2014 Winter Olympics
|Host city||Sochi, Russia|
|Motto||Hot. Cool. Yours.|
(Russian: Жаркие. Зимние. Твои., Zharkie. Zimnie. Tvoi)
|Events||98 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)|
|Stadium||Fisht Olympic Stadium|
|Part of a series on|
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (Russian: XXII Олимпийские зимние игры, tr. XXII Olimpiyskiye zimniye igry) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia. Opening rounds in certain events were held on 6 February 2014, the day before the opening ceremony.
These were the first Olympic Games under the International Olympic Committee (IOC) presidency of Thomas Bach. Both the Olympics and Paralympics were organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOOC). Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City. It was the first Olympics to be held in a CIS state after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union was previously the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
A record ninety-eight events in fifteen winter sport disciplines were held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of twelve accounting for gender—were held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing, ski and snowboard slopestyle, and snowboard parallel slalom. The events were held around two clusters of new venues: an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium, and the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance; and snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana.
The 2014 Winter Olympics were the most expensive Games in the history of the Olympics. While originally budgeted at US$12 billion, major cost overruns caused this figure to expand to US$51 billion, more than three times the cost of the 2012 London Olympics and even surpassing the estimated cost of US$44 billion for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The 2014 Games achieved a record broadcast audience of 2.1 billion people worldwide.
In 2016, an independent report commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency confirmed allegations that the Russian Olympic team had been involved in a state-sponsored doping program, active from at least late-2011 through August 2015. The program was active during the Winter Olympics in Sochi, and athletes had benefited from the cover-up. The IOC stripped thirteen medals from Russian athletes in 2017, but nine were reinstated by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. In December 2017, the IOC voted to suspend the Russian Olympic Committee, with an option for whitelisted athletes to compete independently during the 2018 Winter Olympics.
Sochi was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session held in Guatemala City, Guatemala, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria; and Pyeongchang, South Korea. This is the first time that the Russian Federation has hosted the Winter Olympics. The Soviet Union was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in and around Moscow.
Cost and financing
As of October 2013, the estimated combined cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion. This amount included the cost for Olympic games themselves and cost of Sochi infrastructural projects (roads, railroads, power plants). This total is over four times the initial budget of $12 billion (compared to the $8 billion spent for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver), and made the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, which hosted 3 times as many events. Dmitry Kozak was the main overseer for the events in Sochi.
In its final budget published in June 2014, Olimpstroy—the state corporation that oversaw the Sochi Olympics development—reported the total allocated funds for the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics of 1,524 billion rubles (US$49.5 billion). However, only about a fifth of that budget ($10.8 billion) was directly related to the Olympic games, while the rest went into urban and regional regeneration and the conversion of the Sochi region into an all-year round sea and alpine resort. The breakdown table below is based on a report that has analyzed the distribution of Olimpstroy's $49.5 billion budget. Estimates also suggest that additional unrecoverable operational costs (including for security) could have added another $3 billion.
The breakdown of the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics costs
|Costs||million RUB||million US$|
|DIRECT OLYMPICS COSTS (a)+(b)+(c)||331,098||10,753|
|(a) Olympic venues||221,592||7,197|
|Fisht Olympic Stadium||18,994||617|
|Bolshoy Ice Dome||10,102||328|
|Adler Arena Skating Centre||7,406||241|
|Iceberg Skating Palace||8,127||264|
|Ice Cube Curling Centre||735||24|
|Main Media Centre||17,426||566|
|The Olympic Park||9,871||321|
|Olympic Village (3000 places)||12,217||397|
|A complex for Olympic partners (1285 apartments)||8,003||260|
|Rosa Khutor Extreme Park (freestyle skiing, snowboarding)||3,393||110|
|Rosa Khutor Alpine Skiing Centre||11,911||387|
|Sanki Sliding Centre (bobsleigh, luge, skeleton)||7,487||243|
|RusSki Gorki Jumping Centre (ski jumps, Nordic combined)||9,889||321|
|Laura Centre (biathlon and cross-country) and
Olympic Village (1100 places)
|Main Alpine Olympic Village (2600 places) at Rosa Khutor||18,021||585|
|(b) Site preparation and supporting infrastructure||85,370||2,773|
|Key infrastructure for Olympic venues (roads, energy, water,
waste, security), planning and other works
|SOCOG office building||3,957||129|
|(c) Operational costs (part of)||24,135||784|
|Opening/closing ceremonies (equipment and organisation)||3,444||112|
|Broadcasting and photo equipment||13,330||433|
|Vehicles for visitors and logistics||6,958||226|
|Live Sites city programme||403||13|
|INDIRECT COSTS (d)+(e)||1,193,348||38,758|
|(d) Skiing and Tourist Resorts||189,937||6,169|
|Gazprom Alpine Tourist Centre||60,723||1,972|
|Gornaya Karusel/Gorky Gorod||72,728||2,362|
|(e) Other projects||1,003,411||32,589|
|Hotels and health resorts||130,755||4,247|
|Formula One Racing||11,982||389|
|Combined rail- and motor- road linking the two clusters||317,224||10,303|
|Railways and rail terminals||38,015||1,235|
|Power generation and grids||74,305||2,413|
|Other engineering, water, waste, telecommunications
and other infrastructure
|Nature and culture parks||11,346||369|
With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C (42.8 °F) and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi is the warmest city to host a Winter Olympic Games. Sochi 2014 is the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking; all Sochi venues, Olympic Park bars and restaurants and public areas were smoke-free during the Games. It is also the first time that an Olympic Park has been built for hosting winter games.
