2015–16 New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany
|2015–16 New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany|
|Part of the European migrant crisis|
Cities where incidents were reported
|Date||31 December 2015CET)–1 January 2016 (|
|Groping, sexual assault, rape, robbery, theft|
|Perpetrators||Predominantly Middle East and North African asylum seekers and illegal immigrants|
No. of participants
|At least two convictions of sexual assault
4 convictions of non-sex-related crimes2,000+ alleged
During the 2015/2016 New Year's Eve celebrations, there were mass sexual assaults, 24 rapes, and numerous thefts in Germany, mainly in the Cologne city center. There were similar incidents at the public celebrations in Hamburg, Dortmund, Düsseldorf, Stuttgart and Bielefeld. For all of Germany, police estimated in a document leaked in 2016 that 1,200 women were sexually assaulted and that at least 2,000 men were involved, often acting in groups.
Many of the incidents involved women being surrounded and assaulted by groups of men on the street. Cologne police chief Wolfgang Albers stated that the perpetrators in his city were reportedly men of "Arab or North African appearance" and said that Germany had never experienced such mass sexual assaults before. The attacks sparked an international outcry, a debate about women's rights (especially in Islamic culture), the sustainability of Germany's asylum policy, and violence and sexism against women by immigrants from Arab countries and North Africa. Taking place during the European migrant crisis (see timeline), the attacks also led to a hardening of attitudes against immigration and attacks on immigrants.
Only a small number of the alleged perpetrators have been identified. By 9 April, police in Cologne had identified 153 suspects, 24 of whom were in investigative custody. Almost all of the suspects of the Cologne crimes were non-Germans; two-thirds of them from Morocco or Algeria. 68 suspects were asylum seekers; 18 were residing in Germany illegally, and the legal status of 47 others was unclear. Four suspects were underage, unaccompanied refugees. By July, four perpetrators had been convicted, and it was reported that half of the 120 outstanding suspects had been in Germany for less than a year, most of them from North Africa.
It was speculated that the assaults in Cologne were organized. Police said that some perpetrators used social media to meet for New Year's Eve celebrations, but Ralf Jäger, Minister of the Interior of North Rhine-Westphalia, said there was "so far no evidence that the perpetrators had arranged the assaults before New Year's Eve". Jürgen Mathies, the new Cologne police chief, said many of the perpetrators were from countries where they might be familiar with "this behaviour, where women are hemmed in and then abused by a large number of men at once". According to both Jäger and Mathies, the suspects did not come from pickpocketing or organized crime gangs.
The Cologne assaults were not reported by the national media for days, and The Local says many news outlets started reporting it only after a wave of anger on social media made covering the story unavoidable. This led to claims that the media is forced into line and was attempting to cover up crimes by immigrants. Although Cologne Mayor Henriette Reker condemned the assaults, she was strongly criticized for some of her comments and was accused of blaming the victims. Cologne's police chief, Wolfgang Albers, was transferred to provisional retirement for his handling of the situation. The police response and delayed media reaction met strong criticism from German citizens, with some placing blame on the European migrant crisis. The governments of Slovakia and the Czech Republic called for an emergency EU meeting following the assaults and various other EU governments made statements concerning the attacks.
On 7 June, a Federal Criminal Police Office report confirmed that most of the perpetrators were of North African origin and had arrived in Germany during the European migrant crisis. Investigative results about the perpetrators were congruent with witnesses' statements. Perpetrators benefited from weak criminal prosecution and low police presence. Group dynamics and personal frustration among the offenders also fuelled the crimes. The report also linked the assaults to the purported phenomenon of taharrush jamai (collective harassment) in some Arab countries.
Following the attacks, Germany updated its laws, making it easier to deport immigrants convicted of sex crimes and broadening the definition of sexual assault to include any sexual act that a victim declines through verbal or physical cues. Previously German law required a victim to physically resist their attacker (see rape in Germany).
- 1 Events
- 2 Police response
- 3 Suspects and detainees
- 4 Similar incidents
- 5 Reactions
- 6 Analysis
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
On New Year's Eve, December 2015, witnesses reported that firecrackers were thrown into a crowd from a group of people of around 500, which had doubled in size by later that night, at the square in front of Cologne's Central Station. Following this event, groups of men exploited the confusion to rob and sexually assault people in the area and within the station. According to witnesses, the attackers surrounded women in groups of 30–40.
According to the Cologne police report on 2 January, the suspects mostly used sexual assault (including groping) to distract victims while robbing them of mobile phones and wallets. Police initially said that the sizes of the groups ranged from 2 to 20 people. According to a Bundeskriminalamt report released in June 2016, perpetrators acted mostly in groups of 9 up to 100 men. Groping, insults, and rape were often combined with robbery and theft.
A female undercover police officer was sexually assaulted, the offender grabbing into her pants. In other cases, the victims' underwear was torn off. Media reports included the case of an American woman, who was protected by Syrian men who formed a ring around her and then brought her to her boyfriend. One victim described a firecracker being put in the hood of her jacket while her personal belongings were stolen.
On 5 January, shortly after the assaults, Cologne mayor Henriette Reker said in a press conference that there was "no evidence that people who are residing in Cologne as refugees are amongst the perpetrators". Cologne's police president, Wolfgang Albers, stated that "the police has no knowledge about the offenders". To some, including the German Minister of Justice Heiko Maas, the assaults appeared to have been organized or coordinated, the perpetrators having arrived in large groups. Police later said that some perpetrators used social media to meet at the New Year's Eve celebrations, but Ralf Jäger, Minister of the Interior of North Rhine-Westphalia, said there was "so far no evidence that the perpetrators had arranged the assaults before New Year's Eve". According to Jäger in January and Jürgen Mathies, the new Cologne police chief in February, the suspects did not come from pickpocketing or organized crime gangs.
On 7 January, several anonymous police officers from Cologne denied statements that the police did not know the nationality of the perpetrators; they told the press that "most of them" would have been freshly arrived asylum seekers. Contradicting statements from Cologne police leaders, these officers said that the identities of many people, including those who were arrested, had been thoroughly checked, so that police knew which groups of people were involved.
Around 70 people had been checked, and several brought to police stations or taken into custody. The majority of those in detention were Syrians. The officers denied that the sexual harassment was only incidental, saying the truth was "exactly the opposite" and that most of the perpetrators sought primarily to commit sexual offenses, or in their words "sexual amusement". Arnold Plickert, North Rhine Westphalia's representative of German police union Gewerkschaft der Polizei, confirmed that asylum seekers were "definitely" involved.
On 8 January, the Federal Ministry of the Interior acknowledged that two-thirds of the suspects checked by the Federal Police—who are responsible for the railways and railway stations in Germany—in Cologne were asylum seekers. The same report stated that 31 suspects were identified by name, including 18 asylum seekers. In total, the suspects were nine Algerians, eight Moroccans, four Syrians, five Iranians, two Germans, an Iraqi, a Serb, and an American. Another report on the same day stated that stolen mobile phones were located by the police within or in the vicinity of refugees' residences.
By 8 January, 170 women had reported crimes to the police, including two rapes, with the events taking place in the main square between the station and Cologne Cathedral, and also outside the central railway station. The number increased to 379 on the following day, and sexual offences were alleged in 40 percent of these cases. Most of the suspects were described as men of North African appearance. The increase in reported crimes was attributed to the fact that more officers have been assigned to the investigation, so complaints from more police stations are being evaluated. Many of the attacked women were visitors of, or travellers passing through Cologne. By 11 January, the number of complaints was 553, with sexual offences comprising nearly half of the cases.
The next day, it was reported that the number had risen to 653, but a correction made later on set the number at 561. According to the department of public prosecution, there has been a transmission error ("Übermittlungsfehler"). By 14 January, the number rose again to 652, by 15 January to 676 complaints, 347 of these including sexual offences. On 19 January, the number of complaints was at 766, rising to 821 on 21 January, including 359 sexual offences. The number of victims is higher, as some complaints included more than one victim: 1,049 people were affected in total as of 21 January. Three women were allegedly raped. By 30 January, the number of complaints in Cologne was 1,016, 433 of which included sexual offences. On 10 February, the number of complaints had risen again to 1,054. Alleged sexual offences were included in 454 cases, while the other cases consisted mostly of theft, robbery, and personal injuries. The number of complaints rose again to 1,075 by February 15; 467 included sexual offences. By 17 March, it had risen to more than 1,100. As of 18 March, the Cologne Public Prosecutor reported 1,139 crime complaints filed during New Year's Eve, 485 of which were sexual offences. By 6 April, the number of reported crimes in Cologne was 1,529. A total of 1,218 victims were involved, 529 of which were victims of sexual offences. In July, it was estimated that more than 600 women had been assaulted in Cologne.
Some complaints also included the allegation of denial of assistance and obstruction of justice in office against Wolfgang Albers and some police officers, as well as the North Rhine-Westphalia Minister of the Interior, Ralf Jäger. By 17 March, the number of such complaints was 51.
On 25 November 2016, a total of 1,616 crimes was reported for Cologne only. 509 of them were sexually motivated, among them 22 rapes.
By 7 January, the number of complaints to the police in Hamburg increased to 70, to 108 by 8 January, to 153 by 12 January, to 195 by January 14, to 205 as of 20 January, and to 218 by 21 January. 351 people were reported to be victims of the alleged crimes. Eight people were identified as suspects, all of them migrants and some recently arrived refugees. A first suspect was arrested on January 21. According to the police, the number of suspects is likely to rise. On 4 February, a Hamburg police report leaked to the press showed that two women have allegedly been raped in Hamburg on New Year's Eve. There were 236 complaints with 391 victims. According to this report, nearly all offences in Hamburg were "exclusively motivated sexually": only three complaints with seven victims in total included no sexual offences. Most of the incidents took place around the street of Große Freiheit near the Reeperbahn, where a large crowd was gathered. Some policemen stood at the entrances of the street, but did not realise that sexual offences were taking place in the crowd or were themselves reluctant to act as they were in the minority. Many women except for one did not even have time or were too upset to call the emergency numbers that night.
