2015–2016 University of Missouri protests
|2015 University of Missouri protests|
In 2015, a series of protests at the University of Missouri related to race, workplace benefits, and leadership resulted in the resignations of the president of the University of Missouri System and the chancellor of the flagship Columbia campus. The moves came after a series of events that included a hunger strike by a student and a boycott by the football team. The movement was primarily led by a student group named Concerned Student 1950. The movement and protests were documented in two films, one made by MU student journalists and the other, 2 Fists Up, by Spike Lee. While it is alleged that bad publicity from the protests has led to dropping enrollment and cutbacks, others have cited budget cuts issued from the state legislature.
In 2010, two white students dropped cotton balls in front of the Gaines/Oldham Black Culture Center. They were arrested and charged with tampering, which is a felony, and which was prosecuted as a hate crime based on evocation of the historical slur "cotton picker" to describe enslaved or sharecropping blacks. The prosecutor asked for them to serve 120 days in jail, but they were eventually only convicted of littering, which is a misdemeanor, and sentenced to probation and community service, with no jail time. In 2011 a student was given probation for racially charged graffiti in a student dormitory. The events led to the creation of a diversity initiative called "One Mizzou" under MU chancellor Brady Deaton. This initiative was discontinued in 2015 owing to concerns that it had lost its meaning.
On September 12, 2015, a Facebook post by the student government president Payton Head described bigotry and anti-gay sentiment around the college campus, which gained widespread attention. He claimed that in an incident off campus, unidentified people in the back of a passing pickup truck directed racial slurs at him. "For those of you who wonder why I'm always talking about the importance of inclusion and respect, it's because I've experienced moments like this multiple times at THIS university, making me not feel included here." Chancellor R. Bowen Loftin called the incident "totally unacceptable" on September 17.
The first student protests occurred on September 24, 2015, at an event called "Racism Lives Here," where protesters claimed nothing had been done to address Head's concerns. On October 1, a second "Racism Lives Here" event was held with 40–50 participants.
An incident involving a drunken student on October 4 gave rise to more racial tensions. While an African-American student group, the Legion of Black Collegians, was preparing for Homecoming activities, a white student walked on stage and was asked to leave. Supposedly, while departing the premises the student said, "These niggers are getting aggressive with me", according to the LBC. This prompted chancellor Loftin, traveling outside the US, to record a video message in response and to release a statement that said, "Racism and all prejudice is heinous, insidious and damaging to Mizzou... That is why all of us must commit to changing the culture at this university." Later that month, the student group "Concerned Student 1950" was created, referring to the first year the University of Missouri admitted black students.
On October 24, a police officer responding to a property damage complaint reported that an unknown vandal had smeared feces in the shape of a swastika on a bathroom wall in a dorm on campus. The university's Department of Residential Life filed photographs of the fecal smear in a hate crime incident report, and the residential life director emailed a number of people on campus, including a Hillel organization, to request information about anti-Semitic activity on campus. The investigator in the university's Title IX office, noted in an email that the swastika may have been "meant to offend and threaten a larger population of our campus community in addition to Jewish students".
On November 3, student Jonathan Butler launched a hunger strike, vowing not to eat until the president resigned. One of Butler's stated reasons for this was that Timothy Wolfe's car had hit him during a protest against Wolfe at the school's homecoming parade. Students confronted the president by linking arms in front of his vehicle. The car revved its engine and following this Butler was bumped. No police charges were filed in connection to the incident.
His statement said, "Mr. Wolfe had ample opportunity to create policies and reform that could shift the culture of Mizzou in a positive direction but in each scenario he failed to do so." Butler later cited his participation in the Ferguson protests against the 2014 shooting of Michael Brown as a major influence for his action.
On November 7, with hundreds of prospective students flooding Mizzou's campus for the university's recruiting day, student protesters intervened with a "mock tour" where they recited racist incidents that occurred at MU beginning in 2010 with the dispersion of cotton balls on the lawn of the Gaines/Oldham Black Culture Center along with more recent events such as the use of racial epithets against two young women of color outside of the MU Student Recreation Complex.
On November 8, university football players announced they would not practice or play until Wolfe resigned, potentially costing the university a $1 million fine if they had to forfeit an upcoming game against Brigham Young University. The Southeastern Conference Football Commissioner issued a statement saying, "I respect Missouri's student-athletes for engaging on issues of importance and am hopeful the concerns at the center of this matter will be resolved in a positive manner." The Mizzou Athletics Department previously indicated that it fully supported the players' actions.
