Iraq War (2014–present)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from 2014 Iraq conflict)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Iraqi insurgency (2011–present)" redirects here. For 2011–13 phase of the conflict, see Iraqi insurgency (2011–13).
Iraq War (2014–present)
Part of the Arab Winter and the Persian Gulf Conflicts
Iraq war map.png
A map of the situation in Iraq, as of 24 June 2015. For a map of the current military situation of Iraqi insurgency, see here.
Date 31 December 2013 – present
(1 year, 6 months and 1 day)
Location Iraq
Result

Ongoing:

Belligerents

 ISIL


Ba'ath Party Loyalists

Military Council of Anbar's Revolutionaries[5]


Ansar al-Islam
Mujahideen Army
Ansar al-Sunnah
Supported by (alleged):

Iraqi government

 Iran

 Syria[17]
(airstrikes)


Popular Mobilization Forces (Iraq) logo.jpg al-Hashd al-Shaabi

Supported by:


Iraqi Kurdistan

Rojava

PKK[34]

PJAK[35]

Yezidi forces

Syriac forces

Commanders and leaders

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Leader of ISIL)
Abu Ala al-Afri 
(Deputy Leader of ISIL)[57]
Abu Muslim al-Turkmani  (Deputy Leader, Iraq)[58]
Abu Suleiman al-Naser (Head of Military Shura)[59]

Abu Mohammad al-Adnani
(ISIL Spokesperson)

Abu Ayman al-Iraqi  (Former Head of Military Shura)[59][60]


Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri 
IAILogo.png Ismail Jubouri
Abu Hashim al Ibrahim

Fuad Masum
Haider Al-Abadi
Nouri al-Maliki
Babaker Shawkat B. Zebari
Ahmad Abu Risha


Muqtada al-Sadr
Qais al-Khazali
Akram al-Kabi
Shiism arabic blue.svg Abu Mustafa al-Sheibani
Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis
Wathiq al-Battat (POW)[61]
Erşad Salihi
Massoud Barzani
Strength

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:


Ba'ath Party Loyalists

Iraqi Security Forces
600,000 (300,000 Army and 300,000 Police)[69]
Awakening Council militias - 30,000[70]
Contractors ~7,000[71][72]
US Forces 3,550[73]
Canadian Forces 600[74]


Popular Mobilization Forces: 60,000-90,000[75]

  • Badr Brigade: 10,000[76]
Peshmerga: 200,000[77][78]
Casualties and losses
11,558+ killed and 5,841 captured
[79][80][81]
6,291 killed and 7,150 wounded
[79][82][83]
1,300+ killed, 6,000+ wounded[84] and 55 missing/captured[85][86]

In 2014, the Iraqi insurgency escalated with the conquest of Fallujah and Mosul and major areas in northern Iraq by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as ISIS). This has resulted in the forced resignation of the Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, airstrikes by the United States, Iran, Syria, and at least a dozen other countries,[87] the participation of Iranian troops[88] and military aid provided to Iraq by Russia.[87]

2014[edit]

Between January and June 2014, ISIL militants seized at least 70% of the Anbar Province,[43] including the cities of Fallujah,[44][89] Al Qaim,[46] Abu Ghraib[47] and half of the provincial capital of Ramadi[48] during the Anbar campaign.

In early June 2014, following its large-scale offensives in Iraq, ISIL seized control of Mosul, the second most populous city in Iraq,[90] the nearby town of Tal Afar[91] and most of the surrounding Nineveh province.[49] ISIL also captured parts of Kirkuk and Diyala provinces[52] and Tikrit, the administrative center of the Salahuddin Governorate,[92] with the ultimate goal of capturing Baghdad, the Iraqi capital.[93] ISIS was believed to have only 2,000–3,000 fighters up until the Mosul campaign, but during that campaign, it became evident that this number was a gross underestimate.[94] There were also reports that a number of Sunni groups in Iraq that were opposed to the predominantly Shia government had joined ISIS, thus bolstering the group's numbers.[95][not in citation given][96] However, the Kurds—who are mostly Sunnis—in the northeast of Iraq, were unwilling to be drawn into the conflict, and there were clashes in the area between ISIL and the Kurdish Peshmerga.[97][98]

