American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)
Part of the Intervention against ISIL,
the Iraqi Civil War (2014–present), and
the Global War on Terrorism
FA-18C Fighter Iraq Airstrikes August 7 2014.JPG
An American F/A-18C Hornet aboard USS George H.W. Bush prior to the launch of operations over Iraq in 2014.
Date 15 June 2014 – present
(2 years, 3 months, 1 week and 5 days)[28][29]
Location Iraq
Status
  • American-led forces launch over 10,000 airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq[30]
  • Heavy damage dealt to ISIL forces, ISIL loses 40% of its territory in Iraq by January 2016[31]
  • Multinational humanitarian and arming of ground forces efforts
  • Coalition advising and training Iraqi and Kurdish ground forces
Belligerents

Coalition of foreign countries:
Inherent Resolve.jpg CJTF–OIR


Local forces:
 Iraq
 Iraqi Kurdistan

Assyrian militias


Humanitarian support

 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Commanders and leaders

United States Barack Obama
United States Ashton Carter
United States Lloyd Austin
United States Andrew J. Loiselle
United Kingdom David Cameron
United Kingdom Theresa May
United Kingdom Michael Fallon
United Kingdom Andrew Pulford
United Kingdom Nick Clegg
Canada Stephen Harper
Canada Justin Trudeau
Canada Rob Nicholson
Canada Harjit Sajjan
Canada Thomas J. Lawson
Canada Yvan Blondin
Australia Malcolm Turnbull
Australia Tony Abbott
Australia Marise Payne
Australia David Johnston
Australia Trevor Jones
France François Hollande[32]
France Jean-Yves Le Drian
France Pierre de Villiers
Denmark Helle Thorning-Schmidt
Denmark Lars Løkke Rasmussen
Denmark Peter Bartram
Germany Angela Merkel
Germany Ursula von der Leyen
Germany Volker Wieker
Netherlands Mark Rutte
Netherlands Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert
Netherlands Frans Timmermans
Netherlands Sander Schnitger
Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Turkey Ahmet Davutoğlu
Turkey Vecdi Gönül
Turkey Necdet Özel
Turkey Hulusi Akar
Jordan King Abdullah II
Jordan Abdullah Ensour
Jordan Hani Al-Mulki
Morocco King Mohammed VI
Morocco Abdelilah Benkirane
Morocco Bouchaib Arroub


Iraq Fuad Masum
Iraq Nouri al-Maliki
Iraq Haider al-Abadi
Iraqi Kurdistan Masoud Barzani
Iraqi Kurdistan Jaafar Sheikh Mustafa
Iraqi Kurdistan Mustafa Said Qadir

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (WIA) (Self-proclaimed Caliph)[33]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Alaa Afri 
(Deputy Leader of ISIL)[34][35]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Mohammad al-Adnani  (Spokesperson)
Abu Ayman al-Iraqi  (Head of Military Shura)[36][37]
Abu Suleiman al-Naser  (Replacement Military Chief)[37]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Muslim al-Turkmani  (Deputy, Iraq)[38]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Waheeb [39] (Top Anbar Commander)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Hajar al-Souri 
(Top Aide)[40]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Akram Qirbash 
(Top ISIL judge)[35]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Ali Mohammed al-Shayer  (Senior ISIL Leader)[41]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Radwan Taleb al-Hamdouni  (Former top ISIL leader in Mosul)[42]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Hassan Saeed Al-Jabouri  (ISIL governor of Mosul)[43]
"Prince of Nineveh"  (top ISIL commander in Mosul)[9]
Abu-Jihad Abdullah Dlemi  (ISIL Emir of Fajullah)[44]

Abu Maria  (top ISIL leader in Tikrit)[45]
Sleiman Daoud al-Afari (POW) (ISIL chemical weapons chief)
Strength

Around 100,000 fighters (according to Iraqi Kurdistan Chief of Staff.)[89]
1 Mi-28 or Mi-24 Helicopter[90]
At least a few hundred tanks[91]

3 Drones[92][93][94]
Casualties and losses

United States United States:

France France:

United Kingdom United Kingdom:

  • 2 civilians executed[104]

Canada Canada

  • 1 soldier killed, 3 wounded (friendly fire)[105]

Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia:

  • 3 border guards killed[106]

 Turkey

  • 4 Turkish soldiers wounded

~40,000 killed[107][108]
32,000+ targets destroyed or damaged (including Syria; 2/3 of targets were hit in Iraq)[109]

  • 164 tanks
  • 388 HMMWVs
  • 2,638 pieces of oil infrastructure
  • 1,000+ fuel tanker trucks[110]

963 civilians killed by Coalition airstrikes[111][112]
5,000+ civilians executed by ISIL (UN)[113]

Over 550,000 civilians displaced[114][115]

An American-led intervention in Iraq started on 15 June 2014, when President Barack Obama ordered US forces to be dispatched to the region, in response to offensives in Iraq conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). American troops went, at the invitation of the Iraqi Government, to assess Iraqi forces and the threat posed by ISIL.[116]

In early August 2014, ISIL attacked Kurdish-held territory in northern Iraq, and captured three towns in northern Iraq, close to the autonomous region Iraqi Kurdistan.[117] Consequently, the US started supplying the Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga forces with weapons on 5 August. On 7 August, the US also started humanitarian aid air droppings of food, water, and medicine for the civilians fleeing ISIL in the Sinjar Mountains.[118] On the next day, 8 August, the US began airstrikes against ISIL positions in Iraq. Since then, nine countries, allied with the US in some coalition, have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq, more or less in concert with ground warfare of Kurdish and/or Iraqi government forces against ISIL. There have also been sporadic clashes between ISIL fighters, and US and Canadian troops, several thousand of whom are acting in advisory and combat roles with Iraqi and Kurdish forces.[119][120] By April 2015, ISIL had lost 25–30% of the maximum territory they had gained in Iraq in December 2014, to Iraqi and American-led Coalition forces, leaving them in possession of around 15,000 square miles of Iraq.[121]

Background[edit]

Previous US involvement[edit]

After the U.S.-led Invasion of Iraq in 2003, which was based on assertions that Iraq had WMDs and was harbouring terrorists, U.S. military forces in Iraq peaked at 170,000 soldiers in 2007. The U.S. had withdrawn most of its troops from Iraq by 2011. The U.S. kept a staff though of 20,000 men in their embassy and consulates in Iraq, including dozens of U.S. Marine Embassy Guards and some 4,500 private military contractors (see Iraq War#2011: U.S. withdrawal).

In 2013, the U.S. started flying surveillance aircraft and unarmed drones, over Iraq again in order to collect intelligence on mainly Sunni Islamic insurgent Islamist fighters targeting the Iraqi government during the Iraqi insurgency.[122][123]

Old enemies[edit]

The United States and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) have been enemies since 2003, when ISIL, in its previous incarnations as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC) and Islamic State of Iraq (al-Qaeda in Iraq), began to interfere and disturb plans of the Americans and United Nations and other Western powers for Iraq.

As revolt against the U.S.-led March 2003 invasion of Iraq and further “humiliating”[124][125] Western and U.N. interference in Iraq, Jama’at and MSC started in August 2003 a terrorism campaign which targetted hundreds of Muslim Iraqis, several U.S. soldiers, and including in 2010 a church full of Christians, and presumably including the beheadings in 2004 of three American civilians, one British, one South Korean, and one Japanese civilian.

ISIL advances in Northern Iraq[edit]

After the December 2011 withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq, violent insurgency of mainly Sunni Islamic Islamist fighters targeting the Iraqi government continued in what is called the Iraqi insurgency.

Between 5 and 11 June 2014, Sunni Islamic, jihadist, 'Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant' (ISIL) militants, already successful in the Syrian civil war, conquered the Iraqi cities of Samarra, Mosul and Tikrit,[126] and threatened the Mosul Dam and Kirkuk, where Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga troops took control from the Iraqi government.[127]

Internet beheading video campaign 2014–2015[edit]

On 12 August 2014, ISIL started a beheading campaign of Western and Japanese civilian hostages (announced 12 August,[128] James Foley 19 August, Steven Sotloff 2 September, David Haines 13 September, Hervé Gourdel 24 September, Alan Henning 3 October, Peter Kassig 16 November, Haruna Yukawa sometime January 2015, Kenji Goto 30 January 2015) which not only by way of its natural gruesomeness but perhaps even more by its being glamorously and defiantly choreographed and scripted, professionally videotaped, and shrewdly published, branded and marketed[129] via the Internet, hit Western public opinion strongly.

Though this provoking campaign couldn’t start off the American military intervention—that had already started on 8 August—it seems to have contributed to the decision of seven following Western countries, starting with France on 18 September, the Netherlands[130] on 24 and Britain on 26 September (see next section, ‘Chronology’), to join the US war on ISIL.

Coalitions[edit]

On 5 September, 15 September and 3 December 2014, different sets of countries came together to discuss concerted action against ISIL. Present at all three meetings were the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Canada, Turkey, and Denmark.

The coalition of 5 September (10 countries) decided to support anti-ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria.[131]
The coalition of 15 September (26 countries) decided to support the Iraqi government militarily.[132]
The coalition of 3 December 2014 (59 countries) agreed on a many-sided strategy, including cutting off ISIL’s financing and funding and exposing ISIL’s true nature.[133]

Chronology[edit]

US surveillance and military advising in Iraq[edit]

A U.S. Army Soldier advise & assists Iraqi soldiers during a training exercise at Besmaya Range Complex, Iraq, November 10, 2015

At the invitation of the Iraqi Government, on 15 June 2014 President Obama ordered dozens of United States troops to Iraq in response to offensives by ISIL (see previous section ‘Background’), to assess Iraqi forces and the ISIL threat.[116][134]

Probably between 15 and 26 June, the U.S. also began to fly missions with manned aircraft over Iraq in secret.[135]

On 26 June 2014, the U.S. started to survey over Baghdad also with armed drones "primarily" for protection of 180 U.S. military advisers in the area.[123]

On 29–30 June 2014, the U.S. increased the number of its troops in Iraq from 180 to 480, to prevent ISIL from taking control of Baghdad International Airport, which the US said would be critical to any evacuation of Americans from Baghdad, and to protect U.S. citizens and property.[136]

In July, Obama announced that due to the continuing violence in Iraq and the growing influence of non-state actors such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the United States would elevate its security commitment in the region.[citation needed] Approximately 800 U.S. troops secured American installations like the Embassy in Baghdad and the Consulate in Erbil as well as seizing control of strategic locations like the Baghdad International Airport.[citation needed]

Around 13 July, a classified military report concluded that many Iraqi army units were deeply infiltrated by either Sunni extremist informants or Shiite personnel backed by Iran, which would bring Americans advisors to Iraqi forces into danger.[137][138][139]

Around 5 August, the U.S. military forces in Iraq were acting to "assess and to advise [Iraqi security forces] as they confront [ISIL] and the complex security situation on the ground."[140]

ISIL conquests and massacres; US reaction[edit]

During the first 15 days of August 2014, ISIL expanded its territories in northern Iraq. On 3 August, they conquered Sinjar and surrounding area, including Wana and Zumar,[117] killing possibly 2,000 Yazidi men in the Sinjar massacre, and taking Yazidi women into slavery, causing 50,000 Yazidis to flee into the adjacent Sinjar Mountains. During their whole August offensive, ISIL massacred 5,000 Yazidis.[113]
On 7 August, ISIL conquered Qaraqosh, the largest Christian town in Iraq, and neighbouring towns, causing 100,000 Christian civilians to flee for ISIL troops.[141]

In reaction, on 5 August, Iraqi military started dropping food and water for the tens of thousands of Yazidis in the Sinjar mountains,[142] and the U.S. started directly supplying Iraqi Kurds with weapons to fight ISIL. On 7 August the U.S. also started dropping food and water for the Yazidi Kurdish civilians trapped in the Sinjar Mountains[118] (see also section ’Humanitarian efforts’).

Obama's decision for airstrikes[edit]

President Obama makes a statement on Iraq and dealing with ISIL, 7 August 2014.

On the evening of 7 August 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama gave a live address to the nation. He described the recent ISIL advances across Iraq and said that ISIL’s persecution and threatening the extinction of Yazidis, a religious minority in northern Iraq, including especially the Yazidis who had fled into the Sinjar Mountains,[143][144] in particular had convinced him that U.S. military action was necessary. The President said that he had ordered airstrikes:

  • to protect American diplomats, civilians and military in Erbil at the American consulate or advising Iraqi forces;
  • to prevent a potential massacre (genocide) of ISIL on thousands of Yazidis on Mount Sinjar; and
  • to stop ISIL’s advance on Erbil, the capital of the Kurdish Autonomous Region[144] where the U.S. had a consulate and a joint operations center with the Iraqi military.[145]

Obama further defended his decision by saying:

"The world is confronted by many challenges. And while America has never been able to right every wrong, America has made the world a more secure and prosperous place. And our leadership is necessary to underwrite the global security and prosperity that our children and our grandchildren will depend upon. We do so by adhering to a set of core principles.
We do whatever is necessary to protect our people. We support our allies when they're in danger. We lead coalitions of countries to uphold international norms. And we strive to stay true to the fundamental values -- the desire to live with basic freedom and dignity -- that is common to human beings wherever they are. That's why people all over the world look to the United States of America to lead. And that's why we do it."[146]

The U.S. also started considering an operation with American ground troops to rescue the Yazidis in those Sinjar Mountains.[147]

First US airstrikes in the Erbil and Sinjar areas[edit]

U.S. Navy F/A-18 fighters bomb Islamic State artillery targets on 8 August 2014.