The protests attracted widespread local, regional, and national news media attention. Some protesters said the coverage was impacted by journalists' lack of previous race-related experience, reliance on scripted behaviors, and desire to cover the event as "outsiders looking in."
Loss of health insurance for grad students
One of Butler's reasons for his hunger strike was "graduate students being robbed of their health insurance". In August 2015, the university had issued a statement to graduate students that said, "The Affordable Care Act prevents employers from giving employees money specifically so they can buy health insurance on the individual market. Graduate teaching and research assistants are classified as employees by the IRS, so they fall under this ruling." The university had known about the Affordable Care Act concerns since July 21, but put off communicating with graduate students until announcing on August 14 that subsidies would be cut, the day before graduate health insurance plans were set to expire.
Wolfe issued a statement on November 8 implying that he would not step down and that he was "dedicated to ongoing dialogue to address these very complex, societal issues as they affect our campus community".
On November 9, however, Wolfe announced his resignation. Later that day Chancellor Loftin announced he would resign at the end of 2015 to take a research role at the University. His departure was hastened by the Board of Curators on November 11, who passed his responsibility to Interim Chancellor Hank Foley. His departure was initially assumed to be related to the protests. However, unlike Wolfe, student protesters had not requested that he step down. His resignation was the congruence of several issues raised by administrators and faculty, who were displeased with his leadership style, dismissal of administrators, and management of several campus incidents of racism and graduate health insurance subsidies that were allowed to lapse under his leadership.
The days after the resignation announcement resulted in some confusion, cancelled classes and reports of threats and suspicious activity. On the evening of November 10, there were reports of vehicles and unidentified individuals around campus posing a threat.
A computer science and math student at Missouri University of Science and Technology in Rolla confessed during his arrest to making a hoax threat to the university. An account with the same username on Reddit bragged that he had "trolled" Mizzou.
Melissa Click incident
Soon after the announcement of the resignations, there was a widely publicized dispute between student photojournalist Tim Tai, on a freelance assignment for ESPN, and protesters on Carnahan Quad where they had erected an encampment. While attempting to cover the event, Tai got into a dispute with, and was physically confronted by, students and those who would later be identified as University of Missouri staff and faculty, including untenured communication professor Melissa Click. Click first appeared to attempt to grab Tai's camera, and then to threaten Tai, yelling "Who wants to help me get this reporter out of here? I need some muscle over here." Other staff who interfered with Tai's attempts to photograph the scene included Janna Basler, the university's assistant director of Greek life and leadership, and Richard J. "Chip" Callahan, professor and chair of religious studies. Video of the incident where Tai debated First Amendment rights to be in the public area was recorded by student Kayla Schierbecker and became widely distributed and commented on in the mainstream media.
The day after the incident, with Tai getting support from the Missouri Lieutenant Governor Peter Kinder and others, Concerned Student 1950 passed out fliers calling the confrontation between journalists and protesters a "Teachable Moment" and directing the students to welcome the media to campus as a way to tell the story of the protests. The student group also removed signs previously put up warning the media to stay away from the student encampments. Three University of Missouri employees involved in the altercation subsequently apologized, one of them, Melissa Click, resigning from her courtesy appointment at the Missouri School of Journalism. On January 25, 2016, Click was charged with misdemeanor assault linked to her behavior during the incident and accepted community service in exchange for dismissal of the charges.
As of January 5, 2016[update], more than 100 faculty members had signed a letter in defense of Click. Several faculty members wrote letters of support to local and national news outlets.
In a new video obtained by the Columbia Missourian in February 2016, Click was shown shouting a profanity at police officers as they attempted to clear protesting students from a road at the homecoming parade. Click defended her actions, saying that she was sorry for her language, but that she was also sorry she had to put herself between the police and the students in order to protect the students.
Also in February, MU Faculty Council and the UM Intercampus Faculty Council urged MU administrators and the UM Board of Curators to observe the due process enshrined in the system's Collected Rules and Regulations when dealing with Click's case.
On February 25, 2016, the University of Missouri Board of Curators voted 4–2 to terminate Click's employment with the university. As a result of this action, the University of Missouri was placed on the American Association of University Professors' Censure List. Commenting in an interview with the Chronicle of Higher Education, Click suggested a minority professor would not have been treated as harshly, stating, "I'm a white lady. I'm an easy target." In 2017, she was hired as a lecturer by Gonzaga University, where she later became an assistant professor.
