Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping
|Part of the Boko Haram insurgency|
Parents whose daughters were kidnapped
|Date||14 April 2014|
|Location||Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria|
|Outcome||276 female students abducted by Boko Haram|
On the night of 14–15 April 2014, 276 mostly Christian female students were kidnapped from the Secondary School in the town of Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria. Responsibility for the kidnappings was claimed by Boko Haram, an Islamist extremist terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria. 57 of the schoolgirls escaped in the months following the incident, while others were rescued by Nigerian military forces on several occasions since. Some have described their capture in appearances at international human rights conferences. A child born to one of the girls and believed by medical personnel to be about 20 months old also was released, according to the Nigerian president's office.
Since then hopes were raised on various occasions that the 219 remaining girls might be released. Newspaper reports suggested that Boko Haram was hoping to use the girls as negotiating pawns in exchange for some of their commanders in jail.
In May 2016, one of the missing girls, Amina Ali, was found. She claimed that the remaining girls were still there, but that six had died. A further 21 girls were freed in October 2016, while another was rescued the next month. Another was found in January 2017. 82 more girls were freed in May 2017. One of the girls was rescued in January 2018.
The terrorist group Boko Haram wants to institute an Islamic caliphate in Nigeria and is in particular opposed to western-style modern education, which they say lures people away from following Islamic teaching as a way of life. By 2014, tens of thousands of people had been killed in attacks perpetrated by the group, and the Nigerian federal government declared a state of emergency in May 2013 in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states in its fight against the insurgency. The resulting crackdown led to the capture or killing of hundreds of Boko Haram members, with the remainder retreating to mountainous areas from which they began increasingly to target civilians. However, the campaign failed to stabilise the country. A French military operation in Mali also pushed Boko Haram and AQIM terrorists into Nigeria.
Boko Haram began to target schools in 2010, killing hundreds of students by 2014. A spokesperson for the group said such attacks would continue as long as the Nigerian government continued to interfere with traditional Islamic education. 10,000 children have been unable to attend school as a result of activities by Boko Haram. Boko Haram has also been known to kidnap girls, whom it believes should not be educated, and use them as cooks or sex slaves.
Boko Haram's attacks intensified in 2014. In February, the group killed more than 100 Christian men in the villages of Doron Baga and Izghe. That same month, 59 boys were killed in the Federal Government College attack in northeastern Nigeria. In March, the group attacked the Giwa military barracks, freeing captured militants. The Chibok abduction occurred on the same day as a bombing attack in Abuja in which at least 88 people died. The road leading to Chobok is frequently targeted due to the fact that there is little to no government protection for commuters for the village.Boko Haram was blamed for nearly 4,000 deaths in 2014. Training received from al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula has helped Boko Haram intensify its attacks.
On the night of 14–15 April 2014, a group of militants attacked the Government Girls Secondary School in Chibok, Nigeria, which is a majority Christian village. They broke into the school, pretending to be guards. According to a diary written by two of the girls (Naomi Adamu and Sarah Samuel) the militants had intended to steal an "engine block" and were initially unsure what to do with the girls. They told the girls to get out and come with them. Some girls were loaded into trucks and the rest had to walk several miles until other trucks came to take them away possibly into the Konduga area of the Sambisa Forest where Boko Haram were known to have fortified camps. Houses in Chibok were also burned down in the incident. The school had been closed for four weeks prior to the attack due to the deteriorating security situation, but students from multiple schools had been called in to take final exams in physics.
There were 530 students from multiple villages registered for the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination, although it is unclear how many were in attendance at the time of the attack. The children were aged 16 to 18 and were in their final year of school. There was initial confusion over the number of girls kidnapped but on 21 April 2014, parents said 234 girls were missing. A number of the students escaped the kidnappers by jumping off the trucks. According to the police, approximately 276 children were taken in the attack, of whom 53 had escaped as of 2 May. Other reports said that 329 girls were kidnapped, 53 had escaped and 276 were still missing.
Amnesty International said it believes the Nigerian military had four hours' advance warning of the kidnapping, but failed to send reinforcements to protect the school. Nigeria's armed forces have confirmed that the Nigerian military had four-hour advance notice of the attack but said that their over-extended forces were unable to mobilize reinforcements.
Jonathan N.C. Hill of King's College London, has pointed out that Boko Haram kidnapped these girls after coming increasingly under the influence of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, and asserts that the group's goal is to use girls and young women as sexual objects and as a means of intimidating the civilian population into compliance. Hill describes the attacks as similar to kidnapping of girls in Algeria in the 1990s and early 2000s.
Events in 2014
The Christians students, which the overwhelming majority of the kidnapped girls were, were forced to convert to Islam. The girls were forced into marriage with members of Boko Haram, with a reputed "bride price" of ₦2,000 each ($6/£4). Many of the students were taken to the neighbouring countries of Chad and Cameroon, with sightings reported of the students crossing borders with the militants, and sightings of the students by villagers living in the Sambisa Forest. The forest was considered a refuge for Boko Haram. Local residents were able to track the movements of the students with the help of contacts across north eastern Nigeria. A diary described how some girls escaped but were returned to Boko Haram by local villagers and whipped.
