2013 protests in Brazil
||This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. (June 2013)|
|2013 protests in Brazil|
Protesters on Congresso Nacional, "The House of the People" in Brasília, June 17.
|Date||April – July 2013|
|Location||• Over 100 Brazilian cities and cities with Brazilian diasporas around the globe|
|Causes||• Increases in bus, train and metro fare in some major cities
• Multiple issues regarding infrastructure, education and health care among other public services
• High cost of living
• Increasing government funding of major sports events
• Feeling of alienation from government decisions
• Multiple scandals of corruption, embezzlement and overbilling in the government
• Multiple reports of abuse of special benefits conceded to Brazilian politicians
• Controversial law in discussion by National Chamber's plans limiting the powers of the Public Ministry to investigate criminal activities, among other reasons
|Goals||• Improvements in public transport with less cost to the population (subdued June 24)
• Increase of government effort and funds to improve other key services including public education, national health care and transport infrastructure altogether (subdued June 24)
• Less priority to fund major sports events (subdued June 24)
• Revocation of controversial law in discussion by National Chamber's plans limiting the powers of the Public Ministry to investigate criminal activities in the government (subdued June 25)
|Methods||Demonstrations, protest marches, online activism, strike action|
|Status||Major protests subsided|
The 2013 protests in Brazil, or 2013 Confederations Cup riots, also known as the V for Vinegar Movement, Brazilian Spring, or June Journeys, are ongoing public demonstrations in several Brazilian cities, initiated mainly by the Movimento Passe Livre (Free Fare Movement), a local entity that advocates for free public transportation.
The demonstrations were initially organized to protest against increases in bus, train, and metro ticket prices in some Brazilian cities, but grew to include other issues such as the high corruption in the government and police brutality used against some demonstrators. By mid-June, the movement had grown to become Brazil's largest since the 1992 protests against former President Fernando Collor de Mello.
- 1 Name
- 2 Background
- 3 Timeline
- 4 Responses
- 5 International reactions
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Urban riots in Brazil have been traditionally been referred to as the 'Revolt of [Something]'. An example of this was Rio de Janeiro's Revolta da Vacina in the early 20th century. These particular protests have been referred to as the Revolta da Salada ([ʁɛˈvɔwtɐ da saˈladɐ]), Revolta do Vinagre ([ʁɛˈvɔwtɐ du viˈnagɾi]) or Movimento V de Vinagre ([moviˈmẽtu ˈve dʒi viˈnagɾi]) after more than 60 protesters were arrested in June 2013 for carrying vinegar as a home remedy against the tear gas and pepper spray used by police.
Piero Locatelli, a journalist for the CartaCapital magazine, was arrested and taken to the Civil Police after being found with a bottle of vinegar. The sarcastic tone dubbing the protests Marcha do Vinagre i.e. "the vinegar march", was a reference to the popularity of an earlier grassroots march for legalizing marijuana named Marcha da Maconha (the Brazilian version of the Global Marijuana March).
Another popular name for the protests is Outono Brasileiro ("Brazilian Autumn", in a playful reference to the events of the Arab Spring). Primavera (meaning "Spring") is also being used by media.
The alternative name "June Journeys" (Jornadas de Junho), used by some sources and adapted from the France use of journées (days) in the sense of an important event, traces a revolutionary pedigree going back to the June Days Uprising, the June 1848 French workers' uprising in the wake of the 1848 Revolution in France.
The first demonstrations took place in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, during August–September 2012 and were informally called Revolta do Busão or Bus Rebellion. Over the course of these protests, demonstrators convinced their municipal authority to reduce the fare price. Similar protests were carried out in Porto Alegre in March 2013, where protesters tried to convince the local city hall to further reduce the fare price, after it had been reduced by a judicial decision.