On Friday, 8 August 2014, U.S. Navy McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighters bombed an ISIL artillery unit outside Erbil, and four U.S. fighters later bombed ISIL military convoys,[143] some of them advancing Erbil and besieging Kurdish forces defending Erbil.[143][145] Another round of U.S. airstrikes in the afternoon struck 8 ISIL targets near Erbil. Armed drones as well as fixed wing aircraft were used in the U.S. attacks.[148]

On 8 and 9 August, Obama extended the purposes of the airstrikes of 8 August as to be:[143][145][149] 1.) protecting Americans in Iraq; 2.) helping Iraqi minorities stranded on Mount Sinjar; 3.) “break the siege of Mount Sinjar”;[144] 4.) preventing massacres (genocides) on Yazidis and other minority groups as announced by ISIL;[143][144] and 5.) helping Iraqis combat the threat from ISIL.

On Saturday, 9 August, U.S. forces launched 4 airstrikes against ISIL fighters threatening civilians on Mount Sinjar, this time primarily aimed at armored fighting vehicles. A combination of US warplanes and drones destroyed four armored personnel carriers.[150][151] The U.S. airstrikes that day killed 16 ISIL fighters, Iraqi officials reported.[152]

On 10 August, U.S. forces launched a series of 5 air attacks which targeted ISIL armed vehicles as well as a mortar position. Assisted by these U.S. air attacks, Iraqi Kurdish forces claimed to have recaptured the Northern Iraqi towns of Mahmour and Gweyr[153] from ISIL control. An Iraqi airstrike conducted 9—11 August in Sinjar killed 45 ISIS militants, Iraqi officials reported.[152] On 10 August, also the United Kingdom started with humanitarian airdrops for the—initially 50,000—Yazidis stranded in the Sinjar Mountains (see also section ’Humanitarian efforts’),

Between 9 and 13 August, the Kurds and Americans enabled possibly 35,000 to 45,000 of the Yazidis stranded in the Sinjar Mountains to escape or be evacuated into Syria (see Sinjar massacre#Refugee crisis in the Sinjar Mountains).

On Monday, 11 August, Lt. Gen. William Mayville Jr., director of the U.S. operations, said the airstrikes since 7 August near Irbil and Mount Sinjar had slowed ISIL’s operational tempo and temporarily disrupted their advances toward Irbil.[154] On 12 August, the U.S. carried out airstrikes against ISIL mortar positions north of Sinjar after ISIL had been firing on Kurdish forces protecting the Yazidis in the area.[155]

On 13 August, the U.S. government concluded that the situation of the remaining Yazidis in the Sinjar Mountains was “much more manageable” and less life-threatening, and that an American rescue operation was therefore not acutely necessary.[147] Presumably a few thousand[147] or between 5,000 and 10,000[156] Yazidis still remained in those mountains.

Retaking Mosul Dam[edit]

Further information: Battle for Mosul Dam

On 16 August, U.S. drones and warplanes began a close air campaign aimed at supporting the advance of Kurdish fighters moving toward the Mosul Dam. Kurdish sources commented that this was the "heaviest US bombing of militant positions since the start of air strikes."[157][158] On 16 August there were 9 U.S. airstrikes in northern Iraq, on 17 August 2014.[159]

U.S. President Obama, in a letter to Congress on 17 August, explained this use of U.S. Forces as support to the Iraqi forces’ campaign against terrorist group ISIL.[160][161] Obama said on 18 August that Kurdish Peshmerga fighters and Iraqi troops, with help from the U.S., had retaken the Mosul Dam from ISIL.[158]

September 2014[edit]

Locations where the U.S has launched airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq (as of 16 September.)

On 8 September, the Iraqi army with close air support from U.S. F-18 aircraft managed to retake the key Haditha Dam. Following the recapture, Iraqi troops moved on to recapture the town of Barwana. Iraqi state television reported that 15 ISIL militants were killed in the battle.[162] Following the Iraqi victory, ISIL responded with the public execution of David Haines.[104]

Locations of airstrikes in Syria by 24 September 2014

On 18 September, France decided to initiate airstrikes on ISIL as well (see main article: ‘Opération Chammal’).

Around 23 September, Lloyd Austin, the general in charge of U.S. Central Command, has been confirmed to be the top officer in charge of the campaign against the ISIL in Iraq and Syria.[163]

On 24 September, the Dutch government decided to send six Fighter jets to contribute to the “international battle against ISIS (ISIL)” (see section ‘Airstrikes’).

On 26 September, the British Parliament decided to authorize British airstrikes on ISIL as well. Britain then announced to cooperate with Iraqi and Kurdish intelligence agencies (see main article: ‘Operation Shader’). Also the Belgian Parliament that day decided to start airstrikes on ISIL (see section ‘Airstrikes’).

Around 28 September 2014, airstrikes by the U.S.-led coalition together with Iraqi Army ground forces clashing with ISIL militants halted an ISIL offensive by Amariya al-Falluja, 40 km (25 miles) west of Baghdad, the Iraqi capital, a BBC reporter on the spot reported.[164]

On 30 September, the U.S. launched eleven airstrikes in Iraq and the UK conducted their first two airstrikes in Iraq in this intervention. Together with eleven U.S. strikes in Syria against ISIL these 24 strikes were the highest number of strikes against ISIL on one day since 8 August.[165]

By the end of September 2014, the United States Navy and Air Force had conducted 240 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, as well as 1,300 tanker refueling missions, totaling 3,800 sorties by all types of aircraft.[166]

October 2014[edit]

On 3 October 2014, the Australian government authorized airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq (see main article: ‘Operation Okra’). Early October, also Denmark’s Parliament seems to have approved of bombarding ISIL (see section ‘Airstrikes’).
On 7 October, the Canadian Parliament voted in favour of Canadian airstrikes against ISIL (see main article: ‘Operation Impact’).
On 11 October, 10,000 ISIL troops headed from Mosul and Syria toward the Iraqi capital city of Baghdad,[167] and ISIL stood on the verge of taking the whole of Anbar province just west of Baghdad.[168] The provincial council’s deputy head, Al-Issawi, said they then asked Iraq’s government to ask the U.S. to bring in ground forces; the Iraqi government however squarely denied to have received such demand from Anbar.[168] 12 October, ISIL came within 25 km (15.5 miles) of the Baghdad airport, U.S. General Dempsey reported. The U.S. then deployed low-flying Apache attack helicopters to keep ISIL at bay.[169][170]

By 22 October, the U.S. had spent $424 million on both of its bombing campaigns against ISIL in Iraq and Syria.[166]

November 2014[edit]

Late November 2014, Morocco responded to an American appeal and sent several F-16 jets to fight against ISIL.[171] (See also section ‘Airstrikes’.)

December 2014[edit]

During the early morning hours of December 14, U.S. ground forces allegedly clashed with ISIL alongside the Iraqi Army and Tribal Forces near Ein al-Asad base, west of Anbar, in an attempt to repel them from the base of which includes about 100 U.S. advisers in it, when ISIL attempted to overrun the base. A field commander of the Iraqi Army in Anbar province, said that "the U.S. force equipped with light and medium weapons, supported by F-18, was able to inflict casualties against fighters of ISIL organization, and forced them to retreat from the al-Dolab area, which lies 10 kilometers from Ain al-Assad base." Sheikh Mahmud Nimrawi, a prominent tribal leader in the region, added that "U.S. forces intervened because of ISIL started to come near the base, which they are stationed in so out of self-defense," he responded, welcoming the U.S. intervention, and saying "which I hope will "not be the last."[119][172][173][174][175] This was said to be the first encounter between the United States and the Islamic State, in four years. However, this claim has been stated to be "false" by The Pentagon.[176][177]

In the Kurdish Sinjar offensive, 17–22 December, Kurdish troops, aided by U.S. airstrikes, connected the Sinjar Mountains to Peshmerga territory, enabling the Yazidis who stayed on the mountains to be evacuated.[178] On 22 December, Kurdish Peshmerga forces pushed into the city of Sinjar, taking control of much of the city.

On December 25, 2014, Hassan Saeed Al-Jabouri, the ISIL governor of Mosul, who was also known as Abu Taluut, was killed by a US-led Coalition airstrike in Mosul. It was also revealed that the US planned to retake the city of Mosul in January 2015.[43]

January 2015[edit]

In mid-January 2015, Canadian soldiers at the front lines between Iraqi and ISIL troops exchanged fire with ISIL fighters. Canadians were not hurt, but they "neutralized" an unknown number of ISIL militants.[120]

On 20 January 2015, the SOHR reported that al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIL, had been wounded in an airstrike in Al-Qa'im, an Iraqi border town held by ISIL, and as a result, withdrew to Syria.[179]

On 21 January 2015, the US began coordinating airstrikes with a Kurdish launched offensive, to help them begin the planned operation to retake the city of Mosul.[180]

On 29 January 2015, Canadian special forces in Iraq came under fire from ISIL forces, causing the Canadian troops to return fire, killing some ISIL militants.[181]

February 2015[edit]

Jordan, which had been conducting airstrikes on ISIL in Syria since September 2014, initiated airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq on 4 February 2015 (see details in the Airstrikes section).

On 17 February, it was revealed that ISIL had launched another major assault on Erbil, coming within 45 kilometres (28 mi) of the city.[182]

By late February, it was reported that ISIL was beginning to use chemical weapons, due to the gradual weakening of the organization,[183] and that the Iraqi Army was expected to join the Liberation of Mosul sometime in April 2015.[184]

March 2015[edit]

At the beginning of March, the Iraqi government announced that they would soon launch a military operation with the Kurdish Peshmerga and other allies to regain the city of Mosul, which was under ISIL control since 10 June 2014. On 10 March, U.S.-led warplanes dropped scraps of paper in Mosul, advising residents to evacuate the city and stay away from ISIL locations, because of those imminent military operations.[185]

On 11 March 2015, ISIL threatened over loudspeakers to behead any civilian who tries to leave Mosul.[185]

18 March 2015 Coalition airstrike at the al-Baaj District, in the Nineveh Governorate, near the Syrian border. It was reported that his wounds were so serious that the top ISIL leaders had a meeting to discuss who would replace him if he died. By 21 April, al-Bagdadi reportedly had not yet recovered enough from his injuries to resume daily control of ISIL.[186]

On 25 March 2015, the American-led Coalition joined the Second Battle of Tikrit, launching its first airstrikes on ISIL targets in the city center.[187][188] That night, US aircraft carried out 17 airstrikes in the center of Tikrit, which struck an ISIL building, two bridges, three checkpoints, two staging areas, two berms, a roadblock, and a command and control facility.[189] The US-led Coalition continued conducting airstrikes in Tikrit until 31 March,[189] when Iraqi forces entered the city center.[190]

April 2015[edit]

On 8 April 2015, Iraqi forces, building on their advances in the Saladin Governorate, launched an offensive to liberate the Anbar Governorate from ISIL occupation, beginning with an offensive in the region around east Ramadi, backed by Coalition aircraft.[191] In retaliation, ISIL executed 300 people in the western Anbar Province. It was also reported that 10,000 Sunni tribal fighters would participate in the Anbar offensive.[192]

On 12 April, the Iraqi government declared that Tikrit was free of ISIL forces, stating that it was safe for residents to return home. However, many refugees from Tikrit still feared returning to the city.[193] On 12 April, Abu Maria, the top ISIL leader in Tikrit, was killed by Iraqi forces at the Ajeel Oil Field near Tikrit, along with his top aide, after they were both caught trying to flee from the city.[45] However, later reports revealed that ISIL resistance persisted until 17 April.[194]

By mid-April 2015, ISIL had lost 25–30%, 5,000 to 6,500 square miles, in Iraq since their peak territorial influence in August 2014 to Iraqi and American coalition forces, leaving them still possessing 15,000 square miles in Iraq.[121]

On 17 April, Iraqi forces in Tikrit located and killed 130 ISIL sleeper agents, finally ending the Second Battle of Tikrit.[194][195] However, cleanup operations to remove the 5,000–10,000 IEDs left behind by ISIL are expected to take at least several months.[196]

On April 22, 2015 Iraqi government sources reported that Abu Alaa Afri, the self-proclaimed Caliph’s deputy and a former Iraqi physics teacher, had been installed as the stand-in leader while Baghdadi recuperates from his injuries.[197]

May 2015[edit]

On 3 May 2015, The Guardian reported that ISIL leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was recovering from severe injuries he received from an 18 March 2015 airstrike, in a part of Mosul. It was also reported that al-Baghdadi’s spinal injury, which left him incapacitated, means that he may never be able to fully resume direct command of ISIL.[33]

According to the Iraqi defence ministry Abu Ala al-Afri, ISIL's Deputy Leader, was killed on May 12, 2015, in a US-led Coalition airstrike on a mosque in Tel Afar, where al-Afri was holding a meeting with other ISIL senior leaders. The airstrike was reported to have killed dozens of other ISIL militants that were present.[35] Akram Qirbash, ISIL’s top judge, was also killed in the airstrike.[198][199] The U.S. Defense Department said that it could not corroborate the report.[198]

July 2015[edit]

Main article: Intelgate

In July 2015, 50 CENTCOM military analysts signed on to a classified complaint to the Pentagon's Inspector General that their intelligence reports were being inappropriately manipulated by members of the Obama Administration. They were subsequently joined by civilian and Defense Intelligence Agency analysts working for CENTCOM. Members of the groups in late-August anonymously leaked details of the case to the press.