ISIL executed 1,700 Iraqi soldiers who had surrendered in the fighting and released many images of mass executions via its Twitter feed and various websites.[99]

In late June, ISIS militants captured two key crossings in Anbar, a day after seizing the border crossing at Al-Qaim. According to analysts, capturing these crossings could aid ISIL in transporting weapons and equipment to different battlefields.[100] Two days later, the Syrian Air Force bombed ISIL positions in Iraq. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki stated: "There was no coordination involved, but we welcome this action. We welcome any Syrian strike against Isis because this group targets both Iraq and Syria."[101]

At this point, The Jerusalem Post reported that the Obama administration had requested US$500 million from the US Congress to use in the training and arming of "moderate" Syrian rebels fighting against the Syrian government, in order to counter the growing threat posed by ISIS in Syria and Iraq.[102]

On 29 June, ISIL announced the establishment of a new caliphate. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed its caliph, and the group formally changed its name to the Islamic State.[103] Four days later, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the self-proclaimed caliph of the new Islamic State, said that Muslims should unite to capture Rome in order to "own the world."[104][105] He called on Muslims the world over to unite behind him as their leader.[106]

On 24 July, ISIL blew up the Mosque and tomb of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah) in Mosul,[107] with no reported casualties.[108] Residents in the area said that ISIS had erased a piece of Iraqi heritage.[109] Johah's tomb was also an important holy site in the Jewish heritage as well.[110] A few days later, ISIL also blew up the Seth|Nabi Shiyt (Prophet Seth) shrine in Mosul. Sami al-Massoudi, deputy head of the Shia endowment agency which oversees holy sites, confirmed the destruction and added that ISIS had taken artifacts from the shrine to an unknown location.[111]

U.S. President Barack Obama delivers an update on the situation and U.S. position on Iraq, authorizing airstrikes against ISIL and humanitarian aid for religious minorities trapped on a mountain.[112]

In an August offensive, ISIL captured Sinjar and a number of other towns in the north of the country. Almost 200,000 civilians, mostly Yazidis, managed to flee from the fighting in Sinjar city,[113][114] about 50,000 of them fled into the Sinjar Mountains,[114] where they were trapped without food, water or medical care,[115] facing starvation and dehydration.[114] They had been threatened with death if they refused conversion to Islam. A UN representative said that "a humanitarian tragedy is unfolding in Sinjar."[116] By the end of the month, ISIL massacred 5,000 Yazidi men, with killings running in the hundreds in different villages.[117] In addition, during this latest offensive, the Islamic State advanced to within 30 km of the Iraqi Kurdish capital of Erbil in northern Iraq.[118][119]

Prompted by the siege and killings of the Yazidis, on 7 August, President Obama authorized targeted airstrikes in Iraq against ISIL, along with airdrops of aid.[120] The UK offered the US assistance with surveillance and refuelling, and planned humanitarian airdrops to Iraqi refugees.[121] The US asserted that the systematic destruction of the Yazidi people by the Islamic State was genocide.[122] The Arab League also accused the Islamic State of committing crimes against humanity.[123][124]

On 13 August, U.S. airstrikes and Kurdish forces broke the ISIL siege of Mount Sinjar.[125][126][127] Also, five days later, Kurdish Peshmerga ground troops, with the help of Iraqi Special Forces and the US air campaign, overran ISIL militants and reclaimed the Mosul Dam.[128][129][130]

On 31 August, the United States, France, United Kingdom and Australia began humanitarian aid drops, like food, water and medical supplies, to help prevent a potential massacre against the Shi'a Turkmen minority in Amirli. The US also carried out air strikes on ISIS positions around and near Amirli. Iraqi officials stated that they had reached Amirli and broken the siege and that the military was fighting to clear the areas around the town. This is known to be the first major turning point against the ISIL in Iraq.[131]

In September, the United States sent an additional 250 US troops to protect American personnel,[132] while the first engagement of the British military against IS targets took place when a British Panavia Tornado jet dropped a Paveway IV bomb on "a heavy weapon position" operated by ISIS in northwest Iraq at the end of the month.[133][134] In addition, Australia offered 200 special forces to the Kurds[135] and 600 Australian troops landed in the UAE.[136][137] The following month, Australia authorized its special forces troops to go to Iraq as part of the anti-ISIS coalition that day,[138][139] as well as authorizing airstrikes.[140]