The Guardian reported that the British Royal Air Force conducted Operation Turus in response to the Chibok schoolgirls' kidnapping by Boko Haram in Nigeria in April 2014. A source involved with the Operation told the Observer that "The girls were located in the first few weeks of the RAF mission," and that "We [RAF] offered to rescue them, but the Nigerian government declined," this was because it viewed the matter as a "national issue" to be resolved by Nigerian intelligence and security services.
On 2 May 2014, police said they were still unclear as to the exact number of students kidnapped. They asked parents to provide documents so an official count could be made, as school records had been damaged in the attack. On 4 May, the Nigerian President, Goodluck Jonathan, spoke publicly about the kidnapping for the first time, saying the government was doing everything it could to find the missing girls. At the same time, he blamed parents for not supplying enough information about their missing children to the police.
On 5 May 2014, a video in which Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau claimed responsibility for the kidnappings emerged. Shekau claimed that "Allah instructed me to sell them...I will carry out his instructions." and "Slavery is allowed in my religion, and I shall capture people and make them slaves." He said the girls should not have been in school and instead should have been married since girls as young as nine are suitable for marriage.
Chibok is primarily a Christian village and Shekau acknowledged that many of the girls seized were not Muslims: "The girls that have not accepted Islam, they are now gathered in numbers...and we treat them well the way the Prophet Muhammad treated the infidels he seized."
On 5 May 2014, at least 300 residents of the nearby town of Gamboru Ngala were killed in an attack by Boko Haram militants after Nigerian security forces had left the town to search for the kidnapped students. On 9 May, former Boko Haram negotiator, Shehu Sani, stated that the group wanted to swap the abducted girls for its jailed members. On 11 May, Kashim Shettima, Governor of Borno State in Nigeria, said that he had sighted the abducted girls and that the girls were not taken across the borders of Cameroon or Chad. On 12 May, Boko Haram released a video showing about 130 kidnapped girls, each clad in a hijab and a long Islamic chador, and demanded a prisoner exchange. In the night from 13 to 14 May, Boko Haram ambushed a military convoy that was searching for the abductees near Chibok, resulting in the death of twelve soldiers. The incident led to mutiny of government forces at Maiduguri, degrading the ability of the Nigerian Army to rescue the schoolgirls.
A journalist-brokered deal to secure the release of the girls in exchange for 100 Boko Haram prisoners held in Nigerian jails was scrapped at a late stage on 24 May 2014 after President Goodluck Jonathan consulted with U.S., Israeli, French and British foreign ministers in Paris, where the consensus was that no deals should be struck with terrorists, and that a solution involving force was required.
On 26 May, the Nigerian Chief of Defence Staff announced that the Nigerian security forces had located the kidnapped girls, but ruled out a forceful rescue attempt for fears of collateral damage.
On 30 May, it was reported that a civilian militia in the Baale region of Northeastern Nigeria found two of the kidnapped girls raped, "half-dead," and tied to a tree. Villagers said the Boko Haram group had left the two girls, and killed four other disobedient girls and buried them. 223 were still missing.
Sir Andrew Pocock, British High Commissioner to Nigeria said that a couple of months after the kidnapping a group of up to 80 of the Chibok girls were seen by American 'eye in the sky' technology but nothing was done. The girls, a camp and evidence of ground transport vehicles were spotted next to a local landmark called the 'Tree of Life' in the Sambisa forest.
On 24 June, it was reported that 91 more women and children were abducted in other areas of Borno State. One source estimated in June that there could be as many as 600 girls held by Boko Haram in three camps outside Nigeria.
On 26 June, it was announced that Levick, a Washington, D.C. public relations firm, had received "a contract worth more than $1.2 million" from the government of Nigeria to work on "the international and local media narrative" surrounding the Chibok schoolgirl kidnapping.
On 1 July, a businessman suspected of carrying out the kidnappings of the school girls, as well as the bombing of a busy market in northeastern Nigeria, was arrested. Military sources said that he was also accused of helping the Islamist militant group kill the traditional leader Idrissa Timta, the Emir of Gwoza.
On 15 July, Zakaria Mohammed ('the Butcher'), a high-ranking member of Boko Haram, was arrested at Darazo-Basrika Road while fleeing from the counter insurgency operations going on around the Balmo Forest.
On 12 October 2014, it was reported that four girls from the original kidnapped group had escaped and walked three weeks to freedom in Nigeria. They said they had been held in a camp in Cameroon and raped every day.
Events in 2015
Stephen Davis, a former Anglican clergyman, contacted three Boko Haram commanders who said they might be prepared to release Chibok schoolgirls and went to Nigeria in April 2015. He was given proof of life (a video of them being raped) and was told 18 were seriously ill, some with HIV. Davis got initial agreement that Boko Haram would release these ill girls. However, after three attempts the deal fell through when another group abducted the girls believing they could make money out of them and Davis left Nigeria. Davis commented that it was not difficult to locate the five or six main Boko Haram camps. He could find them on Google Earth.
In May 2015, it was reported that the Nigerian military had reclaimed most of the areas previously controlled by Boko Haram in Nigeria including many of the camps in the Sambisa forest where it was suspected the Chibok girls had been kept. Although many women had been freed, none of the Chibok girls had been found. It was reported that some of the girls had been sold into slavery for N2,000 (about $5) each, others had been forcibly married to Boko Haram fighters and they may have been killed. Kashim Shettima, the Borno state governor said he suspected the Chibok girls were being kept in underground bunkers.