The whistle blowers alleged that the Obama Administration attempted to portray a rosy image of the fight against the Islamic State (ISIL) by altering some reports to seem more positive, while burying other reports to keep them from the press and Congress. The analysts specifically alleged that the conclusions of both their reports about the readiness of indigenous forces to face ISIL, and about the effectiveness of the American air campaigns over Syria and Iraq, were completely reversed by the Administration before distribution.[200]

October 2015[edit]

On 22 October 2015 during 30 U.S. special forces from Delta Force and members of a Kurdish Counter-terrorism unit conducted a raid on a ISIL prison compound 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) North of the town of Hawija in Iraq's Kirkuk province.[201][202][203] The raid liberated approximately 70 hostages, including more than 20 members of the Iraqi Security Forces. The Kurdish Regional Government asked U.S. special operations forces to support an operation to free hostages that were being held inside the prison and were going to be executed, Master Sergeant Joshua Wheeler was killed in the raid, he was the first American service member killed in action as a result of enemy fire while fighting ISIL and at the time he was the first American to be killed in action in Iraq since November 2011.[204]

January 2016[edit]

The US-led coalition began targeting the IS chemical weapons infrastructure with airstrikes and special forces raids, the coalition is focusing on destroying laboratories and equipment, whilst further special forces raids are planned to target IS chemical weapons experts.[205]

February 2016[edit]

US officials reported that Delta Force operatives have carried out operations to target, capture or kill top ISIS operatives in Iraq, reportedly beginning in late February 2016, after several weeks of covert preparation such as setting up safe houses, establishing informant networks and coordinating operations with Iraqi and Peshmerga units. The Delta force operators are part of a Expeditionary Targeting Force that is also made up of operators from the US military's so-called "Tier One" Special Operations units, numbering around 200 personnel. Their main objectives are to gather enough intelligence from raids on terrorist-occupied compounds and hideouts, then from intelligence gathered at those sites they will give the ETF more intelligence about ISIS networks and quickly attack additional and related targets, in what's known as "targeted" missions. This strategy was tested during the May 2015 raid on Deir Ezzor in Syria. The ETF has so far collected enough intelligence about ISIS operations in Iraq in up to half a dozen locations that raids and field operations are ready to take place.[206] In late-February, U.S. special forces captured Sleiman Daoud al-Afari, an ISIS senior chemical weapons engineer, in a raid in Badoosh, north-west of Mosul, there were no US casualties. Afari’s capture is the first known major success of this new strategy.[205]

March 2016[edit]

On March 1, 2016, a U.S. special operations assault force captured an ISIS operative during a raid in northern Iraq and is expected to apprehend and interrogate a number of others in coming months.[207][208]

On March 19, Staff Sergeant Louis F. Cardin, a field artilleryman with the Battalion Landing Team, 2nd Battalion 6th Marines, 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit, was killed by an ISIS rocket attack on Firebase Bell near Makhmur, 8 other Marines were also injured, the Marines returned fire with their artillery. The Marines from the 26th MEU first began moving into the area just 2 weeks before, deploying from the USS Kearsarge. The base will be used by the U.S. military to support the Iraqi 15th Division when they attempt to retake Mosul and the Marines had finished setting up and testing their howitzers just 2 or 3 days before the attack. The joint taskforce overseeing the campaign against ISIS announced it was deploying additional Marines from the 26th MEU to Iraq to join the roughly 3,700 U.S. troops already deployed there to combat ISIS. There are already more than 4,000 Marines and sailors who have been deployed to Iraq since October.[209][210][211][212][213]

April 2016[edit]

On April 18, 2016, U.S. Special forces and Kurdish forces launched a raid on Hammam al-'Alil which killed Salman Abu Shabib al-Jebouri; a senior IS commander who was a leading member of the IS military council, two of his aides were also killed. US Defence Secretary Ash Carter announced that the US is to send 200 extra troops; the majority of them being special forces and 8 Apache attack helicopters to Iraq, the remainder will include trainers, security forces for the advisers, and maintenance crews for the Apaches, increasing the number of US personnel in the country to around 4,100. The US also plans to give Kurdish Peshmerga forces, more than $400m in assistance.[214][215]

On April 25, a U.S. warplane dropped a guided bomb that destroyed an SUV occupied by IS leader Raphael Saihou Hostey near Mosul, Hostey was a recruiter for IS, U.S. drone operators had been stalking him for days before the order came to kill him.[216]

May 2016[edit]

On May 3, 2016, Special Warfare Operator 1st Class Charles Keating IV; a U.S. Navy SEAL, was killed by small arms fire during an ISIS assault on a Peshmerga position, approximately 3 to 5 kilometers behind enemy lines, near the town of Tel Skuf, 28–30 km north of Mosul, the SEAL killed was part of a 30-man SEALs unit deployed to Iraq as part of a special forces advise and assist mission. 125 ISIS militants broke into the position using three truck bombs followed by bulldozers which cleared the wreckage away, the U.S. responded with 11 aircraft; F-15s F-16s, A-10s, B-52s and 2 drones carrying out 31 airstrikes; which destroyed two more truck bombs stopping the attack, 58 militants were killed and more than 20 of their vehicles were also destroyed, Keating was part of a Navy SEAL quick reaction force called in by the Peshmerga. The IS attack is part of their attacks on multiple fronts overnight to obtain new ground, Iraqi military sources said that special forces had foiled an attack by five suicide bombers in the village of Khirbirdan and Peshmerga forces repelled an IS assault on Wardak. U.S. Army Colonel Steve Warren labeled the offensive as one of the most complex battlefield operations launched by ISIS since December 2015.[217][218][219][220]

As of early May 2016, there are more than 5,500 U.S. military personnel in Iraq; 3,870 are deployed to advise and assist local forces fighting IS militants, the rest includes special operations personnel, logistics workers and troops on temporary rotations.[218]

Small teams of American advisers operate from northern Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan, providing commanders with help in military planning and logistical support. They have moved about freely to interact with commanders in the field as long as they remain well behind front lines, in the case of the firefight at Tel Skuf, a dozen U.S. troops who were advising and assisting the Peshmerga happened to be at an outpost behind the front lines that had been targeted by the large ISIS force.[220][221]

On May 6, a U.S. airstrike killed Abu Wahib; a senior IS leader in Anbar province and 3 other ISIS militants in a vehicle in Rutba.[222][223]

On May 17, the ISF takes control of the city Rutba. IS Lose the control of the strategically important town and Anbar's mostly control.

On May 25, during Operation Breaking Terrorism, U.S. airstrikes killed the commander of Daesh forces in Fallujah; Maher al-Bilawai in Fallujah.[224]

In late May, a U.S. special forces operator was indirectly wounded in an ISIS attack near Irbil.[225]

June 2016[edit]

On June 12, a US Apache attack helicopter carried out a strike that destroyed an IS car bomb near Qayyarah, 50 miles south of Mosul in support of Iraqi forces positioning ahead of an operation to retake Mosul from insurgents. It is the first time since President Obama authorized the helicopters' use in offensive operations earlier this year.[226][227][228]

On June 25, a U.S. airstrike near Mosul killed 2 senior ISIS commanders: one was Basim Muhammad Ahmad Sultan al-Bajari, ISIS' deputy minister of war, who oversaw ISIS' efforts to capture Mosul in June 2014 and consolidated ISIL's control over Mosul, he also led the ISIL Jaysh al-Dabiq battalion known for using vehicle-borne IEDs, suicide bombers and mustard gas in its attacks. The other was Hatim Talib al-Hamduni, a military commander in the area and head of military police for self-proclaimed Ninawa state; together, they engaged in dictatorial rule and sectarian murder and oppression since 2014.[229]

On June 29, in support of the 2016 al-Bukamal offensive — the offensive by the Syrian rebels from different factions that aims to capture Al-Bukamal in Syria and effectively split its territorial holdings in two and preventing the transfer of fighters and weapons between the two countries — on the Iraqi side of the border, US-led coalition conducted five airstrikes near al-Qaim.[230][231] Also that day in Fallujah, US-led coalition aircraft — including Iraqi aircraft, conducted airstrikes that killed at least 250 ISIS militants. Whilst Iraqi Security Forces fought them on the ground; the first strikes targeted a convoy of IS fighters trying to leave a neighborhood on the outskirts of southern Fallujah, destroying between 40-55 IS vehicles. A second convoy formed east of Ramadi later that day, coalition and Iraqi jets launched more strikes, destroying nearly 120 ISIS vehicles, but in both attacks, Iraqi Security Forces destroyed more.[232][233][234] The figure of IS vehicles destroyed rose up to nearly 800 — Iraq's Joint Operations Command said the country's forces destroyed 603 IS vehicles, whilst the Pentagon estimated that coalition strikes hit at least 175, but those figures could not be independently confirmed.[235]

July 2016[edit]

On July 11, Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced that the US is sending 560 additional US military personnel to Iraq, bringing the number of US personnel in Iraq to about 4,650. They will be stationed at Qayara airbase, which was recaptured on July 9 by Iraqi government forces being supported by U.S.-led airstrikes; most of them will serve in training and advisory roles, including engineers and logistics experts and with the airbase as a key staging area, they will assist local forces in the retaking of the IS stronghold of Mosul. Also, a new "Nineveh Liberation Operations Center" has been set up to coordinate the offensive, complete with dozens of U.S. and British advisers.[236][237]

August 2016[edit]

On August 5, the Pentagon announced about 400 U.S. soldiers would deploy south of Mosul to Qayarah airbase to aid in the operation to retake Mosul.[238]

Contributions to intervention since August 2014[edit]

Military aid to the Kurds[edit]

On October 5, 2015, CJTF-OIR announced that it had given 50,000 rifles and machine guns, 56 million rounds of small arms ammunition, 677+ mortars, 73,000+ mortar rounds, 5,000+ anti-tank weapons, 56,000+ anti-tank rounds, and 150+ vehicles to the Iraqi Kurdish forces.[239]

  • United States The United States had begun on 5 August 2014, with the direct supply of munitions to the Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga forces and, with Iraq’s agreement, the shipment of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program weapons to the Kurds, according to Zalmay Khalilzad, the former U.S. ambassador to Iraq and the U.N., in the Washington Post,[240] and the following days the American CIA secretly sent arms to the Kurds. Before 11 August, U.S. and allies had started rushing antitank weapons etc. to Kurdish fighters, and the U.S. intended to provide longer-range weapons.[241]
  • United Kingdom The United Kingdom placed the Special Air Service on the ground briefly and are airlifting munitions to the Kurds from an unnamed[242] Eastern European nation.[243][244] Members of the 2nd Battalion, the Yorkshire Regiment, have also been deployed to the area.[245]
  • Germany Germany has provided instructors to train Kurdish Peshmerga troops.[66] It is also supporting the Peshmerga with shipments of machine guns and ammunition, anti-tank missiles, armored transport vehicles and personal equipment like night vision goggles, helmets, vests, radio sets and other equipment. It hopes to provide equipment for 10,000 Peshmerga troops.[246] It has also flown wounded Peshmerga fighters to German military hospitals.[247] Germany has currently up to 150 paratroopers and other ground troops stationed in northern Iraq to train and advise Kurdish military forces.[248]
  • France France is planning to ship arms directly to the Kurds.[243]
  • Italy Italy decided to give military aid to the Kurds.[249]
    • Spokesman Halgurd Hikmat for the Peshmerga Ministry confirmed that the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Italy, and also Finland have agreed to supply weapons and military goods to Kurdish Peshmerga. Erbil-based BASNEWS reported that the Kurdistan Regional Government, in cooperation with the Iraqi and American governments, will open a military air base in Erbil.[250]
  • Australia Australia in September began using RAAF C-17s and C-130Js to airlift arms and munitions to forces in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq.[251][252][253] Then Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott said in October his country could dispatch up to 200 special forces troops to "advise" local forces in a "non-combat" role.[254]
  • Croatia Croatia in late August began sending arms to the Kurds. The armaments from Croatia[255] are particularly useful to the effort because of the fact that they are compatible with the Kurds' Russian made weapons systems which make up the majority of their equipment.
  • Czech Republic The Czech Republic has or will provide weapons to local forces.[66] The Czech Republic offered to provide 10 million rounds for AK-47, 8 million rounds for machine guns, 5,000 warheads for RPG and 5,000 hand grenades.[256] In September 2014 with the help of Royal Canadian Air Force it sent 8 millions rounds for machine guns to Iraq and in December 2014 another supply flight (provided by US Air Force's C-17 Globemaster) with 5,000 warheads.[257]
  • Estonia Estonia, Hungary, Greece, and Bulgaria have or will provide weapons to local forces.[66]
    • European Union The European Union welcomed the "decision by individual Member States to respond positively to the call by the Kurdish regional authorities to provide urgently military material."[242]
  • Albania Albania has or will provide weapons to local forces.[66] Albania in late August began sending arms to the Kurds. With the help of Western air transport systems, Albania has sent 22 million rounds of AK-47 7.62 millimeter bullets, 15,000 hand grenades and 32,000 artillery shells to the Kurdish forces.[22] The armaments from Albania[258] are particularly useful to the effort because of the fact that they are compatible with the Kurds' Russian made weapons systems which make up the majority of their equipment.
  • Turkey in early November 2014 began training Kurdish Peshmerga fighters in northern Iraq, Turkey and Peshmerga confirmed, ‘as part of the struggle against ISIL’, a Turkish official said.[259]

