1 January 2014: New computer models show that climate change is more sensitive to the effects of cloud formation than previously thought.
1 January – A study published in Nature shows that the role of cloud formation in climate change has been underestimated. As a result, global temperatures could increase by 4 °C by 2100 and possibly 8 °C by 2200.
Researchers have shown in precise detail how a molecular defect is responsible for myotonic dystrophy type 2, then designed a potential drug candidate to reverse the disease.
The asteroid 2014 AA impacts the Earth a few hours after it was first sighted. This was the second time an asteroid was observed before it impacted with Earth (the first being 2008 TC3).
Using the Sloan Digital Telescope, astronomers have measured the distance to galaxies six billion light-years away – about halfway back to the Big Bang – to an accuracy of just 1 percent. This could aid in the understanding of dark energy, which is thought to be driving the expansion of the universe.
A detailed survey of lion populations has revealed that in West Africa, their numbers have collapsed with less than 250 adults remaining.
New analysis of a Tiktaalik roseae fossil, dating back 375 million years, has revealed a key link in the evolution of hind limbs that challenges existing theories on how they first developed.
26 January – New research indicates that most of the Grand Canyon is much younger than previously thought, having formed as recently as 5 or 6 million years ago, compared to 70 million years as previously estimated.
27 January – Genetic analysis of a European male from 7,000 years ago has revealed he had dark skin, dark hair and blue eyes – suggesting that lighter skin colour evolved much later than was previously assumed.
28 January – A new study shows that living near a fracking site may increase the risk of some birth defects by as much as 30 percent. As many as 15 million Americans may live within one mile of a drilling well.
The axolotl may have gone extinct in the wild. None were found in a recent survey of its only remaining natural habitat, Lake Xochimilco.
Japanese researchers have reported that they developed a way of turning adult mice cells into stem cells by dipping them in acid. If true, this could pave the way for routine use of stem cells in regenerative medicine with a technique that is cheaper, faster and more efficient than before. However, other investigators could not reproduce the effect, and so this "discovery" remains controversial.
A new way of electrochemically converting CO2 – a greenhouse gas – into carbon monoxide has been developed at the University of Delaware.
Despite warnings from scientists about the ecological impact, Australia's government has approved plans to dump three million cubic metres of sediment near the Great Barrier Reef, as part of the world's largest coal port.
20 February – The biggest ever stem cell trial involving heart attack patients has commenced in London. It will examine 3,000 patients in 11 European countries, determining whether death rates can be reduced and damaged tissues repaired after a heart attack.
Following a long delay due to technical issues, the first 128GB microSD card has been announced, based on 16 memory dies vertically stacked, each shaved to be thinner than a strand of hair.
A tiny fragment of zircon dating back 4.4 billion years has been confirmed as the oldest known piece of Earth's crust. It provides evidence that a solid crust formed much earlier in the planet's history than was previously thought.
Despite claims of a recent hiatus in global warming, the number of local temperature extremes has "dramatically and unequivocally increased in number and area", according to researchers at the University of New South Wales. This has also occurred despite the complete absence of a strong El Niño since 1998.
9 March – Researchers from the University of East Anglia discover four new ozone-depleting gases (3 CFCs and one HCFC). Two of the gases are still accumulating in the atmosphere, but their origins remain unknown.
10 March - Stanford bioengineer develops a 50-cent paper microscope capable of a magnification of up to 2000 times.
The Very Large Telescope discovers the largest known yellow star, HR 5171A, which is 1,300 times the diameter of our Sun. It has a companion star that orbits so close, the two stars are almost merged.
The discovery of a ringwoodite sample provides strong evidence of water in huge volumes in the Earth's mantle at 400 to 700 km (250 to 430 mi) below the surface.
20 March – A new method to obtain human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from a single drop of finger-pricked blood is achieved.
23 March – Scientists demonstrate the distribution of three entangled photons at three different locations, several hundreds of metres apart. This could pave the way to multi-party quantum communication.
Researchers create a biodegradeable battery that could be used for medical implants inside the body.
Rates of blindness and partial sight have plummeted in the developed world over the last 20 years, according to new research.
