2015 Ecuadorian protests
|2015 Ecuadorian protests|
|Date||8 June 2015 – 16 September 2015|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
The 2015 Ecuadorian protests were a series of protests against the inheritance tax laws introduced by Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa. The protests began during the first week of June; becoming more organized and growing to hundreds of people on 8 June 2015. Since then, hundreds of thousands of Ecuadorians protested throughout Ecuador against President Correa and the controversial inheritance tax laws he introduced. The opposition and demonstrators protested stating that Correa wanted to follow "the same path as Venezuela’s government", creating a "criminal war of classes" while President Correa stated that the protests were aimed at destabilizing the government and such measures were for combatting inequality.
Throughout his presidency, Correa has been a controversial figure. Correa describes himself as an advocate of "socialism of the 21st century", a term referring to a form of democratic socialism previously used by Venezuela's Hugo Chávez. though he has also been described Correa as "a left-wing populist". Political science scholars George Philip and Francisco Panizza also claimed that like his allies Morales and Chávez, Correa should be categorized as a populist, because he appealed "directly to the people against their countries' political and economic order, divided the social field into antagonistic camps and promised redistribution and recognition in a newly founded political order."
The Washington Post characterized Correa's ideological approach as having contradictions however, and compared him to other pink tide presidents such as Bolivia's Evo Morales and Venezuela's Hugo Chávez. Though Correa, an economist, did not attack Ecuador's private sector like Chávez and Ecuador's socioeconomic environment flourished with decreased poverty, he did follow Chávez's example of filling the Supreme Court of Ecuador with his allies and attempted to silence critics. Such actions have resulted in Correa being accused of authoritarianism, nepotism, attacking dissidents and curtailing freedom of speech.
Though Correa had brought stability to the poor who supported him, he combatted with other social groups such as the media, the Catholic Church, bankers and indigenous groups, saying that those who protested against him were part of "a wealthy oligarchy", a similar approach to what his ally Nicolás Maduro did to those who opposed him.
Following years of heavy revenues from high oil prices that Correa experienced during his eight years as president, Ecuador experienced a 50% reduction in oil revenues. The government then cut its 2015 fiscal budget by 4% and initiated controversial economic measures that affected most Ecuadorians; both the middle class and the poor. In March 2015 when constitutional changes were proposed to allow the re-election of the president and government officials indefinitely while other labor and land ownership rules were submitted, protests numbered in thousands occurred in Quito that were organized by indigenous communities, unions and students. In June 2015, when the government proposed bills to tax inheritances up to 77.5% and a 75% tax on real estate capital gains to counter loss in oil revenue, protests in Ecuador became widespread, with protesters demanding Correa out and compared actions by the government to that of the Venezuelan government. According to economists, the proposed policies would damage Ecuador's economy and population since 95% of businesses are family owned.
Timeline of events
Near the headquarters of Correa's party, Alianza País, about 1,000 people, both opposition and pro-government demonstrated with 100 police on standby.
Thousands of protesters wearing black in "mourning" demonstrated in the capital city of Quito for the second time in a week. Government supporters confronted the opposition protesters leading their own chants under an Alianza País banner. In other parts of the city, opposition and pro-government groups clashed.
Guillermo Lasso led a march to the National Assembly of Ecuador to demand the permanent withdrawal of the proposed taxes instead of a temporary shelving of the legislations. The Ecuadorian government stated that the leaders of the protests held the following day would be responsible for any "vandalism".
Workers and trade unionists, mainly from the Frente Unitario de los Trabajadores (FUT), demonstrated in Quito denouncing Correa's policies, calling them "anti-popular" and were planning a national strike. Mesías Tatamuez, leader of FUT stated that the protests were not related to those concerned about taxes and that the protests were not aimed at the "destabilization" of the Ecuadorian government as President Correa had stated. The workers protests involved the sweeping of streets to represent the "cleansing" of corruption from the Ecuadorian and the burning of an Alianza País flag.