Some incidents occurred on a shopping street, Jungfernstieg, where "several hundred" "highly aggressive and intoxicated" migrants threw fire crackers into the crowd. The police described the situation there as "borderline", because only 20 policemen were available there after midnight. On the Reeperbahn, bouncers acted to accompany and protect women in reaction to the events, and sales at some clubs and bars fell. On New Year's Eve, doormen were often the only people who could help victims, even those accompanied by husbands or partners. They opened a backyard in which they established a protection zone for the offended women. Doormen described the perpetrators as refugees, which they saw among other characteristics from their mismatching clothes. Mayor Olaf Scholz demanded quicker deportation of criminal migrants in reaction to the events. There has been an increased police presence, especially on the Reeperbahn.
Criminal activity was also reported in Bielefeld, which had 20 complaints; Düsseldorf, which had at least 296 complaints; Dortmund, which had 30 complaints; and Stuttgart, which had at least 72 complaints.
In Düsseldorf, the 113 complaints of sexual assaults and theft followed 41 others that were reported earlier. The alleged crimes were committed from 11:00 p.m. on New Year's Eve to 6:15 a.m. on 1 January, with a crime being reported every four minutes. Most of the crimes happened in Altstadt, the old town of Düsseldorf. The perpetrators were described as groups of young male migrants who showed "no respect for women". 57 of the 113 alleged crimes were sexual assaults, and 13 further were classified as "insulting on a sexual base". By November, a total of 296 complaints about 311 crimes were filed in Düsseldorf, in 103 cases there had been a sexual motivation.
In Stuttgart, 17 of the 72 complaints made to the police by 20 January were sexual offences.
In Dortmund, at least two complaints of sexual assaults were made by 11 January, but the police stated that there are probably more victims. Witnesses told the media of two groups of men, 150 within Dortmund main station, 200–300 outside. One witness described the group in the station as "strangely silent". Another witness stated that the men outside were "aggressive". The victims were then sexually assaulted by smaller groups of men of Arabic or southern origin near the station. By 20 January, the number of complaints had risen to 28, including four sexual offences. 32 people were affected in total, seven of them for sexual assaults. By November, 30 complaints about 35 crimes were filed in Dortmund.
In Bielefeld, several young women were reported to be sexually assaulted and robbed by men of North African origin in and around a discothèque. Around 500 men tried to force their access into the building. According to witnesses, the doormen pushed back the attackers by using fire extinguishers and tear gas. They also rescued women by pulling them into the building. The perpetrators were reported to be "highly aggressive" "especially against women". At least three complaints of sexual assaults have been made. By 20 January, the number of the complaints rose to 18, five of which included sexual assaults. There were 22 victims in total in Bielefeld. By November, there were 20 complaints in Bielefeld.
On 20 January, North Rhine-Westphalia Police published provisional figures for the four cities in its territory: Bielefeld, Cologne, Dortmund, and Düsseldorf. There were complaints of nearly 1,000 crimes with a total of 1,216 victims from the four cities alone. By 9 April, these numbers had risen to 1,754 crimes, with 1,455 victims living in all four cities. Also in January, the fact became known from a confidential report of the German Bundeskriminalamt (Federal Criminal Office, BKA) that offences similar to those in North Rhine-Westphalia and Hamburg occurred—in a lower extent—in 12 of the 16 German federal states.
Polizei NRW K via Twitter @polizei_nrw_k
German: #polizei #köln #leverkusen Ausgelassene Stimmung - Feiern weitgehend friedlich - Infos unter https://www.presseportal.de/blaulicht/pm/12415/3214905
#police #cologne #leverkusen Exuberant Mood - Celebrations largely peaceful - Info at https://www.presseportal.de/blaulicht/pm/12415/3214905
1 Jan 2016
In Cologne, police dispatched 143 local officers and 70 federal officers to restore order. However, due to the darkness and the number of people involved, police chief Wolfgang Albers conceded that their efforts were not effective. In March, media outlets reported that there were not 143, but only 80 police officers deployed at the central station, the others being in service elsewhere in downtown Cologne. Also, the number of policemen at the station was reduced later that night, as there were further police operations in the city. A police spokesman said that the corrected number had been transmitted to the Parliamentary Committee of the Interior on 11 January. However, he could not explain why it hadn't been published earlier.
Cologne police came under criticism for their handling of the situation, as their initial press release described the New Year's Eve celebrations as "playful". Days later, the German Federal Criminal Police Office said the incidents were, "A phenomenon known in some Arab countries as taharrush jamai" (translated as "group sexual harassment"). However, this is not an accepted cultural practice in the Arab world
One victim who was robbed and assaulted was told to report the incident elsewhere by the police. Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière also criticized the North Rhine-Westphalia police for describing the celebrations as "peaceful". Police chief Wolfgang Albers later called the assaults "a completely new dimension of crime".
On 7 January, the police acknowledged an information blackout until the interior committee of the parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia discussed the events on 11 January. That same day, a report by a leading police officer in Cologne on New Year's Eve was cited in several newspapers, including criticism that the number of police officers was too small to deal with the events. According to the report, the perpetrators acted "with a disrespect I didn't see in 29 years of service." Some shouted, "I am Syrian! You have to treat me friendly. Mrs Merkel has invited me!" Others tore their immigration papers while saying, "You can't do me anything. Tomorrow I will go and get new papers." Because of the allegations of misinformation and the "loss of public trust", Albers was transferred to provisional retirement for his handling of the situation on 8 January.
The German Federal Criminal Police Office (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA) stated on 9 January that the incidents of collective sexual harassment were a phenomenon known in Arab countries as "taharrush gamea" ("communal sexual harassment"). The BKA announced their intention to investigate the facts about such incidents in all German federal states and learn how to combat them.
On 15 January, the Cologne police offered a reward of 10,000 euro for relevant information leading to the identification of an offender. The posters were hung up near airports, railway stations, and refugees' residences. In Hamburg, 2,000 euro were offered as a reward.
In reaction to the events at Cologne, the North Rhine-Westfalia police conducted several raids in refugee accommodations all over its territory in the following days to increase pressure on criminal migrants. Among others, raids were conducted in Recklinghausen, where the perpetrator of a January 2016 attempted attack at a police station in Paris lived before committing that crime. Further raids were reported from Kalk, Cologne; and Ahlen. In Ahlen, only 144 of 230 registered persons were found during the raid; the others had fled. Around 50 percent of those present lived under false identities. The police opened 86 criminal proceedings for illegal residence, drug crimes, abuse of social benefits, and personal injury.
Cologne police stepped up police presence at Cologne Carnival in reaction to the incidents. More than 2,500 security forces were deployed, more than three times the amount of forces utilized in the previous year. Cologne police also kept sexual assault suspects out of the Carnival celebrations with entry bans. An all-girls high school in Cologne was closed at Carnival, while others addressed the incidents in class and informed their pupils about preventive measures. Nevertheless, on 5 February, three rapes were reported, at least two of them by migrants.
Suspects and detainees
There were conflicting reports about the number of detainees. According to initial reports by the BBC, eight suspects, all asylum seekers, were detained in Cologne, though no official statement on their involvement was made. Further reports said that five men from the ages of 18 to 24 were arrested, although they were later found to have committed unrelated crimes. Reports made on 7 January suggested that police officials detained more people (namely asylum seekers) on New Year's Eve than they admitted publicly. According to a police report leaked to the media, there were 71 people controlled, of whom 11 were arrested, and four taken into custody. As of 7 January, the police of Cologne only officially confirmed there were 16 suspects.
On 8 January, Cologne Police announced the arrest of two suspects in connection with the attacks. They were identified—in keeping with German privacy law—as Issam D., a 16-year-old Moroccan; and Mohamed T., a 23-year-old Tunisian. Both were said to be asylum seekers. The police reported that they found video footage of assaults on New Year's Eve on their mobile phones. The suspects were also found in possession of a piece of paper with Arabic-German translations of derogatory sexual terms and phrases including "I want sex with you" and "I will kill you". Both of them were set free shortly after their arrest.
As of 8 January, federal police had identified 31 suspects, among whom were 18 identified asylum seekers. Of these, 17 were said by the Interior Ministry to be from Algeria or Morocco. Two Germans and one U.S. citizen were among the suspects identified. An additional 19 suspects were later identified by Cologne's police as being "almost exclusively" migrants. Of the 19 suspects identified on 11 January, 14 were men from Morocco and Algeria. Ten of the 19 were asylum seekers, nine of whom had arrived in Germany after September 2015; the other nine suspects may have been residing in the country illegally. The number of identified suspects had risen to 23 by 12 January. The department of public prosecution opened criminal proceedings against 13 people, five of whom were in detention at that time.
On 19 January, it was reported that there was a first arrest because of allegations of sexual offences. The detainee was a 26-year old Algerian who was living in an refugee camp in Kerpen. He was arrested on the last weekend along with a fellow countryman who was accused of theft. By 21 January, there were 30 suspects for the Cologne incidents, 25 of whom were of Moroccan or Algerian origin. Fifteen of the 30 were asylum seekers, two underage unaccompanied refugees. Eight people were in investigative custody.
On 29 January, it was reported that a further suspect, a man from Algeria, was arrested due to property offence and resistance against enforcement officers. Criminal investigations in Cologne were conducted against 44 people, North Africans by majority, ten of whom were in investigative custody as of 29 January. The number of identified suspects in Cologne was 73 by 15 February, with 15 of them being in investigative custody. A large majority of the suspects were from Algeria and Morocco. 30 Moroccans, 27 Algerians, and three Tunisians were among the suspects, along with a Libyan, an Iranian, four Iraqis, a Montenegrin, three Syrians, and three Germans. By 17 March, the number of suspects had again risen to 120, 14 of whom were in investigative custody. By 6 April, the number of suspects in Cologne was 153, 149 of whom were non-Germans; 103 of the 153 suspects were from Morocco or Algeria. Sixty-eight persons were asylum seekers; 18 were residing in Germany illegally, and the legal status of 47 persons was unclear. Four persons were underage, unaccompanied refugees.