Military aid to the Iraqi government[edit]

  • United States After the United States in June 2014 started to send troops to Iraq to secure American interests and assets and advise the Iraqi forces (see section US surveillance and military advising in Iraq), President Barack Obama end of September planned to send 1,600 troops to Iraq as "advisers" to the Iraqi army and Kurdish forces. 800 of them would provide security for soldiers and Marines and for property; hundreds would train and advise Iraqi and Kurdish forces how to fight ISIL.[260] 8–9 November Obama doubled the number of American soldiers in Iraq to some 3,100.[261][262] By February 2015, the US had deployed 4,500 troops. In June 2015, the US had deployed an additional 450 troops to Iraq, increasing the US troop presence in Iraq to at least 4,850.[48]
  • Germany Germany is shipping non-lethal military equipment to the Iraqi Central Government[263] and the Kurdish Regional Government.[243]
  • Italy Italy has offered to supply weapons, ammunition, and other aid to local forces in Iraq.[66] The prime minister of Italy Matteo Renzi visited Iraq and the Kurds on 20 August to consider the response to ISIL. He said that without international involvement it would be a "new Srebrenica".[249]
  • Canada Canadian Prime Minister Harper announced on 4 September 2014 that Canada would deploy "about 100" military advisers to be based in Baghdad assisting the Iraqi Military in the fight against ISIS. These personnel are special operations forces which will work closely with US special forces to "provide advice that will help the government of Iraq and its security forces be more effective against ISIL", but their role is not expected to be direct combat. CBC News reports that about 100 Canadians will be deployed, primarily to help Kurdish forces.[264]
  • Denmark Denmark sent 120 military personnel to Iraq in November to train the Iraqi army.[265]
  • New Zealand New Zealand will send up to 143 military personnel to Iraq, to help train local Iraqi Security Forces. Sixteen of which will be trainers, the remaining personnel will be deployed to protect the trainers, and help with advisory/intelligence roles. New Zealand has also sent up to $14.5m in humanitarian aid.[83]
  • Norway Norway in October 2014 decided to send 5 headquarters personal, 120 advisors to help train the Iraqi army, and has used transport aircraft to deliver supplies to Iraq.[266]
  • Portugal Portugal has worked with neighboring Spain to provide training to the Iraqi Army south of Baghdad.[267]
  • Spain Spain has provided 300 instructors to train the Iraqi Army and offered to provide weapons to the Iraqi Army and the Kurdish Peshmerga forces,[268] and has stationed a Patriot missile battery and 150 servicemen in Turkey in case of cross-border attacks against its NATO ally.[269]

Building Partner Capacity (BPC)[edit]

The Building Partner Capacity (BPC) program is meant to help the Iraqi government to prepare forces for the counter-attack against ISIL and the regaining of its territory.[270] Australia in April 2015 committed 300 military personnel to the BPC training mission in Iraq.[270] According to the U.S. Department of Defense, by May 2015 a dozen countries had committed themselves to the BPC program: Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, United Kingdom and United States.[271] By May 2015, the program had trained 6,500 Iraqi forces.[271]

Airstrikes[edit]

  • United States The United States began conducting airstrikes in Iraq on 8 August 2014. Fighter aircraft from the United States Air Force and United States Navy, and military "advisers" on the ground, have been involved in combating ISIL in Northern Iraq, as well as in the north and west of Baghdad.[272][273][274][275]
  • Australia Australia (Main article: Operation Okra)
    Australia's Prime Minister at the time, Tony Abbott, announced on 3 October 2014 that Australia would commence airstrikes on ISIL. At least until 2 November, dozens of those airstrikes held on, in at least some cases hitting and killing ISIL people, but also targeting military equipment and an oil refinery. The Australian government is reticent with giving detailed information, out of concern for possible propaganda from the side of ISIL.
  • Canada Canada (Main article: Operation Impact)
    On 7 October, the House of Commons voted in favour of Canadian airstrikes against ISIL,[276] and approved of deploying six CF-18 fighter jets, an air-to-air refueling aircraft and two surveillance aircraft to participate in targeted airstrikes from an allied air base in Kuwait.[276] The first Canadian airstrike took place on 2 November 2014, targeting construction equipment near Fallujah.[277] The second airstrike was made on 11 November 2014, targeting ISIL artillery near Bayji, north of Baghdad.[277]
  • France France (Main article: Opération Chammal)
    On 15 September, Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft operating from the United Arab Emirates conducted reconnaissance flights on ISIL positions.[278] On 19 September 2014, France conducted its first airstrike which targeted an ISIL depot, making it the first Western coalition partner to conduct airstrikes in Iraq.[279][280]
  • Germany Germany is supporting airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq and Syria with six Tornado reconnaissance aircraft and one Airbus A310 aerial refueling tanker aircraft. It also provides high resolution radar images by it's SAR Lupe reconnaissance satellites.[281]
  • Jordan Jordan (See also: Jordanian reaction to murder on al-Kasasbeh)
    Jordanian officials said on 4 February 2015, after the release of a video showing captured RJAF pilot Muath al-Kasasbeh being burned alive by his ISIL captors in Syria, that the kingdom would consider joining the coalition by launching airstrikes against ISIL targets in Iraq.[282]
    The Jordanian Air Force on 4 February 2015 began targeting ISIL positions in Iraq in retaliation for ISIL's brutal burning of Jordanian pilot Muath al-Kasasbeh, beginning the campaign with a large airstrike campaign centered on Mosul, which killed 55 ISIL militants, including ISIL's top senior commander of Mosul known as the "Prince of Nineveh".[9]
  • Morocco Morocco in late November 2014, as first Arab state joining this American-led military intervention in Iraq, responded to an American appeal to send several F-16 jets to the fight against ISIL.[171] Four F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters from the Royal Moroccan Air Force reportedly carried out aistrikes against ISIL positions on the outskirts of Baghdad, among other areas, around 10 December 2014. The Moroccan warplanes were to focus on hitting fixed targets, including training camps, oil refineries, and weapons depots.[283]
  • Netherlands Netherlands (Main article: Dutch war against ISIL)
    On 24 September 2014, the Dutch government decided to take part in “the military campaign” against ISIL which, as they claimed, had been started by the United States, and sent six F-16 fighter jets to Iraq to bomb ISIL. Their motivations to join this war: ISIL’s advance in Iraq and Syria, while displaying “unprecedented violence” and “perpetrating terrible crimes against population groups”, formed “a direct threat for that region”; ISIL’s advance in Iraq and Syria “causes instability at the borders of Europe” which threatens “our own [Dutch] safety”.
  • United Kingdom United Kingdom (Main article: Operation Shader)
    The Royal Air Force began attacking targets in Iraq on 30 September, with six and then later eight, Tornado GR4 strike aircraft. Around four, and then later six, MQ-9 Reaper unmanned combat aerial vehicles also began attacking targets on 10 November 2014.[284][285] Airstrikes have been supported by Boeing E-3 Sentry, Boeing RC-135 and Airbus Voyager aircraft.[286] On 16 January 2015, Prime Minister David Cameron announced that the UK was the second-largest contributor to the anti-ISIL coalition in Iraq, contributing over 100 airstrikes.[287] The majority of British forces engaged in Iraq operate from RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus, however, MQ-9 Reapers are based in Kuwait and a RC-135 Rivet Joint is based at RAF Al Udeid in Qatar.[288][289]

Facilitating or preparing for airstrikes[edit]

  • Italy Italy has offered to assist coalition partners in air-to-air refueling and ISR operations with one KC-767, four Tornado IDS attack planes, and two UAVs Predators.[66][290] Air operations continue.[291]
  • Spain Spain had in September announced that its contribution to ‘a US-led anti-IS coalition’ would remain limited to weapons, transport assistance, etc., for the Iraqi government,[292] but has in October offered to assist coalition partners in transport, air-to-air refueling and ISR operations.[268]
  • Turkey The Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 2 October allowed foreign soldiers to use Turkish bases for a fight against ISIL, after pressure from the U.S. government on Ankara to join the anti-ISIL coalition.[293][294]

Airstrike campaigns cancelled[edit]

  • Belgium Belgium decided on 26 September 2014 that it would send six F-16 Fighting Falcons and a number of Lockheed C-130 Hercules cargo planes, supported by 120 pilots and other staff, to support the military effort against ISIL in Iraq.[66][67] Belgian air forces operate from Shaheed Mwaffaq Air Base located in Jordan.[295] On 5 October, a Belgian F-16 dropped its first bomb on an Islamic State target, east of Baghdad.[296] The contribution towards striking ISIL positions was discontinued on 30 June 2015 due to financial restraints, however 35 military advisors still remain in the country as of November 2015. The withdrawn F-16 aircraft spent six months in Jordan before returning home.[65]
  • Denmark Denmark
    Danish Prime Minister Thorning-Schmidt promised 26 September 2014 to send four planes and three reserve jets (F-16s[297]), with 250 pilots and staff, to launch airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq, but still needed the approval of Parliament.[3] Until 20 October, Denmark had flown 11 missions and had dropped bombs on ISIL targets.[297] The seven aircraft were sent back to Denmark in August 2015 for refitting and refurbishment. It is currently unclear when, and if, they will be sent back to the campaign. Because of this, Denmark currently has no fighter aircraft operating over Iraq. Denmark still however flies a C-130J transport aircraft in support of coalition operations.[298]

Humanitarian efforts[edit]

Water is loaded on a U.S. C-17 for an airdrop on 8 August.

The United States and international partners have undertaken a large humanitarian effort to support refugees stranded in northern Iraq with airdropped supplies.

On 7 August, 2 Lockheed C-130 Hercules's and 1 Boeing C-17 Globemaster III dropped tens of thousands of meals and thousands of gallons of drinking water to Yazidi refugees who were stranded in the Sinjar Mountains by advancing ISIL forces.[118][299] On 9 August 2014, U.S. aircraft again dropped humanitarian supplies over northern Iraq, this time consisting of 4,000 gallons of drinking water and 16,000 ready-to-eat meals.[300]

British aid for Iraq is loaded at RAF Brize Norton

On 10 August, the United Kingdom began humanitarian supply airdrops to the Yazidi refugees on Mount Sinjar.[301]

On the night of 13–14 August, a 16-aircraft mission including US C-17s and C-130Hs, a British C-130J, and an Australian C-130J airdropped supplies to Yezidi civilians trapped on Mount Sinjar in what was later described as "the first mass air delivery of humanitarian cargo since the outbreak of violence in East Timor in 1999."[302][303]

Humanitarian intervention efforts per country:

  • Australia Australian C-130J transport aircraft from the Royal Australian Air Force based in the Middle East on 13/14 August 2014, started airdropping humanitarian aid in Northern Iraq.[302][304]
  • Denmark Denmark has committed a C-130 transport aircraft and money for relief efforts.[4][305]
  • France France plans to contribute to ongoing humanitarian efforts in Iraq, in addition to offering asylum to Iraqi Christians fleeing the violence.[306]
  • Germany Germany ramped up humanitarian spending in Northern Iraq and sent 4 transport aircraft.[307]
  • Italy Italy started humanitarian support.[249]
  • Sweden Sweden expressed support for military assistance by others but for legal reasons will only provide humanitarian support.[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom United Kingdom made humanitarian supply airdrops to Yazidi refugees on Mount Sinjar starting on 10 August 2014,[301][308] using Royal Air Force C-130's operating from RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus, while surveillance was provided by Panavia Tornado GR4s.[309] It has been announced that Boeing Chinooks will also be deployed.[310]
  • New Zealand New Zealand's Foreign Minister Murray McCully has announced that New Zealand will provide $500,000 to the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to help people displaced by fighting in Iraq.[311]
  • European Union The European Commission of the European Union announced it would boost humanitarian aid to Iraq to €17m, and approved special emergency measures to meet the crisis. On 15 August 2014, 20 of the 28 EU foreign ministers met in Brussels to discuss military and humanitarian assistance.[312][313]

Casualties[edit]

Civilians[edit]

According to Iraq Body Count, 118 civilians were killed by coalition airstrikes in 2014[111] and 845 in 2015.[112]

According to "Airwars", a team of independent journalists, between 393 and 571 civilians were killed by coalition airstrikes in 54 incidents in Iraq between 8 August 2014 and 31 December 2015; other incidents with hundreds more civilian fatalities were also recorded by Airwars, but the US-led coalition's responsibility couldn't be confirmed with equal confidence in those cases.[314]

ISIL fighters[edit]