25 March – Paleontologists assemble giant turtle bone from fossil discoveries made 160 years apart. Atlantochelys mortoni, found in Cretaceous sediments dating back 75 million years, was possibly the largest turtle that ever lived.
30 March – The first evidence that CRISPR can reverse disease symptoms in living animals has been demonstrated. Using this new gene-editing technique, MIT researchers cured mice of a rare liver disorder.
In the landmark case of Australia v. Japan, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague has ruled that Japan's JARPA II whaling program in the Antarctic is not for scientific purposes and has ordered all permits to be revoked.
Eating seven or more portions (560 g) of fruit and vegetables a day reduces your risk of death at any point in time by 42 percent compared to eating less than one portion, reports a new study by University College London.
4 April – By manipulating the appropriate signaling, researchers have turned embryonic stem cells into a fish embryo, essentially controlling embryonic development. This breakthrough is a major step toward being able to grow whole organs from stem cells.
6 April – Samsung has developed a new method of growing large area, single crystal wafer scale graphene, a major development that will accelerate the commercialization of this material.
11 April – A new statistical analysis of temperature data since the year 1500 concludes "with confidence levels greater than 99%, and most likely greater than 99.9%" that recent global warming is not caused by natural factors and is man-made.
19 April – A particularly bright meteor, presumably from Lyrids, flashes over several Russian cities, including Murmansk, and is recorded by dash cams. The meteor burned away above the Earth around 2:10 a.m. local time.
22 April – Asteroid impacts are more common than previously thought, according to a presentation by the B612 Foundation, which shows evidence that 26 multi-kiloton collisions have occurred since 2001.
25 April – The sequencing of the tsetse fly genome, which causes the deadly sleeping sickness in Africa, is completed after a 10-year multimillion-dollar effort.
Antibiotic resistance is now a major global threat, WHO reports. (30 April 2014).
Stanford bioengineers have developed faster, more energy-efficient microchips based on the human brain – 9,000 times faster and using significantly less power than a typical PC.
Levels of atmospheric methane – a powerful greenhouse gas – had been stable for a decade, but recently began rising again. This can be explained by emissions from northern wetlands and thawing permafrost, according to a major study.
The first realistic "virtual universe" is created, simulating 13 billion years of cosmic evolution in a cube with 350 million light year long sides and unprecedented resolution.
Researchers announce that they successfully introduced two artificial nucleotides, Unnatural Base Pairs (UBRs), into bacterial DNA, and by including the individual artificial nucleotides in the culture media, were able to passage the bacteria 24 times; they did not create mRNA or proteins able to use the artificial nucleotides. The artificial nucleotides featured two fused aromatic rings which formed a complex mimicking the natural (dG–dC) base pair.
For the first time, researchers sequence the genome of the spider.
Global scientific output doubles every nine years, according to a new analysis going back to the year 1650.
8 May – Scientists publish a comprehensive study of Comet ISON and its disintegration, reported to have occurred on 2 December 2013, suggesting that the comet fully disintegrated hours before perihelion.
The maximum theoretical limit of energy needed to control the magnetisation of a single atom is demonstrated, a finding that could improve nanotechnology devices and quantum computers.
After eight years of development, a new hi-tech bionic arm becomes the first of its kind to gain FDA approval for mass production.
13 May – New research shows unlimited heat potential in graphene.
NASA extends the Kepler mission to the K2 mission, a reduced two reaction wheel operation mode necessitated by faults in the originally designed four wheel mode used to accurately aim the telescope, to continue exoplanet discovery as well as new scientific observation opportunities.
Researchers at King's College London develop a new dental technique known as Electrically Accelerated and Enhanced Remineralisation. This allows a decayed tooth to effectively repair and heal itself without the need for drills, needles or fillings.
New NASA images show the decline in nitrogen dioxide pollution across the U.S. over the last 10 years.
Researchers have detected the smallest force ever measured – approximately 42 yoctonewtons – using a unique optical trapping system that provides ultracold atoms. A yoctonewton is one septillionth of a newton.