Mid-October, ISIL forces captured the city of Hīt, after the 300-strong Iraqi Army garrison abandoned and set afire its local base and supplies and about 180,000 civilians (including refugees of the previous Anbar offensive) fled the area.[141][142] Later that month, Operation Ashura is launched by Iraqi forces and Iranian-backed Shia militas, scoring a major victory and retaking the strategic town of Jurf al-Sakhar near Baghdad, and securing the way for millions of Shia pilgrims who were going to Karbala and Najaf On the Day of Ashura. Kurdish forces, meanwhile, recaptured Zumar.[143]

On 21 October, ISIL seized terrain north of the Sinjar Mountains, thus cutting the area's escape route to Kurdish areas. The Yazidi militias then withdrew from there into the mountains, where the number of Yazidi civilian refugees was estimated at 2,000–7,000.[144] The mountains had once again been partially besieged by ISIL.[145]

In mid-November, Iraqi forces retook control of most part of the strategic city Baiji from the Islamic State[146][147] and breaks the siege of the nearby oil refinery.[148] However, by the following month, ISIL recaptured Baiji and reestablished the siege of the refinery.[149][150][151]

On 17 December, Peshmerga forces, backed by 50 U.S.-led coalition airstrikes on ISIL positions,[152] launched an offensive to liberate Sinjar[152] and to break the partial ISIL siege of the Sinjar Mountains.[145] In less than two days, the siege was broken. After ISIL forces retreated, Kurdish fighters were initially faced with clearing out mines around the area,[153] but quickly opened a land corridor to those mountains, enabling Yazidis to be evacuated. The operation left 100 ISIL fighters dead.[152]

Late on 21 December, Syrian Kurdish YPG fighters south of the mountain range reached Peshmerga lines, thus linking their two fronts.[145] The next day, the YPG broke through ISIL lines, thus opening a corridor from Syria to the town of Sinjar. By the evening, the Peshmerga took control of much of Sinjar.[145]

2015[edit]

In late January, Iraqi forces recaptured the entire province of Diyala from the Islamic State.[154]

On 2 March, Second Battle of Tikrit began.[155] and after more than a month of hard fighting, Iranians, Iraqis and Shiite militia overcame ISIL fighters and took Tikrit. This success was off-set in late May, by ISIL's capture of the provincial capital of Ramadi in Anbar province.

They finally took it in April.