Sochi Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)
The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretinsky Valley, about 4 km (2.5 miles) from Russia's border with Abkhazia/Georgia. The venues were clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza is built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance. It also features "The Waters of the Olympic Park" (designed by California-based company WET), a choreographed fountain which served as the backdrop in the medals awards and the opening and closing ceremonies of the event. The new venues include:
- Fisht Olympic Stadium – ceremonies (opening/closing) 40,000 spectators
- Bolshoy Ice Dome – ice hockey (final), 12,000 spectators
- Shayba Arena – ice hockey, 7,000 spectators
- Adler Arena Skating Center – speed skating, 8,000 spectators
- Iceberg Skating Palace – figure skating, short track speed skating, 12,000 spectators
- Ice Cube Curling Center – curling, 3,000 spectators
- Main Olympic village
- International broadcasting centre and main press room
Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster)
- Laura Biathlon & Ski Complex – biathlon, cross-country skiing
- Rosa Khutor Extreme Park – freestyle skiing and snowboarding
- Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort – alpine skiing
- Sliding Center Sanki – bobsleigh, luge and skeleton
- RusSki Gorki Jumping Center – ski jumping and Nordic combined (both ski jumping and cross-country skiing on a 2 km route around the arena)
- Roza Khutor plateau Olympic Village
A street circuit known as the Sochi Autodrom was constructed in and around Olympic Park. Its primary use is to host the Formula One Russian Grand Prix, which held its inaugural edition in October 2014.
The Olympic infrastructure was constructed according to a Federal Target Program (FTP). In June 2009, the Games' organizers reported they were one year ahead in building the main Olympic facilities as compared to recent Olympic Games. In November 2011, IOC President Jacques Rogge was in Sochi and concluded that the city had made significant progress since he last visited eighteen months earlier.
According to the FTP, US$580 million would be spent on construction and modernization of telecommunications in the region. Avaya was named by the Sochi Organizing Committee as the official supplier of telecommunications equipment. Avaya provided the data network equipment, including switches, routers, security, telephones and contact-center systems. It provided engineers and technicians to design and test the systems, and worked with other technology partners to provide athletes, dignitaries and fans information about the Games.
Infrastructure built for the games included:
- A network of TETRA mobile radio communications for 100 user groups (with capacity of 10,000 subscribers);
- 712 km (442 mi) of fiber-optic cables along the Anapa-Dzhubga-Sochi highways and Dzhubga–Krasnodar branch;
- Digital broadcasting infrastructure, including radio and television broadcasting stations (building and communications towers) with coverage from Grushevaya Polyana (Pear Glade) to Sochi and Anapa cities. The project also included construction of infocommunications centre for broadcasting abroad via three HDTV satellites.
In January 2012, the newest equipment for the television coverage of the Games arrived in the port of Adler. Prepared specifically for the Games, a team of regional specialists and the latest technology provide a qualitatively new level of television production in the region.
In November 2013, it was reported that the fiber-optic cable that was built by the Federal Communications Agency, Rossvyaz, had no operator. With Rostelecom and Megafon both refusing to operate it, the line was transferred to the ownership of the state enterprise Center for Monitoring & Development of Infocommunication Technologies (Russian: Центр МИР ИТ).
Russian mobile phone operator Megafon expanded and improved Sochi's telecom infrastructure with over 700 new 2G/3G/4G cell towers. Sochi was the first Games to offer 4G connectivity at a speed of 10 MB/sec.
In January 2014, Rostelecom reported that it had connected the Olympic media center in Sochi to the Internet and organized channels of communication with the main media center of the Olympic Games in the coastal cluster and press center in Moscow. The media center was built at total cost of 17 million rubles.
A five-year strategy for increasing the power supply of the Sochi region was presented by Russian energy experts during a seminar on 29 May 2009, held by the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee, and attended by International Olympic Committee (IOC) experts and officials from the Russian Ministry of Regional Development, the Russian Ministry of Energy, the State Corporation Olimpstroy and the Krasnodar Krai administration.
According to the strategy, the capacity of the regional energy network would increase by two and a half times by 2014, guaranteeing a stable power supply during and after the Games.
The power demand of Sochi at the end of May 2009 was 424 MW. The power demand of the Olympic infrastructure was expected to be about 340 MW.
- Poselkovaya electrical substation became operational in early 2009.
- Sochi thermal power station reconstructed (expected power output was 160 MW)
- Laura and Rosa Khutor electrical substations were completed in November 2010
- Mzymta electrical substation was completed in March 2011
- Krasnopolyanskaya hydroelectric power station was completed in 2010
- Adler CHP station design and construction was completed in 2012. Expected power output was 360 MW
- Bytkha substation, under construction with two transformers 25 MW each, includes dependable microprocessor-based protection
Earlier plans also include building combined cycle (steam and gas) power stations near the cities of Tuapse and Novorossiysk and construction of a cable-wire powerline, partially on the floor of the Black Sea.
The transport infrastructure prepared to support the Olympics includes many roads, tunnels, bridges, interchanges, railroads and stations in and around Sochi. Among others, 8 flyovers, 102 bridges, tens of tunnels and a bypass route for heavy trucks — 367 km (228 miles) of roads were paved.
The existing 102 km (63-mile), Tuapse-to-Adler railroad was renovated to provide double track throughout, increasing capacity and enabling a reliable regional service to be provided and extending to the airport. In December 2009, Russian Railways ordered 38 Siemens Mobility Desiro trains for delivery in 2013 for use during the Olympics, with an option for a further 16 partly built in Russia. Russian Railways established a high-speed Moscow-Adler link and a new railroad (more than 60 kilometres or 37 miles long) passing by the territory of Ukraine.
At Sochi International Airport, a new terminal was built along a 3.5 km (2.2-mile) runway extension, overlapping the Mzymta River. Backup airports were built in Gelendzhik, Mineralnye Vody and Krasnodar by 2009.
At the Port of Sochi, a new offshore terminal 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from the shore allows docking for cruise ships with capacities of 3,000 passengers. The cargo terminal of the seaport would be moved from the centre of Sochi.
Roadways were detoured, some going around the construction site and others being cut off.
