2014 FIFA World Cup preparations
Forecasts on the eve of the tournament place the cost to the Brazilian government at $14 billion. This expenditure has largely been on stadium works and infrastructure projects. Brazil has added on numerous construction projects to facilitate hosting the 2014 FIFA World Cup  Football's governing body, FIFA, will also spend an estimated $2 billion on staging the final tournament.
Host nation investment
Although organisers originally estimated costs of US$1.1 billion, a reported US$3.6 billion has ultimately been spent on stadium works. Five of the chosen host cities have brand new venues built specifically for the World Cup, while the Estádio Nacional Mané Garrincha in the capital Brasilia was demolished and rebuilt, with the remaining six being extensively renovated. The Estádio do Maracanã in Rio de Janeiro, which already holds the record attendance for a FIFA World Cup Finals match (199,854), is the largest of the stadiums and will stage the final. The CBF originally intended to host the opening match at São Paulo's Estádio do Morumbi but it was dropped in 2010 and replaced by the Arena Corinthians after failing to provide financial guarantees for the required improvements.
The first wholly new stadium, the Castelão, in Fortaleza, became operational in January 2013. Six of the venues were used during the 2013 Confederations Cup. However, six further stadiums missed FIFA's original 31 December 2013 deadline for completed works. The completion of the new Arena Corinthians was hindered by a fatal crane collapse in November 2013 that destroyed part of the stadium and killed two construction workers. Slow progress at the Arena da Baixada site in Curitiba led to FIFA threatening to drop the stadium as a host venue in January 2014 unless significant progress was made during the following month; after being satisfied of progress, FIFA confirmed that Curitiba would remain a host city.
During the first three months of 2014, the first games were staged at the venues in Manaus (Arena da Amazônia), Natal and Porto Alegre. However, following an inspection of all the venues in May 2014, FIFA Secretary Valcke expressed concerns about the readiness of the Natal, Porto Alegre and São Paulo venues, with additional test events still being required. Brazil's Deputy Sports Minister, Luis Fernandes, responded by stating that there was "no panic".
In January 2010 Brazil's federal government estimated that staging the tournament would require a state investment of $11 billion of funding. It also announced tax breaks for the construction and refurbishment of the stadiums for the 2014 World Cup and that host cities would be exempt from VAT, all expenditure by FIFA in Brazil is also exempt from taxation.
The Brazilian federal government has earmarked R$3 billion (€1.8 billion, £1.1 billion) for investment in works relating to the 2014 World Cup, and intends to release a package of works, entitled the World Cup PAC (Portuguese acronym for Growth Acceleration Programme). Brazil announced in March 2007 that there would be an additional PAC investment of 526 billion dollars allotted to infrastructure spanning from 2011 to 2014 The airports in Brazil have been identified as "the big problem" by the tournament's organizing committee. Experts say that the airports need a massive renovation and expansion in order to facilitate the influx of people arriving for the 2014 FIFA World Cup  An estimated 600,000 people will travel by plane to the tournament in addition to the three million passengers using flight to travel between matches.
Legislation was introduced to enable the state's airport operator Infraero to speed up airport works. Brazil's government is having issues with upholding legislation with regard to infrastructure However, research by the Brazilian government in 2011 forecast that 10 of the 13 terminals to be upgraded were unlikely to be completed in time for the tournament. Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff stated that the government would make "a strong intervention" to ensure that the airports are ready, including opening them up to private investment; the management of three airports was auctioned off to the private sector in 2013 (earning $10.8 billion).
Additional major infrastructure projects have been taking place across the country on road systems and light rail and bus rapid transit lines that will connect the airports to the city centres and stadiums. Over 4,300 km of highways were forecast to require work.