On November 10, 2015, Student Body President Payton Head made an alarming Facebook post that he later rescinded. He stated, "Students please take precaution. Stay away from the windows in residence halls. The KKK has been confirmed to be sighted on campus. I'm working with the [campus police], the state trooper and the National Guard." Major Brian Weimer with the school's police department responded by saying, "There is no Ku Klux Klan on campus." Weimer also said that the National Guard was not on campus. Head apologized, saying on Facebook, "I'm sorry about the misinformation that I have shared through social media."
On November 11, 2015, the MU officially remained open, though many individual classes were cancelled after threats on social media and by phone. During a meeting between the Missouri Legislative Black Caucus and student activists, University of Missouri police reported that an anonymous caller phoned in a threat to the Oldham Black Culture Center.
One professor, Dale Brigham, was at the center of controversy when he chose to administer a planned exam for Nutritional Science 1034, saying, "If you don't feel safe coming to class, then don't come to class... I will be there, and there will be an exam administered in our class," while allowing students an option to take a make-up exam. After some students complained that the professor was not taking the threats seriously, Brigham apologized and offered his resignation, saying, "If my leaders think that my leaving would help, I am all for it. I made a mistake, and I do not want to cause further harm." However, the university turned down the resignation later that day.
Gus T. Ridgel, one of the nine African-American students enrolled into the University of Missouri in 1950, "was surprised and disappointed by the racist incidents at the university that prompted a campus upheaval".
U.S. Air Force Lt. Col. Jarred Prier argues that Russian influence operatives use U.S. social media as an information warfare medium, spreading false information during incidents of racial unrest in order to inflame racial tensions in the United States and discredit the Obama administration. An image of an African American child injured from police one year earlier was circulated by Twitter bots, declaring that the child was beaten by the KKK at the University of Missouri. One month after the protests subsided, the Twitter account changed their profile image from an African American man to a German man, tweeting instead in German about refugee crime in Germany.
The University of Missouri events inspired other protests or indications of solidarity at over eighty other campuses in the United States. Among these were Ithaca College, Yale University, Smith College, Claremont McKenna College, Amherst College, Emporia State University, Brandeis University, and Tufts University.
Appointment of interim president
On the evening of November 12, the governing board of the University of Missouri decided in a closed-door meeting to name Michael Middleton, a law professor and deputy chancellor emeritus as the interim president. Middleton, a 1968 graduate of the university and the third African American to graduate from its law school, recently retired from the university after 30 years.
During an interview with ABC News' George Stephanopoulos, President Barack Obama praised the protesters, but cautioned against protest tactics that he felt stifled open dialogue at the University of Missouri and other campuses. He said, "There is clearly a problem at the University of Missouri, and that's not just coming from students. That's coming from some faculty. And I think it is entirely appropriate for students in a thoughtful, peaceful way to protest—what they see as injustices or inattention to serious problems in their midst. I want an activist student body just like I want an activist citizenry."
Missouri Lieutenant Governor Peter Kinder issued a statement supporting the journalists covering the protests on November 9. He called for investigating the incident saying, "Faculty and staff cannot be allowed to pick and choose which rights, viewpoints and freedoms they respect. I renew my call to restore law and order on campus, so the rights of all are protected."
Turning away reporters at campus meeting
On February 10, 2016, Concerned Student 1950 held a meeting on campus. The meeting had been advertised as a "town hall" for "black students and students of color." The group asked all reporters to leave before the meeting began. Several white reporters then left the room. However, one reporter, Kayla Schierbecker, the same videographer from the November Melissa Click incident, refused, and justified her refusal to leave by saying the unreserved room was a "limited public forum" that was open to students and that she was a reporter on assignment and it was her "personal preference" to stay. Despite the meeting taking place on campus property, the group continued to ask her to leave, and eventually threatened to call campus police. Instead, the group disbanded soon after the start of the meeting, intending to relocate the meeting at a more private area of campus.