On 24 February, a first suspect, a 23-year-old Moroccan was sentenced to a penalty of six months on probation for stealing a cellphone from a woman as she was taking a picture of the Cologne Cathedral on New Year's Eve and also for carrying a small amount of drugs. Criminal proceedings were also taking place against two other men from Tunisia and Algeria.
Another suspect in Cologne, identified only as Mehdi E.-B., a 19-year-old asylum seeker from Morocco, was recognized by victims, including a female student, in a TV report of Spiegel TV. Along with seven alleged accomplices, he was accused of sexual assaulting the victims out of a group. When the police attempted to detain the men, conducting raids in Cologne, Hamm, Troisdorf, and Bornheim on 18 February, they had already fled. Mehdi E.-B. was reported to have lived under a false identity at first, according to witnesses. The janitor of the migrant's residence said he had "stolen like a raven". In one residence, 20 cellphones were found, one of which had been stolen on New Year's Eve. Mehdi E.-B. was already sentenced for stealing a cellphone together with a man identified only as Otman K. in January 2016. Otman K. was suspected of being a member of the same group of accused sexual assailants as Mehdi E.-B.
On 8 March, for the first time, Cologne police published photos of wanted men who are suspected in the New Year's Eve assaults. The photos were partly taken from victims who managed to take pictures of their assailants. In total, the police evaluated 1,100 hours of video footage taken from CCTV cameras and witnesses. A police spokesman explained that the sophisticated work that it took to link the men in the footage to specific crimes was a reason behind the late publishing. The next day, two of the wanted men were put under investigative custody. A 26-year-old man was arrested in Kerpen, while a 31-year-old man from Algeria turned himself in to the police in Hamm. On March 9, police released further photos, one showing a man firing a weapon into the air; officials clarified that no one was injured by the gunshot.
On 28 April, a 19-year-old Moroccan and a 24-year-old person were arrested in northern Switzerland. The Moroccan was one of the suspects in the Cologne assaults, and had applied for asylum in Switzerland.
On 25 November, it was reported that in 369 of the 509 crime cases, which were sexually motivated, no perpetrators could be identified. The prosecutor's office could initiate 58 criminal investigations against 83 persons. Only 6 were convicted so far. The highest sentence was 1 year and 9 month due to sexual assault and robbery. 52 of the accused men had to be acquitted due to lack of unanimous identification. The investigators failed to convict more of the perpetrators because the vicinity of the station was "dark and overcrowded" and the CCTV recordings were of "miserable" quality.
In Düsseldorf, initially nine persons were named as suspects, eight of whom are migrants. According to a media report, an 18-year-old woman from Mönchengladbach recognized a perpetrator in a report of Spiegel TV and decided to make a complaint to the police afterwards. The 33-year-old man, who is suspected to have sexually offended the woman in Düsseldorf out of a group, was arrested by investigators. In Dortmund, nine further people were put under suspicion, seven of them migrants. In Bielefeld, four migrants from Morocco and Algeria were identified as suspects. By 20 January, the North Rhine-Westphalia Police, responsible for Bielefeld, Cologne, Dortmund, and Düsseldorf, reported that 52 people were being treated as suspects; a majority of them were of non-German origin. In Düsseldorf, in 62 of the 103 sexually motivated crimes no suspect could be identified by November. One of the Düsseldorf perpetrators was sentenced to one year and 10 month in prison. Criminal proceedings against two further men are in progress. In Bielefeld, in five of the 20 cases no perpetrator could be identified by November. In Dortmund, by November, two men were convicted because of sexual assaults, one received a financial penalty, the other was sentenced to 25 hours of community service.
Eight people were named as suspects in Hamburg, all of them migrants and some of them refugees. On 20 January, Hamburg police published photos of two wanted persons who are suspected to have sexually assaulted an 18-year-old girl in the early morning hours of 1 January on the street of Große Freiheit, which led to the arrest of a 29-year-old male migrant from Afghanistan on 21 January. He was recognised by a security guard of a refugee reception center in Hamburg. A second suspected migrant was freed shortly after his arrest due to a lack of adequate suspicion. On 26 January, Hamburg police published another photo of a wanted person, who is suspected to have sexually assaulted two 20-year-old women on New Year's Eve while acting as part of a group. On 5 February, a 33-year-old man from Iran was reported to have been arrested in a refugee reception center in Hamburg and taken into investigative custody under suspicion of assaulting the two women in Hamburg. On 4 February, Hamburg police released photos of two further suspects. The nationwide TV series Aktenzeichen XY … ungelöst was used for the manhunt for the Hamburg perpetrators.
In Stuttgart, a 20-year-old asylum seeker from Iraq was detained for sexually assaulting two girls while acting out of a group. In Frankfurt, the police is investigating ten men in the ages of 15 to 27, all asylum seekers or refugees, who were temporarily arrested for pickpocketing on New Year's Eve near the bridge of Eiserner Steg. They are trying to determine if these men were involved in the sexual assaults. One of the suspects is in investigative custody.
Reinhard Merkel, a law professor from Hamburg, said that convicting the suspects, especially for sexual offences, will be difficult because an unequivocal identification by the victims is needed, which is often not the case. Furthermore, policemen stated that the video footage of the cameras within and outside the Cologne main station is partly unusable.
Dispute over definition of 'refugee'
By mid-February 2016, 73 suspects of criminal offences during Cologne's New Year's Night 2015/2016 had been identified of whom 58 had been arrested.The 73 consisted of 30 Moroccans, 27 Algerians, 4 Iraqis, 3 Tunisians, 3 Syrians, 3 Germans, and one each from Libya, Iran and Montenegro. While certain news outlets and campaigners considered only the arrested suspects coming from Syria or Iraq as "refugees", they had concluded that only three of the 58 arrested suspects were "refugees".
In reaction, Cologne's chief prosecutor Bremer angrily retorted that "the overwhelming majority" of the 73 suspected men were either asylum seeker, asylum applicant, or illegal immigrant, which he all considered to "fall into the general category of refugees".
At Karneval der Kulturen (Carnival of Cultures) festival in Kreuzberg, Berlin, on Pentecost weekend, twelve similar crimes were reported, eight of which were sexual assaults. Seven men of Tunisian, Moroccan, Libyan, and Algerian origin were arrested on charges of theft. Four further men were arrested under allegations of sexual assault. The press reported the case of two teenage girls, ages 17 and 18, who were encircled and molested by a group of ten young men. According to the police, the suspects of these sexual assaults had a Turkish and Lebanese "migration background". In addition, a 16-year-old girl and a 22-year-old woman were sexually assaulted. In the case of the 22-year-old victim, a 40-year-old man from Turkey was arrested as a suspect. On 30 May, it was reported that a total of 18 complaints were made to the police after the music festival of Schlossgrabenfest in Darmstadt. Like the Karneval der Kulturen case, women were encircled by groups of young men. Three suspected asylum seekers, ages 28 to 31, were arrested, and additional suspects are being sought by the police. On 17 August, Frankfurter Allgemeine reported that the number of sexual assaults on public festivals in the state of Hesse is greater than officially known and organizers of such events are at the boundaries of what's possible in order to protect the visitors. Further sexual assaults by migrants were reported from public festivals in Wolfhagen and Herborn.
On 28 October, similar sexual assaults by asylum seekers from Gambia were reported in the city of Freiburg. Two women were assaulted by a total of 17 men who encircled and molested them on the square of Stühlinger Kirchplatz. A passerby intervened, but was attacked by the group. The police arrested three main suspects, all ages 17, 19, and 20. The victims identified them unequivocally. Previously, on 4 July, an attempted rape by an asylum seeker from Sub-Saharan Africa, who was arrested the same night, was reported from a discothèque, White Rabbit in Freiburg. In January, refugees had been banned from some discothèques in Freiburg after a similar case had taken place, but they were eventually allowed to reenter the White Rabbit discothèque with a special ID card following protests. On 19 October, Der Spiegel reported sexual assaults by migrants in the Leipzig cultural center Conne Island. Initially, refugees were allowed to enter the center on a low price, but after several cases of sexual assaults were reported by women, the integration project was stopped and a registration by e-mail is now necessary for migrants to enter.
Sexual offences at Carnival
At least three rapes were reported at the Cologne Carnival. A 17-year-old asylum seeker from Afghanistan was suspected of raping a 22-year-old woman and a teenager was subsequently arrested at a residence for refugees. The suspect was released the following day, but another 17-year-old male from the same accommodation was then arrested. A second rape was also reported in Cologne. At Carnival celebrations in Stukenbrock in the district of Gütersloh, a third rape was reported. A 29-year-old asylum seeker from Nigeria was strongly suspected to have raped a 24-year-old woman and was arrested.
A total of 224 complaints were made to the police so far in Cologne. They consisted mostly of personal injuries, but also included 22 sexual offences. By 10 February, the number of sexual offences in Cologne at Carnival had risen to 66. 99 persons were detained in Cologne on Carnival, while 432 others were arrested temporarily. A total of 1,389 people were dismissed from Carnival celebrations by the police.
Jürgen Mathies, the new police chief of Cologne, said this was "much", but it had something to do with the fact "that the police intervened very consistently this time." Nevertheless, Mathies stated that there had been a "highly problematic clientele": groups from Northern Africa, which converged on the stairways in front of the Cologne Cathedral. The police had to deploy additional forces on 7 February, and the security situation at Carnival was tense.
While covering the Cologne Carnival live for Belgian television, reporter Esmeralda Labye was groped by attackers, who were apparently of European origin and whom Labye described as speaking German. One of the attackers, a 17-year-old man, turned himself in to the police the following day, accompanied by his mother. However, he denied that his actions were sexually motivated.