On 9 August, U.S. airstrikes killed 16 ISIL fighters, Iraqi officials reported.[152] Between 9–11 August, in a concerted U.S.-Iraqi operation, an Iraqi airstrike killed 45 ISIL men.[152] On 8 September, in an operation of Iraqi forces with U.S. airstrikes, Iraq reported that 15 ISIL fighters were killed.[162] On 23 February 2015, it was revealed that over 8,500 ISIL fighters had been killed by US-led airstrikes, with at least 7,000 of the deaths in Iraq.[315][316]

By early June 2015, ISIL had lost over 13,000 fighters to Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, with 10,800+ of the deaths in Iraq.[317][318] By July 2015, ISIL had lost over 15,000 fighters to US-led Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria, with 12,100+ fighters killed in Iraq.[319][320]

Peshmerga troops[edit]

"At least 999 Peshmerga troops lost their lives and 4,596 have been injured between June 10, 2014 and February 3, 2015," said Jabbar Yawar, secretary-general of the Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs to reporters at a press conference in Arbil on February 4, 2015.[321][322]

In late February 2015, it was revealed that the Peshmerga losses had increased to over 1,000 dead, and over 5,000 wounded.[323]

US soldiers[edit]

The United States suffered its first casualty of the conflict on 2 October 2014, when a United States Marine Corps MV-22 Osprey crashed in the Persian Gulf after takeoff from USS Makin Island, leaving one of its crewmen missing and presumed dead.[324]

Extending US presence on Iraqi ground[edit]

While some U.S. troops were already active in Iraq for several purposes since June 2014 (see section Background), on 13 August, the U.S. deployed another 130 military advisers to Northern Iraq,[325] and up to 20 U.S. Marines and special forces servicemen landed on Mount Sinjar from V-22 aircraft to coordinate the evacuation of Yazidi refugees. A team of British SAS was already in the area.[326]

On 3 September, an increase of 350 servicemen was announced to be sent to Baghdad, increasing U.S. forces in Baghdad to 820, and increasing U.S. forces in Iraq to 1,213.[327]

On 10 September, President Obama gave a speech in which he reiterated that American troops will not fight in combat. He also said that about 500 more troops will be sent to Iraq to help train Iraqi forces.[328] At the end of September, Obama planned to send 1,600 troops to Iraq as "advisers" to the Iraqi army and Kurdish forces. 800 of them would provide security for soldiers and Marines and for property; hundreds would train and advise Iraqi and Kurdish forces on how to fight ISIL.[260]

In early November 2014, President Obama announced that he would be doubling the number of US troops present on the ground in Iraq to around 3,000 men.[261] By early December 2014, the number of US ground troops in Iraq had increased to 3,100, while other nations in the US-led Coalition decided to send 1,500 more ground troops to Iraq, increasing the total number of troops to 4,600.[46]

In January 2015, the 1,000 Paratroopers of the "Panther Brigade" of the US Army's 82nd Airborne Division were deployed to Iraq. They came with an additional 300 soldiers, Airmen, and Marines, bringing US troop levels deployed in the country to 4,400.[47]
According to the New York Times, by February 4, 2015, the US had 4,500 troops in Iraq.

U.S. naming controversy[edit]

Unlike previous U.S. combat operations, no name was initially given to the 2014 military operation in Iraq and Syria by the U.S. government, until mid-October.[329] The fact that the operation was still nameless drew considerable media criticism.[330][331][332][333][334] U.S. soldiers remained ineligible for Campaign Medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the U.S. involvement in Iraq.[335] On 15 October 2014, two months after the first airstrikes by the U.S., the operation was named Inherent Resolve.[336]

Technicalities[edit]

Types of aircraft used[edit]

In the first U.S. airstrikes on 8 August, armed drones as well as fixed wing aircraft: McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighters, were used.[337] The F/A-18s were that day launched from the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush. A Navy official said that the two planes involved in the airstrikes were Super Hornets from Carrier Air Wing 8, of Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia.[338] A number of Fairchild Republic A-10C Thunderbolt II's from the USAF's 163d Expeditionary Fighter Squadron were deployed on November 17, 2014.[339]

Air bases and aircraft carriers[edit]

The following is a list of publicly disclosed air bases that have been used for the interventions in Iraq and Syria. It is likely that there are other, yet undisclosed air bases being used. Turkey has long refused to allow using Incirlik Air Base for airstrikes against ISIL.[340][341]

Strategics[edit]

Kurdish and Iraqi forces battling Islamic State fighters have been closely cooperating with U.S. air force controllers based in Baghdad and in Erbil, suggesting ISIL targets to those U.S. air force controllers. The US controllers then checked those suggestions with live stream video information (ISR), to avoid hitting Iraqi or Kurdish forces with their airstrikes.[347]

Reaction[edit]

The initial decision to intervene in Iraq was met with bipartisan support[348] in the United States Congress, albeit subject to a range of interpretations as to what constitutes legitimate intervention. Barbara Lee supported a strictly humanitarian intervention and opposed any mission creep[348][349][350] as did Richard Blumenthal who argued for humanitarian relief, but opposed a prolonged direct military involvement.[348][349][350] Bob Corker expected greater clarity with regards to the intervention's objectives, time frame and source of authorization.[348] while Dick Durbin opined that he, "still had concerns" despite assurances from Obama that no U.S. ground troops would be deployed in Iraq.[350] Congressional Democrats and Republicans who were more hawkish for their support for the intervention included the Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Carl Levin,[350] Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid,[350] chairwoman of the Senate Intelligence Committee Dianne Feinstein[349][350] and then-Speaker of the United States House of Representatives John Boehner.[348][350]

Despite the bipartisan support, the President's decision to re-engage the United States into a conflict in Iraq has attracted criticism from both the political left and right. Andrew Bacevich argued against military action, but not humanitarian assistance[351] as did Seumas Milne who argued against military, but not humanitarian intervention.[352] On the contrary, Cal Thomas accused Obama's decision to withhold American military assistance barring efforts by the Iraqi government to bridge the country's sectarian differences as tantamount to abandonment while an article in the Globe and Mail cautioned that an American intervention "would kill both ISIS and MCIR fighters as well as many Sunni civilians and fail to fix the underlying issues."[353][needs update]An article by the Associated Press wrote that critics of Obama drew a direct connection between his foreign policy approach that underestimated ISIS and his decision to withdraw all American troops from Iraq in late 2011.[354]

Mirroring the bipartisan congressional support for the interventions, polls, notwithstanding varying qualifications, show majorities of Americans supporting air strike in Iraq.[355][356][357][358]

The editorial boards of The Washington Post, The New York Times, The Guardian, and The Wall Street Journal penned editorials that were supportive of the intervention. Two editorials by The Washington Post argued that Iraqi's disintegration would threaten national, regional and global security[359] and described efforts by the Obama administration to create a more inclusive Iraq government as presenting the best hope for the country in its fight against ISIS.[359][360] Two editorials written in August by the New York Times also supported the intervention, praising Obama's sagacity in delivering the necessary humanitarian assistance to the Christians, Yazidis and other minorities on Mount Sinjar while eschewing the redeployment of American ground troops,[361] and describing the subsequent deployment of American military airstrikes and other forms of assistance as, although insufficient, a necessary component of a more comprehensive strategy to defeating ISIS.[362] An editorial by the Guardian written in June opined that ISIS's June 2014 Iraqi offensive invited foreign intervention that included the United States and that Obama's conditionalization of aid on Iraqis working together was in the best interest of all of Iraq's regions.[363] Similarly, an editorial in the Wall Street Journal written in August wrote of the strategic interest the United States had in defeating ISIS and positively assessed the efficacy of American airstrikes in, "...reducing the jihadists' room for maneuver and giving new confidence to the Kurdish forces."[364] While condemning ISIS's savagery and acknowledging the threat to American national interests in the Middle East that the group posed, an editorial by the editorial board of the Los Angeles Times argued that congressional authorization should override Obama's legal authority as the ultimate legal basis for the usage of military force in Iraq.[365]

However, support for the intervention in the media was not unanimous. A Washington Post editorial criticized the American strategy of creating a unity government in order to fight ISIS was a mirage due to the country's political-religious cleavages and ISIS's numerical and technological superiority.[366] William Hartung, writing in Stars and Stripes argued that the intervention would result in mission creep.[367]

In an article for the BBC, Marc Weller, professor of international law at Cambridge University, argued that the US airstrikes are consistent with international law. Specifically, he argued that: the government in Baghdad invited international forces to join in the fight against IS; the newly reconstituted and religiously representative Iraqi government has a positive obligation to deliver on its constitutional promises and defend its population from subjugation by ISIS; and foreign intervention exercising the right of collective self-defense on behalf of Iraq can involve forcible action in IS-controlled territories in Syria that is proportional to the necessity of securing Iraq's borders.[368] Similarly, Michael Ignatieff, professor of politics at Harvard University discussed the international dimensions of American intervention in Iraq in an interview with Der Spiegel in which he described the Islamic State as an "attack on all values of civilization" and that it was essential that America, "continued with their air strikes."[369]

Ramzi Mardini in The New York Times wrote an op-ed opposing armed intervention as it exacerbated the blowback risk of terrorism against US although he did not object to humanitarian assistance aimed at helping the persecuted religious minorities living in ISIS controlled territories and instead called for greater diplomatic intervention in which the United States played a key role as an arbiter between Iraq's warring sectarian factions.[370] On the other hand, Aaron Zelin of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy argues that ISIS are "likely planning attacks whether the U.S. conducts targeted air strikes or not" and that, in his opinion, the United States, "should destroy them as soon as possible."[371] Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and members of the Republican party including John McCain, Lindsey Graham, Ted Cruz, and John Boehner have likewise called for greater military strikes in the region to contain the Islamic State.[372]

In an interview with the Atlantic, Hillary Clinton suggested that the current crisis in Iraq was a result of his [President Obama] refusal to arm Syrian rebels, which Obama, in a meeting with lawmakers before Clinton’s interview, criticized as "horseshit."[373]