In Goiânia, demonstrations started on May 16, before the prices were officially raised on May 22 from R$2.70 to R$3.00. The peak of those demonstrations was on May 28, at Bíblia Square, when four buses were destroyed; two were incinerated and two were stoned. 24 students were arrested for vandalism and disobedience. Another demonstration took place on June 6, when students closed streets in downtown Goiânia, set fire to car tires, threw homemade bombs, and broke windows of police cars. On June 13, the fares were brought back to their previous price when judge Fernando de Mello Xavier issued a preliminary injunction arguing that local bus companies were exempted from paying some taxes as of June 1, but the passengers were not benefiting from this exemption.
In São Paulo, demonstrations started when the municipal government and the government of the State of São Paulo, which runs the train and metro system of São Paulo, announced the rise of ticket prices from R$3.00 to R$3.20. The previous hike of bus fares occurred in January 2011, and was also subject of demonstrations. Train and metro fares had been raised to the same price in February 2012. In early 2013, immediately after his election, Mayor Fernando Haddad announced that fares would increase in early 2013. In May, the federal government announced that public transportation would be exempted from paying PIS and COFINS, two taxes of Brazil, so that the increase of public transportation costs would not contribute to ongoing inflation. Even so, the fares were raised from R$3.00 to R$3.20, starting on June 2, sparking demonstrations.
Demands of protesters
Although the bus fare increase was the tipping point for demonstrators, the basis for public disenchantment with the policies of the ruling class went far deeper. There was frustration among the general population's disappointment with the inadequate provision of social services in Brazil. Despite Brazil's international recognition in lifting 40 million out of poverty, and into the nova Classe C with comfortable access to a middle class consumer market, the policies have been the subject of intense political debate. Groups among the protestors argues that "Bolsa Familia" and other social policies were simply an electoral strategy from the Worker's Party aimed at "alming the poor". Political opponents took issue with neoliberal or post-neoliberal traitor of its original Marxist precepts that benefits mostly the old, corrupt and stereotypical elites with black money and shady methods, and only making the life of the traditional, more conservative, middle middle and upper middle classes (that are rejected as a sign of reactionary decadence by left-wing elements, and dominant among the mostly urban, young, white, and educated protesters) even harder while political scandals involving the public money most expensive to this conservative middle class run rampant.
Meanwhile, mega sports projects such as the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2014 FIFA World Cup (to which at that time Brazil had already spent over 7 billion reais and with total expected cost of over 32 billion reais, equivalent to three times South Africa's total in 2010, despite only half the stadiums being finished), as well as the 2016 Summer Olympics, have turned out to be over-budget, and have resulted in a series of revelations about gross overbillings and multi-billion dollar financial scandals. The occurrence of these protests simultaneously with Confederations Cup matches, with sounds of police weapons being audible during the Uruguay vs. Nigeria match on Thursday June 20, have raised serious questions amongst other sporting nations about the capability of Brazil to host the main event in a year's time, based upon its ostensibly severe social problems. Other points of discontent are the high inflation rates and increases in the prices of basic consumer goods, including food, that, as many other things in Brazil, are heavily taxed (at 27%).
Other commonly stated reasons for the malaise include high taxes (tax revenues total 36% of GDP, the highest in the developing world) that do not benefit the poor. The average Brazilian citizen is estimated to pay 40.5% of their income in taxes, yet the country still suffers from various social and infrastructural problems such as poorly functioning health services, a low education rate, inadequate welfare benefits, and a growing but still low rate of employment.
There is also a feeling of powerlessness due to widespread cases of corruption and embezzlement as well as a lack of transparency and financial accountability. Indicted leaders and politicians often stay in power despite being cited for corruption and collusion in the growing overbilling scandals. The protesters particularly object to a constitutional amendment currently being drafted known as PEC 37 that is seen as a cover-up for corrupt politicians and an attempt to reduce the power of the judiciary in pursuing cases. Though not a main cause for the demonstrations, some protestors also object to socially conservative legislation by the religious benches that is seen as a retrocess to Brazil's LGBT and women's rights, a threat to the state of Brazilian secularism, and even freedom of expression.
June 1 to 14
In June 2013, a series of protests in the Brazilian city of São Paulo were organized against bus and metro fare hikes announced by the city mayor Fernando Haddad in January 2013, who stated that the fares would rise from R$ 3.00 to R$3.20, coming into effect on June 1.
