2014 Venezuelan protests
|2014 Venezuelan protests|
|Part of Venezuelan protests (2014-present)|
|Date||12 February 2014 – 8 May 2014|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
In 2014, a series of protests, political demonstrations, and civil insurrection began in Venezuela due to the country's high levels of urban violence, inflation, and chronic shortages of basic goods attributed to economic policies such as strict price controls. Mass protesting began in earnest in February following the attempted rape of a student on a university campus in San Cristóbal. Subsequent arrests and killings of student protesters spurred their expansion to neighboring cities and the involvement of opposition leaders. The year's early months were characterized by large demonstrations and violent clashes between protesters and government forces that resulted in nearly 4,000 arrests and 43 deaths, including both supporters and opponents of the government.
- 1 Background
- 2 Timeline
- 3 Protest violence
- 4 Media
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Since Hugo Chávez was elected President of Venezuela in 1998, he and his political ambitions proved to be controversial.
Under Chávez, oil revenues in the 2000s brought funds not seen in Venezuela since the 1980s, with Chávez's government becoming "semi-authoritarian and hyper-populist", investing heavily in public works which initially benefited Venezuelans. His government failed to save funds earned while oil prices were high and soon after his death, Venezuela's economy became dilapidated. Also under Chávez's tenure, corruption in Venezuela, as well as crime in Venezuela, had greatly increased, causing more frustration among Venezuelans.
Frustrations were seen in the polls when during the 2013 Venezuelan presidential election, Nicolas Maduro narrowly won the election with 50.6% of the vote, ahead of the 49.1% of candidate Henrique Capriles Radonski, surprisingly close compared to previous elections in the country. The opposition's defeat in the 8 December 2013 municipal elections, which it had framed as a 'plebiscite' on Maduro's presidency, would later ignite an internal debate over strategy. Moderate opposition leaders Henrique Capriles and Henri Falcón argued for 'unity' and dialogue with the government, and attended meetings held by the President to discuss cooperation among the country's mayors and governors. Other opposition leaders, such as Leopoldo López and Marina Corina Machado, opposed dialogue and called for a new strategy to force an immediate change in the government.
According to the Venezuelan Observatory of Social Conflict (OVCS), 9,286 protests occurred in 2014, the greatest number of protests occurring in Venezuela in decades. The majority of protests, 6,369 demonstrations, occurred during the first six months of 2014 with an average of 35 protests per day. SVCO estimated that 445 protests occurred in January; 2,248 in February; 1,423 in March; 1,131 in April; 633 in May; and 489 in June. The main reason of protest was against President Maduro and the Venezuelan government with 52% of demonstrations and the remaining 42% of protests were due to other difficulties such as labor, utilities, insecurity, education and shortages. Most protesting began in the first week of February, reaching peak numbers in the middle of that month following the call of students and opposition leaders to protest. The number of protests then declined into mid-2014 only to increase slightly in late 2014 into 2015 following the drop in the price of oil and due to the shortages in Venezuela.
Demonstrations against violence in Venezuela began in January 2014 following the murder of actress and former Miss Venezuela Mónica Spear, and continued, when former presidential candidate Henrique Capriles shook the hand of President Maduro; this "gesture... cost him support and helped propel" opposition leader Leopoldo López Mendoza to the forefront.
According to the Associated Press, well before protests began in the Venezuelan capital city of Caracas, the attempted rape of a young student on a university campus in San Cristóbal, in the western border state of Táchira, led to protests from students "outraged" at "long-standing complaints about deteriorating security under President Nicolas Maduro and his predecessor, the late Hugo Chávez. But what really set them off was the harsh police response to their initial protest, in which several students were detained and allegedly abused, as well as follow-up demonstrations to call for their release". These protests expanded, attracted non-students, and led to more detentions; eventually, other students joined, and the protests spread to Caracas and other cities, with opposition leaders becoming involved.
Leopoldo López, a leading figure in the opposition to the government, began to lead protests. During events surrounding the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt, Lopez "orchestrated the public protests against Chávez and he played a central role in the citizen's arrest of Chavez's interior minister", Ramón Rodríguez Chacín, though he later tried to distance himself from the event, López, alongside María Corina Machado launch a campaign on 23 January 2014 to remove Maduro from office, named La Salida (The Exit), with an intent to have President Maduro resign through protests with Machado publicly stating “We must create chaos in the streets through responsible civic struggle”.