9 July – The New York Times reports a reboot plan to rescue the International Cometary Explorer (or ICE or ISEE-3) spacecraft, the first spacecraft to visit a comet but removed from service by NASA in 1997, failed. The cause, currently under investigation, was originally believed to be a lack of nitrogen pressurant in the fuel tanks: this has now been proven not to be the case. The team is continuing to work the thruster issue before the craft reaches a point where the remaining fuel will not be sufficient to meaningfully alter its course. An alternative plan in the use of the spacecraft is to "collect scientific data and send it back to Earth."
Two stars – ULAS J0744+25 and ULAS J0015+01 – have been found orbiting the Milky Way at distances of 775,000 and 900,000 light-years from Earth, respectively. This makes them the most distant Milky Way stars ever detected, extending the boundaries of our home galaxy.
11 July – The largest ever study of its kind has found significant differences between organic food and conventionally grown crops. The former has almost 70 percent more antioxidants – equivalent to eating between 1-2 extra portions of fruit and vegetables a day – and significantly lower levels of toxic heavy metals.
17 July – A new report shows how improvements in agricultural efficiency could feed an extra three billion people.
20 July – The anaphase-promoting complex – one of the most important and complicated proteins involved in cell division – has been mapped in 3D at a resolution of less than a nanometre. Researchers claim this finding could transform the understanding of cancer and reveal new binding sites for future cancer drugs.
Globally, June 2014 was the hottest June since records began in 1880, according to latest data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This follows the warmest May on record the previous month. Experts predict that 2014 will be an El Niño year.
22 July – Self-cooling solar cells have been developed by Stanford researchers, using tiny pyramid structures made of silica glass.
Neurons reprogrammed from skin cells have been grafted into the brains of mice for the first time with long-term stability. This demonstration of lastingly stable neuron implantation raises hope for future therapies in humans that could replace sick neurons with healthy ones in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients, for example.
The International Cometary Explorer (or ICE or ISEE-3) passes (at 18:17 UTC) about 15,600 km (9,700 mi) from the surface of the Moon and, afterwards, will return to the vicinity of Earth in 17 years. ICE is the first spacecraft to visit a comet but removed from service by NASA in 1997. Recent attempts to regain control of ICE by space enthusiasts have not been successful.
Ice loss from the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets has more than doubled in the last five years, based on extensive mapping by the ESA satellite CryoSat-2. The "unprecedented" rate of melting – around 500 cubic kilometres of ice per year – is the highest on record.
A new study suggests that modern humans and Neanderthals co-existed in Europe for up to 5,000 years – 10 times longer than previously thought.
Scientists have discovered the area of the brain responsible for exercise motivation – the dorsal medial habenula.
Researchers have designed a computer program that can accurately recognize users’ emotional states as much as 87% of the time.
Children’s social skills may be declining as they have less time for face-to-face interaction due to their increased use of digital media, according to a UCLA psychology study.
A new automated process that uses a flash of light to detect fluorescence lifetimes can improve the sorting and recycling of plastics.
24 August – A whole functioning organ – a thymus – has been engineered to grow inside an animal for the first time.
NASA reports the observation of a dust cloud believed to have formed as a result of asteroids colliding near the star NGC 2547-ID8, a system 1,200 light years away. This sighting will offer a rare opportunity to observe the processes involved in rocky planet formation.
NASA completes a review of the Space Launch System. The rocket will have its first test launch "no later than November 2018" with a possibility of manned flights to Mars in the 2030s.
30 August – A new drug known as LCZ696 can reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease by 20% compared to previous treatments. It is claimed to be among the biggest advances in treating this condition in over 10 years.
Wine only protects against cardiovascular disease in people who exercise, a study finds.
A study of 131,000 people has found that drinking tea reduces non-cardiovascular mortality by 24 percent.
Canada has overtaken Brazil to lead the world in forest decline, according to a new report. The pace of decline is accelerating with more than 104 million hectares – about 8.1 per cent of global undisturbed forests — lost from 2000 to 2013.
A new study finds there is 99.999% certainty that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are driving global warming.
NASA reports receiving the first science data from instruments aboard the Rosetta orbiter studying the comet67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The data suggests the comet is unusually dark, hydrogen and oxygen were found in the coma and the surface did not contain any large water-ice patches. Large water-ice patches were expected by scientists since the comet is too far away from the sun's warmth to turn its water to vapor.