The first large protest was held on June 6 on Paulista Avenue. In ensuing protests, news reports mentioned that police had "lost control" on June 13, when they began using rubber bullets against protesters and journalists covering the events. Numerous civil rights groups have criticized the harsh police response, including Amnesty International and the Associação Nacional de Jornais.
June 17 to 18
An estimated 250,000 protesters took to the streets of various cities on June 17. The largest protests were organized in Rio de Janeiro, where 100,000 attended from mid-afternoon of June 17 to late dawn of June 18.
Although mostly peaceful, the protests escalated with the invasion of the State's Legislative Chamber, causing riot police to be called in. Three protesters were injured by gunfire, reportedly by police forces, while ten others were hospitalized.
State government authorities did not intervene, saying this was an issue for the Military Police. Other protests erupted in support of those being detained by police. Demonstrations were held in a number of cities. The ones held in Curitiba were reported attended by over 10,000 people.
Minor protests staged by Brazilians living abroad were held in several countries including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Protests continued on a smaller scale. Mayors of several Brazilian cities announced reduction of bus fares or cancellation of previously announced increases, including Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, where the largest protests had occurred.
Protests in over 100 cities around the country rallied over 2 million people. Special measures were taken to protect main government buildings on major cities like the federal capital Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Manaus, Belém, Recife, Florianópolis, Belo Horizonte, Goiânia, Curitiba and Porto Alegre, among others.
June 21 to 23
Protests across Brazil have drawn millions to the streets in a wave of rolling fury that became the biggest demonstrations in decades. A young man was killed in Ribeirão Preto during the protest when a driver ploughed through a peaceful demonstration, also injuring 11 other people. President Dilma Rousseff addressed the nation, recognizing the demands of the protesters and calling a meeting of state governors and mayors of key cities to discuss the requests of the population and propose solutions to solve the issues.
As protests continue on a smaller scale, President Dilma Rousseff along the 27 state governors and the mayors of the 26 state capitals, among other authorities, agree to take measures related to improve funds management, public transport, health care and education. Also announced is a proposal for congress to approve a referendum on widespread political reform.
Almost all members of National Chamber reject controversial law limiting the powers of the Public Ministry to investigate criminal activities in the government, thus accomplishing one of the demands of the protests. President Dilma Rousseff announces that plans for a special constituent assembly on political reform were abandoned, but there are still plans to submit the constitutional amendments in discussion to popular vote.
Almost all members of National Chamber approved the destination of petroleum royalties to education (75%) and health (25%). The congress also approved the end of secret vote for forfeiture of office and the recognition of all forms of corruption and embezzlement as heinous crimes; and the end of all Taxes regarding Public transport, including metro, train, bus and ship. A large protest of 120.000 people is held in Belo Horizonte where the 2013 Confederations Cup semifinal match between Brazil and Uruguay was occurring, and ran with no incidents until small riots began. A young man died after falling from a viaduct.
Protesters in Brazil clashed with police during the Confederations Cup final match between the host nation and Spain in Rio de Janeiro. Earlier that day, a group of demonstrators tried to storm a Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) building in Rio. Police kept them back and the group settled outside the building. In a separate protest, several thousand people marched on the Maracanã stadium banging drums.
The protesters demanded free public transport, carrying placards reading "FIFA - you pay the bill". The demonstrators also called for an end to corruption and the resignation of the Rio State governor.
The "Gay cure" Bill, PDL 234, which would have authorized psychologists to treat LGBT people was voted down by the National Congress. In 1830, eight years after the end of Portuguese colonial rule, sodomy laws were eliminated from the new Penal Code of Brazil. Since 1985 the Federal Council of Medicine of Brazil has not considered homosexuality as deviant. In 1999, the Federal Council of Psychology published a resolution that has standardized the conduct of psychologists to face this norm: "...[regulated] psychologists should not collaborate with events or services proposing treatment and cure of homosexuality." In 1990, five years after Brazil removed homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses, the General Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO), with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, removed homosexuality from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).