To host the increased amount of tourists in the country, the Brazilian Development Bank(BNDES) has provided a budget of R$2 billion to modernise and increase the country's hotel network. In Rio de Janeiro, these developments are also in anticipation for the staging of the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Many planned works such new monorail systems in Manaus and São Paulo and a subway system in Belo Horizonte have, however, been cancelled, while others are no longer expected to be finished before the tournament. Other projects are proceeding but only in a downsized scale. In May 2014 it was reported that only 36 of the planned 93 major projects have been completed. FIFA Secretary General Jérôme Valcke defended the state of progress, stating "it was clear from the beginning not all the projects would be ready... these projects were part of a government plan that goes far beyond the World Cup". FIFA has pledged to spend at least $20 million on "legacy projects" in Brazil following the tournament.
The failure to deliver all the originally planned projects has been cited as a cause for criticism from some Brazilians against their government's investment in the tournament and their handling of the projects. An opinion poll by Datafolha two months before the start of the tournament found that only 48% of the respondents in Brazil supported the event, a decline from the 79% approval rating it was given in 2008. 55% of respondents said that they believed the event would bring more harm than good to Brazilians. FIFA President Sepp Blatter admitted "Brazilians are a bit discontented because they were promised a lot".
Former Brazilian footballer Romário, now a political figure, criticised his country's handling of these preparations but said that "FIFA's requirements were excessive". Another former Brazilian player, Ronaldo, said he felt "embarrassed" about the state of the country's infrastructure and how "a series of investments were promised that won't be delivered - only 30% percent will be delivered".
A group of German economists think it is economic luxury to host a sports event of this size in a newly industrialized country like Brazil or Russia. They suggest at least two measures to make such events sustainable: first, build less. And second, the organizing associations should participate finance the sports venues. The large stadiums and streets are not used any more after the event. The effect is especially disastrous if the relation of investments compared to the assets is as low as in Brazil, and the event drains most of the total money spent. As a consequence, they fear that Olympic games and football world championships will only be hosted in countries with authoritarian regimes.
The Brazilian government has pledged $900 million will be invested into security forces and that the tournament will be "one of the most protected sports events in history". It plans to have one police officer for every 50 people attending matches, and one for every 80 people at public viewing events around the country.
Investment in security measures such as facial recognition systems and unmanned security robots has already been made. An integrated security plan has been developed that seeks to gain information from sources about potential terrorists, troublemakers and hooligans. A total of 150,000 public security professionals and military will ensure World Cup security, along with 20,000 private security personnel.
Security concerns for the tournament have been increased since large-scale protests occurred during Brazil's staging of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup with disturbances also occurring outside the stadiums. Protesters cited the amount of public money being invested by the Brazilian government in the hosting of the World Cup at the expense of social services for its population as a key grievance.
The Human Cost
While the projected cost to the government is currently estimated at 14 billion dollars to stage and prepare for the world cup in many ways, there are many other costs to think about when approaching such a heavy-loaded topic such as the 2014 World Cup. To produce an event of this magnitude many sacrifices must be made when deciding where and how to go about creating these venues that will eventually be on the world's stage.
In order to create space for these events certain choices had to be made, as to where the infrastructure would be located in order to support the stadium itself. Certain concessions had to be made in order effectively place these venues where both FIFA and the government felt was the most effective place for them to be. Because of this decision in may of 2014 in Brasilia, Brazil indigenous protesters clashed with police on horseback during a protest of the World cup which ended with one policeman shot in the leg and in response the police fired tear gas into the crowd and dispersed the protest.
In a separate but similar example police evicted an indigenous population of between 10-20 different ethnicities next to the Maracana stadium in Rio de Janeiro in order to prepare for the upcoming "Mega Event". These residents were living informally in the abandoned Brazilian Indian Museum in the heart of Rio, however it had become a known fact and for the time leading up the evictions the residence were allowed to live in the location in peace. However, when the Event was announced the police eviction was violent and abrupt. Later it was discovered that these evictions were carried out in order to make room for a new parking garage for the stadium.
In the past decade more than 500 indigenous people have been killed  as a response of increased indigenous activism and an increased call for rights by these populations. Of course not all of these deaths are a direct result of the world cup specifically, however, there has been increased violence between the police and these populations, which has added to the tensions between these two populations and promoted violence.