In Sweden, eleven reports of sexual assault on New Year's Eve 2015/2016 were made in Kalmar. False reports of sexual assault on New Year's Eve by immigrants appeared in Karlstad and Malmö, but no formal complaints were made and the police rejected the allegations. Following New Year's Eve, in January, 2500 news articles about refugee children and youth were published in Swedish media, mostly about sex crimes, and anti-immigration extremists began patrolling the streets, attacking immigrants and one policeman with foreign background; however, such articles were often unsupported and their contents rejected by the police. In Helsinki, reports of "widespread sexual harassment" appeared and anti-immigration extremists began patrolling the streets, which was denounced by the police as "not making the streets safer".
Some remarks given by Cologne Mayor Henriette Reker during a press conference were interpreted as a call for women to follow a "code of conduct", including staying at "arm's length" from strangers. She later came under criticism for her comments. By the evening of 5 January, #einearmlänge (an arm's length) became one of Germany's top-trending hashtags on Twitter. However, her remarks were taken out of context and were an answer by Reker to a specific question from a journalist asking for concrete examples from an existing guideline of the city of Cologne for women on how to prevent assaults from strangers. Reker called for a crisis meeting with the police in response to the incidents. She called it "completely improper" to link the apparently mostly North African perpetrators to refugees.
The Interior Minister of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Ralf Jäger, said, "We will not accept that groups of North African men gather expressly for the purpose of debasing women by sexually assaulting them." He added that police had to adjust to the fact that groups of men had attacked women. He also spoke against anti-immigrant groups, saying, "What happens on the right-wing platforms and in chat rooms is at least as awful as the acts of those assaulting the women ... This is poisoning the climate of our society." However, in January 2016, 18 of 31 men suspected of violent assaults on women in Cologne on New Year's Eve were identified as asylum seekers; and between January and December 2015, 1,091,894 arrivals of asylum seekers were registered by Angela Merkel's "EASY" system for the first distribution of asylum seekers among Germany's federal states - although roughly half of those moved on to other EU countries. The same wave of migration was used in a poster by the leave campaign in the UK EU membership referendum and has been credited as a crucial factor behind their win.
North Rhine-Westphalia's Head of State, Hannelore Kraft, stated that police and courts should and will act consequently against this new dimension of violence and sexual assaults by men. She expressed her hope that as many offenders as possible are identified and punished, which had to happen regardless of background. If the requirements were met, according to her, perpetrators should also be deported. A week later, she was skeptical about any possible deportations. Even if the requirements were met, the identified perpetrators who hailed from Algeria and Morocco could not be deported as those countries would likely simply refuse to accept them back. Kraft and Jäger criticised Cologne's police leaders for not requesting police reinforcements, which were said to have been on standby on New Year's Eve. The CDU's Secretary General Peter Tauber, whose party is in opposition in North Rhine-Westphalia, urged Jäger to step down because of the events.
In the following days, Reker faced allegations that she had been well-informed by the Cologne police earlier on New Year's Eve than she previously claimed, which contradicted her own statements. Jäger was attacked by the opposition parties in North Rhine-Westphalias parliament, CDU, and FDP, which applied for an parliamentary inquiry committee for the Cologne events. In reaction, the state government published a timeline of its communication with the police authorities. This timeline shows that some information was transmitted to the state government late by Jäger, e.g. with a delay of three days after New Year's Day. The state government defended itself, including Jäger, by stating that the true extent of the assaults was "not foreseeable" at this time.
According to Cologne's Express newspaper, a police memo was leaked. Opposition politicians have said that Jäger should resign his position over what the leaked memo said.
From March to November the parliamentary inquiry committee held 53 sessions in the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia and heard more than 150 witnesses. A reported is to be filed until the end of 2016. As a result, it was stated by the SPD representative in the committee that it was confirmed by the evidence that "the deployment of the security forces went wrong with graving consequences for the women affected". CDU ad FDP opposition parties accused the state government of "cover-up". Minister Jäger and his leading staff couldn't resolve the contradiction that they didn't act for days as they received exceptional warning messages on their smartphones on New Year's Day.
On 5 January, between 200 and 300 women protested outside the Cologne Cathedral, demanding respect for women and action from Chancellor Angela Merkel. Another protest was held in Cologne on 12 March against misogyny and racism that was demonstrated during the assaults.
Many Germans reacted with concern and anger. In neighbouring Düsseldorf, where 113 complaints to the police in connection with sexual assaults and theft were made, a vigilante group was founded as a reaction to the events. The related Facebook page of the "Düsseldorf passt auf" ("Düsseldorf Watches Out") group garnered more than 3,300 members within two days. The Düsseldorf police denounced their activities and referred to the monopoly on legitimate use of force of the German state. The sales of legally available pepper and tear gas sprayers increased significantly. Gun manufacturers and dealers (Verband Deutscher Büchsenmacher und Waffenfachhändler VDB) also claimed increased sales due to the events. In the Rhineland, requests for small weapons licences (Kleiner Waffenschein) increased as well.
The phrase "Rapefugees not welcome" was coined by right wing demonstrators as a slogan following the events in Cologne. Lutz Bachmann, founder of the organization Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the West (Pegida), which sold merchandise featuring the slogan, was accused of sedition.[by whom?]
Attacks against immigrants
On 10 January, eleven people were beaten in Cologne, specifically in an area located close to where the sexual assaults occurred. The victims included six Pakistanis, three Guineans, and two Syrians. All of the victims were injured and hospitalized. The attacks were quickly reported by the media and condemned by Justice Minister Heiko Maas.
Merkel and Justice Minister Heiko Maas condemned the assaults. Maas described the assaults as a "completely new dimension of organized criminality." Merkel contacted Reker, calling for a tough response. She said that everything must be done "to find the perpetrators as quickly and comprehensively as possible and punish them, regardless of their origin or background", and promised preventive measures for the Carnival in February. Sigmar Gabriel (SPD), vice chancellor and Minister for Economics, demanded quicker deportations of sentenced criminal migrants and explained that there should be "zero tolerance for criminality and sexual assaults". Claudia Roth (Green Party) stated that while the attacks could not be excused, they were "not the first eruptions of sexual violence in our society". She also accused an Internet-"organised mob" of "calling for a hunt on non-white people and taking revenge".
According to Volker Bouffier, vice-president of Chancellor Angela Merkel's CDU party, the attacks have weakened the consensus in favour of Germany's accepting large numbers of refugees from Syria and the Middle East. He said, "Cologne has changed everything. People are now doubting." On 9 January, the CDU adopted the "Mainz declaration" ("Mainzer Erklärung"), in which the party toughens its acting against criminality by migrants. Random police checks were also included, as well as quicker deportations of criminal migrants even if they were only sentenced to imprisonment on probation. To date, acceptance for asylum seekers can only be denied if they were sentenced to a three-year imprisonment at least, with a deportation below this degree of penalty possible but not mandatory.
On 12 January, Hans-Jürgen Papier, former head of the German Federal Constitutional Court, criticised Merkel's refugee policies. According to his statement, the public mood has shifted after the events of Cologne, which "manifested a partial failure of the state as a guarantor of freedom and safety of its citizens." He demanded an "altering of the course" by the government and added, "We have a legal vacuum regarding the protection of external [German] borders, which must not be."
On 14 January, criticism of Merkel grew as former chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Lower Saxony Prime Minister Stephan Weil (both SPD) questioned her policies. Weil stated that the events of Cologne were "a low blow in every sense", and that Merkel's decision to open the borders "fatally permanently led to a special role of Germany in Europe". After the events, Schröder called for a crackdown of the state and a consistent deportation of offenders, saying, "Such people, no matter of which cultural background, have no place in Germany." He also accused Merkel of not having a plan against such events in the refugee crisis. Former foreign minister Joschka Fischer (Green Party) defended the chancellor and demanded restraint of the Constitutional Court judges Papier and Udo Di Fabio, who accused Merkel of breaking the law.
On 15 January, German Minister of Finance, Wolfgang Schäuble (CDU), suggested to establish the possibility of a national deployment of the German Federal Armed Forces as "nearly all other countries" did. He insisted that only securing the EU external borders was the solution to the migrant crisis. On the same day, opinion polls like Politbarometer showed declining approval for Merkel's migration policy and a significant rise of approval for the right-wing AfD party, which would be the third political force with 10 to 11 percent of votes, but up to 15 percent in some federal states.
An opinion poll conducted by INSA/YouGov and published on 18 January predicted a 12.5 percent approval for the AfD for the federal elections while CDU figures fell to 32.5 percent, an all-time low for this poll.
On 16–19 January 2016, several politicians demanded alterations to Merkel's migration policies in reaction to the events, including Horst Seehofer, Prime Minister of Bavaria, his predecessor Edmund Stoiber, and German Minister of Transportation Alexander Dobrindt. All of them are members of the Bavarian CSU party, which is in the federal government but opposes Merkel's actions during the migration crisis.
Around 50 CDU Bundestag MPs wrote a letter to Merkel demanding the closure of the German borders. However, other CDU MPs showed their support for Merkel. SPD chief Sigmar Gabriel urged Merkel to act, and demanded that Morocco and Algeria take back the migrants to be deported by Germany. Others such as SPD vice chairwoman Aydan Özoğuz warned of closing the borders.
On 14 March, a joint press conference was held with the minister president of Saxony-Anhalt, Reiner Haseloff, after the three state elections in Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Württemberg, and Rhineland-Palatinate, which saw a significant loss of votes for the CDU party and a rise of votes for the AfD party. During the press conference, Merkel tied the electoral success of the AfD among others to the Cologne sexual assaults. At the same time, she contradicted CSU chief Horst Seehofer, who said that the AfD party's success would be an existential problem for the CDU/CSU. "I do not see it as an existential problem of the CDU, but I see it as a problem," Merkel told the press. Haseloff agreed with Merkel, saying, "The actual rise, which came for the AfD in the polls has a city name: It's Cologne." SPD chief Sigmar Gabriel accused Seehofer of strengthening the AfD by using "the same sayings".