PDL 234 dealt only with lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, as Brazil still pathologizes transgender people. Doctors do not allow hormone therapy for transgender people before age 16, allow gender reassignment surgery for those who have "normal or healthy" genital conditions other than third party-confirmed trans people above the age of 18, and does not ban sexual assignment surgery for intersex newborns and young children. Doctors with parental consent may alter a child's ambiguous genitals without his/her consent and much before gender behavioral characteristics and/or identification would naturally appear.
Although smaller than the June demonstrations, another wave of protests occurred in many cities around Brazil on September 7. Protesters organized to challenge military parades that were celebrating Brazil's 1822 independence from Portugal. There were also demonstrations to question government spending on World Cup stadiums and government corruption.
Following a pledge by President Dilma Rousseff to spend 50 billion Brazilian reais on improving urban public transportation after a meeting with protest leaders June 24, the Brazilian real fell on concern of a widening deficit. This followed a nearly 10 percent fall in the currency in the second quarter of 2013, the worst amongst 16 major currencies.
|Demands and result (National Congress and Governments actions)|
|Reduction in the prices of public transport (Metro, Train and Bus) (Governments approved)||(June 2013)|
|Revocation of (Bill - PEC 37) that hindered the Public Ministry to investigate (Congress approved)||(June 2013)|
|Destination of petroleum royalties to education (75%) and Health (25%) (Congress approved)||(June 2013)|
|Criminalization of all forms of corruption and embezzlement as heinous crimes (Congress approved)||Pending|
|The end of Secret vote in Congress for forfeiture of office (Congress approved)||Pending|
|The end of all taxes on public transport (metro, train, bus and ship) (Congress approved)||(June 2013)|
|National Pact to improve education, health, public transport (Government established)||(June 2013)|
|National Pact for fiscal responsibility and control of inflation (Government established)||(June 2013)|
|Implementation of federal plebiscite to politic reform in the country (Government established)||Pending|
|Revocation of (Bill - PDL 234) "Gay cure" authorizing sexual orientation conversion therapy by psychologists (Congress approved)||(July 2013)|
|Destination of 10% of the Brazilian GDP to education (Congress announced)||Pending|
|Implementation of Free pass to the students enrolled regularly (Congress announced)||Pending|
|Revocation of (Bill - PEC 33) undergoing decisions of Supreme Court to Congress (No discussion)||Pending|
|The end of privileged forum (No discussion)||Pending|
|*Note: is the victory of the protesters.|
- Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan linked the protests with similar protests in Turkey, claiming that they were part of a conspiracy by unspecified foreign forces, bankers, and international and local media outlets. He said that "the same game is now being played over Brazil. The symbols are the same, the posters are the same, Twitter, Facebook are the same, the international media is the same. They are being led from the same center. They are doing their best to achieve in Brazil what they could not achieve in Turkey." He further stated that the two protests were "the same game, the same trap, the same aim." Just to recapitulate, Turkish protests were taking place due to authoritarianism of Erdoğan, violation of democratic rights, media censorship and disinformation, corruption of government officials, among others, prime minister going as far as blocking Twitter and YouTube in the country due to statuses and videos giving evidence of his corruption. Police attacked protesters and journalists alike, shooting tear gas and rubber bullets, beating them brutally and using water cannon against them, even hitting a man in wheelchair and water-cannoning a hospital.
- Watts, Jonathan (June 21, 2013). "Brazil protests: president to hold emergency meeting". The Guardian (London).