On 1 February, López called upon students to protest peacefully against the scarcity, insecurity, and shortages. The next day, opposition leaders call for a march on 12 February in recognition of National Youth Day.
On 12 February, major opposition protests began with student marches led by opposition leaders in 38 cities across Venezuela simultaneous with the national celebrations for the bicentennial year anniversary of Youth Day and the Battle of La Victoria. After the protests, smaller groups remained and threw stones at government forces. The protests turned more violent after government security forces used excessive force on protesters and shot at groups of unarmed people. Bassil Da Costa was the first protester to die after getting a bullet to the head. Later that day, another protester, Robert Reddman, and a pro-government activist were also killed in Caracas. President Maduro blamed "fascist" groups for the deaths caused that day, including opposition leader Leopoldo López, during his closing address in the Youth Day parade that evening in La Victoria, Aragua state.
The next day on 13 February following the death of a colectivo member Juan "Juancho" Montoya, members of colectivos "went on television to call for calm and called for the arrest of opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez. Judge Ralenys Tovar Guillén accepts the Public Ministry's petition to detain Leopoldo López in connection with the unrest that resulted in the death of the colectivo leader and two students.
Leopoldo López delivers a speech on 18 February in Plaza Brión where he pointed out that its necessary to build "a peaceful exit, inside the constitution but in the streets" and assured that "there isn't free media anymore to express themselves and if the media stays silent they must go to the streets". He declared that "if his imprisonment allows Venezuela to wake up definitely and for the Venezuelans that want a change, his imprisonment will be worth it." He turned himself to the National Guard at 12:24 P.M., Venezuelan time, and said he was turning himself to a "corrupt justice". After Lopez turned himself in, the opposition protesters blocked the Francisco Fajardo Highway.
Miss Tourism Venezuela Génesis Carmona is killed by colectivo gunfire on 19 February after being shot in the head while supporting an opposition protest. MUD leader Henrique Capriles breaks his silence and confronts Francisco Ameliach, government officials and denounced the violence the government was using on the protesters.
On 23 February, about 30 military units arrived at the residence of retired brigadier general Ángel Vivas to arrest him for allegedly "training" protesters to place barbed wire over the roads to injure government forces and pro-government protesters, resulting in one fatality in the process and many more wounded. According to CBC, Vivas "rose to prominence in 2007 when he resigned as head of the Defence Ministry's engineering department rather than order his subalterns to swear to the Cuban-inspired oath 'Socialist Fatherland or death'." Vivas reported that "Cubans and thugs" were attacking his house and moments later appeared atop the roof of his house wearing a flak jacket along with an assault rifle saying "Come find me Maduro!". National Guardsmen made a barricade in front of Vivas' house but neighbors and supporters defended Vivas by placing a barricade of vehicles in front of the troops. The troops retreated without arresting Vivas after the citizens refused to leave the area. Vivas later explained why he thought Venezuelans needed to defend the country from foreigners, saying "Cubans are in all structures of the Venezuelan state" and also explained that he told protesters to set up barricades in order to defend themselves against attacks from the National Guard.
On 29 February, Sukhoi fighter jets of the Venezuelan Air Force were seen flying over San Cristóbal, Táchira, Venezuela on 20 February and President Nicolás Maduro ordered paratroopers of the 41st Airborne Brigade, 4th Armored Division, Venezuelan Army on standby on recommendations from the Minister of Interior and Justice, Lieutenant General Miguel Rodríguez Torres.
In March 2014, paramilitary groups acted violently in 437 protests, about 31% of total protests in March, where gunshot wounds were reported in most protests they were involved in. According to a correspondent from Televen, armed groups attempted to kidnap and rape individuals in an apartment complex in Maracaibo on 27 March without intervention from the National Guard.
On 16 April, colectivos in several trucks allegedly attacked an apartment complex known for protesting damaging 5 vehicles, leaving 2 burnt, and fired several shots into the apartments leaving one person injured from a gunshot wound.