BBC correspondent Gavin Hewitt describes the attacks as having "a profound impact on the rest of Europe. Certainly the boldness of the assaults and the sense of a powerless state will haunt the victims, but what has also been lost is trust – the essential glue in any society."
A Cologne-based imam, Sami Abu-Yusuf, controversially said in an interview with the Russian television channel REN TV that the women in Cologne were responsible for the incidents, because they were "running around half naked ... It's not surprising that the men attacked them. Dressing up like that is like pouring oil into the fire." Volker Beck (Green Party) reported Abu-Yusuf to the police for "inciting criminal offences". The Ministry of the Interior of North Rhine-Westphalia acknowledged that Abu-Yusuf was under surveillance by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution. Abu-Yusuf responded that his remarks were translated incorrectly and reported out of context by REN TV as he merely explained the women's appearance as the reason why they were attacked by others but did not blame the victims.
Criticism of late media reporting
Several media outlets at first did not cover the story and, according to Jörg Luyken, only started reporting on the incidents on 5 January, after a wave of anger on social media made covering them unavoidable. This delay was criticised by several politicians, including Hans-Peter Friedrich. The public television channel ZDF later acknowledged that they had failed to report on the incidents despite having sufficient knowledge to do so.
ZDF later called the delay in reporting a "clear misjudgment", and said since then, it has been "over-whelmed with hate and anger". This has reinforced discontent previously held by parts of the German public with news coverage relating to the European migrant crisis, as well as a readiness to support the idea of the "Lügenpresse" (literally lying press).
The delay in reporting on the assaults in the media lead to accusations that the authorities and the media attempted to ignore or cover up the attacks to avoid criticism against the current asylum and migration policy of the government. The BBC's Gavin Hewitt wrote, "What has fuelled the sense of crisis is the suspicion—now widely held—that the German establishment is not telling the truth."
Al Jazeera published articles on 9 January claiming that the response of German society thus far had "little to do with protecting women and more to do with scapegoating the Middle Eastern or North African 'other' entering Germany."
Ross Douthat, a conservative columnist for The New York Times, warned of the transformative consequences of rapid, unchecked mass immigration, especially of young men. In his opinion, not only Germany has to close the borders and expel refugees who are in good health, but Merkel also has to step down, "so that her country, and the continent it bestrides, can avoid paying too high a price for her high-minded folly."
In Russia, the state-run Rossiyskaya Gazeta stated that after the "Night of the Long Fingers" (a play on words that compares the event to the Nazis' Night of the Long Knives), German media refused "to illuminate the extent of raids, plundering and rapes committed by refugees".
The economic professor Hans-Werner Sinn stated on 1 February, "The events of the New Year's night in Cologne are harbingers of massive social conflicts in the coming years and decades. With the chaotic, uncontrolled immigration from backward countries, the Federal Republic of Germany faces a heap of trouble." He also suggested a closure of the borders to secure freedom.
After the assailants were described by police and victims as young foreign men who spoke neither German nor English, a debate ensued as to how to deal with a large influx of young, mostly Muslim men from cultures where women lack the freedoms and protections they enjoy in the West. Far-right and anti-immigrant groups cited the attacks as evidence of dangers related to accepting huge numbers of migrants, but similar concerns were also expressed by mainstream elements within German society.
German feminists signed a petition opposing sexualised violence and racism, stating that it "is wrong to highlight sexualised violence only when the perpetrators are allegedly" perceived as "others" and ignore all other sexual violence, pointing to German Federal Police statistics that show there are more than 7,300 reported rapes and sexual assaults in Germany every year and "the many more that are never reported."
German feminist Alice Schwarzer wrote a book about the Cologne incidents, Der Schock - die Silvesternacht von Köln (The shock - New Year's Eve of Cologne). In it, she characterized the perpetrators as "not any Muslims. The Muslim next door does not automatically grope women. It was the kind of men, for whom the Sharia is above the law and the woman below the man." In addition, she stated, "That evening they used a for them very simple weapon: sexual violence." Schwarzer faced criticism by other feminists and Islamic associations in Germany.
Jakob Augstein criticised what he considered racism in responses to the assaults and German rape laws, stating sardonically that "we rather abuse "our" women ourselves." German law on sexual abuse could require evidence of physical resistance for a conviction until July 2016.
After the attacks, a January 2016 edition of French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo included a cartoon by Riss about Alan Kurdi, a three-year-old Syrian refugee who drowned as his family tried to reach Europe. In a controversial act, the cartoon satirised fickle and reactionary sentiment towards refugees by including a caption questioning whether the boy would have grown up to be an "ass groper in Germany".
A viral video was made, containing the personal details of one of the victims and accusing her of making false allegations to spread anti-Muslim propaganda. The video circulated among German Islamic extremists, including Pierre Vogel. The victim, fearing reprisals, managed to get the video removed by telling its creator that she was prepared for legal action.
There were reports of tourists cancelling trips to Cologne in the aftermath of the attacks, including one tour group calling off their entire summer schedule in the city.
Belgium's immigration minister ordered migrants to participate in "respect for women" courses in order to calm public opinion over the sex attacks. The Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister for Social Affairs Lodewijk Asscher condemned Henriette Reker for implying that women could have prevented the attacks on themselves.
Pope Francis acknowledged that Europeans had the right to be concerned over terrorism and changes to "cultural and social structures" via immigration, but stated that Europe "has the means to defend the centrality of the human person and to find the right balance between its twofold moral responsibility to protect the rights of its citizens and to ensure assistance and acceptance to migrants".
Prime Minister of Hungary Viktor Orbán issued a call for immediate halt of all immigration to Europe and establishment of "European defence line" on Greece's northern borders with Macedonia and Bulgaria.
Poland's Foreign Minister Witold Waszczykowski sent an official letter to Frank-Walter Steinmeier, the German Minister of Foreign Affairs, asking if there were any Polish citizens hurt during the events. Waszczykowski criticized the German authorities for their handling of the situation. He also stated that it is likely that the German government tried to conceal the events and ban people from telling others about these events. Waszczykowski added that, in his view, the migration wave to Europe (which he linked to the events) was used by the Islamic State or other terrorist organizations.
In a letter sent by Polish Minister of Justice Zbigniew Ziobro to German EU commissioner Günther Oettinger on 9 January, Ziobro stated that information about these events was concealed by German media and that there is censorship in Germany.
Prime Minister of Slovakia Robert Fico called for an emergency summit of EU in the wake of the attacks, and declared he will act to stop Muslim refugees from entering the country. Fico stated, "We don't want something like what happened in Germany taking place in Slovakia." Czech Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka issued a statement supporting Slovakia's proposal.
The sexual assaults in Cologne on New Year's Eve 2016 nevertheless ended the atmosphere of euphoria earlier in the year when hundreds of thousands of migrants had arrived in Germay.
The sexual assaults were compared by several newspapers and authorities like German Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) with attacks on women reported after the Arab Spring in numerous public places in Cairo, especially Tahrir Square, the most prominent victim of which was television journalist and correspondent Lara Logan. Egyptian women and, in some cases, foreign journalists were surrounded by groups of young men, often having been touched with sexual intent and partly undressed, or stripped naked and gang-raped.
According to a report on the Cologne events published by the BKA—and as cited by Die Welt on 10 January—the phenomenon is known in some North African/Middle eastern countries as taharrush gamea. It was reported that "[t]he BKA knew from some Arab countries the phenomenon of jointly committed sexual harassment of women in public. This type of crime was called there 'taharrush gamea' ('communal sexual harassment')."
Some women said that the events should not become a "political football" or allow a focus only on non-German suspects, since German women had been fighting against sexual harassment at such celebrations and elsewhere for many years.
On 11 February, Jürgen Mathies, the new police chief of Cologne, stated:
[Some perpetrators had made appointments for celebrations on New Year's Eve] on the social media. Some of them said there: 'We go to Cologne, there will be a big party.' There is no evidence that we are dealing with structures of organized crime. It is rather the case that the phenomenon of such sexual assaults out of groups is a massive problem in Cairo for example. The perpetrators probably knew from their home countries the behavior that women are encircled by many men at the same time and then abused. However, I did not know about this phenomenon in Germany so far.
Questioned as to why most perpetrators in Cologne are not accused of sexual offences but of robbery and theft, Mathies replied, "It is easier to determine on the basis of video images: That person just took a cell phone away. Than: He has fingered a woman. These images are indeed anything but good."
The bottom line in our reconstruction, though, is that the initial impression of a mob of 1,000 refugees going after the women of Germany never went away. And an entire group of people continues to be associated with crimes it had nothing to do with. Based on what we know so far, a more accurate description of what happened last New Year's Eve might be: several dozen young men, many of North African origin, are suspected of sexually assaulting and robbing hundreds of women in the crowd. The crimes were made possible by the crowded New Year's Eve conditions in and around Cologne's main train station. They appear to have been further facilitated by poor coordination among the different police forces responsible for responding to the situation.
- Eddy, Melissa. "Reports of Attacks on Women in Germany Heighten Tension Over Migrants". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Was die zähe Aufklärung der Silvesternacht offenbart" [What reveals the tough Enlightenment's Eve]. Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "NRW-Opposition will Untersuchungsausschuss" [NRW Opposition wants board of inquiry]. Rheinische Post. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Sascha Balasko. "Polizei ermittelt acht Tatverdächtige nach Übergriffen" [Police identified eight suspects after attacks] (in German). Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Erster Verdächtiger wegen Sexualstraftat in Köln in U-Haft" [First suspect for Cologne sexual offenses in custody]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Rund 1000 Silvester-Straftaten in vier NRW-Großstädten" [Around 1000 New Year's crimes in four NRW cities]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- „Wie es aussieht, kommen fast alle Täter davon“, Die Welt, 25 November 2016, in German
- "Kölner Silvester-Angriffe: 1075 Anzeigen und 73 Verdächtige" [Cologne's New Year's Eve assaults: 1,075 complaints and 73 suspects]. Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "Silvesternacht in Köln: Offenbar viel weniger Polizisten im Einsatz als gedacht" [Silvesternacht in Köln: Offenbar viel weniger Polizisten im Einsatz als gedacht]. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "Polizisten machen widersprüchliche Aussagen zu Kölner Silvesternacht" [Police make contradictory statements about Cologne New Year's Eve]. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). 18 March 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
Bislang wurden laut Staatsanwaltschaft Köln 1139 Anzeigen gestellt, davon 485 wegen einer Sexualstraftat.