In May 2009, Russian Railways started the construction of tunnel complex No. 1 (the final total is six) on the combined road (automobile and railway) from Adler to Alpica Service Mountain Resort in the Krasnaya Polyana region. The tunnel complex No. 1 is located near Akhshtyr in Adlersky City District, and includes:
- Escape tunnel, 2.25 kilometres (1.40 mi), completed in 2010
- Road tunnel, 2,153 metres (7,064 ft), completed in 2013
- One-track railway tunnel, 2,473 metres (8,114 ft), completed in 2013
In addition, Sochi's railway stations were renovated. These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta, Khosta, Lazarevskaya, and Loo railway stations. In Adler, a new railway station was built while the original building was preserved, and in the Olympic park cluster, a new station was built from scratch, the Olympic Park railway station. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana.
Funds were spent on the construction of hotels for 10,300 guests. The first of the Olympic hotels, Zvezdny (Stellar), was rebuilt anew. Significant funds were spent on the construction of an advanced sewage treatment system in Sochi, designed by Olimpstroy. The system meets BREF standards and employs top available technologies for environment protection, including tertiary treatment with microfiltration.
Six post offices were opened at competition venues, two of them in the main media centre in Olympic Park and in the mountain village of Estosadok. In addition to standard services, customers had access to unique services including two new products, Fotomarka and Retropismo. Fotomarka presents an opportunity to get a stylized sheet of eight souvenir stamps with one's own photos, using the services of a photographer in the office. Retropismo service allows a customer to write with their own stylus or pen on antique paper with further letters, winding string and wax seal affixing. All the new sites and post offices in Sochi were opened during the Olympics until late night 7 days a week, and employees were trained to speak English.
On 29 September 2013, the Olympic torch was lit in Ancient Olympia, beginning a seven-day journey across Greece and on to Russia, then the torch relay started at Moscow on 7 October 2013 before passing 83 Russian cities and arriving at Sochi on the day of the opening ceremony, 7 February 2014. It is the longest torch relay in Olympic history, a 60,000-kilometre (40,000 miles) route that passes through all regions of the country, from Kaliningrad in the west to Chukotka in the east.
The Olympic torch reached the North Pole for first time via a nuclear-powered icebreaker (50 Let Pobedy). The torch was also passed for the first time in space, though not lit for the duration of the flight for safety reasons, on flight Soyuz TMA-11M to the International Space Station (ISS). The spacecraft itself was adorned with Olympic-themed livery including the Games' emblem. Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazansky waved the torch on a spacewalk outside ISS. The torch returned to Earth five days later on board Soyuz TMA-09M. The torch also reached Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, and Siberia's Lake Baikal.
The opening ceremony of the 2014 Winter Olympics was held on 7 February 2014 at Fisht Olympic Stadium, an indoor arena built specifically for the ceremonies. The ceremony featured scenes based around aspects of Russian history and arts, including ballet, classical music, the Russian Revolution, and the age of the Soviet Union. The opening scene of the ceremony featured a notable technical error, where one of five snowflakes, which were to expand to form the Olympic rings, malfunctioned and did not expand (a mishap mocked by the organizers at the closing ceremony where one of the roundrelay dance groups symbolizing the Olympic rings "failed" to expand). The torch was taken into the stadium by Maria Sharapova, who then passed it to Yelena Isinbayeva who, in turn, passed it to wrestler Aleksandr Karelin. Karelin then passed the torch to gymnast Alina Kabaeva. Figure skater Irina Rodnina took the torch and was met by former ice hockey goalkeeper Vladislav Tretiak, who exited the stadium to jointly light the Olympic cauldron located near the center of Olympic Park.
Participating National Olympic Committees
A record 88 nations qualified to compete, which beat the previous record of 82 set at the previous Winter Olympics in Vancouver. The number of athletes who qualified per country is listed in the table below (number of athletes shown in parentheses). Seven nations made their Winter Olympics debut: Dominica, Malta, Paraguay, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, and Zimbabwe.
Kristina Krone qualified to compete in her second consecutive games for Puerto Rico, but the island's Olympic Committee once again chose not to send her to compete. Similarly, South Africa decided not to send alpine skier Sive Speelman to Sochi. Algeria also did not enter its only qualified athlete, Mehdi-Selim Khelifi.
India's athletes originally competed as Independent Olympic Participants and marched under the Olympic flag during the opening ceremony, as India was originally suspended in December 2012 over the election process of the Indian Olympic Association. On 11 February, the Indian Olympic Association was reinstated and India's athletes were allowed the option to compete under their own flag from that time onward. Although Shiva Keshavan competed as an Independent athlete and is recorded as such, he was permitted to walk under the flag of India at the Closing Ceremony.
During the Games some countries had a national house, a meeting place for supporters, athletes and other followers. Houses can be either free for visitors to access or they can have limited access by invitation only.
|Austria||Mountain Cluster||Austria Tirol House|
|Canada||Coastal Cluster (Next to Fisht Olympic Stadium)||Canada House|
|China||Zhemchuzhina hotel||China House|
|Czech Republic||Adler||Czech House|
|France||Gornaya Karusel (Mountain Cluster)||Club France||Official website|
|Germany||Estosadok, Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster)||German House||Official website|
|Italy||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||Italy House||Official website|
|Japan||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||Japan House|
|Latvia||Radisson Hotel||Latvian House|
|Netherlands||Azimut Hotel Resort (near Coastal Cluster)||Holland Heineken House||Official website|
|Russia||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||Russia House|
|Slovakia||Sochi railway station||Slovak Point|
|South Korea||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||Korea House|
|Switzerland||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||House of Switzerland||Official website|
|United States||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||USA House||Official website|
- Biathlon (11) ( )
- Curling (2) ( )
- Ice hockey
- Ice hockey (2) ( )
- Luge (4) ( )
Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline.
On 6 April 2011, the IOC accepted a number of events that were submitted by their respective sports federations to be considered for inclusion into the official program of these Olympic Games. The events included a Figure skating team event, Women's ski jumping, Mixed relay biathlon, Ski half-pipe, and Team relay luge.
On 4 July 2011, the IOC announced that three events would be added to the program. These events, which were officially declared by Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge on 5 July 2011, were:
- Ski slopestyle
- Snowboard slopestyle
- Snowboard parallel special slalom
Team alpine skiing was also presented as a candidate for inclusion in the Olympic program but the Executive board of the IOC rejected this proposal. The International Ski Federation persisted with the nomination and this was considered. There were reports of bandy possibly being added to the sports program, but the IOC rejected this request. Subsequently, the international governing body, Federation of International Bandy, decided that Irkutsk and Shelekhov in Russia would host the 2014 Bandy World Championship just before the Olympics.