In May, ISIL took Ramadi and threatened Baghdad. In June they were driven back from lightly held territory, while coalition airstrikes continued.[156]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Category: POLITICS (2014-07-23). "Baath in Iraq declares war on ISIS". English.shafaaq.com. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  2. ^ Hassan, Hassan (17 June 2014). "More Than ISIS, Iraq's Sunni Insurgency". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  3. ^ "Military council of the rebels starts setting governors on their captured cities". Elaph. Osama Mahdi. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "How Syria's civil war is spilling over - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  5. ^ "استنفار بمدن عراقية واستمرار المعارك بالأنبار" (in Arabic). Al Jazeera. 5 January 2014. 
  6. ^ Eric Schmitt and Alissa J. Rubin. "U.S. and Iraqis Try to Fragment Extremist Group". The New York Times (The New York Times). Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  7. ^ Jaish al-Rashideen's logo is visible alongside other insurgent groups in this image uploaded to a pro-insurgent Facebook page in December 2014: [1]. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
  8. ^ Islamic Front for the Iraqi Resistance's logo is visible alongside other those of other insurgent groups in this image uploaded to a pro-insurgent Facebook page in December 2014: [2]. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
  9. ^ IŞİD Nedir, IŞİD'in Hedefi Nedir, IŞID'i Kimler Destekliyor (in Turkish)
  10. ^ The Battle for Iraq Is a Saudi War on Iran
  11. ^ "Qatar denies backing Islamic State group". Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "BBC News - Islamic State: Where does jihadist group get its support?". BBC News. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "How our allies in Kuwait and Qatar funded Islamic State". Telegraph.co.uk. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "Sunni Opposition to the Islamic State". Middle East Review of International Affairs. 28 September 2014.  Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  15. ^ "5,000 Sunni Militiamen Fighting Alongside the Iraqi Security Forces". 4 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  16. ^ Tomlinson, Hugh. "Iran's special forces rush in to help floundering ally". The Times. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  17. ^ Syria pounds ISIS bases in coordination with Iraq|News, Middle East|THE DAILY STAR
  18. ^ a b "Obama Enlists 9 Allies to Help in the Battle Against ISIS". The New York Times. 6 September 2014. 
  19. ^ a b "US announces coalition to fight Islamic State". Al Jazeera English. 6 September 2014. 
  20. ^ a b Adam Vidler. "Australia to take up military role in Iraq conflict". Retrieved 2014-08-31. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Seven Countries to sell weapons to Kurds". BasNews. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  22. ^ a b "Enhedslisten støtter dansk våbenfly til kurdere i Irak" (in Danish). DR. DR. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "Iraq crisis: Barack Obama sends in US troops as Isis insurgency worsens". The Guardian. 17 June 2014. 
  24. ^ a b "Obama authorises airstrikes in Iraq". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  25. ^ a b "Two US fighter jets strike ISIS artillery in Iraq's Kurdistan - Pentagon". Russia Today. 8 August 2014. 
  26. ^ "BBC News - Iraqi PM welcomes Syria air strike on border crossing". Bbc.com. 2014-06-26. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  27. ^ "Iraqi PM Nouri Maliki: Russian jets will turn tide". BBC. 26 June 2014. 
  28. ^ a b "Albania sending weapons to Kurdish forces in Iraq". NOW News. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  29. ^ a b Klix.ba. "BiH ce Iraku donirati više od 15 miliona metaka za borbu protiv IDIL-a". klix.ba(In Bosnian). Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  30. ^ a b "Hrvatska u borbi protiv islamista: Na zahtjev SAD-a šaljemo oružje za iracku vojsku". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  31. ^ a b "Iraq crisis: Britain ready to arm Kurds as EU meets – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  32. ^ a b "Estonia donates small-arms ammo to Iraqi Kurds". 2 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "Hungary to send ammunitions to Iraq". Politics.hu. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  34. ^ a b c d e "YNK: PKK and YPG are fighting in Şengal and Rabia against ISIS". 6 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  35. ^ a b c "Kurdish PKK Forces Gather to Retake Mahmur Camp and Shingal". Kurdistan Tribute. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  36. ^ "IS-Terror in Shingal: Wer kämpft gegen wen? Ein Überblick". Êzidî Press. 12 October 2014.  Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  37. ^ "Video: YPG and MFS arrived in Shingal Mountains Sinjar to protect the refugees who fled from Shingal and other Towns News by Suroyo TV 4.8.2014 Western Dialect Source Suroyo TV ~ Frequency". Frequency.com. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  38. ^ "Christians in Iraq Forming Militia to Defend, and Possibly Retake, Ancestral Lands". Site. 