An editorial in Vox defined the intervention as being limited to Kurdistan, effectively allowing the Islamic State to control a large part of Iraq absent any other occupying power. The editorial argued that the stability of Kurdistan would make it a better ally for the US.[374]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The numbers are given by the U.S. Department of Defense and includes "casualties that occurred in Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the Mediterranean Sea east of 25° Longitude, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea".[95]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Australia says it is deploying warplanes to join Iraq campaign". The Daily Telegraph. Yahoo. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  2. ^ Battling Dutch, Belgium prepare to send forces, MSN .
  3. ^ a b "Denmark, Belgium Join Fight Against ISIS In Iraq", The Huffington Post, 26 September 2014, retrieved 6 March 2015 .
  4. ^ a b c "Sweden rejects calls for military support to Iraq". The Local. SE. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  5. ^ "Islamic State: France ready to launch Iraq air strikes". BBC. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "France bombs Isis depot in Iraq". The Guardian. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  7. ^ "Germany decides to send more troops to Iraq". Iraqi News. 
  8. ^ "German Tornado jets begin mission against 'IS'". Deutsche Welle. 
  9. ^ a b c "Jordan carries out air strikes in Iraq, killing 55 IS militants". i24 News. i24 News. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  10. ^ "Morocco Sends its F16s to Syria and Iraq to Fight ISIS". The Moroccan Times. 
  11. ^ Dutch send fighter jets to strike Iraq, Yahoo .
  12. ^ a b "Britain ready to supply Kurds with arms". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  13. ^ "RAF jets sent on Iraqi combat mission", BBC, 27 September 2014 .
  14. ^ Van Heuvelen, Ben. "Amid turmoil, Iraq's Kurdish region is laying foundation for independent state". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 June 2014. Kurdistan's military forces... have taken over many of the northernmost positions abandoned by the national army, significantly expanding the zone of Kurdish control... ‘In most places, we aren't bothering them [ISIS], and they aren’t bothering us – or the civilians,’ said Lt. Gen. Shaukur Zibari, a pesh merga commander. 
  15. ^ "Greece Brings War Against the Islamic State". Greek Reporter. 25 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Canada to join anti-Islamic State air strikes". BBC News. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  17. ^ "Italy Send Aid to Iraq". RIA. RU. 15 August 2014. 
  18. ^ "Renzi arrives in Baghdad for meetings with Iraq leaders". Gazzetta del Sud. Italy. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  19. ^ Singapore to join coalition against ISIS, The Daily Star, 3 November 2014 
  20. ^ a b Nissenbaum, Dion (14 August 2014). "US Military Shifts to Helping Kurds Fight Back". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  21. ^ Weaver, Matthew (14 August 2014). "Iraq crisis: EU backs plans by member states to arm Kurd fighters". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  22. ^ a b Likmeta, Besar (27 August 2014). "Albania Starts Shifting Weapons to Iraqi Kurds". Balkan Insight. 
  23. ^ "До 2020 година 1.8 млрд. лв. ще бъдат вложени в армията" [1.8 bln. lv will be invested in the military by 2020] (in Bulgarian). BG: Dir. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014. Shalamanov does not consider the conflict in Ukraine to be the only short-term threat for Bulgarian national security, which is why our country is sending armaments to the opponents of Islamic State... According to him, the events in northern Iraq and Syria represent a growing risk that threatens our national interests. 
  24. ^ "Hrvatska u borbi protiv islamista: Na zahtjev SAD-a šaljemo oružje za iračku vojsku". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). HR. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  25. ^ "Slovakia Launches Aid for Displaced Civilians in Northern Iraq". Emerging Europe (blog). The Wall Street Journal. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  26. ^ "Norway Pledges Super Hercules Aircraft for Iraq Aid Effort". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  27. ^ "Polish Aid For Refugees from Nineveh in Iraq". PL: MSZ. 
  28. ^ "Defense.gov News Article: DoD Authorizes War on Terror Award for Inherent Resolve Ops". Defense.gov. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  29. ^ "Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal authorized for Operation Inherent Resolve". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  30. ^ "Airstrikes in Iraq and Syria". US Department of Defense. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  31. ^ "ISIS Lost 40 Percent of Territory in Iraq, 20 Percent in Syria: Coalition Spokesman". nbcnews.com. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  32. ^ "France strikes Islamic State group's depot in Iraq", ABC News, Go .
  33. ^ a b Mamoun, Abdelhak. "ISIS leader al-Baghdadi is incapacitated, says the Guardian". Iraqi news. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  34. ^ "Report: A former physics teacher is now leading ISIS - Business Insider". Business Insider. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  35. ^ a b c "ISIS' Abu Alaa al-Afri killed alongside dozens of followers in air strike - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  36. ^ "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". New York Times. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  37. ^ a b Alessandria Masi (11 November 2014). "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph Of The Islamic State Group?". International Business Times. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  38. ^ Matt Bradley and Ghassan Adnan in Baghdad, and Felicia Schwartz in Washington (10 November 2014). "Coalition Airstrikes Targeted Islamic State Leaders Near Mosul". WSJ. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  39. ^ "IS Governor of Anbar killed in Airstrike - BasNews". basnews.com. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  40. ^ al-Obaidi, Hassan (8 September 2014). "Iraqi airstrike kills key ISIL leader". Al Shorfa. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  41. ^ "3 ISIL leaders killed in Iraqi airstrike north of Mosul". Al Shorfa. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  42. ^ "Top ISIS Leader Killed in Mosul by US Coalition Airstrike". Christian Post. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  43. ^ a b Per Liljas (25 December 2014). "Iraqi Police: Coalition Airstrikes Kill ISIS Governor of Mosul". Time. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  44. ^ "Top ISIS leader who was once Saddam general killed in Fallujah". Rudaw. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  45. ^ a b Kukil Bora (13 April 2015). "ISIS Leader Abu Maria Killed By Iraqi Forces In Tikrit: Report". International Business Times. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  46. ^ a b "Islamic State: Coalition 'pledges more troops' for Iraq". BBC News. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  47. ^ a b c "1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  48. ^ a b "Militants attack government forces near Iraq's Baiji refinery". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  49. ^ Lamothe, Dan (19 July 2014). "US companies pulling contractors from Iraqi bases as security crumbles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  50. ^ Nissenbaum, Dion (3 February 2014). "Role of US Contractors Grows as Iraq Fights Insurgents". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  51. ^ "USS Carl Vinson Takes Over Airstrike Campaign From USS George H. W. Bush (Video) - Home Post". Homepost.kpbs.org. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  52. ^ "See U.S. warships head for ISIS fight". CNN. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  53. ^ "USS Carl Vinson begins return to San Diego". 13 April 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  54. ^ "A War for Show". National Review Online. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  55. ^ "US airstrikes in Syria", ABC News, Go .
  56. ^ "Raptors, bombers & drones: How US-led ISIS strikes caused carnage in Syria". RT. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  57. ^ Rush, James (6 October 2014). "Isis air strikes: US brings in Apache helicopters as British jets target militants in Iraq". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  58. ^ "U.S. expands airstrikes against Islamic State militants in northern Iraq". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  59. ^ "Reaper drones pinpoint Jihadi John". Mail Online. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  60. ^ a b Cooper, Hayden (5 October 2014). "Australians back air strikes against Isis in Iraq by three to one, poll shows". TheGuardian.com. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  61. ^ "Australia says ready to strike ISIL in Iraq". AlJazeera.com. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  62. ^ Bree, Max (9 October 2014). "Largest group in decades". Air Force. Australian Department of Defence. p. 3. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  63. ^ McGuirk, Rod (3 October 2014). "Australia says it will launch airstrikes in Iraq". NavyTimes.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  64. ^ Radulova, Lillian (1 September 2014). "Australian military transport plane 'shot at' by Islamic State fighters in northern Iraq while delivering aid". DailyMail.co.uk. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  65. ^ a b c McInnis, Kathleen (18 November 2015). "Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. pp. 8, 10. Retrieved 21 December 2015. (Page 8:) Belgium (Training Mission Contributions:) 35 (Airstrike Contributions:) Mission discontinued (b) ... (Page 10, Note b:) Belgium’s contribution to the airstrikes against ISIL ended June 30, 2015, due to financial constraints. Six Belgian F-16 fighters spent nine months in Jordan. 
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h "Which Countries Are Doing What in the ISIS Coalition?". NBC News. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  67. ^ a b RTBF Info. "Feu presque vert pour l'envoi de six F16 belges pour combattre l'EI". RTBF Info. Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
  68. ^ a b c "House approves combat mission against ISIS". ctvnews.ca. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  69. ^ "ISIS in Iraq: Canada to send special ops soldiers as advisers". cbc.ca. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  70. ^ "MPs vote to join U.S.-led bombing campaign against ISIL". canada.com. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  71. ^ "Canadian transport planes join military effort in Iraq". thestar.com. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  72. ^ Dánsko vyšle sedm stíhaček proti Islámskému státu v Iráku (in Czech), CZ: Český noviny .
  73. ^ "Danmarks bidrag til støtte i kampen mod DAESH". Forsvaret.dk. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  74. ^ "Carte-chammal". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  75. ^ "Carte-chammal". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  76. ^ "Carte-chammal". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  77. ^ "Carte-chammal". Defense.gouv.fr. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  78. ^ "Einsatzzahlen – die Stärke der deutschen Kontingente". Bundeswehr. 13 May 2016. 
  79. ^ a b "Syria conflict: German MPs vote for anti-IS military mission". BBC. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  80. ^ "Isis: Italy to send 280 soldiers to Iraq". 
  81. ^ "M5s: "Il governo invia caccia contro l'Is senza autorizzazione". Fonti esercito: solo ricognizione". Repubblica.it. 16 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  82. ^ "Dutch Parliament commits soldiers, F-16s to fight ISIS in Iraq". NL Times. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  83. ^ a b Kitchin, Robert (5 November 2014). "NZ military personnel headed for Iraq". Stuff.co.nz. 
  84. ^ "Spain Sending 300 Soldiers to Iraq as a Training Force". The Epoch Times. 10 October 2014. 
  85. ^ "Spain to deploy Patriot anti-missile missiles with NATO in Turkey". El País. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  86. ^ "Two more UK Tornados to join fight against Islamic State". BBC.com. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  87. ^ "UK Reaper drones to be sent to Iraq". Drone Wars UK. 
  88. ^ "ISIS, Inc. – Jihadists attract investors, fighters with annual reports & glossy PR". RT. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  89. ^ "ISIS militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". El-balad.com. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  90. ^ "MEI Editor's Blog: The Fight for Samarra: did ISIS Use a Helicopter?". Middle East Institute Editor's Blog. 
  91. ^ "U.S.-led forces drop nearly 5,000 bombs on ISIS". Al Arabiya. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015. 
  92. ^ "Now ISIS has drones?". CNN. 24 August 2014. 
  93. ^ "Footage From an ISIS Drone". NYTimes.com - Video. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  94. ^ "ISIS: We Nabbed an Iranian Drone". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  95. ^ a b "OPERATION INHERENT RESOLVE (OIR) U.S. CASUALTY STATUS" (PDF). defense.gov. 9 September 2015. 
  96. ^ "Marine, 19, becomes second U.S. military death in campaign against ISIS just one month after deployment to Iraq". Mail Online. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  97. ^ "Marine is first US death in operations against Islamic State". The Times of India. Reuters. October 4, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2014. 
  98. ^ "First on CNN: American killed as hostages rescued in Iraq, Pentagon says". CNN. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  99. ^ "Soldier Shot in Nose First US Combat Casualty in Fight Against ISIS". Military.com. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  100. ^ Starr, Barbara; Sciutto, Jim (20 March 2016). "U.S. Marine killed in Iraq after rocket attack". cnn.com. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  101. ^ "Isil using anti-aircraft batteries captured in Iraq", The World Tribune, 12 September 2014 
  102. ^ "BBC News – Libya hotel attack: Five foreigners among nine killed". BBC News. 
  103. ^ IS beheads French hostage in video, Sky 
  104. ^ a b "David Haines's 'evil murder' condemned by PM". BBC News. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  105. ^ "Sgt. Andrew Doiron, Canadian soldier killed in Iraq, made military his 'mission'". 9 March 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  106. ^ "BBC News – Saudi guards killed in attack on Iraq border". BBC News. 
  107. ^ "Estimate: 45,000 ISIS-linked fighters killed in the last two years, says US Military Official.". Fox News. August 10, 2016.
  108. ^ "The International Coalition completes its second year of intervention in Syria, killing more than 6200 persons, including 611 Syrian civilians". SOHR. September 22, 2016. Retrieved September 22, 2016. 
  109. ^ "Airstrikes in Iraq and Syria". US Department of Defense. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  110. ^ Reuters, Brett Wolf, "RPT-INSIGHT-In taking economic war to Islamic State, U.S. developing new tools", Nov. 24 2015.
  111. ^ a b "Iraq 2014: Civilian deaths almost doubling year on year". IBC. 1 January 2015. 
  112. ^ a b "Iraq 2015: A Catastrophic Normal". IBC. 1 January 2016. 
  113. ^ a b Hopkins, Steve (14 October 2014). "Full horror of the Yazidis who didn't escape Mount Sinjar: UN confirms 5,000 men were executed and 7,000 women are now kept as sex slaves". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  114. ^ "Iraq crisis: Islamists force 500,000 to flee Mosul". BBC News. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  115. ^ "10,000 Yazidis rescued through safe corridor, as ISIL 'fire on aid helicopters'". Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  116. ^ a b "DoD Authorizes War on Terror Award for Inherent Resolve Ops". Defense.gov. Department of Defense. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  117. ^ a b Arango, Tim (3 August 2014). "Sunni Extremists in Iraq Seize 3 Towns From Kurds and Threaten Major Dam". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2014. 
  118. ^ a b c "Obama Authorizes Air Strikes in Iraq – ABC News". ABC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  119. ^ a b "First ground clash between ISIS and US forces in Iraq". Shafaq News. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  120. ^ a b Austen, Ian (19 January 2015). "Canada: Troops Clash With ISIS in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  121. ^ a b ISIL Loses Control of Once-dominated Iraq Territory, US: Department of Defense, 13 April 2015, retrieved 18 April 2015 .