The closing ceremony was held on 23 February 2014 between 20:14 MSK (UTC+4) and 22:25 MSK (UTC+4) at the Fisht Olympic Stadium in Sochi. The ceremony was dedicated to Russian culture featuring world-renowned Russian stars like conductor and violinist Yuri Bashmet, conductor Valery Gergiev, pianist Denis Matsuev, singer Hibla Gerzmava and violinist Tatiana Samouil. These artists were joined by performers from the Bolshoi and Mariinsky theaters.
Sochi's medal design was unveiled in May 2013. The design is intended to resemble Sochi's landscape, with a semi-translucent section containing a "patchwork quilt" of diamonds representing mountains; the diamonds themselves contain designs that reflect Russia's regions. Those who won gold medals on 15 February received special medals with fragments of the Chelyabinsk meteor, marking the one-year anniversary of the event where pieces of the cosmic body fell into the Chebarkul Lake in the Ural Mountains in central Russia.
The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below. The host nation, Russia, is highlighted.
|4||United States (USA)||9||9||10||28|
|Totals (26 NOCs)||99||96||99||294|
|8 February||Speed skating||Men's 5000 metres||Netherlands||Sven Kramer||Jan Blokhuijsen||Jorrit Bergsma|
|10 February||Speed skating||Men's 500 metres||Netherlands||Michel Mulder||Jan Smeekens||Ronald Mulder|
|13 February||Freestyle skiing||Men's slopestyle||United States||Joss Christensen||Gus Kenworthy||Nick Goepper|
|16 February||Speed skating||Women's 1500 metres||Netherlands||Jorien ter Mors||Ireen Wüst||Lotte van Beek|
|18 February||Speed skating||Men's 10000 metres||Netherlands||Jorrit Bergsma||Sven Kramer||Bob de Jong|
|20 February||Freestyle skiing||Men's ski cross||France||Jean-Frédéric Chapuis||Arnaud Bovolenta||Jonathan Midol|
|22 February||Cross-country skiing||Women's 30 kilometre freestyle||Norway||Marit Bjørgen||Therese Johaug||Kristin Størmer Steira|
|23 February||Cross-country skiing||Men's 50 kilometre freestyle||Russia||Alexander Legkov[a]||Maxim Vylegzhanin[a]||Ilia Chernousov|
a Legkov and Vylegzhanin were initially disqualified by the IOC for doping offenses in November 2017, and their 2014 Olympic medals were stripped (gold and silver respectively). However, their results were restored on 1 February 2018 following a successful appeal.
In the following calendar each blue box represents one or more event competition(s), such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent medal-awarding finals for a sport with in each box the number of finals that were contested on that day.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Event finals||EG||Exhibition gala||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Short track speed skating||1||1||2||1||3||8|
|Daily medal events||5||8||5||8||6||6||6||7||4||5||7||8||6||7||7||3||98|
Security during both the Olympics and Paralympics were handled by over 40,000 law enforcement officials, including police and the Russian Armed Forces. A Presidential Decree signed by President Vladimir Putin took effect on 7 January, requiring that any protests and demonstrations in Sochi and the surrounding area through 21 March (the end of the Paralympics) be approved by the Federal Security Service. For the duration of the decree, travel restrictions were also in effect in and around Sochi: "controlled" zones, dubbed the "ring of steel" by the media, covered the Coastal and Mountain clusters which encompass all of the Games' venues and infrastructure, including transport hubs such as railway stations. To enter controlled areas, visitors were required to pass through security checkpoints with x-ray machines, metal detectors and explosive material scanners. Several areas were designated as "forbidden", including Sochi National Park and the border with Abkhazia. An unmanned aerial vehicle squadron, along with S-400 and Pantsir-S1 air defense rockets were used to protect Olympic airspace. Four gunboats were also deployed on the Black Sea to protect the coastline.
A number of security organizations and forces began stationing in and around Sochi in January 2014; Russia's Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) was stationed in Sochi for the Games beginning on 7 January 2014. A group of 10,000 Internal Troops of the Ministry of Interior also provided security services during the Games. In mid-January, 1,500 Siberian Regional Command troops were stationed in a military town near Krasnaya Polyana. A group of 400 cossacks in traditional uniforms were also present to accompany police patrols. The 58th Army unit of the Russian Armed Forces, were defending the Georgia-Russia border. The United States also supplied Navy ships and other assets for security purposes.
Former professional speed skater and current deputy of the Russian State Duma Svetlana Zhurova has stated that the 2014 Sochi Olympics were Vladimir Putin's personal project to showcase Russia to the world.
Incidents and threats
Organizers received several threats prior to the Games. In a July 2013 video release, Chechen Islamist commander Dokka Umarov called for attacks on the Games, stating that the Games were being staged "on the bones of many, many Muslims killed ...and buried on our lands extending to the Red Sea."
Threats were received from the group Vilayat Dagestan, which had claimed responsibility for the Volgograd bombings under the demands of Umarov, and a number of National Olympic Committees had also received threats via e-mail, threatening that terrorists would kidnap or "blow up" athletes during the Games. However, while the IOC did state that the letters "[contained] no threat and appears to be a random message from a member of the public", the U.S. ski and snowboarding teams hired a private security agency to provide additional protection during the Games.
In most regions, broadcast rights to the 2014 Winter Olympics were packaged together with broadcast rights for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but some broadcasters obtained rights to further games as well. Domestic broadcast rights were sold by Sportfive to a consortium of three Russian broadcasters; Channel One, VGTRK, and NTV Plus.
In Canada, after losing the 2010 and 2012 Games to Bell Media and Rogers Media, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation re-gained broadcast rights to the Olympics for the first time since 2008, gaining rights to the 2014 and 2016 Games. Bell and Rogers sub-licensed pay-TV rights for their TSN, Sportsnet and Réseau des sports networks, as well as TVA Group's TVA Sports.