  39. ^ Motlagh, Jason. "Iraqi Christians under threat yet again". Gulf News. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  40. ^ "Dwekh Nawsha- An Assyrian Fighting Force in Iraq". Aymenn Jawad al-Tamimi. 6 November 2014.  Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  41. ^ "Iranian Forces Fight Alongside Peshmerga In Jalawla". BasNews. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  42. ^ "Iranˈs humanitarian aid to Iraqi Kurdistan region delivered". Reliefweb. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  43. ^ a b "John Kerry holds talks in Iraq as more cities fall to ISIS militants". CNN. 23 June 2014. 
  44. ^ a b "Al Qaeda-linked militants capture Fallujah during violent outbreak". Fox News Channel. 4 January 2014. 
  45. ^ "Iraq's Fallujah falls to Qaeda militants as 65 killed". 7 News. 5 January 2014. [dead link]
  46. ^ a b "Militants kill 21 Iraqi leaders, capture 2 border crossings". NY Daily News. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  47. ^ a b "Iraq Update #42: Al-Qaeda in Iraq Patrols Fallujah; Aims for Ramadi, Mosul, Baghdad". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  48. ^ a b "Islamic State overruns Camp Speicher, routs Iraqi forces". Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  49. ^ a b "Rebels seize control of Iraq's Nineveh - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  50. ^ Reuters (2014-06-09). "Insurgents in Iraq Overrun Mosul Provincial Government Headquarters". Voanews.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  51. ^ "Iraqi city of Mosul falls to jihadists". CBS. 10 June 2014. 
  52. ^ a b "Jihadists seize areas in Iraq's Kirkuk province: police | News , Middle East". The Daily Star. 2014-06-10. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  53. ^ "ISIL loses key Iraqi province to government forces". Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  54. ^ A victory against the Islamic State
  55. ^ "Isis seizes Ramadi". The Independent. May 18, 2015. 
  56. ^ "Iraq: Shiite Gov't faces Mammoth Task in taking Sunni al-Anbar from ISIL". Informed Comment. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  57. ^ "Report: A former physics teacher is now leading ISIS - Business Insider". Business Insider. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  58. ^ Matt Bradley and Ghassan Adnan in Baghdad, and Felicia Schwartz in Washington (10 November 2014). "Coalition Airstrikes Targeted Islamic State Leaders Near Mosul". WSJ. 
  59. ^ a b Alessandria Masi (11 November 2014). "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph Of The Islamic State Group?". International Business Times. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  60. ^ "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". New York Times. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  61. ^ "Iraqi security forces arrest Shiite militia leader". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  62. ^ "Islamic State 'has 50,000 fighters in Syria'". Al Jazeera. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014. 
  63. ^ "ISIS has 100,000 fighters, growing fast – Iraqi govt adviser". RT. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  64. ^ "ISIS militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". El-balad.com. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  65. ^ Colin Freeman (18 May 2013). "Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri: the King of Clubs is back, and he may yet prove to be Saddam Hussein's trump card". The Telegraph. 
  66. ^ Daniel Cassman. "Islamic Army in Iraq | Mapping Militant Organizations". Stanford.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  67. ^ Heras, Nicholas A. "The Tribal Component of Iraq’s Sunni Rebellion: The General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries". The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  68. ^ usatoday.com (October 9, 2012). "Al-Qaeda making comeback in Iraq, officials say". Qassim Abdul-Zahra, Associated Press. 
  69. ^ Collins, Chris (19 August 2007). "U.S. says Iranians train Iraqi insurgents". McClatchy Newspapers. 
  70. ^ "A Dark Side to Iraq 'Awakening' Groups". International Herald Tribune. www.military.com. 4 January 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  71. ^ Miller, T. Christian (4 July 2007). "Private contractors outnumber U.S. troops in Iraq". Los Angeles Times. 
  72. ^ Roberts, Michelle (24 February 2007). "Contractor deaths add up in Iraq". Deseret Morning News. 
  73. ^ "Obama Looks at Adding Bases and Troops in Iraq, to Fight ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2015. 
  74. ^ "Operation IMPACT". Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  75. ^ Mustafa Habib. "Are Shiite Militias Growing More Powerful Than Iraqi Army?". Niqash. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  76. ^ Beehner, Lionel (9 June 2005). "IRAQ: Militia Groups". Council on Foreign Relations. 
  77. ^ Los Angeles Times (9 October 2014). "Are Iraq's renowned peshmerga fighters any match for Islamic State?". latimes.com. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  78. ^ "Outgunned and untested for years, Kurdish peshmerga struggle". Reuters UK. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  79. ^ a b "Iraq Government Casualty Figures via AFP (Google Docs)". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31. 