Use of firearms
El Nacional claimed that the objective of those attacking opposition protesters is to kill since many of the protesters that were killed were shot in vulnerable areas like the head and that, "9 of the 15 dead people were from the 12F demonstrators, who were injured by state security forces or paramilitaries linked to the ruling party." El Universal has claimed that Melvin Collazos of SEBIN, and Jonathan Rodríquez, a bodyguard of the Minister of the Interior and Justice Miguel Rodríguez Torres, are in custody after shooting unarmed, fleeing, protesters several times in violation of protocol.
Use of chemical agents
Some violent demonstrations have been controlled with tear gas and water cannons.
Some mysterious chemical agents were used in Venezuela as well. On 20 March 2014, the appearance of "red gas" first occurred when it was used in San Cristóbal against protesters, with reports that it was CN gas. The first reported use of "green gas" was on 15 February 2014 against demonstrations in Altamira. On 25 April 2014, "green gas" was reportedly used again on protesters in Mérida. Venezuelan-American Ricardo Hausmann, director of the Center for International Development at Harvard made statements that this gas caused protesters to vomit. Some reported that the chemical used was adamsite, a yellow-green arsenical chemical weapon that can cause respiratory distress, nausea and vomiting.
In April 2014, Amnesty International worried about "the use of chemical toxins in high concentrations” by government forces and recommended better training for them. During the months of protest in 2014, the heavy use of tear gas by authorities in Chacao affected surrounding residents and forced them to wear gas masks to "survive" in their homes. Regional human rights groups also denounced the usage of "green gas", stating that its usage is "internationally banned".
A study by Mónica Kräuter, a chemist and professor, involved the collection of thousands of tear gas canisters fired by Venezuelan authorities in 2014. She stated that the majority of canisters used the main component CS gas, supplied by Cóndor of Brazil, which meets Geneva Convention requirements. However, 72% of the tear gas used was expired and other canisters produced in Venezuela by Cavim did not show adequate labels or expiration dates. Following the expiration of tear gas, Krauter notes that it "breaks down into cyanide oxide, phosgenes and nitrogens that are extremely dangerous".
Shortly after protests began, the Inter American Press Association protested against the "official censorship" of media by the government in Venezuela which included blocking the internet, banning channels, revoking foreign media credentials, harassing reporters and limiting resources for newspapers.
A group of Venezuelan artists created a group called "Eco" in late-February 2014 to speak out against violations and crimes that have happened in Venezuela during the protests. VTV made a satirical parody of the videos made by the Eco group.
In March 2014 as a response to newspaper shortages and closing of 13 Venezuelan newspapers, the Colombian newspaper organization Andiarios sent a caravan of trucks carrying 52 tons of resources to El Nacional, El Impulso and El Nuevo País as part of the "We are all Venezuela. No press freedom, no democracy" movement to help defend "press freedom and the right to information". Newspaper organizations in Puerto Rico, Panama and Trinidad and Tobago have also shipped newspaper to Venezuela to help ease newspaper shortages caused by price restrictions set by the Venezuelan government.
There were 34 resignations and 17 dismissals of journalists during the protests. The head of investigative journalists at Últimas Noticias resigned after being told not to do a story on guarimbas and after the manager tried to force her to say that the guarimbas were funded, that they were not protesters and to conclude the story by condemning them. While on air, Reimy Chávez, a news anchor for Globovision also resigned and was directed out of the studio by security guards. A cameraman who resigned from Globovisión shared images that were censored by the news agency showing National Guard troops and colectivos working together during the protests. A journalist for Globovision, Carlos Arturo Albino, resigned saying it was because "I do not want to be complicit silence. I'm not trained to be silent."
Equipment belonging to CNN was "stolen at gunpoint" on 19 February and possibly destroyed by government forces.
President Maduro threatened to force CNN out of Venezuela the next day, saying, "I've asked the (information) minister to tell CNN we have started the administrative process to remove them from Venezuela if they don't rectify (their behavior). Enough! I won't accept war propaganda against Venezuela." On 21 February 2014, the government revoked press credentials of seven CNN journalists with CNN responding to the government by saying, "CNN has reported both sides of the tense situation in Venezuela, even with very limited access to government officials ... We hope the government will reconsider its decision. Meanwhile, we will continue reporting on Venezuela in the fair, accurate and balanced manner we are known for."