In Australia, after all three major commercial networks pulled out of bidding on rights to both the 2014 and 2016 Games due to cost concerns, the IOC awarded broadcast rights to just the 2014 Winter Olympics to Network Ten for A$20 million.
Several broadcasters used the Games to trial the emerging ultra high definition television (UHDTV) standard. Both NTV Plus and Comcast filmed portions of the Games in 4K resolution; Comcast offered its content through smart TV apps, while NTV+ held public and cinema viewings of the content. NHK filmed portions of the Games in 8K resolution for public viewing. Olympic sponsor Panasonic filmed the opening ceremony in 4K.
Concerns and controversies
A variety of concerns over the Games, or Russia's hosting of the Games, had been expressed by various entities. Concerns were shown over Russia's policies surrounding the LGBT community, including the government's denial of a proposed Pride House for the Games on moral grounds, and a federal law passed in June 2013 which criminalized the distribution of "propaganda of non-traditional sexual relationships" among minors. Severe cost overruns made the 2014 Winter Olympics the most expensive Olympics in history; with Russian politician Boris Nemtsov citing allegations of corruption among government officials, and Allison Stewart of the Saïd Business School at Oxford citing tight relationships between the government and construction firms.
Some Circassian organizations objected to the Games being held on land their ancestors held until 1864, when most of them were vanquished at the end of the Russian-Circassian War (1763–1864), in what they consider to be ethnic cleansing or genocide. The use of Krasnaya Polyana ("Red Hill" or "Red Glade") as an event site was considered insensitive, as it was named for a group of Circassians who were defeated in a bloody battle with Russians while attempting to return home over it in 1864. Some Circassian groups demanded that the Games be cancelled or moved unless Russia apologized for their actions. Other groups did not outright object to the Games, but suggested that symbols of Circassian history and culture be incorporated into the Games, as Australia, the United States and Canada did for their indigenous cultures in 2000, 2002, and 2010 respectively.
U.S. broadcaster NBC largely avoided broadcasting material critical of Russia, although several segments deemed "overly friendly to Russia" were criticized by some commentators. However, following the closing ceremony, commentators evaluated the Games to have been successful overall.
Russian doping scandal
Following the Games, reports began to emerge that the Russian Olympic team had participated in a state-run doping program, which supplied their athletes with performance-enhancing drugs. These allegations first emerged in a December 2014 documentary by German public broadcaster ARD, and were detailed further in a May 2016 report by The New York Times—which published allegations by Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, the former director of Russia's anti-doping laboratory. Rodchenkov alleged that a conspiracy of corrupt anti-doping officials, FSB intelligence agents, and compliant Russian athletes used banned substances to gain an unfair advantage during the Games. Rodchenkov stated that the FSB tampered with over 100 urine samples as part of a cover-up, and that at least fifteen of the Russian medals won in Sochi were the result of doping.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) commissioned an independent report by Richard McLaren, which corroborated claims that Russian authorities had been discreetly swapping out urine samples that tested positive for performance-enhancing substances. The report concluded that the program had been operating from "at least late 2011 to August 2015", and had covered up 643 positive samples across Olympic and non-Olympic sports. As a result, WADA considered the Russian Anti-Doping Agency to be non-compliant with the World Anti-Doping Code, and recommended that Russia be banned from competing in the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Russia was not banned from the 2016 Olympics by the IOC, the decision that was widely criticized by both athletes and writers; the IOC only required Russia's athletes to be cleared by an internal panel and their respective sports federations. The IAAF had suspended Russia from international track and field events due to the scandal, but did allow Darya Klishina to participate in the Olympics because she was confirmed not to be a part of a doping program. The International Paralympic Committee suspended the Russian Paralympic Committee and banned the team from the 2016 Summer Paralympics.
On 5 December 2017, the IOC voted to suspend the Russian Olympic Committee, thus banning it from sending athletes under the Russian flag to the 2018 Winter Olympics. Cleared Russian athletes were allowed to participate as "Olympic Athletes from Russia" (OAR). Two of them, curler Alexander Krushelnitskiy, who won a bronze medal, and bobsledder Nadezhda Sergeeva, failed drug tests during the Games.
The IOC's Oswald Commission disqualified and banned 43 Russian athletes, and stripped thirteen medals they earned in Sochi. On 1 February 2018, the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) found that the IOC provided insufficient evidence for 28 athletes, and overturned their IOC sanctions. For 11 other athletes, the CAS decided that there was sufficient evidence to uphold their Sochi sanctions, but reduced their lifetime bans to only the 2018 Winter Olympics. The IOC said in a statement that "the result of the CAS decision does not mean that athletes from the group of 28 will be invited to the [2018 Winter Olympic] Games. Not being sanctioned does not automatically confer the privilege of an invitation” and that “this [case] may have a serious impact on the future fight against doping”. The IOC found it important to note that the CAS Secretary General "insisted that the CAS decision does not mean that these 28 athletes are innocent” and that they would consider an appeal against the court's decision. Later that month, the Russian Olympic Committee was reinstated by the IOC, despite failed doping tests during the 2018 Olympics, and the Russian Anti-Doping Agency was re-certified in September, despite the Russian officials not accepting the McLaren report.
Notes and references
- "Sochi 2014 Facts & figures" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 1 February 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (9 December 2016). "Russia's Doping Program Laid Bare by Extensive Evidence in Report". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- Ostlere, Lawrence (9 December 2016). "McLaren report: more than 1,000 Russian athletes involved in doping conspiracy". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 November 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
- Ellingworth, James (13 December 2016). "Emails show how Russian officials covered up mass doping". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016.
