2013 dengue outbreak in Singapore

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In the 2013 dengue outbreak in Singapore, a significant rise in the number of dengue fever cases was reported in Singapore. In the week of 16–22 June 2013, there was a record of 842 dengue cases in Singapore in a single week. This figure was far beyond the highest number of cases per week in the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. The number of weekly dengue fever cases has exceeded the epidemic threshold of 237.[1]

As official data showed, more than 13,000 people were infected with dengue as of mid-July in 2013, fast nearing the total 14,209 infections in 2005 dengue outbreak, the worst year on record.[2] The 2005 record was officially passed on 5 August 2013 with more than 14,000 people infected. The total number of cases soared past the 20000 mark on 18 November 2013.

The number of dengue cases is rising at a faster rate and is expected to surpass 1,000 infections in a week.[3] The total number of cases passed the 150% mark of the previous record on 13 December with 21,324 cases.

Status of outbreak[edit]

Comparison chart showing the increase of Dengue cases in Singapore each week from May to June 2013
Status (as of 31 December 2013)
Number of cases 22,318
Number of deaths 8

In the fourth week of June, a total of 842 new cases were reported, bringing the total number of dengue cases to cross the 11,000 mark.[4]

The total number of Dengue cases subsequently crossed the 13,000 mark on 16 July 2013.[5]

Deaths[edit]

Dengue claimed its first death in Singapore on 29 May 2013. The victim was diagnosed as having viral fever on 23 May at Tan Tock Seng Hospital's Emergency Department. He was then discharged with the advice to return if his condition worsened. He subsequently returned to Tan Tock Seng Hospital on 26 May and was diagnosed with dengue fever. He then died from dengue shock syndrome on 29 May.[6]

On 9 June 2013, a second person died from dengue in Singapore. He was tested positive for dengue on 8 June, but his condition deteriorated.[7]

The third dengue death was reported on 25 June 2013. He was admitted to Khoo Teck Puat Hospital emergency department (ED) on 22 June 2013 with fever and low blood pressure. He was then sent to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) diagnosed with a dengue shock syndrome, kidney failure and liver inflammation. His condition deteriorated and died on 25 June 2013.[8]

An Indonesian male was also pronounced dead on 25 June 2013 and has become the fourth person to die from dengue in Singapore. The victim contracted dengue fever overseas between 10–21 June 2013 and was subsequently sent to Tan Tock Seng Hospital's Emergency Department on 23 June 2013 after a prolonged 3-day fever. His condition started to deteriorate on 24 June 2013 in the Intensive Care unit (ICU).[9]

The fifth person to die from dengue in Singapore was a 66-year-old Chinese male who suffered multi-organ failure from severe dengue shock syndrome. He had initially gone to the Emergency Department on 2 July with fever and lethargy, and subsequent tests confirmed dengue fever. He was admitted and transferred to the ICU after deterioration, but continued to deteriorate and died on the morning of 8 July.[10]

The sixth death was a 52-year-old Chinese male. He was first seen at Jurong Polyclinic on 29 June 2013 with a two-day history of fever. He returned to the polyclinic a few days later as he was still having fever and was referred by the polyclinic to the National University Hospital (NUH) emergency department. He was admitted to NUH's Medical Intensive Care Unit on the same day and was diagnosed with Dengue Shock Syndrome. The patient's condition improved transiently after dialysis and supportive therapy but he remained critically ill with low blood counts. The patient's condition deteriorated after he developed pneumonia with septic shock on 11 August 2013 and he died on 13 Aug 2013.[11]

A 35-year-old Chinese woman died of dengue on Monday, becoming the seventh death in 2013. The patient, who lived at Yishun Ring Road, had gone to the Khoo Teck Puat Hospital's Emergency Department on 28 September 2013 with a history of fever, chest pain, lethargy, nausea and loss of appetite and had intermittent fever for three weeks. She was diagnosed with dengue fever and admitted but her condition deteriorated after admission and she was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit on the same day. Despite these measures, the patient died on 30 September 2013 at 5.05am.[12]

A 53-year-old woman has become the seventh local dengue death case this year, and the overall eighth death. In a joint statement, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the National Environment Agency (NEA) said the dengue patient lived at Hougang Street 22. The woman, who was first seen at Tan Tock Hospital's Emergency Department on 11 November, had a history of fever. She was diagnosed with dengue and admitted. Her condition deteriorated and she died on 16 November.[13]

Dengue fever deaths in Singapore
Date Victim Nationality Location of dengue contracted
29 May 2013 Victim 1 Singapore Singaporean Hougang Avenue 1
9 June 2013 Victim 2 Singapore Singaporean Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3
25 June 2013 Victim 3 Singapore Singaporean Sembawang Road
25 June 2013 Victim 4 Indonesia Indonesian Overseas (Indonesia)
8 July 2013 Victim 5 Singapore Singaporean Tanglin Halt Road
13 August 2013 Victim 6 Singapore Singaporean Corporation Walk
30 September 2013 Victim 7 Singapore Singaporean Yishun Ring Road
16 November 2013 Victim 8 Singapore Singaporean Hougang Street 22

Preventive measures[edit]

On 5 June 2013, Sembawang-Nee Soon Town Council was fined S$200 for allowing mosquitos to breed in water tanks the council controlled. Officers from the National Environment Agency (NEA) found mosquito larvae in water tanks at the rooftops of Blocks 896C and 899A in Woodlands.[14]

On 14 June 2013, the head of NEA announced that they will be recruiting more officers to conduct routine checks at all homes in the active cluster zone. At the same time, the National Environment Agency started using its legislative powers. The agency got a locksmith to open ten homes as the residents did not respond to notices sent to them.[3]

On 2 July 2013, People's Association (PA) announced that they will be recruiting 10,000 volunteers to assist NEA officers during house visits, they will be named as "dengue fighters".[15][16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Latest Dengue Data". National Environment Agency. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
  2. ^ "Singapore fights back against worsening dengue outbreak". Bangkok Post. 2013-06-12. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  3. ^ a b Salma Khalik (2013-06-14). "Dengue cases expected to surpass 1,000 a week". asiaone.com. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
  4. ^ Alvina Soh (2013-06-07). "Dengue cases cross 9,000 mark". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
  5. ^ Woo Sian Boon (2013-06-18). "Dengue cases cross 10,000 mark". TODAYonline. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  6. ^ Sara Grosse (2013-05-30). "Dengue claims first life in current epidemic". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
  7. ^ Dylan Loh (2013-06-09). "Second person dies from dengue in Singapore". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
  8. ^ "86-year-old man from Sembawang dies from dengue; third death this year". Channel NewsAsia. 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
  9. ^ "Fourth dengue death in Singapore reported". TODAYonline. 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
  10. ^ "66-year-old man dies from dengue in S'pore" Channel Newsasia. Retrieved 2013-8-7
  11. ^ "Singapore's 5th dengue death this year" Channel Newsasia. Retrieved 2013-8-13
  12. ^ "35-year-old woman dies of dengue" Channel Newsasia. Retrieved 2013-9-30
  13. ^ "7th person dies of dengue" Channel Newsasia. Retrieved 2013-11-20
  14. ^ Ng Lian Cheong and Alvina Soh (2013-06-05). "Sembawang-Nee Soon Town Council fined S$200 for mosquito breeding". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
  15. ^ Ian Poh (2013-07-02). "PA to recruit 10,000 volunteer 'dengue fighters'". asiaone.com. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
  16. ^ Tracking Singapore's dengue epidemic "Tracking Singapore's dengue epidemic", Today, Singapore, 10 July 2013.

External links[edit]