Events in 2016
In April 2016 Boko Haram released a video showing 15 girls who appeared to be some of the kidnapped Chibok girls. The video was apparently taken in December 2015 and the girls seemed to be well fed and not distressed.
On 17 May 2016, Amina Ali Nkeki, one of the girls was found along with her baby and Mohammad Hayyatu, a suspected Boko Haram militant who claimed to be her husband, by the vigilante Civilian Joint Task Force group in the Sambisa Forest. All three were suffering from severe malnutrition. She was then taken to house of the group's leader Aboku Gaji who recognised her. The group then reunited the girl with her parents. She met Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari on 19 May. Government officials announced the same day that the Nigerian army and vigilante groups had killed 35 Boko Haram militants, freed 97 women and children and claimed one of the women was a Chibok schoolgirl. However, there were doubts that this girl, Serah Luka, was really one of the kidnapped Chibok schoolgirls. On 21 May 2016, Amir Muhammad Abdullahi, who claimed to be the Boko Haram second in command and speaker for several senior militants, offered to surrender so long as they would not be harmed and in return they would release hostages including the Chibok girls. However he said of Chibok girls; "...frankly, just about a third of them remain, as the rest have been martyred".
In August 2016 Boko Haram released a video of what appeared to be about 50 Chibok girls, some of them holding babies, with an armed masked spokesman who demanded the release of jailed fighters in exchange for the girls' freedom, The masked gunman said some of the Chibok girls had been killed by Nigerian air strikes and 40 had been married. The film was apparently released on the orders of Abubakar Shekau, the leader of one of the factions of Boko Haram.
In October 2016, 21 of the Chibok schoolgirls had been freed by Boko Haram after negotiations between the group and the Nigerian government brokered by International Committee of the Red Cross and the Swiss government. On 16 October, President Buhari's spokesperson stated that the ISIL-allied faction of Boko Haram was willing to negotiate the release of 83 more of the girls. According to him, the splinter group had stated that the rest of the girls were under the control of Shekau-led faction. 2 days later, Pogu Bitrus, the chairman of the Chibok Development Association, claimed that more than 100 of the missing girls apparently did not want to return home because they had either been brainwashed or were fearful of the stigma they will receive.
Another girl named Maryam Ali Maiyanga was found and rescued by the Nigerian Army on 5 November along with a baby by the Nigerian Army. The spokesman for the Army, Sani Usman, said that they discovered her in Pulka of Borno state while screening escapees from Boko Haram's Sambisa forest base. She was confirmed to be one of the kidnapped girls by Bring Back Our Girls.
Events in 2017
One of the kidnapped girls, Rakiya Abubakar, was reported on 5 January 2017 to have been found by the Nigerian Army along with a 6-month-old baby while they were interrogating suspects detained in army raids on the Sambisa forest. Her identity was later confirmed by Bring Back Our Girls group.
On 6 May 82 of the schoolgirls were released following successful negotiations between the Nigerian government involving the exchange of five Boko Haram leaders. The negotiations were carried by Mustapha Zanna, barrister and owner of an orphanage in Maiduguri. The deal also involved the intervention of the Swiss government and the Red Cross. 3 million Euros (about 3.7 million US$) were paid as ransom money in two duffel bags for the total of 103 girls released in October 2016 and May 2017. A Nigerian government spokesman stated that though originally 83 girls were to be released in May 2017, one of them chose to stay with her husband instead of being freed.
Events in 2018
The Nigerian military stated on 4 January 2018 that it had rescued Salomi Pogu, one of the kidnapped girls. Col. Onyema Nwachukwu stated that she was rescued near Pulka village in Borno. Her name was in the list of the kidnapped Chibok schoolgirls. She was found in the company of another young woman and her child. In February 2018 most of the released girls were studying at the American University of Nigeria not far from the original scene of the kidnapping at Chibok. It was estimated that 13 girls were presumed dead and 112 were still missing. In September 2018, Ali Garga, a Boko Haram militant, offered to free 40 of the remaining Chibok schoolgirls. However, he was tortured and killed by other Boko Haram members when they found out what he was doing.
After the kidnapping, Governor Kashim Shettima demanded to visit Chibok, despite being advised that it was too dangerous. The military was working with vigilantes and volunteers to search the forest near the Nigeria–Cameroon border on 21 April. United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and UNICEF condemned the abduction, as did former Nigerian military ruler Muhammadu Buhari. The UN Security Council also condemned the attack and warned of action against Boko Haram militants for abducting the girls.
Parents and others took to social media to complain about the government's perceived slow and inadequate response. The news caused international outrage against Boko Haram and the Nigerian government. On 30 April and 1 May, protests demanding greater government action were held in several Nigerian cities. Most parents, however, were afraid to speak publicly for fear their daughters would be targeted for reprisal. On 3 and 4 May, protests were held in major Western cities including Los Angeles and London. A lawyer in Abuja, the capital of Nigeria, started the hash tag #BringBackOurGirls, which began to trend globally on Twitter and the story spread rapidly internationally, becoming for a time Twitter's most tweeted hashtag. By 11 May it had attracted 2.3 million tweets and by 2016 it had been retweeted 6.1 million times. A woman who helped organise protests was detained by the police, apparently because the First Lady of Nigeria, Patience Jonathan, felt slighted when the woman showed up for a meeting instead of the mothers of victims. The woman was released soon after. Reports said the First Lady had further incensed protesters by suggesting some abduction reports were faked by Boko Haram supporters. Several online petitions were created to pressure the Nigerian government to act against the kidnapping. On 30 April, hundreds marched on the National Assembly to demand government and military action against the kidnappers.