- Mallén, Patricia Rey (17 June 2013). "Brazil’s Protests Get More Violent, Reach Brasilia And Threaten The Confederation Soccer Cup". International Business Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "Sobe para 2 o número de mortos em protestos no Brasil". Terra Notícias (in Portuguese). 21 June 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Duas manifestantes morrem durante protesto em Goiás; total de mortos chega a 4 em todo o país" [Two protestes die while protesting in Goiás; fatalities from protesting is now up to 4 in the whole country]. Uol (in Portuguese). 24 June 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "Morre jovem que caiu de viaduto durante manifestação em BH" [A young man dies from falling off a viadutc]. G1 (in Portuguese). 27 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Protests in Brazil: The streets erupt – The Economist
- The Brazilian Spring: An Explainer, ABC, June 24, 2013
- Arias, Juan (June 12, 2013). "Brasil se levanta en protesta contra el aumento de los precios del transporte". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- Arias, Juan (14 June 2013). "São Paulo vive una nueva noche de protestas con escenas de guerra". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Arias, Juan (14 June 2013). "Brésil : manifestations contre la hausse du prix des transports". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Brocchetto, Marilia (12 June 2013). "Protesters, police clash in Sao Paulo streets over fare increases". CNN. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "Anistia Internacional critica repressão a protestos no Rio e em SP". EBC.
- "Associação de jornais condena ação da PM". Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese). 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- (Spanish)."Nuestros 20 céntimos son el parque de Estambul El País
- Galileu (magazine), ed. (14 June 2013). "How vinegar became a symbol of the "Salad Rebellion"" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Rodrigo Mora (13 June 2013). "Arrested São Paulo protesters claim detentions based on acts of spraying and because they carried vinegar" (in Portuguese). G1.
- Piero Locatelli (13 June 2013). "In São Paulo, vinegar is a criminal act" (in Portuguese).
- (Portuguese) Journalist arrested for carrying vinegar in demonstration against fare hiking is liberated
- Bia Bonduki (14 June 2013). "Vinegar March is the newest revolutionary movement of the internet" (in Portuguese). YouPIX. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- (Portuguese) Youth rebellion in Brazil's autumn
- (Portuguese) Brazilian Autumn
- (Portuguese) the Brazilian Spring
- "CMN revoga reajuste das passagens de ônibus". Tribuna do Norte (in Portuguese). 2012-09-06. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- "Vandalismo marcou protesto em Porto Alegre contra a tarifa de ônibus". Zero Hora. 14 June 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Diário da Manhã: Passagem de ônibus voltou a custar R$ 2,70
- (French)."Rio de janeiro, métropole inagalitaire Map - Realized by Aurélien Reys and Hervé Théry, Le Monde
- Agência Brasil: Manifestantes contra aumento da passagem entram em conflito com PM em São Paulo
- "Tarifa de ônibus em São Paulo sobe para R$ 3". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). 5 January 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- Magalhães, Vera; Lima, Daniela (21 March 2011). "Grupo invade Alesp para protestar contra Kassab e aumento do ônibus". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "Valor da tarifa de trem e do Metrô de SP sobe para R$ 3 neste domingo" (in Portuguese). Portal G1. 12 February 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Lima, Daniela (14 January 2013). "São Paulo terá nova tarifa de ônibus no 1º semestre, diz Haddad". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 June 2013.
- "Governo confirma MP para diminuir impostos do transporte público" (in Portuguese). Portal IG. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Acordem: R$ 0,20 são apenas um detalhe, Gilberto Dimenstein at Folha de S. Paulo
- The Chronicle Herald, ed. (12 August 2012). "Thriving middle class boosts Brazil's economy". Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Brazil 247, ed. (19 March 2013). "Folha chama Bolsa Família de 'esmola'" [Folha de S. Paulo calls Bolsa Família 'alm'] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Armando Boito Jr. (ed.). "A hegemonia neoliberal do Governo Lula" [The neoliberal hegemony of the Lula's government] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Carta Maior, ed. (31 December 2012). "10 anos de governos pós-neoliberais no Brasil" [10 years of post-neoliberal Brazilian governments] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Brazil 247, ed. (23 June 2013). "Merval vê, nos protestos, despertar da classe média" [Merval sees, at the protests, the middle class's awakening] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- (Portuguese) Tag Delta – Reinaldo Azevedo's blog at Veja
- (Portuguese) 
- "What's REALLY behind the Brazilian riots?". CNN.
- (Portuguese) Tomato price reduces in retail but grows more than 300% in wholesale Revista Veja, April 2013.