Student enrollment and alumni reaction
In April 2016 Jillian Melchior wrote in the online publication Heat Street, based on internal emails reviewed by its staff and National Review, that the university had suffered significant damage to its reputation and image over its handling of the protests. This reaction was reflected in a barrage of highly critical correspondence from alumni, donors and the families of current and prospective students attacking what was perceived as the administration's unwarranted deference to campus extremists. According to the report there has been a sharp decline in donations, particularly to the Athletic Department, where donations were down by 72%. Enrollment in the freshmen class also dropped by around 25% and Melchior asserted that some current students were considering transferring to other schools. Altogether, some 2,273 fewer students enrolled at the Columbia campus for the fall 2016 semester, and the protests have been blamed at least in part for this decline.
Continued declines in enrollment and funding has caused continuing budget cuts and jobs being eliminated. Pelema Morrice, vice provost for enrollment, told the Columbia Daily Tribune on May 15, 2017 that the university has studied the causes of declining enrollment. "It is clear from what we learned thus far that the vast majority of our undergraduate enrollment concerns are closely tied to our public perception issues throughout the state and throughout the country."
According to The New York Times, freshman enrollment for the fall 2017 semester was down by 35% compared with two years prior. Seven dormitories have been temporarily closed and some 400 positions have been cut. "Students of all races have shunned Missouri, but the drop in freshman enrollment last fall was strikingly higher among blacks, at 42 percent, than among whites, at 21 percent."
Adrianna Kezar and Sharon Fries-Britt, at the invitation of the university, used the events as a case study and published a report in 2018. It introduces a "Collective Trauma Recovery Framework (CTRF) for dealing with such complex and usually emotionally charged incidents".
- Pearce, Matt (November 10, 2015). "Hunger striker gives credit to fellow activists fighting racism at University of Missouri". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Greenwald2016-03-22T18:10:26+00:00, Glenn GreenwaldGlenn. "New Film Shows Real-Time, Inside Account of the University of Missouri Student Protests". The Intercept. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Jones, Maya A. (May 31, 2016). "Lil' Joints: The Final Season". The Undefeated. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Keller, Rudi (May 15, 2017). "University of Missouri enrollment to decline more than 7 percent; 400 jobs to be eliminated". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Morrison, David. "Two arrested in cotton ball incident". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Sunne, Samantha (April 29, 2010). "Students sentenced for cotton ball incident". theManeater.com.
- "Student gets probation for racist graffiti at MU". St. Louis Post Dispatch. June 5, 2012. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- "2.7 One Mizzou | Mizzou Identity Standards". Identity.missouri.edu. May 5, 2015. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Sarah Wynn (June 3, 2015). "Administrators discontinue One Mizzou, developing new marketing campaign this summer". The Maneater. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Pearson, Michael (November 9, 2015). "A timeline of the University of Missouri protests". CNN. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Timeline of recent events at University of Missouri". Associated Press. November 11, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Naskidashvili, Nana (October 1, 2015). "Students march through MU Student Center in protest of racial injustice". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Plaster, Madison (October 1, 2015). "Second 'Racism Lives Here' event calls for administration to act on social injustices". The Maneater. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Loutfi, Elizabeth (October 5, 2015). "LBC Homecoming Royalty harassed at Traditions Plaza". The Maneather. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
these niggers are getting aggressive with me.
- "Message from Chancellor Loftin". YouTube. October 5, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Police report confirms University of Missouri swastika story". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Associated Press. November 12, 2015.
- "Swastika found in MU bathroom". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Sean Davis (November 2015). "Mizzou Releases Photos Of Poop Swastika, Discloses Details Of Previously Unreported Racial Slurs". The Federalist.
- "Mizzou Family, This may be my last... – Jonathan L. Butler | Facebook".
- Miller, Michael E. (November 6, 2015). "Black grad student on hunger strike in Mo. after swastika drawn with human feces". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Reese, Ashley (October 10, 2015). "In Homecoming parade, racial justice advocates take different paths". Colombian Missourian. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Did #Mizzou Protestor Jonathan Butler Lie About Being Hit By UM President's Car?, YouTube
- Pearce, Matt (October 11, 2015). "Hunger striker gives credit to fellow activists fighting racism at University of Missouri". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Sawey, Elizabeth (November 7, 2015). "Protesters use recruiting day to voice concerns about racism at MU". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Tracy, Marc; Southall, Ashley (November 8, 2015). "Black Football Players Lend Heft to Protests at Missouri". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Nathan, Alec. "Black Missouri Football Players Boycotting Until School President Resigns". Bleacher Report. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Minority Players on University of Missouri Football Team Threaten Boycot". The Wall Street Journal.