Oxygen-producing life forms were present on Earth 60 million years earlier than previously thought, according to geologists from Trinity College Dublin.
The coffeegenome is published, with more than 25,000 genes identified. This reveals that coffee plants makes caffeine using a different set of genes from those found in tea, cacao and other such plants.
When FOXP2 – a human gene responsible for speech and language – is spliced into mice, it allows them to learn more quickly and perform better in a variety of tests, according to a new study.
16 September – NASA awards contracts to Boeing and SpaceX to carry out manned missions to the International Space Station from 2017 onwards, ending U.S. reliance on Russia for space transportation services.
A study of 100 billion animals fed GM and regular crops shows no effect of GM crops on animal health.
Globally, August 2014 was the hottest August on record, according to data released by NOAA. This follows the hottest May and June also this year.
Man-made CO2 continues to track the high end of emission scenarios, eroding the chances to keep global warming below 2 °C, according to the Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO).
19 September – Stanford researchers have developed a "decoy" protein that disrupts metastasis, the process that makes cancer cells spread to other sites in the body.
21 September – The MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) space probe begins orbiting the planet Mars (10:24 pm/et/usa, 21 September 2014).
25 September – A complex organic molecule, Iso-propyl cyanide, has been discovered near the galactic core. This is more similar to amino acids – the building blocks of life – than any previous finding. Furthermore, it is present in abundant quantities.
28 September – A new drug for advanced breast cancer can extend patients' lives by 15.7 months (56.5 vs. 40.8 months compared to previous treatments).
The Greenland Ice Sheet is more vulnerable to climate change than previously thought, with implications for sea level rise, according to the University of Cambridge.
Scientists have designed a record-breaking laser that accelerates the interaction between light and matter by ten times.
A new process can separate CO2 molecules into a carbon atom and O2 molecule, instead of carbon monoxide and a single oxygen atom. Future applications may include spacesuits that do not require oxygen tanks.
Researchers have created a hybrid "solar battery" that can store its own power using nanometer-sized rods of titanium dioxide.
5 October – A new study of global warming shows that ocean heat content has been greatly underestimated in the southern hemisphere. As a result, the world's oceans are now absorbing between 24 and 58 per cent more energy than previously thought.
Ocean acidification is causing nearly $1 trillion of damage to coral reefs each year, threatening the livelihoods of 400 million people, according to a report based on the work of 30 experts.
Harvard researchers have turned human embryonic stem cells into cells that produce insulin, a potentially major advance for sufferers of diabetes.
An international team of scientists has developed a slurry-based process using a porous powder suspended in glycol that offers a cost-effective and energy-efficient approach to carbon capture.
A new method has been devised to produce 3D metal nanoparticles in highly precise shapes and dimensions, using DNA as a construction mould.
New measurements of the Milky Way reveal there is half as much dark matter as previously thought, solving the 15-year-old "missing satellite galaxy" problem.
Drinking three cups of coffee a day can reduce the risk of abnormal liver enzyme levels by 25 percent, based on a study of 14,000 subjects.
16 October – Astronomers have detected what appears to be a signature of 'axions', which are predicted to be dark matter particle candidates. If confirmed, this would be the first direct detection and identification of the elusive substance.
Physicists have built a reversible tractor beam that can move objects 0.2mm in diameter a distance of up to 20 centimetres. This is 100 times further than was possible in previous experiments.
By boosting a protein called NT3, scientists have restored lost hearing in mice.
21 October – Darek Fidyka, a paralysed Polish man, becomes the first in the world to walk again following a pioneering therapy which involved transplanting cells from his nose into his severed spinal cord.
A new method of solar cell production enables silicon to be used that is 1,000 times less pure and requires only one-third of the energy to manufacture compared to traditional methods. While the energy efficiency is currently too low (3.6%) for commercial use, this new process could be refined in the future, potentially slashing the cost of solar energy.
A new drug, OTS964, can eradicate aggressive human lung cancers transplanted into mice, with few side effects.
The discovery of the seventeenth experimentally established form of ice, ice XVI, is accepted for publication in Nature.