The president of the Muslim Students Society of Nigeria called on Muslims to fast and pray "in order to seek Allah's intervention in this precarious time." Sa'ad Abubakar III, the Sultan of Sokoto, also called for prayers and intensified efforts to rescue the students. On 9 May, Governor Kashim Shettima of Borno State called on all Muslims and Christians to join in "three days of prayers and fasting." On the same day, Muslims in Cameroon called on fellow believers not to marry any of the girls should they be offered to them. On the same day, the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Sheikh Abdulaziz Al al-Sheikh, joined other religious leaders in the Muslim world in condemning the kidnappings, describing Boko Haram as misguided and intent on smearing the name of Islam. He stated that Islam is against kidnapping, and that marrying kidnapped girls is not permitted.
The scale of the kidnapping was unprecedented, which led former United States Ambassador to Nigeria John Campbell to declare that Boko Haram's strength "appears to be increasing. The government's ability to provide security to its citizens appears to be decreasing." Director of the Atlantic Council's Africa Center, J. Peter Pham, said "The failure of the government to even get a clear count further reinforces a perception of systemic governmental failure". The Economist "labeled President Goodluck Jonathan as incompetent," saying that Jonathan and the Nigerian military "cannot be trusted any longer to guarantee security for Nigerians," adding that "the worst aspect of the Nigerian government’s handling of the abduction is its seeming indifference to the plight of the girls’ families. It took more than two weeks before Jonathan addressed the matter in public." Jonathan later attributed his silence to his desire not to compromise the details of security efforts carried out to rescue the girls. President Jonathan also engaged a public relations firm, Levick, for $1.2m to improve the public presentation of his handling of the crisis.
On 22 July, the militant group again attacked the nearby villages, killing at least 51 people including 11 parents of the abducted girls.
On 23 and 24 July, vigils and protests were held around the world to mark 100 days since the kidnapping. Participating countries included Nigeria, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Togo, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Portugal.
A Human Rights Watch report released on 27 October 2014 claims,
Their statements suggest that the Nigerian government has failed to adequately protect women and girls from a myriad of abuses, provide them with effective support and mental health and medical care after captivity, ensure access to safe schools, or investigate and prosecute those responsible for the abuses.
The report also claims, "The relative ease with which Boko Haram carried out the Chibok abductions seems to have emboldened it to step up abductions elsewhere."
On 13 April 2015 hundreds of protesters wearing red tape across their lips walked silently through the capital Abuja marking a year since Boko Haram kidnapped the girls.
On 29 May 2015, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari in his inaugural address to the nation said that they could not claim to "have defeated Boko Haram without rescuing the Chibok girls and all other innocent persons held hostage by insurgents. [The] government will do all it can to rescue them alive."
On 12 June 2015, two weeks after President Buhari was sworn in, he and his wife Aisha Muhammadu Buhari, and the Vice President's wife Mrs. Dolapo Osinbajo met with some mothers of the abducted Chibok girls, a meeting Mrs. Buhari had wanted to hold for a long time.
On 1 October 2015 the Nigerian Military said it would not be in a hurry to rescue the secondary schoolgirls in Chibok who were abducted in April 2014. The Acting Director, Defence Information, Military Headquarters, Abuja, Col. Rabe Abubakar, who said this at a press conference in Lagos on Thursday,[when?] noted that while it was of utmost concern to the military to rescue the girls, the operation required demanded adequate patience and planning.
In December 2015 Muhammadu Buhari, the Nigerian President, said that he was willing to negotiate with Boko Haram for the release of the Chibok girls without any preconditions.
On the 600th day of the Chibok girls' abduction, a group of Nigeria experts in the United Kingdom called Nigeria Diaspora Security Forum called on the Federal Government of Nigeria under the leadership of President Muhammadu Buhari to set up a special taskforce tasked solely with the responsibility of looking for the girls.
In 2016 one newspaper article commented that the international publicity for the Chibok schoolgirls has ironically made it more difficult to free the girls. A Nigerian military commander based in Maiduguri commented "Boko Haram sees the Chibok girls as their trump card. We think they are keeping them with their main leadership. The day we get the Chibok girls will spell the end of Boko Haram, but I fear they will kill all the girls in mass suicide bombings in the process."
The fifth anniversary of Chibok school abduction in 2019 marked the vulnerability of schoolchildren to such attacks and abductions, since the whereabouts of 112 girls still remain missing. Human Rights Watch research claims that the abductions done by Boko Haram started prior to the Chibok incident and have continued ever since. “Boko Haram continues to prey on women and girls as spoils of war despite claims by the Nigerian government that it has defeated the group,” said Human Rights Watch's Nigeria researcher.