- Thomson, T. J. (October 1, 2016). "Black, White, and a Whole Lot of Gray: How White Photojournalists Covered Race During the 2015 Protests at Mizzou" (PDF). Visual Communication Quarterly. 23 (4): 223–233. doi:10.1080/15551393.2016.1230473. ISSN 1555-1393. S2CID 150791909.
- Jonathan Butler: Meet the man whose hunger strike flipped the script at Mizzou, CNN, November 10, 2015
- Information About Student Health Insurance Archived November 14, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, gradstudies.missouri.edu, August 15, 2015
- University of Missouri ends funding for graduate student health insurance, blames feds Archived September 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Mizzou News, Daily Clips Packet, August 18, 2015
- U. of Missouri cuts health insurance subsidies for grad students, USA Today, August 21, 2015
- Favignano, Megan (August 15, 2015). "MU graduate student employees lose health insurance subsidy". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "Statement from University of Missouri System President Tim Wolfe". November 8, 2015. Archived from the original on November 9, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Viviani, Nick (November 9, 2015). "University of Missouri Chancellor follows President in stepping down". wibw.com. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Ryan Famuliner. "4 Things You Might Have Wrong about the Mizzou Story". kbia.org.
- "MU campus littered with casualties". Columbia Daily Tribune.
- Lee Enterprises. "Missteps, not student revolt, led to Mizzou chancellor's demise". stltoday.com.
- Keller, Rudi (November 12, 2015). "Semester of strife capped longstanding issues with Wolfe, Loftin". Columbia Daily Tribune.
- Mathis-Lilley, Ben (November 11, 2015). "Arrest Made for Threat of Violence During Chaotic Night at University of Missouri". Slate. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Morrison, David. "Suspect in campus threats makes first court appearance". Columbiatribune.com. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- "Hunter Park: Apparent Reddit account boasts of 'trolling'". Daily News. New York.
- "Mizzou Online Threat Suspect Hunter Park Mimicked Oregon Shooting Posts: Police". NBC News. Associated Press.
- Stevenson, Kelly (November 11, 2015). "2 Students Allegedly Made Terrorist Threats in Missouri". ABC News. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Alcindor, Yamiche; Stanglin, Doug (November 11, 2015). "2 suspects arrested in social media threats at Missouri campuses". USA TODAY. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Erik Wemple (November 10, 2015). "University of Missouri, please immediately fire employees who taunted media". The Washington Post.
- Huguelet, Austin; Victor, Daniel (November 9, 2015). "'I Need Some Muscle': Missouri Activists Block Journalists". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- "First Amendment Questions in Missouri Protest Video Trickier Than They Seem - MediaShift". MediaShift. November 24, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- columnist, Michael R. Allen Guest. "Melissa Click and the forgotten freedom". St. Louis American. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "Race and the Free-Speech Diversion". The New Yorker. November 10, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "There's a good reason protesters at the University of Missouri didn't want the media around". Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "An insider's view: The wall between student activists and student journalists". Poynter. November 12, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Lee, Paula Young. "Missouri activists vs. the press is still a story about race: This is what happens when black students can't trust the media". Salon. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Kelliher, Lauren. "Expert: Carnahan Quad kerfuffle was not a First Amendment conflict". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Suhr, Jim (November 11, 2015). "Missouri protesters change tack and welcome media, day after shooing journalists away". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- Pérez-peña, Richard; Hauser, Christine (November 10, 2015). "University of Missouri Professor Who Confronted Photographer Quits Journalism Post". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Wemple, Erik (November 11, 2015). "MU religious studies professor apologized to photojournalist Tim Tai". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Assault charge filed against Missouri assistant professor, San Francisco Chronicle, Associated Press, January 25, 2016
- Belkin, Douglas (January 25, 2016). "University of Missouri Professor Charged Over Protest". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- "University of Missouri faculty support professor whom Republicans want fired". kansascity. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "Why I Continue to Support Melissa Click". The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 22, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Kerwin, William. "GUEST COMMENTARY: Shakespeare, Melissa Click and campus unrest". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Socarides, Alexandra. "LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Melissa Click cares about MU students". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Shonekan, Stephanie. "GUEST COMMENTARY: In support of Melissa Click as she supported us". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Rieder, Ram; Madhani, Aamer. "Missouri professor Melissa Click seen cursing at cop in new video".
