2014 Fatah–Hamas Agreements

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The 2014 Fatah–Hamas Agreements were two successive reconciliation agreements between Fatah and Hamas, concluded in 2014. The Gaza Agreement was signed in Gaza City on 23 April 2014 by Ismail Haniyeh, the prime minister of the Hamas administration in Gaza, and a senior Palestine Liberation Organisation delegation dispatched by Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas. Its main purpose was reconciliation between the parties and the formation of a Palestinian Unity Government within five weeks, to be followed by general elections within six months.[1][2] The Unity Government was formed on 2 June 2014.

On 25 September 2014, almost 4 months after the formation of the Palestinian Unity Government, the parties concluded a second agreement, the Cairo Agreement, in Cairo, between Haniyeh and President Abbas, specifying the tasks and responsibilities of the Unity Government. The Government was to assume responsibilities in the Gaza Strip, work on re-activation of the Palestinian Legislative Council, and implement the 2006 National Conciliation Document and the National Reconciliation Document of 5 April 2011.[3]

Gaza Agreement, April 2014[edit]

The Gaza Agreement was signed in Gaza City on 23 April 2014 by Ismail Haniyeh, the prime minister of the Hamas administration in Gaza, and a senior PLO delegation dispatched by Palestinian President Abbas. Its main purposes were reconciliation between the parties and the formation of a national unity government within five weeks, to be followed by general elections in December.[1][2]

Reactions[edit]

Mustafa Barghouti, General Secretary of the Palestinian National Initiative, who was involved in the negotiation, described the deal as an "end to the division between the Palestinian people."[4]

Israel reacted angrily. The government announced that it would halt peace talks with the Palestinians.[5] Israel also announced new sanctions, including a previously announced Israeli plan to unilaterally deduct Palestinian debts to Israeli companies from the tax revenue Israel collects for the PA,[6][7] in contravention of the Oslo Accords. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu accused Abbas of sabotaging peace efforts. He said that Abbas cannot have peace with both Hamas and Israel and has to choose.[1][2] Abbas said, the deal did not contradict their commitment to peace with Israel on the basis of a two-state solution[8] and assured reporters that any unity government would recognize Israel, be non-violent, and bound to previous PLO agreements.[9] Politically speaking, some Israeli commentators have stated that the political landscape of Israel may shift to the right and towards more skepticism of the peace process as a result of the Fatah–Hamas agreement.[10]

The United States said it was troubled by the announcement, which "could seriously complicate" negotiations to extend peace negotiations and could implications, inter alia regarding aid.[1]

The European Union welcomed the agreement, but said the priority remains peace talks with Israel.[5]

Formation of Palestinian Unity Government[edit]

The Palestinian Unity Government was formed on 2 June 2014. It was dissolved on 17 June 2015 after President Abbas said it was unable to operate in the Gaza Strip. The general elections stipulated to take place within six months of the formation of the government did not eventuate.

West Bank plot[edit]

During the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, the Shin Bet revealed an alleged plot by Hamas to depose Fatah rule in the West Bank. This was to be achieved by deploying Hamas cells around the West Bank to incite a third intifada and overwhelm Palestinian Authority forces. More than 90 people were arrested. President Abbas said the plot was "a grave threat to the unity of the Palestinian people and its future."[11]

Cairo Agreement, September 2014[edit]

On 25 September 2014, almost 4 months after the formation of the Palestinian Unity Government of June 2014, the Cairo Agreement was concluded between Haniyeh and Abbas. The Unity Government was to assume responsibilities in the Gaza Strip and the PA was to take control over the border crossings. Furthermore, it would work on lifting the siege and the reconstruction of the Gaza Strip, convene a donor conference, re-activation of the Palestinian Legislative Council, and implement the 2006 National Conciliation Document and the National Reconciliation Document of 5 April 2011.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Fatah and Hamas agree landmark pact after seven-year rift. Peter Beaumont and Paul Lewis, The Guardian, 24 April 2014
  2. ^ a b c The rival Palestinian leaderships of Fatah and Hamas made a fresh attempt .... France 24/AP, 23 April 2014
  3. ^ a b Text of Fatah-Hamas agreement. Khaled Abu Toameh, Jerusalem Post, 25 September 2014
  4. ^ "Hamas, Fatah announce talks to form Palestinian unity government". CNN. 24 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b Israel suspends peace talks with Palestinians after Fatah-Hamas deal. The Guardian, 24 April 2014
  6. ^ Israel suspends peace talks with Palestinians. Batsheva Sobelman, Los Angeles Times, 24 April 2014
  7. ^ Venezuela signs deal to provide Palestinian Authority with oil. RT, 19 May, 2014.
    "The Israelis are also withholding US$116 million of Palestinian tax revenue. The punitive measures were in response to the reconciliation agreement between the Palestinian Fatah party, which rules the Palestinian Authority, and Hamas, the militant group which controls Gaza, according to Haaretz."
  8. ^ "Hamas and Fatah unveil Palestinian reconciliation deal". 23 April 2014.
  9. ^ "PLO, Hamas unity constitute reuniting West Bank and Gaza: Ban Ki-moon". 29 April 2014.
  10. ^ Keinon, Herb. "Politics: Fatah-Hamas unity talks breed Likud harmony". The Jerusalem Post.
  11. ^ Ginsburg, Mitch (18 August 2014). "Israel says it foiled Hamas plan for massive attacks on Israel, coup against PA". The Times of Israel.