- "Mehr als 1500 Straftaten: Die Ermittlungsergebnisse zur Kölner Silvesternacht" [More than 1500 offenses: Cologne New Year's Eve Investigation results]. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Das kann jederzeit wieder passieren" [This can happen again any time]. Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "A 'new dimension' of sexual assault in Cologne". DW. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Mehr als 100 Anzeigen nach Übergriffen an Silvester" [More than 100 reports of assaults on New Year's Eve]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Polizei stockt Ermittlungsgruppe deutlich auf" [Police investigation team significantly strengthened]. Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "German MPs to discuss New Year's Eve sexual attacks". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Internationale Medien berichten an Weiberfastnacht" [International media at Cologne Carnival report on Women's Turnabout Day]. Kölnische Rundschau. Retrieved 31 January 2016.(in German)
- "1054 Strafanzeigen nach der Kölner Silvesternacht" [1,054 criminal complaints following Cologne's New Year's Eve celebration]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 11 February 2016.(in German)
- "Silvester-Mob: "Aktenzeichen XY" soll Hinweise bringen" [Silvester - Mob "file number XY" is to bring evidence]. Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 5 February 2016.(in German)
- "String of New Year's Eve sexual assaults outrages Cologne". Deutsche Welle. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "18 Asylum Seekers Are Tied to Attacks on Women in Germany". The New York Times. 8 January 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- "Übergriffe in Silvesternacht: Asylbewerber unter Verdächtigen von Köln" [New Year's Eve attacks: asylum seekers among Cologne suspects]. Die Zeit (in German). 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Verdächtige Männer hatten Sex-Spickzettel dabei" [Male suspects had sex-phrase cheat sheets with them]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Germany rape law: 'No means No' law passed". BBC News. 7 July 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- "Leaked document says 2,000 men allegedly assaulted 1,200 German women on New Year's Eve". The Washington Post. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Rick Noack. "Leaked document says 2,000 men allegedly assaulted 1,200 German women on New Year's Eve". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
- Andrea Beckmann. "Übergriff auf Frauen in Silvesternacht: Weitere mutmaßliche Opfer in Stuttgart" [Attacks on women New Year's Eve: More alleged victims in Stuttgart]. Stuttgarter Nachrichten. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Hunderte sollen Bielefelder Disco attackiert haben" [Hundreds allegedly attacked Bielefeld Disco]. Die Welt. Retrieved 5 January 2016.(in German)
- "Bielefeld: Junge Frauen durch Antanztrick sexuell belästigt" [Bielefeld: Young women molested on the dance floor]. RP ONLINE. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Düsseldorf - Mehr Fälle von sexueller Belästigung: 41 Anzeigen" [Dusseldorf - More cases of sexual harassment: 41 reports]. RP ONLINE (in German). Retrieved 16 February 2016.
- "Germany Shocked by Cologne New Year Gang Assaults on Women". BBC News. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Cologne attacks show Germany unprepared for migration challenge". Reuters. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Reports of New Year's Eve Sexual Assaults Feed Into German Debate Over Migrant Crisis". The Wall Street Journal. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- "Cologne attacks 'not organized': police chief". The Local. 12 February 2016.
- "German attitudes to immigration harden following Cologne attacks". YouGov. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- Moulson, Geir (11 January 2016). "Germany: Pakistanis, Syrian attacked in Cologne amid tension". Associated Press. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- "Übergriffe in der Silvesternacht: Kölner Polizei ermittelt gegen 73 Verdächtige" [Attacks in New Year's Eve: Cologne police investigating 73 suspects]. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "Polizei identifiziert nach Kölner Übergriffen weitere Verdächtige" [Police identify more suspects following Cologne assaults]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Kölner Silvesternacht: Polizei geht nicht von Absprachen unter Tätern aus" [Cologne New Year's Eve: Police not assuming that perpetrators colluded in advance]. Der Spiegel. 21 January 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2018.(in German)
- "Übergriffe an Silvester in Köln: Das wissen die Ermittler über die Tatverdächtigen" [Cologne New Year's Eve Assaults: What investigators know about the suspects]. DIE WELT. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Jetzt 553 Strafanzeigen in Köln - 23 Verdächtige bekannt" [Latest: 553 criminal complaints in Cologne - 23 suspects known]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Justin Huggler (7 April 2016). "German minister 'told police to remove the word rape from Cologne sex assault report'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "1200 Frauen wurden Opfer von Silvester-Gewalt" [1,200 women were victims of violence Silvester]. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). 10 July 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Kölner Polizeichef: Sex-Übergriffe waren keine organisierte Kriminalität" [Cologne police chief: sexual assaults were not organized crime]. Focus. Retrieved 11 February 2016.(in German)
- "Silence on sex crimes will make racism worse". The Local. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Cover-up claim over NYE mass sexual assaults". The Local. 4 January 2016.
- "Silvester-Täter kamen mit Flüchtlingswelle ins Land" [Silvester - perpetrators came with wave of refugees into the country]. Rheinische Post (in German). 9 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- "Taharrush Gamea and sexism are not Arabic cultural practices". Huffington Post. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- "Polizeiversagen bestärkte die Kölner Sex-Täter" [Police failure encouraged the Cologne sex offenders]. Die Welt (in German). 7 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- "Cover-up claim over NYE mass sexual assaults". The Local. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Polizei hat nach Übergriffen keine Erkenntnisse über Täter" [Police lack information about criminals after assaults]. Die Zeit. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Kate Connolly (6 January 2016). "Tensions rise in Germany over handling of mass sexual assaults in Cologne". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "POL-K: 160102-1-K Übergriffe am Bahnhofsvorplatz - Ermittlungsgruppe gegründet" [Assaults at train station plaza - investigation team established]. presseportal.de (in German). Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Täter packte Zivilpolizistin in die Hose" [Perpetrators grabbed policewoman in the pants]. Rheinische Post. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Man hatte ihr den Slip vom Körper gerissen" [Her panties were torn off]. N24. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Amerikanerin in Köln: Syrische Männer schützten mich" [American woman in Cologne: Syrian men protected me]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Cologne sex attacks: Women describe 'terrible' assaults". BBC News. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Das Ganze scheint abgesprochen gewesen zu sein" [The whole thing seems to have been prearranged]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Germany shocked by Cologne New Year gang assaults on women". Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "German police search for 1,000 men after mass sexual assault in Cologne". Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Die meisten waren frisch eingereiste Asylbewerber" [Most were recently-arrived asylum seekers]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Vorrangig ging es den Tätern um Sexualstraftaten" [The perpetrators primarily sought to commit sexual offenses]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Übergriffe an Silvester: Auch Flüchtlinge unter Verdächtigen in Köln" [New Year's Eve Assaults: Refugees also under suspicion in Cologne]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Silvesternacht in Köln: Ermittler orten gestohlene Handys in Flüchtlingsheimen" [Cologne New Year's Eve: investigators locate stolen cellphones in refugee camps]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Interner Polizeibericht zu Kölner Silvesternacht: "Es waren einfach zu viele zur gleichen Zeit"" [Internal police report on Cologne New Year's Eve: "There were just too many at the same time"]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Als meine Freundin hinfiel, haben sich direkt vier Männer auf sie gestürzt" [When my friend fell down, suddenly four men fell right on top of her]. Focus.de. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "So erklärt die Polizei 200 neue Strafanzeigen" [Police explain 200 new criminal complaints this way]. Die Welt. Retrieved 31 January 2016.(in German)
- "Übergriffe in Köln: Zahl der Anzeigen steigt auf mehr als 650" [Cologne Attacks: Number of complaints filed increases to more than 650]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Was wir über Köln wissen" [What we know about Cologne]. Tagesschau. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Übergriffe in Köln: Staatsanwaltschaft setzt 10.000 Euro Belohnung aus" [Cologne Attacks: Public Prosecutor's Office offers 10,000 Euro reward]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Straftaten, Verdächtige: NRW-Innenminister Jäger legt die wahren Zahlen vor" [Offenses, suspects: NRW Interior Minister Jäger presents the true numbers]. Focus. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Rick Noack. "2,000 men allegedly sexually assaulted 1,200 women in Germany on NYE: police leak". The Star. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "Anzeigen gegen Kölner Polizei eingegangen" [Complaints against Cologne police received]. n-tv. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Silvester-Mob: 51 Strafanzeigen gegen Wolfgang Albers und Ralf Jäger" [New Year's Eve mob: 51 criminal complaints against Wolfgang Albers and Ralf Jäger]. Express (in German). Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "Police investigate organized crime ring's links to Cologne attacks". Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 6 January 2016. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Schon 53 Anzeigen in Hamburg nach Silvester-Übergriffen" [Already 53 complaints in Hamburg to New Year's Eve attacks]. Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Cologne police can't work this way". The Local. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Hamburgs Nacht der Schande und das lange Schweigen" [Hamburg night of shame and the long silence]. Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- [dead link] "108 Anzeigen in Hamburg, 41 Anzeigen in Düsseldorf" [108 Complaints in Hamburg, 41 in Dusseldorf]. Deutschlandfunk (in German). Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- Daniel Herder. "Schülerin geküsst – warum der Verdächtige noch frei ist" [Schoolgirl kissed - why the suspect is still free] (in German). Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Silvester-Übergriffe: Polizei sucht nach diesen Verdächtigen" [New Year's Eve attacks: Police are searching for these suspects]. Hamburger Abendblatt (in German). Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- "Erster Tatverdächtiger nach Silvester-Übergriffen in Haft" [First suspect after New Year's assault in custody]. Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Eine Menge Angst" [A lot of fear]. Die Zeit. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Olaf Scholz. "Kriminelle Flüchtlinge schneller abschieben" [Deport criminals refugees faster]. Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Geli Tangermann (14 January 2016). "Nach Silvester-Attacken: Reeperbahn-Bosse schicken Türsteher auf Streife" [After New Year's Eve attacks: Reeperbahn bosses send bouncer on patrol]. Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Cologne sex attacks: Merkel disgust at New Year gang assaults". BBC News. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Weitere Anzeigen nach Silvesternacht" [Other complaints after New Year's Eve]. Frankfurter Rundschau. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Hatten die Taten System?" [Had the deeds system?]. Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Nach Silvester fast 1000 Anzeigen in vier Städten" [After New Year nearly 1,000 complaints filed in four cities]. Die Welt. Retrieved 26 January 2016.(in German)