Using stem cells from just 25 milliliters of blood, researchers have grown new blood vessels in just seven days, compared to a month for the same process using bone marrow. These blood vessels were implanted in patients to connect the gastrointestinal tract to the liver.
Scientists from Harvard Medical School report a new method of using toxic stem cells to attack brain tumors, without killing normal cells or themselves. The procedure could be ready for human clinical trials within five years.
26 October – Iranian researchers devised an inexpensive, flexible microchip which is able to notice HIV and measure viral load in polluted individuals at the point-of-care.
The UK government has unveiled plans for a £97m ($156m) supercomputer to study weather and climate. Using 13 times more processing power than previous systems, it will perform 16,000 trillion calculations per second.
Researchers at the Eindhoven University of Technology have achieved 255 Terabits/s over a new type of fibre allowing 21 times more bandwidth than currently available in communication networks.
An international group of scientists has announced the most significant breakthrough in a decade toward developing DNA-based electrical circuits.
A new multi-scenario modelling of world human population concludes that even draconian fertility restrictions or a catastrophic mass mortality won't be enough to solve issues of global sustainability by 2100.
A method for improving thrust generated by supersonic laser-propelled rockets has been described in The Optical Society's (OSA) journal Applied Optics.
30 October – Researchers have demonstrated for the first time the in vitro growth of a piece of spinal cord in three dimensions from mouse embryonic stem cells.
The fastest ever integrated circuit is announced by DARPA, achieving one terahertz (1012 Hz), or a trillion cycles per second. This is 150 billion cycles faster than the existing world record of 850 gigahertz set in 2012.
The ALMA telescope reveals a protoplanetary disk in never-before-seen detail. A series of concentric rings are visible in the image, showing the likely orbits of young planets in the process of being formed.
A way to stop Ras proteins moving from the centre of a cell to the membrane, a fault common to one-third of cancers, is reported at the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference in Liverpool.
A study by the U.S. Geological Survey predicts the likely habitat ranges of birds in the year 2075 based on climate, land use and land cover changes.
Basic wound healing has been advanced with a synthetic platelet that accumulates at sites of injury, clots and stops bleeding three times faster. The synthetic platelets have realistic size, disc-shape, flexibility, and the same surface proteins as real platelets.
Australian researchers have uncovered how the massive DNA molecules that appear in some tumours are formed like Frankenstein’s monster, stitched together from other parts of the genome. This solves a decades-old mystery and explains how these tumours ensure their own survival.
12 November 2014: The Philae probe from the Rosetta spacecraft lands successfully on the surface of Comet 67P.
Iranian nanotechnologists researched the chance of nanotechnology uses in targeted drug delivery systems to therapy of cancer. This examine studied the creation of a nanodrug and its effects on the remedy of breast cancer. The goal of the scientist was to present curcumin nano-drug with a sluggish and effectual release model to heal breast cancer. Curcumin is a drug with anti-cancer and anti-inflammation properties. The drug is typically used orally or peripherally.
The genomes of the world's 17 oldest people have been published. Researchers were unable to find genes significantly associated with extreme longevity.
13 November – Global warming will cause lightning strikes to increase 50 percent by 2100, according to a study by the University of California - Berkeley.
14 November – The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reports that October 2014 was by far the hottest October on record. This follows the hottest March–May, June, August and September, also this year.
A new AI software program developed by researchers at Google and Stanford University can recognise objects in photos and videos at near-human levels of understanding.
The strongest evidence yet that being gay is genetic has been uncovered in a detailed genetic analysis.
The first detailed, high-resolution 3-D maps of Antarctic sea ice are developed using an underwater robot.
Having recently been on the verge of extinction, Snake River sockeye salmon populations have recovered. Their numbers are now high enough for the species to eventually sustain itself in the wild again, it is reported.
Graphene has been found to allow positively charged hydrogen atoms or protons to pass through it, despite being impermeable to all other gases, including hydrogen itself. This could lead to major improvements in clean energy technology.
An experimental vaccine to prevent Ebola has shown promising results in a Phase 1 clinical trial.
Researchers at Queen Mary, University of London, report a major breakthrough in treating advanced bladder cancer.
A new study finds that DNA can survive a flight through space and re-entry into Earth's atmosphere and still pass on genetic information. These results indicate that life and organic molecules could potentially spread between planetary bodies through meteor impacts.