- Schmitt, William. "MU faculty say Melissa Click deserves due process, fair treatment from administrators". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Kull, Katie. "UM System Intercampus Faculty Council calls for due process for Melissa Click". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- "University of Missouri fires professor Melissa Click". USA TODAY. February 25, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
- "Academic Freedom and Tenure: University of Missouri (Columbia) | AAUP". www.aaup.org. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Wilson, Robin (April 24, 2016). "Being Melissa Click". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
- "Fired MU professor Melissa Click hired at Gonzaga University". kansascity.
- "Faculty of the Department of Communication Studies". Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- University of Missouri students report threats; police quell KKK rumors. CNN. November 11, 2015
- Hancock, By Jason (November 11, 2015). "Online threats stoke fears at University of Missouri". Kansas City Star. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Miller, Michael E. "As death threats spread fear at Mizzou, professor asks students to defeat 'bullies' and attend class". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Nero, Amanda (November 10, 2015). "Missouri Legislative Black Caucus '100 percent supportive of students seeking change'". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Schuppe, Jon (November 11, 2015). "Missouri Professor's Resignation for Email About 'Bullies' May Be Rejected". NBC News. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
I made a mistake, and I do not want to cause further harm
- Kummerer, Samantha. "Update: Resignation not accepted from MU professor who sent email | KOMU.com | Columbia, MO |". KOMU.com. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Wines, Michael (November 10, 2015). "A Real Missouri 'Concerned Student 1950' Speaks, at Age 89". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Wicentowski, Danny. "Russian Twitter Troll Fabricated Claims of KKK Invading Mizzou Campus in 2015". Riverfront Times.
- Prier, Jarred (2017). "Commanding the Trend: Social Media as Information Warfare" (PDF). Strategic Studies Quarterly.
- "Our Demands". Black Liberation Collective. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- Workneh, Lilly (November 12, 2015). "College Students Across The Country Stand In Solidarity With Mizzou". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Griggs, Brandon (November 11, 2015). "Ithaca College students protest; is it next Missouri?". CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Hartocollis, Anemona; Bidgood, Jess (November 11, 2015). "Racial Discrimination Protests Ignite at Colleges Across the U.S." The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Sax, Lindsay. "March on Emporia protesters say we are 'beyond talking'". www.wibw.com. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- firstname.lastname@example.org, Jessie Wagoner. "Accusations continue in ESU race debate". Emporia Gazette. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- Jan Ransom (November 23, 2015). "Brandeis students occupy building to protest lack of racial diversity". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- "Tufts students join nationwide protests against campus racism". The Tufts Daily. November 18, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- Sarah Brown (November 13, 2015). "Facing Protests About Racial Climate, Another Campus Administrator Steps Down". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Lemmons, Taylor (November 11, 2015). "Dear Claremont McKenna College Community — Medium". Medium. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- McLaughlin, Eliott C.; Payne, Ed; Stapleton, AnneClaire (November 12, 2015). "University of Missouri taps interim system president". CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Bacon, John; Madhani, Aamer (November 12, 2015). "University of Missouri names black interim president". USA Today. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Saenz, Arlette (November 15, 2015). "President Obama Praises University of Missouri Protesters: 'I Want an Activist Citizenry'". ABC News. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
I want an activist student body just like I want an activist citizenry, and the issue is just making sure that even as these young people are getting engaged, getting involved, speaking out that they're also listening.
- Kinder, Peter (November 10, 2015). "Lt. Governor Kinder issues statement on University unrest". Office of Peter Kinder. Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- Kabbany, Jennifer (February 12, 2016). "At 'students of color'-only Mizzou activism meeting, white journalists kicked out". Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Melchior, Jillian K (April 26, 2016). "Mizzou Misery: Exclusive Emails Reveal The Brutal Backlash". HEATSTREET. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Missourian Staff (August 22, 2016). "Fall 2016 MU freshmen enrollment slightly more than projected". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
- Anemna Hartocollis, "Long After Protests, Students Shun the University of Missouri", New York Times, July 9, 2017.
- Kezar, Adrianna; Fries-Britt, Sharon (2018). Speaking Truth and Acting with Integrity: Confronting Challenges of Campus Racial Climate (PDF). American Council on Education. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
- Pennamon, Tiffany; Jones, LaMont (November 13, 2018). "ACE Study Outlines Best Practices in Campus Racial Crises". Diverse: Issues In Higher Education. Cox, Matthews, and Associates, Inc. Retrieved June 10, 2020.