- Ruiz, Rebecca; Panja, Tariq. "Russia Banned from Winter Olympics by I.O.C." The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- Hobson, Will (5 December 2017). "Russia banned from 2018 Olympics for widespread doping program". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 17 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- "Sochi Elected as Host City of XXII Olympic Winter Games, International Olympic Committee". Olympic.org. 4 July 2007. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- "IOC's Sochi 2014 Page (refer to the Election of Sochi section)". International Olympic Committee. 4 July 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- Oliphant, Roland (30 October 2013). "Sochi: chaos behind the scenes of world's most expensive Winter Olympics". Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Owen Gibson (9 October 2013). "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- The Waste and Corruption of Vladimir Putin's 2014 Winter Olympics Archived 9 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, businessweek, 2 January 2014
- Kuzmin, Vladimir (24 May 2012). Назначенцы-2012 [Appointees 2012]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). The Kremlin in Moscow. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Dawisha, Karen (2014). Putin's Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia?. Simon & Schuster. pp. 87, 377. ISBN 978-1-4767-9519-5.
- Sukhov, Oleg (28 March 2014). "From Olympics to Crimea, Putin Loyalist Kozak Entrusted with Kremlin Mega-Projects". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Golubchikov, Oleg (31 January 2017). "From a sports mega-event to a regional mega-project: the Sochi winter Olympics and the return of geography in state development priorities" (PDF). International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics. 0 (2): 237–255. doi:10.1080/19406940.2016.1272620. ISSN 1940-6940. S2CID 131822552. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- Vancouver Olympics: Embarrassed Russia looks to 2014 Sochi Olympics Archived 16 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Christian Science Monitor, 1 March 2010
- "Rio Golf Course; Women's World Cup; IOC Nominee for Japan? – No Smoking in Sochi". Archived from the original on 26 November 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2012. Around the Rings, 14 July 2011
- "Sochi's mixed feelings over Olympics". BBC News. 26 November 2008. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Russian Deputy PM leads Sochi delegation to inspect Munich Olympic Park Archived 16 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine Inside the Games, 22 May 2010
- Madler, Mark (24 February 2014). "WET Design Runs Rings Around Rivals". San Fernando Business Journal. Los Angeles, California: California Business Journals. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "California-based WET makes the waters dance at Sochi". Gizmag. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Посмотрели свысока Archived 7 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine Yugopolis, 16 July 2013
- "Sochi track warms up for Russian F1 Grand Prix". RT. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Korsunskaya, Darya; Gennady Fydorov, Alan Baldwin (14 October 2010). "Sochi to host Russian GP from 2014–2020". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 September 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "IOC threatens to postpone Russian Grand Prix". GP Update. 13 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- "Russia to Spend $50 Million Taking Roof Off Sochi Olympic Stadium". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Russia 2018 preparations suffer setback as Sochi Olympic Stadium completion date pushed back". InsideTheGames.biz. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- Russia prepares for Olympic Games 2014 faster than scheduled[dead link] ITAR-TASS, 27 June 2009
- IOC Head Praises Sochi 2014 Archived 28 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine GamesBids.com, 24 November 2011
- Bing Ads (23 April 2013). "Avaya Official supplyer of network equipment". Slideshare.net. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- "US firm Avaya named as Sochi 2014 network equipment supplier". Insidethegames.biz. 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- "Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games" (PDF). Avaya. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- James Careless (December 2013). "Avaya builds massive Wi-Fi net for 2014 Winter Olympics". Network World. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013.
- "Сочи-2014 выходит на связь" Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Открытые системы, 2007 (in Russian)
- "Инновационное олимпийское телевизионное оборудование впервые в Сочи". Broadcasting.ru. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Fiber-optic communications in Olympic Sochi Mayak Radio, 28 March 2008 (in Russian) Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "'МИР ИТ' приютил олимпийскую ВОЛС". comnews.ru. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- ""Ростелеком" обеспечил телекоммуникационными услугами олимпийский медиацентр в Сочи". TASS-TELECOM. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "Olympics' press center and Mountain Cluster's media center open in Sochi". ITAR-TASS. 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Games 2014 Will Double Sochi Power Supply Archived 7 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Sochi 2014, 29 May 2009
- Gazprom launches construction of Adler CHPS Archived 1 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine Gazprom, 28 September 2009
- The power capacities of the Sochi region will increase before the Olympics by a factor of four Archived 2 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine RBC, 6 July 2007 (in Russian)
- "Sochi welcomes 2014 Winter Olympics with traditional Russian hospitality". En.itar-tass.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Sochi opens new rail line for 2014 Winter Olympics Archived 29 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Inside the Games, 17 February 2012
- Siemens signs Russian Olympic train order Archived 30 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine Railway Gazette International, 1 January 2010
- Expensive road to the Olympics Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Gudok, 22 August 2007 (in Russian)
- Runway in Sochi airport will cross the river Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine YuGA.ru, 8 July 2007 (in Russian)
- Russia to build 3 reserve airports in country's south by 2009 Archived 12 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine RIA Novosti, 7 July 2007
- "Playing in the snow | WAG MAGAZINE ONLINE" Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Wagmag.com.