- "Mindestens 113 Straftaten in der Düsseldorfer Silvesternacht" [At least 113 crimes in Düsseldorf Silvesternacht]. Rheinische Post. Retrieved 26 January 2016.(in German)
- "Silvesternacht Duesseldorf" (PDF). Rheinische Post. Retrieved 26 January 2016.(in German)
- "Dortmunder Polizei sucht Zeugen und Videos" [Dortmund Police seek witnesses and videos]. WDR. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Silvester: Sexuelle Belästigungen auch in Dortmund" [Silvester: Sexual harassment in Dortmund]. Ruhr Nachrichten. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Erschreckender Bericht eines Türstehers zu den Silvestervorgängen" [Terrifying report of a doorman at the New Year's Eve events]. Neue Westfälische. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "BKA: Silvester-Übergriffe in zwölf Bundesländern" [BKA: New Year's Eve attacks in twelve provinces]. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "New Year's Eve sex assaults also reported in Finland, Switzerland and Austria". News Corp Australia Network. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Swedish women report being groped by men on New Year's Eve". The Globe and Mail. The Globe and Mail, Inc. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Polizei NRW K [@polizei_nrw_k] (1 Jan 2016). "#polizei #köln #leverkusen Ausgelassene Stimmung - Feiern weitgehend friedlich - Infos unter www.presseportal.de/blaulicht/pm/12415/3214905" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Martin Lutz (10 January 2016). "Sexuelle Belästigung: Das Phänomen "taharrush gamea" ist in Deutschland angekommen" [Sexual Harassment: The phenomenon "taharrush gameâ" has arrived in Germany]. Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Staff (11 January 2016). "Cologne attackers were of migrant origin - minister". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Maqbool (15 February 2013). "Why are sex attacks on the rise in Tahrir Square?". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "Twitter storm as Cologne mayor suggests women stay at 'arm's length' from strangers". DW. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Germany sex assaults could be linked to criminal gang". Cologne, Germany: CBS News. Associated Press. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Das Protokoll zur Kölner Chaos-Nacht zum Nachlesen" [The Protocol Cologne Chaos Nights for future reference]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Cologne sex attacks: Police chief Wolfgang Albers 'sacked' following heavy criticism". International Business Times. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Einsatz in der Silvesternacht: Kölns Polizeipräsident in einstweiligen Ruhestand versetzt" [Offset Cologne Police President in hiatus: use in the New Year's Eve]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "10.000 Euro Belohnung ausgesetzt: Polizei sucht mit Fahndungsplakat nach Tätern" [Exposed to 10,000 Euro reward: Police seek offenders with wanted posters]. Focus. Retrieved 26 January 2016.(in German)
- "Polizei NRW erhöht Druck auf kriminelle Asylbewerber" [NRW police increased pressure on criminal asylum seekers]. Die Welt. Retrieved 26 January 2016.(in German)
- "Kölner Polizei schließt Tatverdächtige vom Karneval aus" [Cologne police exclude suspects from Carnival]. WDR. Retrieved 31 January 2016.(in German)
- "Gymnasium gibt Schülerinnen Karneval frei – zur Sicherheit" [School gives students carnival dates - for safety]. Die Welt. Retrieved 31 January 2016.(in German)
- "Drei Vergewaltigungen nach Weiberfastnacht angezeigt" [Complaints about three rapes after Weiberfastnacht]. Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 7 February 2016.(in German)
- "Das verschwieg uns die Kölner Polizei" [The Cologne police concealed us]. Bild. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Übergriffe an Silvester: Kölner Polizei nimmt zwei Verdächtige fest" [Assaults on New Year's Eve: Cologne police arrest two suspects]. Der Spiegel. 8 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Festgenommene wieder auf freiem Fuß" [Arrested again on the loose] (in German). Westdeutscher Rundfunk. 10 January 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- Anton Troianovski (8 January 2016). "Germany Says Asylum Seekers Among Suspects in Cologne New Year's Eve Assaults". New York Times. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Cologne attackers were of migrant origin - minister". BBC News. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Bericht des Ministeriums für Inneres und Kommunales über die Übergriffe am Hauptbahnhof Köln in der Silvesternacht" [Report of the Ministry of Home Affairs and Local about the attacks on Cologne Central Station in New Year's Eve] (PDF). mik.nrw.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Staatsanwaltschaft Köln: Mehr als 1000 Anzeigen" [Cologne Prosecutor's Office: More than 1000 criminal complaints]. Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 31 January 2016.(in German)
- "Bewährungsstrafe für ersten Angeklagten der Kölner Silvesternacht" [Probation for first accused of Cologne New Year's Eve attacks]. Frankfurter Allgemeine (in German). Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "Mutmaßlicher Silvester-Täter: Auf und davon" [Alleged perpetrators Silvester: Hit]. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "Polizei nimmt Verdächtige von Fahndungsfotos fest" [Police arrest suspect of mugshots]. Frankfurter Allgemeine (in German). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Cologne attack suspect extradited from Switzerland". Swissinfo. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- "Polizei sucht Mann wegen sexueller Nötigung an Silvester" [Police seek man for sexual assault on New Year's Eve]. Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 30 January 2016.(in German)
- "Auf Überwachungsfoto identifiziert: Polizei verhaftet Sex-Täter" [Identified on surveillance photo: Police arrest sex offenders]. Focus. Retrieved 7 February 2016.(in German)
- "Polizei nimmt weiteren Tatverdächtigen fest" [Police arrest another suspect]. Hamburger Abendblatt. Retrieved 7 February 2016.(in German)
- "Ich nehme nicht an, dass die Täter verurteilt werden können" [I do not suppose that the offender can be sentenced]. Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Nick Gutteridge (19 February 2016). "Cologne rapists were refugees". Daily Express. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- [dead link] "Prosecutor: Most Cologne New Year's suspects are refugees". Associated Press. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "Zahl der "Antänzer" deutlich höher als bisher bekannt" [Number of "Antänzer" significantly higher than previously known]. Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved 30 May 2016.(in German)
- "Frauen bei Schlossgrabenfest sexuell belästigt" [Sexually harassed women at Castle grave hard]. Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 30 May 2016.(in German)
- "Mehr Übergriffe als bisher bekannt" [More attacks than previously known]. Frankfurter Allgemeine (in German). 17 August 2016.
- "Zwei Frauen von 17 Männern belästigt" [Two women molested by 17 men]. n-tv.de (in German). 28 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Versuchte Vergewaltigung in Freiburger Diskothek White Rabbit" [Attempted rape in Freiburg Disco White Rabbit]. Badische Zeitung (in German). 4 July 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Warum Leipziger Linke ein Integrationsprojekt stoppten" [Why Leipziger left stopped an integration project]. Der Spiegel (in German). 19 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Weiberfastnacht: Frau nachts niedergeschlagen und vergewaltigt - das ist das Fazit der Polizei" [Weiberfastnacht: woman knocked down at night and raped - this is the conclusion of the police]. Focus. Retrieved 5 February 2016.(in German)
- "Grapscher stellt sich – begleitet von seiner Mutter" [Grapscher arises - accompanied by his mother]. Die Welt. Retrieved 7 February 2016.(in German)
- "Mann vergewaltigt 24-jährige Frau beim Straßenkarneval" [Man raped 24-year-old woman at the street carnival]. Focus. Retrieved 5 February 2016.(in German)
- "Weiberfastnacht: Kölner Polizei nimmt mehr als 200 Anzeigen auf" [Cologne Festival Women's Night: Cologne police accept more than 200 criminal complaints]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 5 February 2016.(in German)
- "Hochproblematisches Klientel auf der Domtreppe" [High problematic clientele on the cathedral steps]. Die Welt. Retrieved 11 February 2016.(in German)
- "So erklärt der Polizeipräsident die vielen Festnahmen" [So says the chief of police the many arrests]. Die Welt. Retrieved 9 February 2016.(in German)
- Merieme Arif; Ben Brumfield (6 February 2016). "In Cologne, reporter groped while covering Carnival on live television". CNN. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- "Flera kvinnor ofredade under nyårsnatten". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-02-18.
- "Två misstänkta för Kalmarofredande" [Two suspects in Kalmar Molestation]. Sydsvenskan. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Grupper av yngre män misstänks ha ofredat flickor" [Groups of young men suspected of molesting girls]. Sveriges Radio. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Gäng ofredade kvinnor på nyår i Malmö" [Thread of molested women on New Year in Malmö]. Sydsvenskan. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Kvinnor omringade av män i gäng på nyår". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-02-18.
- "Polisen: Massofredanden i Malmö ägde aldrig rum". Metro (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-02-18.
- "Katia Wagner bryter demoniseringen av gatupojkarna". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-03-24.
- "Unprecedented sex harassment in Helsinki at New Year, Finnish police report". The Daily Telegraph. 8 January 2016.