  122. ^ "U.S. Secretly Flying Drones Over Iraq". WSJ. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  123. ^ a b "U.S. has armed drones over Baghdad, official says". CNN. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  124. ^ "Frontline (U.S. TV series)" (transcript) (TV program). PBS. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  125. ^ "Al-Qaeda group claims Salim death". BBC News. 19 May 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  126. ^ Roggio, Bill (10 June 2014). "ISIS takes control of Mosul, Iraq's second largest city". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  127. ^ "Kurdish peshmerga seize a chaotic victory in Kirkuk". The Guardian. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  128. ^ "Jihadists sent chilling email to Foley family before execution". Big News Network. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014. 
  129. ^ "Beheadings as Terror Marketing". The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  130. ^ "Wat bracht James Foley naar Syrië, en hoe is hij verdwenen?" [What brought James Foley to Syria, and how did he disappear?], NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch), NL, 20 August 2014, retrieved 5 March 2015 .
  131. ^ ‘U.S. Forms Anti-ISIS Coalition at NATO Summit’. Time, 5 September 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  132. ^ ‘International Conference on Peace and Security in Iraq (Paris, September 15, 2014)’. France Diplomatie (undated). Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  133. ^ ‘Joint Statement Issued by Partners at the Counter-ISIL Coalition Ministerial Meeting’. United States Department of State, 3 December 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  134. ^ "US Ops in Iraq Have Cost €550 Million Since June", Defense News, 29 August 2014, retrieved 22 November 2014 .
  135. ^ "Armed U.S. aircraft now flying over Iraq: defense officials". Reuters. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  136. ^ Youssef, Nancy A. (30 June 2014). "480 U.S. troops now in Baghdad as officials move to secure access to airport". Washington, DC: McClatchy DC. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  137. ^ "U.S. Sees Risks in Assisting a Compromised Iraqi Force", The New York Times, 13 July 2014, retrieved 14 November 2014 .
  138. ^ Cox, Carmen (15 July 2014). "Report: Iraqi Army Infiltrated with Extremists from Both Sides". ABC News Radio Online. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  139. ^ "Pentagon report warns of security risks for US advisers in Iraq". The Hill. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  140. ^ Jacob Siegel (7 August 2014). "Will U.S. Troops Stand By While ISIS Starves Thousands?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  141. ^ "Iraq Christians flee as Islamic State takes Qaraqosh". BBC News. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  142. ^ Salih, Mohammed; van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (5 August 2014). "Iraqi Yazidis: 'If we move they will kill us'". Aljazeera. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  143. ^ a b c d e U.S. jet fighters, drones strike ISIS figtrers, convoys in Iraq. CNN, 9 August 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  144. ^ a b c d "Statement by the President". The White House. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  145. ^ a b c "U.S. airstrikes target Islamic State militants in northern Iraq". The Washington Post. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  146. ^ Kliff, Sarah (7 August 2014). "President Obama's full statement on the Iraq crisis", Vox. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  147. ^ a b c "Militants' Siege on Mountain in Iraq Is Over, Pentagon Says". The New York Times. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  148. ^ "The New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2 December 2014. 
  149. ^ "Obama Says Iraq Airstrike Effort Could Be Long-Term". The New York Times. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014. .
  150. ^ "U.S. Launches Four More Airstrikes Against ISIS in Iraq". NBC News. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  151. ^ "Iraq Airstrikes From US Military". Business Insider. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  152. ^ a b c d "Iraq: Troops swell in Baghdad amid humanitarian chaos". CNN. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  153. ^ "Kurdish forces claim to recapture 2 Iraqi towns from IS with US air support (+ video)". Christian Science Monitor. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  154. ^ Harper, Jon (11 August 2014). "General: Iraq airstrikes have limited, 'temporary effect'". Stars and Stripes (newspaper). Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  155. ^ "Officials: More U.S. advisers being sent to Iraq". CNN. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  156. ^ Shelton, Tracey (29 August 2014). "'If it wasn't for the Kurdish fighters, we would have died up there'". Global Post. Retrieved 11 February 2015. 
  157. ^ "Iraq crisis: US strikes aid Kurdish bid to retake dam". BBC. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  158. ^ a b "Iraq crisis: Mosul dam recaptured from militants – Obama". BBC. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  159. ^ US Operation Against ISIL in Iraq Remains Nameless. Military.com, 18 August 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  160. ^ ‘Letter from the President -- War Powers Resolution Regarding Iraq’. The White House, 17 August 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  161. ^ Bill Roggio (18 August 2014). "US airpower supports Peshmerga, Iraqi forces to retake Mosul Dam". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  162. ^ a b John Beck (8 September 2014). "Iraqi Forces Have Pushed Back Islamic State Fighters From the Haditha Dam". Vice News. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  163. ^ "Meet The 'Invisible General' Leading The War On ISIS". Business Insider. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014. 
  164. ^ "Islamic State crisis: Iraq air strikes 'halt IS advance'". BBC News. 29 September 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014. 
  165. ^ "U.S. and Britain combine to launch the largest day yet for airstrikes in Iraq and Syria". The Washington Post. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  166. ^ a b "US spending on ISIL growing". Federal News Radio. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  167. ^ 10,000 ISIS fighters head to Baghdad. CNN (video), 11 October 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  168. ^ a b Leaders of Iraq’s Anbar province call for U.S. ground forces to stop ISIS. CNN, 12 October 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  169. ^ ISIS could hold swath from northern Syria to the gates of Baghdad. CNN, 13 October 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  170. ^ Mary Grace Lucas, CNN (12 October 2014). "ISIS nearly made it to Baghdad airport, Dempsey says - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  171. ^ a b Schmitt, Eric (November 26, 2014). "US Adds Planes to Bolster Drive to Wipe Out ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  172. ^ "US servicemen in first ground battle with ISIS – Kurdish media". Russia Today. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  173. ^ "Reports of U.S. Ground Fighters Emerge as ISIS Gains in Iraq". The Fiscal Times. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  174. ^ "American troops battle ISIS for first time as they see off attempted attack by militants on Iraqi base". Daily Mail. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  175. ^ "U.S. Ground Troops Fighting Isis In Iraq". Fox News Radio. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  176. ^ "Pentagon: US Troops Not in Ground Combat with ISIS In Iraq". Breitbart. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  177. ^ "Hundreds of US troops now deployed in Iraq's Anbar province". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  178. ^ "ISIL land mines frustrate effort to get aid to freed Mount Sinjar Yazidis". Aljazeera America. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015. 
  179. ^ "Iraq: ISIS leader Baghdadi injured, stays in Syria". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  180. ^ Morris, Loveday (January 21, 2015) Kurds say they have ejected Islamic State from large area in Northern Iraq The Washington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2015
  181. ^ "Canada's top general says special forces' role in Iraq has evolved". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  182. ^ Tim Lister (February 18, 2015). "Kurds: ISIS launches 'major' assault near Irbil". Catherine E. Shoichet. CNN. 
  183. ^ Mohammed, Riyadh. "ISIS Turns to Chemical Weapons As It Loses Ground in Iraq". The Fiscal Times. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. 
  184. ^ Greg Botelho and Barbara Starr, CNN (20 February 2015). "Official: Iraqi troops plan Mosul offensive in spring - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  185. ^ a b ISIS threatens: any civilian leaves Mosul to be beheaded. ARA News, 11 March 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  186. ^ "Islamic State chief Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi seriously injured after US-led air strike in Iran". Firstpost. 
  187. ^ "Islamic State conflict: US launches Tikrit air strikes". BBC News. 
  188. ^ "Opening New Iraq Front, U.S. Strikes ISIS in Tikrit". The New York Times. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  189. ^ a b "Map of Countires Supporting the Proliferation Security Initiative". Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  190. ^ "Iraq premier: Troops in center of Islamic State-held Tikrit". AOL. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  191. ^ Sarhan, Amre. "Military operation began to liberate Anbar, says Anbar Council". Iraqi news. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  192. ^ Mamoun, Abdelhak. "ISIS executes 300 people west of Anbar". Iraqi news. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  193. ^ Tears for Tikrit, Iraq: Keye TV .
  194. ^ a b Mamoun, Abdelhak. "130 ISIS elements killed, sleeper cells found in Tikrit". Iraqi news. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  195. ^ "Liberated from Islamic State, Tikrit struggles with reconciliation". PBS News Hour. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  196. ^ "Lessons From the Second Battle of Tikrit: March 2-April 4, 2015". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  197. ^ Moore, Jack (April 22, 2015). "ISIS Replace Injured Leader Baghdadi With Former Physics Teacher". Newsweek. Retrieved April 22, 2015. 
  198. ^ a b Starr, Barbara; Walsh, Nick Paton; Alkhshali, Hamdi (13 May 2015). "ISIS' No. 2 leader Abu Alaa al-Afri killed, Iraq says". CNN. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  199. ^ "Islamic State deputy leader killed in Iraq air strike". News. BBC. May 13, 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
  200. ^ Harris, Shane; Youssef, Nancy A. (10 September 2015). "Exclusive: 50 Spies Say ISIS Intelligence Was Cooked". thedailybeast.com. Retrieved 15 June 2016. 
  201. ^ "DoD Identifies Army Casualty". U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. Department of Defense. 23 October 2015. 
  202. ^ "DoD identifies soldier killed in commando raid in Iraq". Armytimes. 23 October 2015. 
  203. ^ "U.S. soldier killed in Iraq raid rushed into firefight: Carter". reuters. 23 October 2015. 
  204. ^ "U.S. Identifies American Killed in Iraq Raid as Master Sgt. Joshua Wheeler". Wall Street Journal. October 23, 2015. Retrieved October 24, 2015. 
  205. ^ a b "Head of Isis chemical weapons program captured by US in Iraq last month". the telegraph. 9 March 2016. 
  206. ^ "Army's Delta Force begins to target ISIS in Iraq". CNN. 29 February 2016. 
  207. ^ "U.S. Captures ISIS Operative, Ushering in Tricky Phase". New York Times. 1 March 2016. 
  208. ^ "US special operations troops capture ISIS operative in Iraq". Fox News. 2 March 2016. 
  209. ^ "More US Marines Sent To Iraq To Deal With IS". Sky News. 20 March 2016. 
  210. ^ "U.S. sets up firebase in Northern Iraq". CNN. 20 March 2016. 
  211. ^ "More Marines headed to Iraq to fight ISIS after rocket attack". the marine corps times. 20 March 2016. 
  212. ^ "Marines identify staff NCO killed in ISIS rocket attack in Iraq". the marine corps times. 20 March 2016. 
  213. ^ "Isis second in command killed in US raid in Syria, Pentagon says". the guardian. 25 March 2016. 
  214. ^ "US extra troops to boost fight against IS in Iraq". BBC. 18 April 2016. 
  215. ^ "Apache helicopters used for first time against Islamic State in Iraq". stars and stripes. 14 June 2016. 
  216. ^ "U.S. Military Says it has Killed more than 120 Islamic State Leaders". military.com. 12 June 2016. 
  217. ^ "U.S. Navy SEAL killed in Iraq battle vs. ISIS". CBS. 3 May 2016. 
  218. ^ a b "US serviceman killed in Iraq as IS breaches Peshmerga lines". 3 May 2016. 
  219. ^ . CNN. 3 May 2016 http://edition.cnn.com/2016/05/03/politics/us-service-member-killed-iraq-mosul/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  220. ^ a b "Inside the Battle With ISIS That Killed a US Navy SEAL". ABC news. 4 May 2016. 
  221. ^ "Navy SEAL killed by ISIS gave up track stardom to fight". fox news. 4 May 2016. 
  222. ^ "Senior Islamic State leader in Iraq, Abu Wahib, 'killed' by US airstrike". the guardian. 10 May 2016. 
  223. ^ "US airstrike kills ISIS 'Emir of Anbar Province' in Iraq". fox news. 9 May 2016. 
  224. ^ "US air strikes kill Isis leader Maher al-Bilawi in Iraqi city of Fallujah". the independent. 28 May 2016. 
  225. ^ "US-backed forces launch operation to retake ISIS-held Syrian town near Turkish border". fox news. 1 June 2016. 
  226. ^ "U.S. says Apache helicopter carries out strike in Iraq". reuters. 13 June 2016. 
  227. ^ "Carter: at least 1 Apache helicopter used in combat in Iraq". Washington post. 13 June 2016. 
  228. ^ "US Apache helicopters strike IS for first time in Iraq". yahoo news. 13 June 2016. 
  229. ^ "Airstrike kills 2 ISIS commanders, U.S. says". CNN. 1 July 2016. 
  230. ^ "IS Repels Advance by US-Backed Syria Rebels Near Iraq Border". New York times. 29 June 2016. 
  231. ^ "ISIL retakes Syria border town from US-backed rebels". Aljazeera. 29 June 2016. 
  232. ^ "US airstrikes 'kill at least 250 Isis militants' in Iraq". the independent. 30 June 2016. 
  233. ^ "US, Iraqi strikes kill at least 250 ISIS fighters in Iraq convoys". Fox News. 30 June 2016. 
  234. ^ "250 ISIS Militants Killed in US Airstrikes, Officials Say". abc news. 29 June 2016. 
  235. ^ "Fleeing Islamic State Trucks Bombed From Air". Sky news. 1 July 2016. 
  236. ^ "IS conflict: US to send 560 more troops to Iraq". BBC. 11 July 2016. 
  237. ^ "Ash Carter: U.S. sending more troops to Iraq". CNN. 11 July 2016. 
  238. ^ "Nearly 45,000 ISIS-linked fighters killed in past 2 years, US military official says". fox news. 10 August 2016. 
  239. ^ Operation Inherent Resolve's official Facebook page, U.S. Department of Defense, facebook.com, October 5th 2015
  240. ^ Khalilzad, Zalmay (5 August 2014). "To fight the Islamic State, Kurdish and Iraqi forces need expedited aid". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 
  241. ^ Cloud, David; Bennet, Brian (11 August 2014). "U.S., allies rush heavy weapons to Kurds to fight militants in Iraq". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 
  242. ^ a b "Iraq crisis: EU condemns 'atrocities' by IS militants". BBC. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  243. ^ a b c "Middle East". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  244. ^ Richard Norton-Taylor, Nicholas Watt and Julian Borger (13 August 2014). "British SAS sent to Iraq on 'intelligence' mission before airlift of Yazidi refugees". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  245. ^ Swinford, Steven. "UK jets deployed to stop advance of Islamic State in Iraq". Telegraph. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 
  246. ^ "Equipment provided for northern Iraq (German)". Bundeswehr. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014. 
  247. ^ "Peshmerga in critical condition flown to Germany". Rudaw News Agency. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  248. ^ "International Training Mission Begins for Forces in Northern Iraq". Germany.info. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  249. ^ a b c Redazione ANSA (21 August 2014). "Iraq: Renzi, 'qui come Srebenica'. Armi ai curdi, ok delle Camere – Medio Oriente". ANSA.it. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  250. ^ "Seven Countries to sell weapons to Kurds". Bas News. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  251. ^ Wroe, David (31 August 2014). "SAS to Protect Crews on Arms Drops in Iraq". The Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney: Fairfax Media. ISSN 0312-6315. 