Attacks on reporters
On 22 April 2014, reporters from La Patilla that were covering events in Santa Fe were retained by the National Guard. The team of reporters were accused of being "fake journalists", had to show their ID's to the National Guardsmen and had their pictures taken. They were later released without further complications. In another incident, a photojournalist from La Patilla was assaulted by National Police who tried to take his camera and hit him in the head with the butt of a shotgun while he covering protests in Las Mercedes. A week after being attacked in Las Mercedes, the same photojournalist for La Patilla was assaulted by the National Police again who tried to take his camera while covering protests in the Las Minitas neighborhood in Baruta. While covering protests on 14 May, a group of reporters said they were assaulted by the National Guard saying they were fired at and that the National Guard attempted to arrest a reporter. On 27 May 2014, a reporter for La Patilla was attacked for the third time while covering clashes when he was shot by the National Guard. Two reporters were injured on 5 June after being shot with buckshot coming from a National Guard vehicle and reported it to Lieutenant Colonel Rafael Quero Silva of the National Guard, who denied their accounts. On 3 July 2014, during a protest near the Catholic University of Táchira, an NTN24 reporter said he was arrested, beaten and had his passport and ID taken by National Police officers.
Images on Twitter were reported to be unavailable for at least some users in Venezuela for 3 days (12–15 February 2014) after allegedly being blocked by the government. Twitter spokesman Nu Wexler stated that, "I can confirm that the images are now blocked Twitter in Venezuela" adding that "[w]e believe it the government that is blocking". However, the Venezuelan government published a statement saying that they did not block Twitter or images on Twitter, and implied that it was a technical problem.
According to the Huffington Post, the alleged internet blockage by the government was directed at the opposition since it prevented live coverage of government crackdowns with Zello announcing that CANTV blocked the use of its walkie-talkie app that was used by opposition protesters. In an interview with La Patilla, Chief Technology Officer of Zello, Alexey Gavrilov, said that after they opened four new servers for Venezuela, it still appeared that the same direct blocking from CANTV is the cause of the Zello outage. The Venezuelan government said Zello was blocked due to "terrorist acts" and statements by TeleSUR about radical opposition after the government monitored staged messages from "internet trolls" that used a Honeypot trap against authorities.
- Lopez, Linette (11 April 2014). "Why The United States Has Done Nothing About Venezuela". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Protesters in Venezuela Press Government". The Wall Street Journal. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Venezuelans protest en masse in rival rallies". Borneo Post. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Venezuela: Tens of thousands march in anti-government protests". The Los Angeles Times. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Barefoot in Venezuela". Newsweek. Reuters. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Vargas Llosa to visit Venezuela to back anti-Maduro groups". News. BBC. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Conflictividad social en Venezuela en marzo de 2014" [Social conflict in Venezuela in March 2014] (in Spanish). Observatorio Venezolano de Conflictividad Social. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014.
- "Venezuela: Paramilitares atacaron 1 de cada 3 protestas". Tribuna (Puerto Rico). 9 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Faria, Javier. "Venezuelan teen dies after being shot at anti-Maduro protest". Reuters. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Usborne, David. "Dissent in Venezuela: Maduro regime looks on borrowed time as rising public anger meets political repression". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- "Venezuela's Maduro says 2013 annual inflation was 56.2 pct". Reuters. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Venezuela Inflation Hits 16-Year High as Shortages Rise". Bloomberg. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- "Inflation rate (consumer prices)". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "Venezuela's economy: Medieval policies". The Economist. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Sequera, Vivia (22 February 2014). "Did attempted rape ignite Venezuela's national protests?". The Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "San Cristobal: The birthplace of Venezuela's protests". BBC News. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "A total of 42 people, both supporters and opponents of the government, have died in the protest-related violence which followed." "Venezuela: Leopoldo Lopez must stand trial, judge rules" by BBC News.
- Heritage, Andrew (December 2002). Financial Times World Desk Reference. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 618–621. ISBN 9780789488053.