  80. ^ "US Official: Airstrikes Killed 10,000 Islamic State Fighters". The Epoch Times. 3 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  81. ^ "U.S led coalition airstrikes on Syria kill more than 2500 in the past 8 months". SOHR. May 23, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  82. ^ "احصائية رسمية: 1997 العدد الكلي لمفقودي مجزرتي سبايكر وبادوش". Rudaw. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  83. ^ UN Casualty Figures for February 2015
  84. ^ "Kurds needs arms to fight against ISIS - Business Insider". Business Insider. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  85. ^ "Iraqi Kurds call for foreign ground troops in anti-IS fight". 
  86. ^ "ISIS video claims to show 17 Kurdish fighters in caged procession - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  87. ^ a b "Who Else, Besides Americans, Are Flying Fighter Jets in Iraq?". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  88. ^ "Iran 'sent soldiers to fight in Iraq'". Al Jazeera America. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  89. ^ "Iraq's Fallujah falls to Qaeda militants as 65 killed". 7 News. 5 January 2014. [dead link]
  90. ^ Al-Salhy, Suadad; Arango, Tim (10 June 2014). "Sunni Militants Drive Iraqi Army Out of Mosul". The New York Times. 
  91. ^ Al-Sanjary, Ziad; Rasheed, Ahmed (15 June 2014). "Advancing Iraq rebels seize northwest town in heavy battle". Reuters. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  92. ^ "Iraq city of Tikrit falls to ISIS fighters". Aljazeera.com. 12 June 2014. 
  93. ^ Curry, Colleen (13 June 2014). "A Simple and Useful Guide to Understanding the Conflict in Iraq". ABC News. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  94. ^ Neriah, Jacques (11 June 2014). "Is the Fall of Mosul in Iraq to the Jihadists a "Game Changer"?". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  95. ^ "Diverse groups make up Iraq's Sunni insurgency". Middle East Eye. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  96. ^ Sherlock, Ruth; Malouf, Carol (20 June 2014). "Islamic Army of Iraq founder: Isis and Sunni Islamists will march on Baghdad". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  97. ^ Collard, Rebecca (20 June 2014). "Kurdish fighters mull whether to defend Iraq". TIME. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  98. ^ Windrem, Robert (20 June 2014). "As Sunnis, Shiites Battle, Are Iraq's Kurds Preparing to Declare Independence?". NBC News. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  99. ^ Norland, Rod; Rubin, Alissa A. "Massacre Claim Shakes Iraq" The New York Times. 15 June 2014.
  100. ^ "Sunni militants 'seize Iraq's western border crossings'". BBC News. 22 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  101. ^ Chulov, Martin; Hawramy, Fazel (27 June 2014). "Isis: Maliki hails Syrian air raids in Iraq as leaving both states 'winners'". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
  102. ^ "Obama seeks $500 million from Congress to train 'moderate' Syrian rebels to fight ISIS" The Jerusalem Post. 28 June 2014.
  103. ^ Withnall, Adam (29 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: Isis changes name and declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East". The Independent. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  104. ^ Rousselle, Christine (2 July 2014). "Leader of Islamic State Claims Rome Will Be Conquered Next". Townhall.com. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  105. ^ McElory, Damien. "Rome will be conquered next, says leader of 'Islamic State'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  106. ^ "ISIS leader calls for global Muslim obedience". Middle East Star. 5 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  107. ^ "Iraq jihadists blow up 'Jonah's tomb' in Mosul". The Telegraph. Agence France-Presse. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  108. ^ "Isis militants blow up Jonah's tomb". The Guardian. Associated Press. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  109. ^ Malas, Nour (25 July 2014). "Jihadists in Iraq Erase Cultural Heritage". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  110. ^ "Report on the tomb destroyal in Israeli news.". 
  111. ^ "ISIS destroys Prophet Sheth shrine in Mosul". Al Arabiya. 26 July 2014. 
  112. ^ "President Obama Makes a Statement on Iraq". The Whitehouse. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  113. ^ Sunni Extremists in Iraq Seize 3 Towns From Kurds and Threaten Major Dam. New York Times, 3 August 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  114. ^ a b c "UN Security Council condemns attacks by Iraqi jihadists". BBC News. 7 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2015. 
  115. ^ ‘Iraqi Yazidi lawmaker: 'Hundreds of my people are being slaughtered'’. CNN, 6 August 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  116. ^ Salih, Mohammed; van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (5 August 2014). "Iraqi Yazidis: 'If we move they will kill us'". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  117. ^ Hopkins, Steve (14 October 2014). "Full horror of the Yazidis who didn’t escape Mount Sinjar: UN confirms 5,000 men were executed and 7,000 women are now kept as sex slaves". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  118. ^ "مصادر كردية: "الدولة الإسلامية" على بعد 30 كيلومترا من إربيل". ynewsiq.com. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  119. ^ Spencer, Richard (10 August 2014). "American air strikes help Kurdish forces reclaim towns from Islamic State". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2014-08-11. 