Many other issues involving indigenous population have surfaced as a result of the World Cup including issues between the energy farmers and the indigenous populations over control of specific waterways of the Amazon. Many of these waterways are being dammed up in order to generate power for these events, which then closer these vital waterways for these populations. as a result many tribes have begun protests including farm and construction site takeovers in order to stop construction, however this has just prompted many other violent clashes between these tribes and both police and farmers trying to protect their livelihood.
FIFA forecasts it will spend $2 billion on staging the 2014 World Cup Finals.
|BRA (2014)||US$14 billion (1st)|
|GER (2006)||$6 billion (2nd)|
|KOR/ JPN (2002)||$5 billion (3rd)|
|ITA (1990)||$5 billion (4th)|
|SAF (2010)||$4 billion (5th)|
|FRA (1998)||$340 million (6th)|
|USA (1994)||$30 million (7th)|
- "World Cup set to be most lucrative ever". ESPN. 23 May 2014.
- Beary, Brian (June 7, 2011). "Brazil on the Rise". Global Researcher 5 (11): 265.
- "Record World Cup numbers game for FIFA, Brazil". USA Today. 22 May 2014.
- "FIFA's Inspection Report" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- "Corruption to blame for some Brazil World Cup cost rises". Bloomberg. 23 May 2014.
- "Brazil World Cup stadiums on track, but costs soar". Reuters. 3 April 2012.
- "2014 Fifa World Cup: Where are the 12 host stadiums in Brazil?". BBC. 3 December 2013.
- "Sao Paulo dropped for 2014". SBS. 17 June 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- "Brazil's first 2014 World Cup stadium holds matches". NewVision. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- "Destination: Stadiums". FIFA. 15 June 2013.
- "Brazil World Cup: Six stadiums to miss Fifa deadline". BBC. 5 December 2013.
- "Two die in Brazil World Cup stadium accident". BBC. 27 November 2013.
- "World Cup venue in southern Brazil in danger of not being ready; FIFA's Valcke gives ultimatum". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Curitiba to stay as World Cup venue in Brazil". ESPN.co.uk. 18 February 2014.
- "Nacional empata com o Remo e é eliminado da Copa Verde" (in Portuguese). 9 March 2014.
- "Arena das Dunas é inaugurada com festa e vitórias de América-RN e ABC" (in Portuguese). 26 January 2014.
- "O Gigante voltou: após mais de 1 ano, Inter revê Beira-Rio e goleia o Caxias" (in Portuguese). 15 February 2014.
- "After final inspection, 3 Brazil World Cup stadiums worry FIFA". Fox Sports. 29 May 2014.
- "Transcript of conference call - Brazil Deputy Minister of Sport Luis Fernandes". copa2014. 29 May 2014.
- "Swiss Re Says Brazil Spending for World Cup, Olympics Means More Revenue". Bloomberg L.P. 8 April 2010.
- "Brazil shall grant tax breaks for 2014 stadiums". Portal 2014. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- "World Cup: To tax or not to tax?". BBC News. 11 May 2010.
- "FIFA World Cup 2014 host cities to receive US$ 1.5 billion". Brazil-Arab News Agency. 22 July 2009.
- Noto, Anthony (February 1, 2012). "Brazil Needs to Pump Up for Olympics, World Cup; The Latin American M&A leader lacks the basic infrastructure needed to support the fans headed there for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics". Mergers and Acquisitions, The Dealmaker's Journal 47 (2): 46.
- "Airports: the headache of the 2014 World Cup". CONMEBOL.com. 15 April 2013.
- Williamson, Lauren (October 2010). "The Brazil Report". Inside Counsel.
- "Poor travel options to test 600,000 foreign fans who flock to Brazil for World Cup". Fox Sports. 3 December 2013.
- "Law reduces bureaucracy of airports building". v-brazil.com. 8 June 2010.
- "Spotlight Shifts to Brazil 2014". Aljazeera.net.
- "Brazil's airports 'not ready for World Cup 2014'". BBC. 15 April 2011.