  252. ^ "ADF delivers fourth arms shipment to Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  253. ^ "ADF delivers fifth shipment to Iraq" (Press release). Department of Defence. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  254. ^ "Tony Abbott commits Australian forces to Iraq". Sydney Morning Herald. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  255. ^ "Croatia Gives Weapons to Kurds in Iraq". 22 August 2014. 
  256. ^ "Z Pardubic dnes odletěla do Iráku druhá část munice pro Kurdy". ČTK (in Czech). České noviny.cz. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  257. ^ "Letoun s protitankovými střelami pro Kurdy vzlétl z Pardubic" (in Czech). Aktuálně.cz. 20 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  258. ^ Patrick Wintour (4 September 2014). "Britain to arm Kurds fighting Isis in northern Iraq". The Guardian. 
  259. ^ "Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against ISIL". World Bulletin. 22 November 2014. 
  260. ^ a b "Lines blur for US troops in fight against ISIS". The Hill. 27 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  261. ^ a b Obama doubling US troop levels in Iraq. Stars and Stripes, 7 November 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  262. ^ NRC Handelsblad, 11 November 2014.
  263. ^ "Germany to start airlifting aid to Iraq". DW.DE. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  264. ^ Canadian military advisers join fight against Isis in Iraq, MSN, archived from the original on 6 October 2014 
  265. ^ "Denmark to help Iraq 'go on offence' against Isis". The Local. 8 November 2014. 
  266. ^ ‘Norway to send 120 soldiers to Iraq to help train army’. Al Arabiya News, 30 October 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  267. ^ "Abbott confirms 300 more troops going to train Iraqis". New Zealand Herald. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015. 
  268. ^ a b "España enviará unos 300 militares a Irak para instruir a su Ejército". El País. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  269. ^ "Llegada del material de la batería Patriot a Turquía". Ministerio de Defensa. 10 January 2015. 
  270. ^ a b ‘Australia to contribute to the Building Partner Capacity mission in Iraq’. Australian government, 14 April 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  271. ^ a b 'Counter-ISIL military coalition concludes operational planning conference'. U.S. Central Command News Release, 1 May 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  272. ^ "US forces bomb Isis militant positions in northern Iraq". The Guardian. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  273. ^ "Officials: U.S. Special Forces Land on Sinjar Mountain in Iraq". KTLA. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  274. ^ "U.S. Navy jets prepare for Iraq missions". The Washington Post. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  275. ^ "U.S. Hits ISIS Position Near Baghdad in New Phase of Strikes: Official". NBC News. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  276. ^ a b 'ISIS mission: MPs approve Canada’s air combat role'. CBCNews, 8 October 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  277. ^ a b ISIS weapons hit by CF-18 jets in northern Iraq, DND says. CBCNews, 11 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  278. ^ Bacchi, Umberto (15 September 2014). "ISIS Action: French Rafale Fighter Jets Fly over Iraq as Anti-Islamic State Paris Summit Begins". International Business Times. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  279. ^ "France launches first air strikes on IS in Iraq". 19 September 2014. 
  280. ^ "French planes carry out air strikes on Isis targets in Iraq". The Guardian. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  281. ^ "U.S.-led coalition target IS oil facilities in eastern Syria". Military Times. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 
  282. ^ "Jordan Considers Expanding Role in Coalition to Hit Islamic State in Iraq". Wall Street Journal. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  283. ^ "Moroccan F-16 Carry Out Airstrikes Against ISIS". Morocco World News. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  284. ^ "Two more UK Tornados to join fight against Islamic State". BBC News. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  285. ^ "UK drone carries out first strike in Iraq". BBC News. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  286. ^ "LATEST: air strikes in Iraq". Ministry of Defence. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  287. ^ "Remarks by President Obama and Prime Minister Cameron of the United Kingdom in Joint Press Conference". The White House. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  288. ^ "Isis: British RAF Reaper Drones Conduct First Airstrikes on Terror Group in Iraq". International Business Times. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  289. ^ "RAF prepares jets to strike Isis targets in Iraq". The Guardian. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. An RAF Rivet Joint surveillance plane equipped with listening devices has also been flying missions from al-Udeid air base in Qatar to eavesdrop on Isis communications. 
  290. ^ "The Aviationist " This is how Italian Tornado jets and Predator drones will contribute to the war on ISIS". The Aviationist. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  291. ^ "Ministry of Defence". Difesa.it. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  292. ^ "Wary Spain Remains Reluctant Partner in anti-IS Coalition". Rudaw. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  293. ^ "Turkish MPs back operations in Syria and Iraq". Al Jazeera. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  294. ^ "Turkey to allow army to fight in Syria and Iraq, but blocks Kurds". The Los Angeles Times. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  295. ^ "Belgian and RNLAF F-16s Go Dutch Supporting Iraqi Forces". Aviation Week. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  296. ^ 'Belgian and RNLAF F-16s Go Dutch Supporting Iraqi Forces'. Aviation Week, 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  297. ^ a b ‘Denmark drops its first bombs on Isis targets’. The Local, 20 October 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  298. ^ McInnis, Kathleen (18 November 2015). "Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  299. ^ "News Article: U.S. Conducts Another Humanitarian Airdrop in Iraq". U.S. Department of Defense. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  300. ^ "Airstrikes kill ISIS fighters in Iraq, officials say". CNN. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  301. ^ a b "Sinjar Exodus: 1000 Iraqi Families Flee Islamic State Militia to War-Torn Syria". International Business Times. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  302. ^ a b "JTF633 supports Herc mercy dash" (Press release). Department of Defence. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014. 
  303. ^ "Australia steps up assistance to Iraqi people" (Press release). Department of Defence. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  304. ^ Katharine Murphy, deputy political editor (14 August 2014). "Australian troops complete first humanitarian mission in northern Iraq". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  305. ^ "Denmark ready to help U.S. provide humanitarian aid in Iraq: PM". Shanghai Daily. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  306. ^ "France Pledges Support for Kurdish Forces in Iraq". WSJ. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
  307. ^ Germany rules out sending arms to Kurds in Iraq, Turkish Weekly, 11 August 2014. Retrieved ...
  308. ^ "Iraq conflict: US in new air strikes on militants". BBC News. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  309. ^ "British May Use RAF Tornados In Iraq Mission". Sky News. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  310. ^ "RAF Tornado jets leave UK for Iraq aid mission". BBC News. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  311. ^ "NZ supports humanitarian effort in Iraq". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 13 November 2014. 
  312. ^ "EU ministers agree to back arming of Iraqi Kurds". RTÉ News. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  313. ^ Borschel, Amanda (16 June 2014). "EU seeks region's support to help Iraq stave off Islamic State". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  314. ^ "Summary findings on Coalition airstrikes: August 8th 2014 to December 31st 2015". airwars.org. Retrieved January 2015.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  315. ^ "Airstrikes 'kill 8,500' ISIL fighters says U.S. general". World Bulletin. 23 February 2015. 
  316. ^ "US-led air strikes on Syria ISIL targets 'kill 1,600'". Al-Jazeera. February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2014. 
  317. ^ Tim Lister, CNN (28 May 2015). "Why ISIS is winning, and how its foes can reverse it - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  318. ^ "U.S led coalition airstrikes on Syria kill more than 2500 in the past 8 months". SOHR. May 23, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  319. ^ Jim Michaels (29 July 2015). "Islamic State recruiting offsets 15,000 killed by airstrikes in past year". USA Today. Retrieved 30 July 2015. The U.S.-led coalition confirmed the 15,000 casualty number but would not discuss it publicly. 
  320. ^ "About 3000 people, including 162 civilians, killed in US- coalition airstrikes on areas in Syria". SOHR. June 23, 2015. Retrieved June 23, 2015. 
  321. ^ Yao Jianing. "China Military Online English Edition". Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  322. ^ "Nearly 1,000 peshmerga killed since June 2014 - Iraq - Worldbulletin News". World Bulletin. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  323. ^ "Kurdish Forces Show The Strain Of The ISIS Fight". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  324. ^ "US Marine 'presumed lost' in the Persian Gulf". Fox News. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  325. ^ "US To Send 130 More Military Advisors To Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  326. ^ "US troops land on Iraq's Mt Sinjar to plan for Yazidi evacuation". The Guardian. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  327. ^ "Obama to send approximately 350 additional military personnel to Iraq". Fox News. Associated Press. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  328. ^ "Obama outlines plan to target IS fighters". Al Jazeera English. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  329. ^ "US Operation Against ISIL in Iraq Remains Nameless". Military. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  330. ^ "The War On ISIS Has 'No Name'-And It Won't Get One Anytime Soon". Business Insider. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  331. ^ "The Military Can't Come Up With A Name For Its War Against ISIS. We're Here To Help.". The Huffington Post. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  332. ^ "What's in a Name: Obama's Anonymous War Against ISIS". US News & World Report. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  333. ^ "U.S. Needs a Name for the Operation Against ISIS -- NYMag". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  334. ^ "The War With No Name". The American Prospect. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  335. ^ "Troops not eligible for campaign medal in fight against ISIS". TheHill. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  336. ^ "Syria-Iraq fight gets a name: 'Inherent Resolve'". Associated Press. October 15, 2014. 
  337. ^ "Middle east : Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  338. ^ "USS George H.W. Bush and its Super Hornet fighters strike in Iraq". Washington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  339. ^ a b AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. February 2015. p. 35. 
  340. ^ "Turkey denies reaching accord with U.S. on use of air base against Islamic State". Washington Post. 
  341. ^ "U.S. relies on Persian Gulf bases for airstrikes in Iraq". Washington Post. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  342. ^ a b "Navy Replaces Ships in Arabian Gulf Bombing Continues". Military.com. Retrieved 8 August 2015. 
  343. ^ "US Bombs ISIS To Aid Kurds: Strikes By USS George H.W. Bush, Drones". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  344. ^ "HMS Defender supports operations against ISIL in the middle east". Royalnavy.mod.uk. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  345. ^ "USS Carl Vinson set to take over airstrikes in Syria, Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  346. ^ "Tomahawk missiles the latest U.S. weapon used against Islamic State". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  347. ^ 'Airstrike Agreement Keeps US Air Controllers Away From Combat'. Military.com, 29 September 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  348. ^ a b c d e Davis, Julie. "Bipartisan Support, With Caveats, for Obama on Iraq Airstrikes". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  349. ^ a b c "Left frets over Iraq mission creep". The Hill. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  350. ^ a b c d e f g Vargas, Cesar (10 August 2014). "Obama's liberal problem — Seung Min Kim and Jeremy Herb". Politico. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  351. ^ "Don't listen to the hawks — the West should leave Iraq alone". Coffee house (blog). UK: The Spectator. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  352. ^ "Another war in Iraq won't fix the disaster of the last". The Guardian. 13 August 2014. 
  353. ^ "The US debate over Iraq is missing the most serious questions". The Globe and Mail. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014. Bombing the insurgents would kill both ISIS and MCIR fighters as well as many Sunni civilians. It would not fix the underlying issues, and potentially inflame them further. 
  354. ^ "Iraq upheaval threatens Obama legacy: AP analysis". Syracuse. August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  355. ^ Preston, Mark (29 September 2014). "Poll: Americans back airstrikes, but oppose use of U.S. troops in Iraq, Syria". CNN. 
  356. ^ Balz and Craighill, Dan & Peyton (9 September 2014). "Poll: Public supports strikes in Iraq, Syria; Obama's ratings hover near his all-time lows Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Google Plus Share via Email More Options Resize Text Print Article Comments 1055". Washington Post. 
  357. ^ Ekins, Emily (10 October 2014). "Poll: 66% Favor Airstrikes Against ISIS, but 52% Oppose US Sending Ground Troops". Reason. 
  358. ^ "Support for U.S. Campaign against ISIS; Doubts about Its Effectiveness, Objectives". Pew. 22 October 2014. 
  359. ^ a b "Iraq's disintegration could haunt the U.S. for years to come". Washington Post. 12 June 2014. 
  360. ^ "A more inclusive Iraq presents the best hope for the country Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Google Plus Share via Email More Options Resize Text Print Article Comments 191". The Washington Post. 16 June 2014. 
  361. ^ "Preventing a Slaughter in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  362. ^ "A Necessary Response to ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  363. ^ "The Guardian view on the crisis in Iraq". The Guardian. 13 June 2014. 
  364. ^ "A Small Victory in Iraq". Wall Street Journal. 19 August 2014. 
  365. ^ "Attack Islamic State? Congress should decide". Los Angeles Times. 16 September 2014. 
  366. ^ Diehl, Jackson (6 July 2014). "Obama's 'unity government' plan in Iraq is just a mirage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  367. ^ Hartung, William (16 July 2014). "US 'mission creep' won't help in Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  368. ^ Weller, Marc (25 September 2014). "Islamic State crisis: What force does international law allow?". BBC. 
  369. ^ Follath, Erich (9 September 2014). "Michael Ignatieff Interview: 'Those Fighting Islamic State Are the Lesser Evil'". Der Spiegel. 
  370. ^ Mardini, Ramzi (7 August 2014). "US Intervention in Iraq Will Only Worsen the Situation". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  371. ^ Crowley, Michael (10 August 2014). "Experts Warn of Terrorism Blowback From Iraq Air Strikes". Time. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  372. ^ Davis, Susan. "Lawmakers support airstrikes; some want more action". USA Today. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  373. ^ Rogin, Josh (14 August 2014). "Obama Stifled Hillary's Syria Plans and Ignored Her Iraq Warnings for Years". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  374. ^ Fisher, Max (8 August 2014). "Obama's message to ISIS: Stay out of Kurdistan, but the rest of northern Iraq is all yours". Vox. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 

External links[edit]