- "Sochi authorities close the entrance to the city". Retrieved 1 June 2016.[dead link] DP.RU, 8 October 2007 (in Russian)
- "Russian Railways started mountain tunnel complex construction from Sochi to Krasnaya Polyana". Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010. Interfax, 27 May 2009 (in Russian)
- "Russian Railways President Yakunin sums up investment programme for first 7 months of 2011". Russian Railways. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "NASA – Sochi at night". Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- Sochi is not a place for recreation Archived 11 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Gazeta.ru, 5 July 2007 (in Russian)
- Construction of the first olympic hotel starts in Sochi Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine RIA Novosti, 7 August 2007 (in Russian)
- Archived copy at WebCite (20 December 2006). Press Service of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russian Federation, 13 July 2009 (in Russian)
- "Гости Олимпиады смогут отправить написанное пером письмо, оплатив почтовые услуги маркой с собственной фотографией". TASS Telecom. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Lally, Kathy (1 October 2013). "Russia anti-gay law casts a shadow over Sochi's 2014 Olympics". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "Soyuz TMA-09M safely returns crew back to Earth". NASASpaceFlight. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- 9. listopadu 2013 17:51. "Kosmonauti si poprvé ve volném vesmíru předali olympijskou pochodeň". Technet.idnes.cz. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Loumena, Dan (23 November 2013). "Sochi Olympic torch takes plunge into world's deepest lake". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Faith Karimi; Michael Martinez (7 February 2014). "Sochi 2014 begins with teams, classical music and a flying girl". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Kathy Lally; Will Englund (7 February 2014). "Olympics open in Sochi with extravagant pageant". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "News". sochi2014.com. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "Vladislav Tretyak and Irina Rodnina lit the Olympic flame at the Fisht Stadium in Sochi". Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Record 88 nations to participate in Winter Games". Global News. Sochi, Russia. Associated Press. 2 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- MacKenzie, Eric (16 January 2014). "Sochi Spotlight: Zimbabwe's first Winter Olympian". Pique Newsmagazine. Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Pagan Rivera, Esteban (12 January 2014). "Kristina Krone: Quería ir a Sochi, pero nunca recibió contestación del Comité Olímpico". Primerahora (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Sascoc crush Speelman's Olympic dream". IOL Sport. 23 January 2014. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Dubault, Fabrice (24 January 2014). "L'histoire invraisemblable de Mehdi Khelifi privé de J.O par l'Algérie". France 3. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Sochi Games: Four Indian skiers to go as independent athletes". Zee news. 31 December 2013. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- "IOC Executive Board lifts suspension of NOC of India". Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "National Olympic Houses". tripadvisor. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Olympic Parc; Hospitality Houses". sochi2014.com. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Opening Canada House" (in Dutch). CBC. 6 February 2014. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "China House opens in Sochi". XinHua Net. 7 February 2014. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "Zeman slavnostně otevřel Český dům a pravil: Budu váš maskot". Lidové noviny (in Czech). 8 February 2014. Archived from the original on 15 March 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "Dossier de presse Sotchi 201" (PDF) (in French). Esprit Bleu France Olympic. 28 January 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Deutsches Haus Sotschi 2014 in Russlands Bergen". DOSB. 25 April 2013. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- 5 min fa. "Sochi, la Gazzetta entra a Casa Italia: tra cantieri, optional e sobrietà – La Gazzetta dello Sport". Gazzetta.it. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- lsm.lv. "Linda Leen nozog hokejistu sirdis". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "Holland Heineken House dichter bij olympiërs dan ooit" (in Dutch). nusport.nl. 13 January 2014. Archived from the original on 27 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Slovak athletes set for Sochi". The Slovak Spectator. 3 February 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- 대한체육회, 소치에 코리아하우스 오픈 [Korean Olympic Committee, open the Korea House in Sochi] (in Korean). Yonhap News. 6 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. (in Dutch)
- "USOC plans USA House sites in Sochi, at home". sportsbusinessdaily.com. 21 October 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Discover the twelve new winter sports events for Sochi 2014!". Olympic.org. 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Rogge announces three new disciplines for Sochi 2014". Russia Today. TV-Novosti. 5 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- "Women's ski jumping gets 2014 Sochi Olympics go-ahead". Bbc.co.uk. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 14 April 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- Thompson, Anna (5 July 2011). "Slopestyle given Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics go-ahead". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "FIS Congress 2010 Decisions". FIS-Ski. Archived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "Russian ice hockey will be skating in Sochi". Infox.ru. AktivMedia. 7 June 2010. Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "It's Not Hockey, It's Bandy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "No time to relax! The show must go on...again!". Eastbourneherald.co.uk. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "No Olympics for Ski Mountaineering". The Mountain World. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- "No inclusion of ski orienteering in the IOC review process for 2014". International Orienteering Federation. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- "Olympic Programme Updates". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. 28 November 2006. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- "Sochi 2014 Closing Ceremony Unites Olympic Generations". Sochi 2014. 23 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "Sochi 2014 Unveils Olympic Medals". Olympic.org. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Winners at Sochi Winter Olympics to receive pieces of Russia meteorite". The Telegraph. London. 26 July 2013. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "Competition Schedule". SOCOG. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- "Russian Police to Speak 3 Languages at Sochi Olympics – Ministry". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "Russian Military to Ensure Security at 2014 Olympics". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- "Sochi Olympic Protests to Require Approval from Russia's Security Service". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- Oliphant, Roland; Lundy, Jack (2 February 2014). "Sochi Olympic organisers face accommodation crisis". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Oliphant, Roland (5 February 2014). "The shambles behind the scenes at Sochi". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "Russia takes unprecedented security measures ahead of Sochi Olympics". ITAR TASS. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- "Space monitoring systems of emergency situations deployed in Sochi". ITAR TASS. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "Russian emergencies minister praises Sochi security system". ITAR TASS. 27 January 2014. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Internal Troops to provide security at Sochi Olympics". Russia Beyond the Headlines. 15 January 2014. Archived from the original on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "Siberia joins national effort to make the Sochi Olympics safe and successful". Siberia Times. 16 January 2014. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "Sochi Drafts In Cossacks for Olympic Security". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "Some 300 Cossacks to Help Police Sochi Olympics". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "Olympic Teams Prepare for Possible Security Crisis in Sochi". The Moscow Times. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "Obama offers US security assistance to Putin as Olympic terror fears mount". Fox News. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "As Sochi Olympic venues are built, so are Kremlin's surveillance networks". The Guardian. 6 October 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- Walker, Shaun (6 October 2013). "Russia to monitor 'all communications' at Winter Olympics in Sochi". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Caucasus Emirate Leader Calls On Insurgents To Thwart Sochi Winter Olympics". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- Rumsby, Ben (22 January 2014). "Winter Olympics 2014: email threat to 'blow up' athletes at Sochi Games dismissed by IOC". Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "European Olympic Committees Report Sochi Terror Threats". En.ria.ru. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Love, Tom (3 September 2012). "Sportfive concludes Olympic agreement in Russia". SportsPro. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "Lazarus: We Believe Sochi Olympics Will Be Profitable". Broadcasting & Cable. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Sportsnet to air 200 hours of Sochi Games". Sportsnet. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "CBC/Radio Canada welcomes partners in 2014 Sochi Olympics coverage". CBC. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "CBC/Radio-Canada seals agreement with TVA Sports for the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games". Canada Newswire. 2 May 2013. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- "CBC wins rights to 2014, 2016 Olympic Games". CBC Sports. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Olympic fury over rules for TV sport". The Australian. 7 April 2012. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Seven withdraws from bidding for Olympics as price tag proves too great for TV networks". Fox Sports. 8 April 2013. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- MacKay, Duncan (12 May 2013). "Ten Network signs $20 million deal to broadcast Sochi 2014 in Australia, claim reports". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- Pennington, Adrian. "Comcast to Produce Olympics 2014 in Ultra HD". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Russia to transmit 4K from Sochi". TVBEurope. NewBay Media. Archived from the original on 27 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Putin cancels New Year holidays for officials responsible for Winter Games". ITAR-TASS. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Pennington, Adrian (4 February 2014). "Sochi Games to Set Record for Live and VOD Streaming". Streaming Media Europe. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- "Judge bans Sochi 2014 gay Pride House claiming it would offend "public morality"". Inside the Games. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- Johnson, Ted (24 July 2013). "Russia's Anti-Gay Laws Present Challenge for NBC's Olympics Coverage". Variety. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- Fierstein, Harvey (21 July 2013). "Russia's Anti-Gay Crackdown". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- Herszenhorn, David M. (11 August 2013). "Gays in Russia Find No Haven, Despite Support From the West". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Skybenko, Ella (7 February 2014). "Companies can help advance human rights; Sochi shows they rarely use it". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Bennetts, Marc (19 January 2014). "Winter Olympics 2014: Sochi Games "nothing but a monstrous scam," says Kremlin critic Boris Nemtsov". Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "The Sochi Olympics: Castles in the sand". The Economist. 13 July 2013. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- Jaimoukha, Amjad. Ancient Circassian Cultures and Nations in the First Millennium BCE. Pages 1–7, 9–14
- Encyclopædia Britannica entry for Circassians: "From ancient times Circassia, comprising roughly the northwestern region of the Caucasus, acquired the exotic reputation common to lands occupying a crucial area between rival empires..."
- "145th Anniversary of the Circassian Genocide and the Sochi Olympics Issue". Reuters. 22 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Ellen Barry (20 May 2011). "Georgia Says Russia Committed Genocide in 19th Century". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Andrea Alexander (9 February 2010). "North Jersey Circassians 'in exile' launch Olympic protest". The Record. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- Gabriele Barbati (6 February 2014). "Circassians Protest Winter Olympics Being Held At Sochi Genocide Site". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "Olympics-IOC says Russia-Georgia conflict "a sad reality"". Reuters. 9 August 2008. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
- Azamat Bram. Circassians Voice Olympian Anger Archived 8 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Institute for War and Peace Reporting Caucasus Reporting Service No. 413, 5 October 2007. Retrieved on 2 April 2010.
- Farhi, Paul (21 February 2014). "In coverage of Olympics, NBC has largely steered clear of controversy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Sappenfield, Mark (24 February 2014). "Sochi Olympics report card: So how good were Putin's Games?". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Grohmann, Karolos (23 February 2014). "'Excellent' Sochi Games proved critics wrong, says IOC's Bach". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Olterman, Philip (3 December 2014). "Russia accused of athletics doping cover-up on German TV". Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Schwirtz, Michael (12 May 2016). "Russian Insider Says State-Run Doping Fueled Olympic Gold". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Schwirtz, Michael (13 May 2016). "Mystery in Sochi Doping Case Lies With Tamper-Proof Bottle". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- Gibson, Owen (1 June 2016). "New doping report will influence decision on Russia's place at Olympics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- "Russian athletics: IAAF upholds ban before Rio Olympics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- "Takeaways from McLaren report? Confusion, corruption, cynicism". ESPN.com. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Ruiz, Rebecca R. (27 December 2016). "Russians No Longer Dispute Olympic Doping Operation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "McLaren Independent Investigations Report into Sochi Allegations". WADA. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "WADA Statement: Independent Investigation confirms Russian State manipulation of the doping control process". WADA. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Rio Olympics 2016: Wada criticises IOC for failing to ban Russian team". BBC. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "Canadian athletes critical of IOC decision". The Hamilton Spectator. 24 July 2016. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "British Olympians slam 'spineless IOC' over Russia". Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "International Olympic Committee's dereliction of duty over Russia weakens bond between spectator and spectacle". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "IOC chooses obfuscation and chaos on Russia competing at Olympics". The Guardian. 24 July 2016. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Macur, Juliet (25 July 2016). "Russia Decision Muddies Legacy of I.O.C. President Thomas Bach". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- "Rio 2016: 270 Russians cleared to compete at Olympic Games". BBC. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Athletics doping: Russia provisionally suspended by IAAF". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Stubbs, Jack (15 August 2016). "Exclusive: Russia's Klishina to compete after appeal upheld". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Rio Paralympics 2016: Russian athletes banned after doping scandal". BBC Sport. 7 August 2016. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- Ingle, Sean (1 February 2018). "IOC dismayed after doping bans on 28 Russian athletes overturned by Cas". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "ICAS's Coates responds to Bach over IOC concerns". Associated Press. USA Today. 4 February 2018. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Aspin, Guy (2 February 2018). "Wada: Clearing Russian athletes may cause 'dismay and frustration'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "IOC Statement on CAS decision". Olympic Games. 1 February 2018. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- Kelner, Martha (28 February 2018). "Russia's Olympic membership restored by IOC after doping ban". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Russia reinstated by WADA, ending nearly 3-year suspension after doping scandal". USA Today. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2014 Winter Olympics.|
|Wikinews has news related to:|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Games.|
- "Sochi 2014". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
- "Official website" (in Russian, English, and French). Archived from the original on 1 August 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Olympstroy State Corporation (in Russian and English) - responsible for Sochi Olympics construction and development
- Sochi 2014 links on Open Directory Project (DMOZ)
- Sochi satellite image on Google Maps
| Winter Olympics
XXII Olympic Winter Games (2014)