Social media and celebrity involvement
The global response to this movement started off as a handful of tweets by Nigerian citizens and government officials. A Nigerian lawyer made the first post on 14 April 2014. The movement even started off with a $300,000 cash reward to anyone who could help locate or rescue the girls from their kidnappers. Shortly after this, many celebrities joined in on social media holding pieces of paper with the hashtag #BringBackOurGirls.
Numerous celebrities were photographed holding up signs in photographs showing support for the Bring Back our Girls movement, including Salma Hayek, Bradley Cooper, Antonio Banderas, Gerard Butler, Kelsey Grammer, Wesley Snipes, Sylvester Stallone, Ronda Rousey, Mel Gibson, Simon Baker, Ricky Martin, Eva Longoria, Ashton Kutcher, Demi Moore, Ben Stiller, Justin Timberlake, Sean Combs, Kim Kardashian, Beyonce, Sean Penn, Alicia Keys, Ellen DeGeneres, Jamie Foxx, Amy Poehler, Anne Hathaway, and Malala Yousafzai.
Notably, Beyoncé had a separate section on her website that was dedicated to the movement. It stated: "In light of recent events, CHIME FOR CHANGE is raising money to distribute organizations working in Nigeria to support girl’s education. You can help the cause by donating 10$ now, by texting BRINGBACK - You can also donate online to #ChimeIn and help bring back our girls.
International governmental response
- – Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper acknowledged that Canadians had joined the international effort to free the schoolgirls. Details about the extent and duration of the involvement had been kept secret.
- – China announced its intention to make available "any useful information acquired by its satellites and intelligence services."
- European Union – The European Union passed a resolution on 17 July, "calling for immediate and unconditional release of the abducted schoolgirls."
- – France offered a specialist team. French President Francois Hollande also offered to hold a summit in Paris with Nigeria and its neighbours to tackle the issue.
- – Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu offered assistance to the Nigerian President in locating the missing pupils on 11 May 2014. "Israel expresses its deep shock at the crime committed against the girls. We are willing to help assist in locating the girls and fighting the terror that is afflicting you," he said. According to an unnamed Israeli official, the Prime Minister later sent a team of intelligence experts to Nigeria. It contained people experienced in dealing with hostage situations, but he said they "are not operational troops, they're there to advise." A joint U.S.-Israel project, which modified the Beechcraft C-12 Huron aircraft for electronic warfare and reconnaissance, was being used and "may prove decisive in finding the girls," according to one source.
- – The United Kingdom agreed to send experts to Nigeria to assist in the search for the students. The British experts were to be drawn from various governmental departments including the Foreign Office, the Department for International Development and the Ministry of Defence, and would concentrate on planning, co-ordination and advice to local authorities. A Royal Air Force Sentinel R1 reconnaissance aircraft has been deployed to Ghana to assist in the search.
- – The United States agreed to send experts to Nigeria to assist in the search for the students. The American team consists of military and law enforcement officers, specializing in "intelligence, investigations, hostage negotiation, information-sharing and victim assistance." The US is not considering sending armed forces. Former Nigerian Vice President, Atiku Abubakar, and Dr. Babangida Aliyu, chairman of the Northern Governor's Forum, "welcomed the US government’s offer of military assistance." On 12 May, 16 military personnel from US African Command joined the Search and Rescue Operations. On 22 May, the Department of Defense announced that it was deploying an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and 80 United States Air Force personnel to nearby Chad. Chad was chosen as a base for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance flights because of its access to northern Nigeria.
In February 2018, approximately four years after the 2014 Chibok abduction, in the nearby town of Dapchi again another 110 schoolgirls were abducted by Boko Haram, with no government intervention intercepting the abductors yet as of 4 March 2018[update].
- Olarewaju Kola, Rafiu Ajakaye (4 January 2018). "Nigeria: Another Chibok schoolgirl 'rescued'". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- "Nigeria says 219 girls in Boko Haram kidnapping still missing". Fox News. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- The Chibok Kidnappings in North-East Nigeria: A Military Analysis of Before and After. Small Wars Journal. Volume 13, No. 4, 11 April 2017, Available here: http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/the-chibok-kidnappings-in-north-east-nigeria-a-military-analysis-of-before-and-after Retrieved 18 November 2017
- "Nigeria Chibok girls 'shown alive' in Boko Haram video". BBC News Africa. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Nigerian Military Rescues 76 Schoolgirls After Alleged Boko Haram Attack". NPR.org. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- "Another Schoolgirl Taken by Boko Haram Is Rescued, Nigerian Army Says". NBC News. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- ""I escaped Boko Haram" – A Nigerian girl who was kidnapped with 270 others ("Bring Back Our Girls")". 25 February 2015.
- "Boko Haram releases 21 Chibok girls to Nigerian government". CNN News. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Claim of truce raises hope that kidnapped Nigerian girls will be released". 18 October 2014. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014.
- "Chibok Girls Not Yet Rescued". 23 September 2014. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014.