- "Airport auction tests readiness for World Cup: Corporate Brazil". Bloomberg. 19 November 2013.
- "Sustainable Brazil: Social & Economic Impacts of the 2014 World Cup" (PDF). Ernst & Young. 2011. p. 13.
- "Brazilian Development Bank extends financing programme for the hotel sector". copa2014. 28 September 2012.
- "422 Hotels to be built in Brazil ahead of 2016 Olympics". Fox News Channel. 22 November 2013.
- "Failed World Cup projects producing rally for Marcopolo". Bloomberg. 27 March 2013.
- "Brazil’s World Cup a broken promise". Journal Gazette. 17 March 2014.
- "VLT linha 1-trecho 1 (Aeroporto/Terminal Asa Sul)" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "VLT Cuiabá/Várzea Grande" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "World Cup protests threaten Brazil's economy and its image". Reuters. 21 May 2014.
- "There are 100 days to the start of the big show – will Brazil be ready?". The Telegraph. 4 March 2014.
- "FIFA launches 2014 FIFA World Cup Legacy Trust". FIFA. 5 December 2013.
- "Less than half of Brazilians favor hosting World Cup, poll shows". Reuters. 8 April 2014.
- "There are 100 days to the start of the big show – will Brazil be ready?". USA Today. 27 May 2014.
- "The social cost of Brazil hosting World Cup 2014". Bleacher Report. 6 June 2013.
- "Fifa concern about three Brazil stadiums". BBC Sport. 30 May 2014.
- Von Karl Brenke und Gert G. Wagner. "Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft 2014: Brasiliens Wirtschaft hat nichts von der Fußball-WM - Wirtschaft - Tagesspiegel" [World Cup 2014: Brazil's economy gains nothing from the World Cup - Economy - Tagesspiegel] (in German). Tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Stimmung im Land gemischt - news.ORF.at" [Voices in the Land are Mixed] (in German). Orf.at. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "World Cup: pain and passion in Brazil". Afr.com. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "A fair World Cup deal for Brazil? - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "What The World Cup Will Do To Brazil's Economy". Worldcrunch.com. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- After Using Over $500 Million In Taxpayer Money To Build Sports Stadiums, Cincinnati Forced To Sell Off Local Hospital
- Reuters (14 April 2014). "World Cup 2014 leaves Brazil costly stadiums, poor public transport - Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- Featured Columnist (6 June 2013). "The Social Cost of Brazil Hosting World Cup 2014". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "Brazil boosts World Cup security budget as crime rises". CNN. 5 December 2013.
- "Brazil going to use robots to help with 2014 World Cup security". Brazil My Country. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Integration is the keyword in the Strategic Security Plan". World Cup Portal. 14 September 2009.
- "Brazil's massive World Cup security forces". Sportsfan.com.au. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Brazil Maracana stadium protest ends in clashes". BBC News. 16 June 2013.
- "Brazil unrest: 'Million' join protests in 100 cities". BBC News. 21 June 2013.
- "Brazil's protests raise fears for World Cup as a million take to the streets". The Guardian. 21 June 2013.
- "World Cup only benefits outsiders, say Brazil protesters". CNN. 19 June 2013.
- "In the favelas on the frontline of protest, Brazilians ask: who is this World Cup for?". The Guardian. 22 June 2013.
- "Why the World Cup Will Be Bad News for Indigenous People". Mic. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- "What is a Mega Sport Event?". www.thepulse2007.org. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- País, Ediciones El (2013-11-18). "Mais de 500 indígenas foram assassinados no Brasil na última década". EL PAÍS (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- "Brazil: Government struggles to diffuse indigenous conflicts | The Impartial Latin American News Link". Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- "2014 FIFA World Cup cost" (in Portuguese). Estadao.com.br. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Last World Cups costs" (in Portuguese). Futebolinterior.com.br. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "1998 World Cup cost" (in Portuguese). Cdcc.sc.usp.br. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "1994 World Cup cost" (PDF). Retrieved 12 May 2014.[unreliable source]