29 November–Iranian scientists manage to produce a cancer cells annihilator tool that is able to remove cancer cells in an invasive process.
The world’s fastest receive-only 2-D camera has been demonstrated, capturing up to 100 billion frames per second. It is hoped this new system will improve the understanding of very fast biological interactions and chemical processes.
Using new data from Kepler, an astrobiologist has attempted to update the Drake equation. It is estimated that a biotic planet may be expected within 10-100 light years from Earth, while the nearest intelligent life is probably a few thousand light years away.
4 December – Zig-zag patterns on a shell in Indonesia are believed to be 430,000 years old, making them the earliest known engravings by a human ancestor.
8 December – Scientists have made progress towards developing an "obesity pill", by using stem cells to turn white, or "bad," fat cells into brown, or "good," fat cells. Two compounds have already been shown to achieve this in human cells.
Scientists report that the composition of water vapor from comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as determined by the Rosetta spacecraft, is substantially different from that found on Earth. That is, the ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in the water from the comet was determined to be three times that found for terrestrial water. This makes it very unlikely that water found on Earth came from comets such as comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko according to the scientists.
Satellite data reveals that the most dense stores of carbon in the Amazon basin are not above ground in trees but below ground in peatlands.
One of the six remaining northern white rhinoceros has died of old age at the San Diego Zoo in California, leaving only five in the entire world.
People who feel younger than their real age are more likely to live longer, according to research by University College London. Positive outlooks on life and aging, a sense of empowerment and will to live may explain the difference in life expectancy.
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), launched on 2 July, returns its first global maps of the greenhouse gas CO2.
Regular doses of ibuprofen can extend the lifespan of yeast, worms and flies by 15 percent, it is reported.
Iranian scientists go up the important properties of super capacitors, including power, energy and life-span by applying nanotechnology. Outcomes of the study have applications in medical, data and power industries.
19 December – A new species of fish is discovered in the Mariana Trench at a depth of 8,145 m (26,722 ft); beating the previous record for the world's deepest fish by nearly 500 m (1,600 ft).
23 December – A new treatment for arthritis involving the use of implanted bio-electronics is announced. More than half of patients using the device saw a dramatic reduction in symptoms. It is believed the treatment could be widely used within 10 years.
The results of a study into police body cameras show that the technology can significantly reduce both excessive use-of-force by officers and complaints against officers by the public.
26 December – Moscow State University has announced the creation of a DNA bank to store genetic samples from every living thing on Earth. The facility, funded by the country's largest ever scientific grant, will be opened in 2018.
29 December – Iranian researchers produced silver nanoparticles from eucalyptus extract. The goal of the study was to make silver nanoparticles from herbal tissue of a special sort of eucalyptus, and to research operation circumstances on the volume of particles.
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^ abNorris, Guy (April 28, 2014). "SpaceX Plans For Multiple Reusable Booster Tests". Aviation Week. Retrieved May 17, 2014. The April 17 F9R Dev 1 flight, which lasted under 1 min., was the first vertical landing test of a production-representative recoverable Falcon 9 v1.1 first stage, while the April 18 cargo flight to the ISS was the first opportunity for SpaceX to evaluate the design of foldable landing legs and upgraded thrusters that control the stage during its initial descent.
^Belfiore, Michael (March 13, 2014). "SpaceX Set to Launch the World's First Reusable Booster". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved March 14, 2014. SpaceX is counting on lower launch costs to increase demand for launch services. But Foust cautions that this strategy comes with risk. 'It's worth noting,' he says, 'that many current customers of launch services, including operators of commercial satellites, aren't particularly price sensitive, so thus aren't counting on reusability to lower costs.' That means those additional launches, and thus revenue, may have to come from markets that don't exist yet. 'A reusable system with much lower launch costs might actually result in lower revenue for that company unless they can significantly increase demand,' says Foust. 'That additional demand would likely have to come from new markets, with commercial human spaceflight perhaps the biggest and best-known example.'
^ abTanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A. Jr.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P. III; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M. (14 July 2014). "Geologic Map of Mars - 2014". USGS. Retrieved 22 July 2014.