- "Nigerian government 'called off deal' to free kidnapped girls". Nigeria Sun. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Lamb, Christina (20 March 2016). "A fight for the soul of the world". Sunday Times. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "Boko Haram abductees freed in Nigeria". BBC News. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
- "Chibok girls: Freed students reunite with families in Nigeria". BBC. 16 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Opeyemi Kehinde (5 November 2016). "Nigeria: #BringBackOurGirls Lauds Buhari, Army for Rescue of Another Chibok Girl". allAfrica. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
- "#BringBackOurGirls group confirms rescue of Chibok girl, Maryam Ali". News24 Nigeria. 5 November 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
- "Nigerian girl kidnapped by Boko Haram, now a mother, found with baby". Associated Press. CBS Newst. 5 January 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- "Just in: Boko Haram frees 82 more Chibok girls". The Page. 6 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
- Busari, Stephanie; McCleary, Kelly. "82 Chibok schoolgirls released in Nigeria". CNN. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- "Nigeria confirms missing Chibok girl No. 86 found nearly four years after abduction". Associated Press. The Japan Times. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- McElroy, Damien (6 July 2013). "Extremist attack in Nigeria kills 42 at boarding school". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Nigeria school attack claims 42 lives". The Australian. Agence France-Presse. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Adamu, Adamu; Faul, Michelle (6 June 2013). "School attack kills 30 in northeast Nigeria". Newsday. Associated Press. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Dorell, Oren (21 April 2014). "Terrorists kidnap more than 200 Nigerian girls". USA Today. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- Aronson, Samuel (28 April 2014). "AQIM and Boko Haram Threats to Western Interests in the Africa's Sahel". Combating Terrorism Center Sentinel (CTC), West Point.
- "Boko Haram kills 59 children at Nigerian boarding school". The Guardian. 25 February 2014. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Perkins, Anne (23 April 2014). "200 girls are missing in Nigeria – so why doesn't anybody care?". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- "Nigeria's Chibok schoolgirls: Five years on, 112 still missing". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Abubakar, Aminu; Levs, Josh (5 May 2014). "'I will sell them,' Boko Haram leader says of kidnapped Nigerian girls". CNN. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "88 Nigerian schoolgirls abducted by Islamic extremists still missing". The Guardian. Associated Press. 19 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- Adamu, Naomi (23 October 2017). "The secret diaries of the Chibok girls". BBC News. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Maclean, Ruth (17 April 2014). "Nigerian schoolgirls still missing after military 'fabricated' rescue". The Times. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- "230 schoolgirls still missing after Boko Haram raid". Times Live. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Authorities – 276 Kidnapped Girls Still Missing in Nigeria". VOA. Nigeria: All Africa. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Nigerian Police Begin Documentation of Kidnapped Girls". Premium Times. All Africa. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Boko Haram admits abducting Nigeria girls from Chibok". BBC News. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Chibok abductions in Nigeria: 'More than 230 seized'". BBC News. 21 April 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- Maclean, Ruth (3 May 2014). "Nigerian school says 329 girl pupils missing". The Times. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- "United States Sending Manned Flights Over Nigeria to Look for Girls". ABC news. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Nigeria abductions: Warnings of school raid 'ignored'". BBC News. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Hamish MacDonald and Bola Omisore (9 May 2014). "Nigeria Had 4-Hour Warning on School Raid, Amnesty International Says". ABC News.
- Hill, Jonathan N.C. (30 July 2014). "Boko Haram, the Chibok Abductions and Nigeria's Counterterrorism Strategy". Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Marina Lazreg, "Consequences of Political Liberalisation and Sociocultural Mobilisation for Women in Algeria, Egypt and Jordan," in Anne-Marie Goetz, Governing Women: Women’s Political Effectiveness in Contexts of Democratisation and Governance Reform (New York: Routledge/UNRISD, 2009), p. 47.
- Howard LaFranchi (5 May 2014). "What role for US in efforts to rescue Nigeria's kidnapped girls?". CSMonitor. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Boko Haram kidnapped the 230 school girls as wives for its insurgents". The Rainbow. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Heaton, Laura (30 April 2014). "Nigeria: kidnapped schoolgirls 'sold as wives to Islamist fighters'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Hassan, Turaki A; Sule, Ibrahim Kabiru; Mutum, Ronald (29 April 2014). "Abducted girls moved abroad". Daily Trust. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Nigeria rejected British offer to rescue seized Chibok schoolgirls". the Guardian. 4 March 2017.
- Lister, Tim (6 May 2014). "Boko Haram: The essence of terror". CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Boko Haram kidnaps more girls in Nigeria". AU: ABC News. 6 May 2014.
- Ford, Sabrina; Italiano, Laura (11 May 2014). "Boko Haram kidnaps more children, kills villagers in Nigeria". New York Post.
- Nossiter, Adam (13 May 2014). "Nigerian Girls Seen in Video From Militants". New York Times.
- Nossiter, Adam (15 May 2014). "Tales of Escapees in Nigeria Add to Worries About Other Kidnapped Girls". New York Times.
Most of the Chibok residents are Christians of a small minority group who speak Kibaku, another of Nigeria's myriad languages
- Smith, David (14 May 2014). "Military operation launched to locate kidnapped Nigerian girls". The Guardian.
Although most of the abducted girls are Christian, all were wearing Muslim dress and two were singled out to say they had converted to Islam.
- "Nigeria abduction video: Schoolgirls 'recognised'". BBC. 13 May 2014.
The girls' families have said that most of those seized are Christians, although there are a number of Muslims among them.
- "Boko Haram Attack Kills Hundreds In Border Town". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Boko Haram wants to swap 300 kidnapped girls for jailed members". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- "Nigerian governor says he sighted 200 abducted girls". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "New Video by Boko Haram shows 130 Kidnapped Nigerian girls". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- TRADOC G-2 (2015), pp. 9, 10.