- Corrales, Javier (7 May 2015). "Don't Blame It On the Oil". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Siegel, Robert (25 December 2014). "For Venezuela, Drop In Global Oil Prices Could Be Catastrophic". NPR. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
- "Democracy to the rescue?". Foreign Policy. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- Rueda, Manuel. "How Did Venezuela Become So Violent?". Fusion. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "Chavez heir Maduro takes narrow win in Venezuela". CBC News. Associated Press. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Maduro survives Venezuela electoral test". Al Jazeera. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Las divisiones dentro de la oposición en Venezuela". BBC Mundo. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Maduro se reunió con gobernadores y alcaldes opositores: "Hagamos un proyecto en común"". Noticias 24. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Maduro inicia reunión con gobernadores y alcaldes en Miraflores". El Universal. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "En fotos y video: Henrique Capriles acudió a Miraflores a la reunión con Maduro". Noticias24.com. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Las tres razones de María Corina Machado para no asistir a la reunión con Maduro". Noticias24.com. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Oposición, ¿la nueva estrategia?". El Espectador. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Venezuela unrest shakes up opposition". Reuters. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "En 2014 se registraron 9.286 protestas, cifra inédita en Venezuela". La Patilla. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "Protestas aumentan 278% en primer semestre 2014". La Patilla. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- "Venezuela: the most dangerous place on earth?". Channel 4. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "What the Heck Is Going on in Venezuela? (Could the Maduro Regime Fall?)". Business week. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- López, Virginia (22 February 2014). "Venezuelans on streets again as protest leader awaits trial". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- Peralta, Eyder (20 February 2013). "5 Things To Know About Venezuela's Protest Leader". NPR. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Carasik, Laura. "OBAMA CONTINUES BUSH'S POLICIES IN VENEZUELA". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "USAID subversion in Latin America not limited to Cuba". PressTV.ir. Archived from the original on April 9, 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "Leopoldo López llama a la calle y se mide con Henrique Capriles" [Leopoldo López calls the street & sizes himself against Henrique Capriles]. El Mundo (in Spanish). ES. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Sector de la oposición convoca a marcha para el 12 de febrero". El Universal. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- "Estos son los puntos de concentración de la marcha 12F de los estudiantes" [These are the concentration points of 12 Feb Student march] (in Spanish). Su Noticiero. 2014. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.
- "Así marchó la oposición en Venezuela" [Thus marched the opposition in Venezuela] (photograms) (in Spanish). La Patilla. 2014.
- "At least two killed by gunfire at Venezuela protests". Reuters. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Brown, Eric (12 February 2014). "11 Photos From Venezuela's Anti-Government Protests". International Business Times. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Venezuela: Violence Against Protesters, Journalists". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Death toll rises in Venezuela as protesters, soldiers clash". The Globe And Mail. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Two dead after fierce anti-government protests in Venezuela". NY Daily News. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Wallis, Daniel (13 February 2014). "Venezuela violence puts focus on militant 'colectivo' groups". Reuters. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- Cawthorne, Andrew (13 February 2014). "Venezuela seeks protest leader's arrest after unrest kills three". Reuters. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "Ordenan Al Sebin Capturar A Leopoldo Lopez – Nacional Y Politica" (in Spanish). El Universal.
- "Esta es la orden de captura emitida contra Leopoldo López | Con la gente". 2001.com.ve. 16 February 2014.
- el nacional web. "Si mi encarcelamiento es el despertar de un pueblo, valdrá la pena". El-nacional.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014.
- "Manifestantes Trancan Autopista Francisco Fajardo – Caracas – El Universal" (in Spanish). Fam.eluniversal.com. 18 February 2014. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014.