- "Poliisi varautui uuden vuoden häirintään tehostetusti - kaikista ahdisteluyrityksistä tulee ilmoittaa poliisille" [Police prepared for the new year intensified harassment - harassment of all companies should be reported to the police] (in Finnish). Poliisi. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Katri Kirsi (7 January 2016). "KRP:n tutkinnanjohtaja: Suomessa ei suunniteltu vastaavaa kuin Kölnissä". YLE. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Unprecedented sex harassment in Helsinki at New Year: police". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Mayor of Cologne says women should have code of conduct to prevent future assault". Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- ] on YouTube
- "Eine Armlänge Empörung". Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- "Cologne sex attacks 'require police rethink'". BBC News. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "De Maizière übt massive Kritik an Kölner Sicherheitskonzept" [De Maizière exerts massive criticism of Cologne safety concept]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Hannelore Kraft verteidigt Innenminister Jäger" [Hannelore Kraft defended Interior Minister Jäger]. Die Zeit. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Wieder hundert neue Anzeigen" [Once again, hundreds of new complaints]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "CDU-Generalsekretär Tauber legt Jäger Rücktritt nahe" [CDU general secretary Tauber urges Jäger to resign]. Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Polizei hat Reker nicht mangelhaft informiert" [Police have kept Reker informed]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Jäger informierte Kraft erst Tage nach Köln-Exzess" [Jäger informed Kraft only days after Cologne assaults]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Cologne sex attacks: Women protest against assaults by gangs". BBC News. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Thousands protest in Cologne to 'reclaim feminism'". Deutsche Welle. 12 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Die selbsternannten Aufpasser von Düsseldorf" [The self-appointed watchdogs of Dusseldorf]. Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Deutsche decken sich massenhaft mit Pfefferspray ein" [Germans stock up pepper spray en masse]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Leverkusen/Köln:Zahl der Waffenschein-Anträge explodiert" [Leverkusen/Cologne: number of firearms license requests explodes]. rp-online.de. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Holly Yan. "German protesters: 'Rapefugees not welcome'". KSAT-TV. CNN. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
- ""Rapefugees not welcome": Pegida-Chef wegen Volksverhetzung angezeigt" ["Rapefugees not welcome": Pegida boss appears for sedition]. n-tv.de (in German). Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Justin Huggler. "Angela Merkel says Germany has lost control of the refugee crisis amid public anger over Cologne sex attacks". National Post. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- James Rothwell. "Cologne sex attacks: Mob attacks group of migrants in 'manhunt' for suspects". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Madeline Chambers. "Germans shaken by New Year attacks on women in Cologne". Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Köln: Sigmar Gabriel fordert schnellere Abschiebungen" [Cologne: Sigmar Gabriel calls faster deportations]. SPIEGEL ONLINE (in German). 8 January 2016.
- "Mob ruft zur Jagd auf nicht weiße Menschen auf" [Mob calls to hunt non-white people]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- Gavin Hewitt (11 January 2016). "Cologne attacks' profound impact on Europe". BBC News. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "CDU pocht auf schärfere Gesetze" [CDU insists on stricter laws]. Tagesschau. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Papier rechnet mit deutscher Flüchtlingspolitik ab" [Papier settles up with German refugee policy]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Die Kanzlerin wird sich korrigieren müssen" [The Chancellor will have to correct herself]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- ""Realität ignoriert, keinen Plan": Kritik an Merkels Flüchtlingspolitik" ["Ignores reality, no plan": criticism of Merkel's refugee policy]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Ex-Kanzler Schröder wirft Merkel Planlosigkeit vor" [Ex-Chancellor Schröder throws Merkel Planlosigkeit ago]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Schäuble will Autofahrer in Asylkrise zur Kasse bitten" [Schäuble will ask motorists in asylum crisis to checkout]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Alternative für Deutschland laut Umfrage drittstärkste Kraft im Bund" [Alternative for Germany, according to a survey the third strongest party in the federal elections]. DIE WELT (in German). 15 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Flüchtlingskrise: Merkel stürzt ab" [Refugee crisis: Merkel crashes]. heute.de. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Union sackt auf Allzeittief – AfD mit neuem Rekord" [Union sags on all-time low - AfD with new record]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Dobrindt spricht von einem Pakt gegen Deutschland" [Dobrindt speaks of a pact against Germany]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Abgelehnte Asylbewerber: Gabriel droht Marokko und Algerien mit Kürzung der Gelder" [Rejected asylum-seekers: Gabriel threatens Morocco and Algeria with reduction of finance]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Gabriel: Seehofer hat AfD stark gemacht" [Gabriel: Seehofer AfD made strong]. Frankfurter Rundschau (in German). Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Haseloff (CDU): "als christlich-demokratische Union hier in Sachsen-Anhalt nichts falsch gemacht"" [Haseloff (CDU): "As a Christian Democratic Union here in Saxony-Anhalt done nothing wrong"]. Phoenix (in German). Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Nach umstrittendem Kommentar: Beck stellt Strafanzeige gegen Kölner Imam" [After comment: Beck makes a complaint against Cologne Imam]. Leipziger Volkszeitung. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Äußerungen zur Kölner Silvesternacht Kölner Imam nimmt frauenfeindliche Aussage zurück" [Comments regarding New Year's Eve in Cologne:Colonge Imam withdraws misogynic comments]. Kölner Stadtanzeiger. 21 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.(in German)
- "In den Sozialen Netzwerken sind die ... - Hans-Peter Friedrich" [In the social networks are the ... - Hans-Peter Friedrich]. Facebook. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Ursula Scheer (5 January 2016). "Übergriffe in Köln Eine Männergruppe und ihr Hintergrund" [Assaults in Cologne: A group of men and their background]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "'Cover-up' over Cologne sex assaults blamed on migration sensitivities". The Daily Telegraph. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Köcher, Renate (16 December 2015). "Allensbach-Studie Mehrheit fühlt sich über Flüchtlinge einseitig informiert" [Allensbach survey: Majority feels unilaterally informed about refugees]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Reports of New Year's Eve sex assaults in Cologne fuel German migrant debate". CNN. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Cover-up claim over NYE mass sexual assaults". The Local. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Natasha Lennard; Lukas Hermsmeier. "Germany's bad answer to the Cologne attacks". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Germany on the Brink". The New York Times. 10 January 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Was Europa von der deutschen Willkommenskultur hält" [What Europe thinks of the German culture of welcome]. Die Welt. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Warum geschlossene Grenzen auch Freiheit bedeuten" [Why closed borders mean freedom]. Die Welt. Retrieved 1 February 2016.(in German)
- "Cologne Attacks: Our Response Must Be Against Sexual Violence, Not Race, Say Feminists". Huffington Post. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
- "Alice Schwarzer warnt vor 'Scharia-Islam'" [Alice Schwarzer warns of 'Sharia Islam']. n-tv.de. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- Jakob Augstein. "Lust der Angst" [Lust of fear]. Spiegel. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
'Unsere' Frauen missbrauchen wir bitte selbst. ['Our' women we abuse please themselves.]
- Sarah Cooper. "German rape law finally accepts that no means no – but is a statute enough?". The Conversation. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- Jessica Brown (14 January 2016). "The Charlie Hebdo cartoon about Aylan Kurdi and sex attackers is one of its most powerful". The Independent. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Charlie Hebdo cartoon depicts grown-up Aylan Kurdi as 'ass groper in Germany'". The Independent. 14 January 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Charlie Hebdo cartoon depicting drowned child Alan Kurdi sparks racism debate". The Guardian. 14 January 2016. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Charlie Hebdo backlash over 'racist' Alan Kurdi cartoon - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Online-Hetze gegen Selina" [Online incitement against Selina] (in German). SWR. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- Eleanor Ross (7 January 2016). "Tourists cancel trips to Cologne fearing 'life and limb' after claims of 1,000 men attacking 100 women on New Year's Eve". The Independent. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Europe in crisis over sex attacks by migrants amid calls for emergency EU meeting". The Daily Telegraph. 9 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Janene Pieters (6 January 2016). "DUTCH CABINET, MPS ANGERED BY COLOGNE MAYOR'S MASS SEX ASSAULT REMARKS". NL Times. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
- "Pope urges Europe to find balance between security and refugee plight". The Washington Post. 11 January 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Spotkanie Kaczyński Orban w Zielonej Owieczce i ataki w Kolonii" [The meeting Kaczynski Orban in Green lamb and attacks in Cologne]. Newsweek. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Waszczykowski pisze do szefa MSZ Niemiec w sprawie ataków na kobiety w Kolonii: Szanowny panie ministrze, drogi kolego..." [Waszczykowski wrote to the German Foreign Minister on the attacks on women in Cologne: Dear Minister, dear fellow ...]. Wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Zbigniew Ziobro w liście otwartym do komisarza Guenthera Oettingera: "Nie mam pańskiego tupetu"" [Zbigniew Ziobro in an open letter to Commissioner Guenther Oettinger: "I have Your gall"]. Wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "After Cologne, Slovakian PM Fico seeks emergency EU summit". Deutsche Welle. 8 January 2016.
- "Fact-Check: Is There Truth To Refugee Rape Reports?". Spiegel Online. 2018-01-17. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
- Patrick Kingsley. "80 sexual assaults in one day – the other story of Tahrir Square". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Plötzlich spürte ich eine Hand an meinem Po" [Suddenly I felt a hand on my butt]. Welt.de. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Mit hartem Vorgehen gegen die Täter fängt die Gegenwehr erst an" [With a crackdown on perpetrators, the resistance is just beginning]. Berliner Zeitung. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German)
- "Frauen berichten EMMA vom Terror" [Women tell EMMA about the terror]. Emma. Retrieved 4 January 2016.(in German)
- Regev, Dana (6 January 2016). "No one is asking the women in Cologne what they feel". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- Ackerman, Xanthe; Asquith, Christina (11 January 2016). "Reaction to Cologne Attacks Should Focus on Women's Rights". Time. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- Laura Martz; Erica Moore (2 May 2016). "Time for the facts. What do we know about Cologne four months later?". The Correspondent. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- Alice Schwarzer (ed.): Der Schock - die Silvesternacht von Köln (The shock - New Year's Eve of Cologne), Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-462-04999-2
- Media related to Silvester 2015 sexual assaults in Germany at Wikimedia Commons