul's Gezi Park and Taksim Square. YouTube. 5 June 2013.
- Tayyip Erdoğan escalates violence against Çapuling Turkish protesters. YouTube. 18 June 2013.
- Başbakan Tayyip provokasyon eylemciler Çapuling: NMA Turkish protest video. YouTube. 7 June 2013.
- Turkish mayor accuses NMA of controlling protesters: Melih Gökçek is right?. YouTube. 8 October 2013.
- "Tayvan'dan İlginç Gezi Parkı Animasyonu". Sözcü. 7 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- "Boğaziçi Caz Korosu'ndan Çapulcu". Milliyet. 15 June 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- "Nazan Öncel Gezi Parkı için 'Güya' dedi". Radikal. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "Roger Waters's commemoration in Turkish (video)".
- "Roger Waters shows solidarity with Gezi Park victims in Istanbul concert". Hürriyet Daily News. 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- Colbert, Stephan (10 June 2013). "The Imploding Muslim Country of the Week – Turkey". The Colbert Report. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Bedük'ten Gezi Klibi". Sözcü. 13 July 2013. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Rapçi Ozbi'den Gezi direnişinin "Asi" kanları için şarkı". Sendika.org. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "Gezi Resistance in Placebo Music Video". Aydınlık Daily. 10 September 2013.
- "In Turkish The Ringo Jets'ten Gezi Parkı göndermeli klip". Radikal. 11 February 2014.
- "Massive Attack Soma ve Gezi'yi unutmadı". Radikal. 6 August 2014.
- "Massive Attack'ten Soma ve Gezi mesajı". Gerçek Gündem.
- "Number of Arriving-Departing Foreigners and Citizens". Tourism Statistics. Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Turkey). 2010. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Opinion: Erdogan's miscalculation". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Seymour, Richard. "Istanbul clashes could lead to a Turkish Spring, but tourism would be big loser, by Skift". Skift.com. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "ANVR ziet geen gevaar in reis naar Turkije". Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "Protests hit tourism, but create new tourists". Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Erdogan 'hasn't thought through what his main priorities are' — RT Op-Edge". Rt.com. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "US and EU concerned by violent police raid against Taksim Gezi Park protesters". Hürriyet Daily News. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Security Message | Embassy of the United States Ankara, Turkey". Turkey.usembassy.gov. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "US, Germany warn their citizens about potential violence in Turkey". Hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "Başbakandan protestoyu engellemek için imam formülü" (in Turkish). Oda TV. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Akdeniz Oyunları'nda Bilet Krizi" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Mersin Barış Meydanı'ndaki Direniş Çadırları Tayyip Erdoğan Gelecek Diye Sökülüyor!" (in Turkish). sendika.org. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Mersin'de Erdoğan ve Bilet protestosuna polis saldırısı" (in Turkish). SoL. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "Halter'de Doping Şoku". Habertürk (Spor). 21 June 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- "Akdeniz Oyunları Bitti ama Skandallar Sürüyor ve Genelev Kavgası Büyüyor". Sözcü. 3 July 2013. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- "Akdeniz Oyunları'nda Şimdi de Genelev Skandalı". SporTürkiye. 28–29 June 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- "Mayor asks after clashes how Istanbul can claim to host the 2020 Olympics". Hürriyet Daily News. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Dombey, Daniel (4 September 2013). "Turkey Olympic bid blighted by currency woes and political unrest". Financial Times. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Turkish stock market falls as demonstrations escalate". BBC. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Holly Ellyatt. "Turkish Stocks Drop 10.5% on Fourth Day of Protests". CNBC. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "Stock markets in shock". Milliyet. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- "Turkish Yields Surge Most on Record as Protests Hit Lira, Stocks". Businessweek. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Bloomberg, 6 June 2013, Turkish Bonds, Stocks Slump as Erdogan Fails to Calm Investors
- Daily Star Lebanon, 11 June 2013, Moody’s warns of risk from Turkey protests
- "Germany proposes delaying EU-Turkey talks over protests". Reuters. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- EU delays latest round of Turkish entry talks - European News | Latest News from Across Europe | The Irish Times - Tue, 25 Jun 2013. The Irish Times (2013-06-25). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- Fontanella, James. (2013-06-25) Germany aims for compromise over Turkey EU membership talks. FT.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- "Germany's Merkel calls on Turkey to remove hurdles to EU accession". Reuters. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2013 Taksim Gezi Park protests.|
- Gezi Park News Updates and Archive, Good Morning Turkey
- Views and Analysis on Gezi Park Protests from Acik Radio
- Livestream hot points camera, Haber medya
- Related pictures and videos from all over Turkey
- ShowDiscontent: A photo archive of the events with explanations and references
- Timeline in multiple languages from socialist blog Sendika
- Blog collecting police abuse
- Photo tour of Taksim/Gezi Park camp, BBC
- Historical Atlas of Gezi Park
- everywheretaksim.net, web archive preserving articles, testimonials and other data related to protests in Turkey 2013
- Drawings Occupy Gezi by Gianluca Costantini
- çapuling archive of the visual culture, humor, and irony of the peaceful protestors (the Çapulcu) in Turkey 2013
- Gokay, Bulent and Xypolia, Ilia (eds.) (2013) Reflections on Taksim Gezi Park Protests in Turkey. Keele European Research Centre: Keele, UK.