  120. ^ "Obama Authorized Targeted Airstrikes in Iraq Against Islamic Militants, Along with Airdrops". Associated Press. 7 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  121. ^ "UK planes to drop emergency aid to Iraqi refugees". BBC News. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  122. ^ Noack, Rick (8 August 2014). "When Obama talks about Iraq, his use of the word ‘genocide’ is vital". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  123. ^ "Arab League denounces ISIS attacks as "crimes against humanity"". Al Arabiya. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  124. ^ "Mid Day News - 11/08/2014 - التطورات في العراق". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-08-12. 
  125. ^ Militants’ Siege on Mountain in Iraq Is Over, Pentagon Says
  126. ^ Roussinos, Aris (16 August 2014). "'Everywhere Around Is the Islamic State': On the Road in Iraq with YPG Fighters". Vice News. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  127. ^ Shelton, Tracey (29 August 2014). "'If it wasn’t for the Kurdish fighters, we would have died up there'". Global Post. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  128. ^ "Mosul Dam's Takeover by ISIS Raises Risk of Flooding". The Wall Street Journal. 17 August 2014. (subscription required) (Accessible via Google.)
  129. ^ "US air strikes hit Islamic State near Mosul dam". Sydney Morning Herald. 17 August 2014. 
  130. ^ "Troops in Iraq Rout Sunni Militants From a Key Dam". The New York Times. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  131. ^ "Iraqi forces 'reach besieged Amerli'". BBC News. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  132. ^ "Obama to send approximately 350 additional military personnel to Iraq". Fox News Channel. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  133. ^ RAF Tornadoes strike first Islamic State targets - Flightglobal.com, 30 September 2014
  134. ^ "Moment Britain bombed ISIS in pictures as RAF Tornados launch second wave in Iraq - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  135. ^ "Australian Troops In UAE Await Australia Decision To Fight ISIS; Julie Bishop Explains Delay". International Business Times. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  136. ^ "Australia to send 600 troops to UAE to help fight IS". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  137. ^ "BBC News - Islamic State crisis: Australia to send 600 troops to UAE". BBC News. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  138. ^ [3][dead link]
  139. ^ "Australia deploys special forces, joins air strikes in Iraq". Yahoo News UK. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  140. ^ "Australia deploys special forces, joins air strikes in Iraq". Yahoo News UK. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  141. ^ "Islamic State militants overrun the strategic city of Heet and claim half Syrian border town of Kobane". NewsComAu. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  142. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR - Iraq's displacement crisis deepens as civilians flee latest ISIS offensive". UNHCR. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  143. ^ "Iraqi Forces Recapture Key Towns from Isis Following 22 US Air Strikes". International Buisness Times. October 25, 2014. 
  144. ^ "Iraq Sinjar battle (21 Oct 2014)". Agathocle de Syracuse. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
  145. ^ a b c d "Islamic State counterattacks refinery as fight for Iraq swings back and forth". McClatchy DC. 22 December 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
  146. ^ "Iraqi Forces Advance in Jihadist-Held Baiji". Naharnet. 7 Novembder 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  147. ^ "Iraq troops 'push Islamic State from oil town of Baiji'". BBC News. 2014-11-14. Retrieved 2014-11-18. 
  148. ^ "Iraqi security forces enter Baiji refinery". Al Arabiya. 2014-11-18. Retrieved 2014-11-18. 
  149. ^ Avaneesh Pandey (22 December 2014). "ISIS In Iraq: Kurds Recapture Mount Sinjar As Islamic State Group Retakes Baiji Oil Refinery". International Business Times. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  150. ^ IANS (22 December 2014). "Iraqi army retake military airbase outside Tal Afar". Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  151. ^ "Iraq". Rudaw. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  152. ^ a b c "An Early Success for the Kurds in Sinjar". The New Yorker. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
  153. ^ "ISIL land mines frustrate effort to get aid to freed Mount Sinjar Yazidis". Aljazeera America. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015. 
  154. ^ "Iraq forces 'liberate' Diyala province from IS". Yahoo News. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  155. ^ "Iraq 'seizes districts from IS' in Tikrit advance". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  156. ^ http://www.menafn.com/1094262586/Another-16-airstrikes-target-ISIL-in-Syria-Iraq