- El Nacional Web. "Manifestantes trancaron la autopista Francisco Fajardo". El-nacional.com. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Reportan tranca en la autopista Francisco Fajardo por manifestación (Fotos)". Lapatilla.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Muerte de Génesis Carmona: chavista había incitado la violencia". El Comercio. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Una miss venezolana muere tras recibir un disparo en una protesta". El Mundo. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Falleció Miss Turismo 2013 herida de bala ayer en Valencia" [Miss Tourism 2013 shot yesterday in Valencia died]. El Nacional (in Spanish). 19 February 2014. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Murió la reina de belleza atacada por las milicias chavistas" [The beauty queen attacked by Chavist militia died]. Infobae (in Spanish). 19 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Últimos momentos de Génesis Carmona" [Génesis Carmona's last moments]. Telemundo 47 (in Spanish). 21 February 2014. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Ferreiro, Ignacio (19 February 2014). "Génesis Carmona, Miss Carabobo, asesinada por las milicias chavistas" [Génesis Carmona, Miss Carabobo, Assassinated by the Chavist militia]. Hechos de Hoy (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Rozo, Diego (21 February 2014). "Unos moteros chavistas asesinaron a la miss venezolana Génesis Carmona" [Some Chavist motorcyclists assassinated the Venezuelan miss Génesis Carmona]. ABC (Spanish News) (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Venezuela: Chavistas mataron a reina de belleza Génesis Carmona" [Venezuela: Chavists killed the beauty queen Génesis Carmona]. Ojo (in Spanish). 20 February 2014. Archived from the original (video) on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Habla testigo de asesinato de Génesis: Unos motorizados chavistas dispararon" [The witness of the assassination of Génesis speaks: some Chavists motorcyclists shot]. La Patilla. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Capriles confronta a Ameliach y a la fiscal general de la República". La Patilla. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Muere motorizado en Av. Rómulo Gallegos, degollado por alambre colocado por manifestantes opositores" [Dies motorcyclist at avenue Rómulo Gallegos, beheaded by wire installed by opposition manifestants] (video) (in Spanish). Alba Ciudad 96.3 FM. Feb 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- "Muere joven venezolano por guaya colocada por grupos fascistas" [Young Venezuelan dies by wire installed by fascist groups] (in Spanish). teleSUR. 21 February 2014.
- Protesters back in streets in Venezuela, WTSP, archived from the original on 2014-02-25
- "Neighbors rally behind retired Venezuelan general in armed standoff with security forces". Fox News. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "Ex-Venezuelan general in armed standoff at home". Yahoo News. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "Orden de captura a general Ángel Vivas causa nuevo conflicto en Venezuela" [Capture order against general Ángel Vivas causes new conflict in Venezuela]. El Universo (in Spanish). 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "General Ángel Vivas denunció que "cubanos y esbirros" atacan su casa" [General Ángel Vivas denounced that 'Cubans & minions' attack his house]. El Universal (in Spanish). 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "Ángel Vivas en CNN: "Vinieron a sacarme de una manera ilegal entonces hice uso de legitima defensa"". Notica Al Dia. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "¡Gochos temblad!… Sacaron a pasear a los Sukhoi en San Cristóbal" [Gochos, tremble! The Sukhoi started to fly over San Cristóbal]. La Patilla (in Spanish). 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- Carlo Rodríguez, Juan (20 February 2014). "Confirman aeronaves militares sobrevolando San Cristóbal; reportan vías cerradas" [Military aircraft over San Cristóbal confirmed: closed routes reported]. Venezuela Al Dia (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Impactante video del horror vivido por una mujer en Maracaibo: grupos violentos amenazaron con violarla". NTN24. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "En Maracaibo: amenazas de violación, saqueo de viviendas y vehículos quemados bajo la mirada pasiva de la GNB". NTN24. 27 March 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- ""Colectivos" intentaron secuestrar a mujer en Palaima". El Propio. 27 March 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "Colectivos paramilitares irrumpen en hogares y amenazan con violar a los residentes con "permiso" de la GNB". La Patilla. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "#16A Una persona herida y dos vehículos quemados fue el saldo de ataque de colectivos en urbanización Río Lama". El Impulso. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "La Universidad Fermín Toro de Barquisimeto fue incendiada por supuestos colectivos este lunes". NTN24. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Denuncian que incendio en la Universidad Fermín Toro fue causado por colectivos armados". El Nacional. 5 May 2014. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "El objetivo de agresores ha sido matar a manifestantes" [The agressors' goal has been to kill manifestants]. El Nacional (in Spanish). 25 February 2014. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "Foreign journal provides identity of shooters". El Universal. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Venezuelan police disperse violent crowd after mass anti-govt protest (VIDEO)". RT International. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "¿Comienzan a lanzar gas lacrimógeno cocarcinógeno? (FOTO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 20 March 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Misterioso "Gas Verde" es utilizado en Altamira (Fotos y Video)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 15 February 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Ya reprimieron con gas rojo, ¿ahora con verde? (FOTO)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 25 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Ricardo Hausmann Professor of the Practice of Economic Development Director of Center for International Development Center for International Development". Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Hausmann, Ricardo. "Professor Ricardo Hausmann Director of the Center for International Development at Harvard University". Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Hausmann, Ricardo. "Venezuelan govt repressing demonstrations with new green gas that makes people vomit. How much longer until they use nerve gas?". Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Gómez De Anda, Lizeth (17 February 2014). "TV Chavista inventa apoyo a Maduro :: La Razón :: 9 de abril de 2017". La Razón. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Amnesty Reports Dozens of Venezuela Torture Accounts". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "[Fotos] Chacao Enmascarado: retratos del conflicto;". Prodavinci. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Prato, Marla (2 May 2015). "Dos heridos y allanamientos realiza la Guardia Nacional en Lara". El Universal (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Bombas lacrimógenas que usa el gobierno están vencidas y emanan cianuro (+ recomendaciones)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 8 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "IAPA protests official censorship of press in Venezuela". Press Release. Inter American Press Association. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "Artistas venezolanos se unen al efecto Eco, "hagamos eco de lo que pasa en Venezuela"". La Patilla. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "VTV se burla campaña contra la violencia y la muerte (Video + Efecto Eco)". La Patilla. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- "Diarios de Colombia les dan papel a periódicos venezolanos". El Tiempo. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- "Puerto Rico, Panamá y Trinidad también ofrecen papel a diarios venezolanos". La Patilla. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Los periodistas denuncian más de 100 agresiones en Venezuela". La Vanguardia. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- "Revelan más imágenes de paramilitares y GNB juntos (la censura de Globovisión)". La Patilla. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Otro periodista de Globovisión, Carlos Arturo Albino, renunció este miércoles (+Tuit)". Venezuela Al Dia. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "CNN Video – Breaking News Videos from". CNN.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Maduro: Se va CNN de Venezuela". La Patilla. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Presidente de Venezuela amenaza a CNN con bloquear su difusión". La Nacion. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Venezuela Revokes CNN Journalists' Press Credentials". Mashable. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- "GNB retuvo y fichó a fotógrafos de lapatilla (Video)". La Patilla. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Impactantes imágenes: la agresión al reportero de La Patilla, captada por las cámaras de NTN24". NTN24. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Reportero gráfico de La Patilla es empujado y golpeado por un PNB: le rompieron el casco de un "cachazo"". NTN24. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "PNB agrede a reportero gráfico de @La_Patilla (Video)". La Patilla. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "PNB agrede nuevamente a reportero de @La_Patilla en Las Minitas (Video)". La Patilla. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- "Múltiples agresiones contra reporteros: Tres heridas por perdigón y un intento de detención (Fotos)". La Patilla. 14 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "Herido por perdigones reportero gráfico de @La_Patilla en Táchira (Fotos)". La Patilla. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "Reportan dos periodistas gráficos heridos con perdigones en Lara". El Universal. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Detienen corresponsal de NTN24 en Táchira". Ultimas Noticias. 3 July 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Detienen corresponsal de NTN24 en Táchira". Informe21. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Twitter reports image blocking in Venezuela", USA Today (AP), 14 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "Venezuelans Blocked on Twitter as Opposition Protests Mount", Patricia Laya, Sarah Frier and Anatoly Kurmanaev, Bloomberg News, 14 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "Twitter confirma bloqueo de imágenes en Venezuela". BBC. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Empresa de telecomunicaciones de Venezuela niega bloqueo de Twitter". El Tiempo. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Ministro Fernández: Nosotros no hemos bloqueado las fotos y videos que se suben a Twitter (+Video)". Venezolana de Televisión. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Bajack, Frank (21 February 2014). "Venezuela Cuts Off Internet, Blocks Communication For Protestors". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- "Zello se actualizó para ayudar a los venezolanos (Entrevista Exclusiva)". La Patilla. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Zello: la "aplicación terrorista" de los estudiantes venezolanos". Infobae. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.