- (Portuguese) Tomato is not 'the villain': understand the price fluctuation
- (Portuguese) DEM party bets on inflation and the price of tomatoes to attack Dilma
- (Portuguese) Tomato prices became a joke in social networks: understand it
- (Portuguese) Taxes are 27% of the price of basic food items, says research
- (Portuguese) Brazilians work five months a year just for paying their taxes, says research
- (Portuguese) ENEM: 98 among the 100 worst schools of Rio de Janeiro are funded and administered by the State government Jornal do Brasil
- (Portuguese) At high school quality, Rio de Janeiro only outperforms Piauí
- (Portuguese) Dissertation proposals and tips – ENEM 2011 – Subemployment
- (Portuguese) LGBT community unites itself from the Metrópole boite to participate in the protests
- (Portuguese) An analysis over the texts of the PECs 33 and 37
- (Portuguese) Brasília protest will collect petitions in favor of gay marriage EXAME magazine, June 18, 2013
- Workers' unions should adhere to protests against fake hikes in São Paulo (Portuguese)
- (Portuguese) People of São Paulo protest against Statute of the Unborn
- (Portuguese) Women protest at Sé against welfare stipend for rape victims
- "São Paulo terá nova tarifa de ônibus no 1º semestre, diz Haddad" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Moreno, Ana Carolina. "Manifestantes depredam estação de Metrô, banca e shopping na Paulista" (in Portuguese).
- (Portuguese) In Rio 3 were shot amidst protests, 10 still hospitalized
- (Portuguese) Cabral and Beltrame did not comment protests and say this is a Military Police issue
- (Portuguese) Curitiba will have new protest against fare hike this Monday
- (Portuguese) Brazilians stage protests in other countries
- (Portuguese) Brazilian cities announce bus fare reductions
- One million march across Brazil in biggest protests yet
- (Portuguese) Cities are being prepared for over 100 protests on thursday
- Waldram, Hannah (21 June 2013). "Brazil protests continue as story develops over social media". The Guardian (London).
- Câmara derruba PEC que tentava limitar o poder de investigação do MP (Portuguese)
- Câmara destina 75% dos royalties para educação e 25% para saúde (Portuguese)
- National Congress - 26 June 2013 (Portuguese)
- Câmara aprova proposta que ajuda a reduzir tarifa do transporte coletivo (Portuguese)
- Police clashes at start of Brazil Confederations Cup final, BBC News, July 1, 2013
- The end of the Bill - Gay Cure (Portuguese)
- The Penal Code and the Homosexuality (Portuguese)
- Homosexuality is not a deviant - Federal Council of Medicine of Brazil (Portuguese)
- Homosexuality is not deviant - Federal Council of Psychologists of Brazil (Portuguese)
- The sex of the angels: Representations and practices around the sociomedical and everyday management of intersexuality (Portuguese)
- Bail set at $2M for armed man arrested in Seattle
- Authorities: Armed man arrested in Seattle was planning action in support of Brazil protesters
- Henderson man arrested with weapons in Seattle was loner, acquaintances say
- Bail Set at $2M for Armed Man Arrested in Seattle
- Romero, Simon (September 7, 2013). "Protests Fill City Streets Across Brazil". The New York Times.
- "Brazil protests disrupt Independence Day celebrations". BBC. September 7, 2013.
- Schmidt, Blake. (2013-06-28) Brazil Real Drops on Concern Rousseff Pledges Will Widen Deficit. Businessweek. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- Fraser, Suzan. "Erdogan: Turkey, Brazil hit by same conspiracy". Associated Press. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Winters, Matthew S.; Weitz-Shapiro, Rebecca (2014). "Partisan Protesters and Nonpartisan Protests in Brazil". Journal of Politics in Latin America 6 (1): 137–150.
- "Brazilians protest against FIFA world cup, 2014.". AIT television, Nigeria.
- A 360º Virtual Tour during protests at Sao Jose do Rio Preto Streets
- Brazil Protests - A rough guide (Blog)
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