- "Nigeria army 'knows where Boko Haram are holding girls'". BBC News. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "#BringBackOurGirls: Two Chibok Girls Raped And Left To Die In Sambisa Forest By Boko Haram". The Paradigm. 19 May 2014.
- Grill, Bartholomaus; Selander, Toby (30 May 2014). "The Devil in Nigeria: Boko Haram's Reign of Terror". Der Spiegel English edition. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
- "Islamist fighters 'kidnap 90 women and children' from Nigeria villages". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Haynes, Deborah (9 June 2014). "More than 600 girls kidnapped by Boko Haram militants". The Times, Africa.
- Wilson, Megan R (26 June 2014). "Nigeria hires PR for Boko Haram fallout". TheHill. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- Ola, Lanre (1 July 2014). "Bomb kills 20 in Nigeria market, girls' abduction suspect held". Reuters. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Police Arrests Another High Ranking Member of Boko Haram". Channels Television.
- Michael Pearson (15 July 2014). "Nigerian police say they've arrested senior Boko Haram member - CNN.com". CNN.
- Bonnici, Tom (12 October 2014). "Kidnapped Boko Haram girls make long walk to freedom". The Times, Africa.
- Corones, Mike (5 May 2015). "Mapping Boko Haram's decline in Nigeria". Reuters. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Leithead, Alastair (14 April 2016). "Boko Haram abductions: Freed 'bride' tells of stigma ordeal". BBC News. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Boko Haram freed Nigerian women tell of captivity horror". BBC News, Africa. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Omenaz, Ejikeme (6 May 2014). "Boko Haram: Chibok Girls May Have Been Sold Into Slavery". Daily Independent. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Winsor, Morgan (6 April 2015). "Nigeria Chibok Kidnapping: Boko Haram Likely Killed Schoolgirls Last Month, Report Says". International Business Times. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- "Borno State governor says he believes Chibok girls are being held in Boko Haram bunkers". Nigeria Watch. 20 May 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- Searcey, Dionne (11 February 2016). "Nigeria Vexed by Boko Haram's Use of Women as Suicide Bombers". New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "Chibok girls: 'First kidnapped girl found' in Nigeria". BBC News. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- Lamb, Christina (22 May 2016). "Parents raise hopes as Chibok escapee says other girls alive". The Times. U.K. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Chibok girls: Amina Ali Nkeki meets President Buhari". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Another Chibok Schoolgirl Kidnapped by Boko Haram Is Found, Nigeria Says". The New York Times. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
- "Boko Haram abductees freed in Nigeria". BBC News. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Kelly, Jeremy (21 May 2016). "Boko Haram willing to release more Chibok girls". The Times. U.K. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Nigeria Chibok girls: Boko Haram video shows captives". BBC News. 14 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- Kelly, Jeremy (15 August 2016). "Kidnapped Nigerian girls in video plea for freedom". The Times. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- "Nigeria's Chibok schoolgirls freed in Boko Haram deal". BBC News. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- "Negotiations to release of 83 Chibok girls". Yahoo7. 16 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Nigeria: More than 100 Chibok schoolgirls 'don't want to be freed from Boko Haram'". The Independent. 18 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "Another Chibok girl rescued with baby". Daily Post. 5 November 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- "Kidnapped Chibok schoolgirl found by Nigerian army". Al Jazeera. 5 November 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
- Okakwu, Evelyn (5 January 2017). "Bring Back Our Girls group confirms identity of rescued Chibok girl". Premium Times. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- "Nigeria exchanges 82 Chibok girls kidnapped by Boko Haram for prisoners". 7 May 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017 – via Reuters.
- correspondent, Ruth Maclean West Africa; Ross, Alice (7 May 2017). "82 Chibok schoolgirls freed in exchange for five Boko Haram leaders". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- Parkinson, Joe; Hinshaw, Drew (2 February 2018). "Nigeria Brought Back Its Girls—Now Comes the Hard Part". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- "Nigeria Chibok girls: 'One refused to be released'". BBC. 9 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
- Oduah, Chika (9 July 2020). "'Mama Boko Haram': one woman's extraordinary mission to rescue 'her boys' from terrorism". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- Ries, Brian (6 May 2014). "Bring Back Our Girls: Why the World Is Finally Talking About Nigeria's Kidnapped Students". Mashable. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- Litoff, Alyssa (6 May 2014). "Home International 'Bring Back Our Girls' Becomes Rallying Cry for Kidnapped Nigerian Schoolgirls". ABC News. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Nigerian artist marks 100 days of schoolgirl's abduction". Epping Forest Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "Nigerian artist marks 100 days of schoolgirl's abduction". This Is Local London Newspaper. Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "UN calls for immediate release of abducted school girls in north-eastern Nigeria" (Press release). UN News Centre. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- Aziken, Emmanuel (8 May 2014). "Buhari to Boko Haram: You're bigots masquerading as Muslims". Vanguard News. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "UNSC warns action against Boko Haram Militants in Nigeria". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- Lamb, Cristina (11 May 2014). "Find our girls and save their dreams". The Times. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Collins, Matt (9 May 2014). "#BringBackOurGirls: the power of a social media campaign". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "The Economist accuses Jonathan of incompetence". The Punch. 10 May 2014. Archived from the original on 10 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Nigerian schoolgirls, Walk free, archived from the original on 6 May 2014
- "Hundreds march: Nigeria Chibok schoolgirl kidnappings by Boko haram". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 30 April 2014.
- "Nigeria Muslims Fast for Abducted Girls". On Islam. 6 May 2014. Archived from the original on 7 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "US Muslims Slam 'Un-Islamic' Boko Haram". On Islam. 6 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Gov. Shettima declares 3-day fasting for abducted girls". The Nation. Lagos. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Cameroon denies harbouring Chibok schoolgirls". Vanguard News. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Reuters, Thomson (10 May 2014). "Saudi Arabia's top cleric says Nigeria's Boko Haram smears Islam". GlobalPost. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- Agba, George (28 June 2014). "Nigeria: My Silence Over Chibok Girls is for Their Safety – Jonathan". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- "Goodluck Jonathan: Silence isn't inaction". 7 June 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Boko Haram attacks hometown of missing girls - Al Jazeera English". Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- "100 days blog: #BringBackOurGirls vigils held around the world". A World At School. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- "Nigeria: Victims of Abductions Tell Their Stories: Horrific Abuses by Boko Haram, Lack of Government Protection". HRW. 27 October 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- Okello Kelo Sam (5 January 2015). "Abducted Nigerian girls still missing, a distracted world must remember". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Austine Elemue (7 January 2015). "Abuja's Unity Fountain: Nigeria's Tahir Square?". The Abuja Inquirer. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Hassan, Tina A; Ogbu Amarachi Hannah (17 May 2014). "Nigeria: Unity Fountain - Abuja Landmark Turns Protest Venue". Daily Trust - AllAfrica. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Clement Ejiofor (11 May 2014). "#BringBackOurGirls Protesters Hold Demonstration in Abuja, Defy Police". naij.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "200 School Girls still untraceable after 1 Year of Kidnapping by Boko Haram". news.biharprabha.com. 14 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- "Full text of the inaugural speech of President Muhammadu Buhari". mbuhari.ng. 29 May 2015. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- Adoyi, Ali. "Tears as Aisha Buhari, Mrs Osinbajo meet mothers of Chibok=June 13, 2015". Daily Post.
- "We won't rush to rescue Chibok girls ─Army". Opemipo Adeniyi. thenews.ng. 1 October 2015. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "Nigerian president offers talks with Boko Haram over Chibok girls". BBC News, Africa. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- "Nigeria: Group Wants Special Taskforce On Boko Haram". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Nigeria: 5 Years After Chibok, Children Still at Risk". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Collins, 2017[full citation needed]
- "#BringBackOurGirls". Beyonce.
- "Canada Joins Effort to Free 300 Nigerian Schoolgirls". Global News. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- "Nigerian president: kidnapping will mark beginning of the end of terror". The Guardian. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- "European Parliament calls for immediate and unconditional release of Chibok girls". News Africa. 17 July 2014. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Keinon, Herb (11 May 2014). "Israel offers to help Nigeria find abducted girls". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Israel sends experts to help hunt for Nigerian schoolgirls kidnapped by Islamists". JPost. Reuters. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Electronic Weapons: A King Air Listens For The Lost Girls", Strategypage, 18 May 2014
- Monica Mark; Sam Jones (7 May 2014). "Kidnapped schoolgirls: British experts to fly to Nigeria 'as soon as possible'". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "UK deploys RAF Sentinel to help search for missing schoolgirls". UK Government. 18 May 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Fabiyi, Olusola (9 May 2014). "Atiku backs US, UK intervention on abducted girls". The Punch. Archived from the original on 10 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- Aborisade, Sunday (9 May 2014). "Northern govs, SERAP hail foreign intervention". The Punch. Archived from the original on 9 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "US Military Personnel join search for Abducted Nigerian girls". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- Pellerin, Cheryl (22 May 2014). "DOD sends UAV, 80 Airmen to help Nigerian search". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Boko Haram Has Kidnapped Dozens of Schoolgirls, Again. Here's What to Know Time Magazine. By Tara John. 26 February 2018. Downloaded 4 March 2018.
- "More than 1,000 children in northeastern Nigeria abducted by Boko Haram since 2013". UNICEF. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- TRADOC G-2 (2015). Threat Tactics Report: Boko Haram (PDF). Fort Eustis: United States Army Training and Doctrine Command.
- Aisha Ahmad. 2019. "“We Have Captured Your Women”: Explaining Jihadist Norm Change." International Security 44(1):80–116.
- Hilary Matfess. 2017. Women and the War on Boko Haram. Zed Books.
- Helon Habila (2016). The Chibok Girls: The Boko Haram Kidnappings and Islamist Militancy in Nigeria. Columbia Global Reports. ISBN 978-0997126464.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2014 Chibok kidnapping.|
- on YouTube claiming responsibility for kidnappings
- The Forgotten Ones Project at the Wayback Machine (archived 2 May 2014) features an activist-led campaign for the rescue of the students
- @BringGirlsBack – A Twitter channel devoted to the kidnapped students
- Why is the media ignoring 200 missing girls? (Salon.com)
- We want them all released