In Guayaquil, Correa's birthplace, Mayor Jaime Nebot invited demonstrators of all ages to participate with about 400,000 people, or about 20% of the city's population participating. The demonstrators gathered in light blue and white colors of Guayaquil's flag with Nebot stating that he was not protesting against Correa but the "totalitarian system" he said Correa wanted to "impose". Public buildings near the march were decorated by the Ecuadorian government with the Central Bank office building having a banner denouncing the accumulation of wealth and while Nebot was speaking, the volume of the building's loudspeakers that was sending pro-government messages was turned higher.
In Quito, Guayaquil, Cuenca and other cities, thousands protested against Correa days before Pope Francis' visit to the country. The Ecuadorian government held a countering rally at the president's palace.
Hundreds protested outside of the Alianza País headquarters protesting against the taxes along with what they called autocratic and corrupt actions performed by the Ecuadorian government. The protesters waited for Pope Francis to complete his visit to Ecuador before protesting again.
According to Cedatos-Gallup International polls from six major cities in Ecuador between 10 and 11 June, 70% of Ecuadorians disapprove of the real estate tax and 72% disapprove of the inheritance tax. Cedatos also observed President Correa's popularity drop from around 60% in recent years to 42% in 2015.
While protesters were demonstrating in Quito and Guayaquil, some internet users were unable to connect to a network with explanations ranging from network over-saturation to the use of signal jammers by the Ecuadorian government. The use of peer-to-peer applications increased during the protests due to the network problems with Opposition Senator Andres Paez recommending the use of the FireChat app. The media also reported Denial-of-service attacks and the creation of fake media accounts to falsify reports. It has also been reported that the Ecuadorian government uses "troll centers" to attack their opposition.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Protests in Ecuador against Rafael Correa in 2015.|
- Morla, Rebeca (26 June 2015). "Correa Feels the Wrath of Massive Protests in Ecuador". PanAm Post. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Marty, Belén (11 June 2015). "Ecuadorians Protest Ballooning Price of Socialist Revolution". PanAm Post. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Alvaro, Mercedes (25 June 2015). "Protesters in Ecuador Demonstrate Against Correa's Policies". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Kozloff 2008, pp. 52–53.
- "If you can't beat 'em, referendum". The Economist. 15 November 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018.
- Philip & Panizza 2001, p. 68.
- Philip & Panizza 2001, p. 73.
- Miroff, Nick (15 March 2014). "Ecuador's popular, powerful president Rafael Correa is a study in contradictions". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
- "¿Tiene Ecuador un presidente autoritario?" [Does Ecuador have an authoritarian president?]. 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Gobierno acentúa su intolerancia y autoritarismo
- Medel, Monica (21 March 2011). "Ecuador's president sues journalists for book alleging nepotism". Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017.
- McFarren, Peter. "Es el presidente Correa culpable de nepotismo?" [Is President Correa guilty of nepotism?] (in Spanish). Human Rights Ecuador. Archived from the original on 27 November 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Solano, Gonzalo (2 July 2015). "3 Days Before Pope Visit, Ecuador Protests Aim at President". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- Gupta, Girish (9 July 2015). Tait, Paul (ed.). "Papal truce over, Ecuador protesters return to streets". Yahoo! News. Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- "Thousands march in Ecuador to protest plan to allow indefinite re-election for president". Fox News. Associated Press. 19 March 2015. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "Opponents of Ecuador's president stage huge march in biggest city to protest economic policies". Fox News. Associated Press. 25 June 2015. Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Velazco, Alfredo (28 June 2015). "The Internet, a Staging Post for Protests in Ecuador, is Under Threat". Translated by Glenn Bower. Global Voices Online. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Bravo, Diego (8 June 2015). "'Fuera Correa fuera' vs. 'Ahí están, esos son los cachorros de León', se gritan dos bandos en la av. De los Shyris". El Comercio. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "Anti-Government Protesters Confront President Correa Supporters". Yahoo! News. Storyful. 11 June 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- "Día 13: protestas en Quito, Guayaquil y Cuenca" [Day 13: Protests in Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca]. La República (in Spanish). 24 June 2015. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- "Sindicatos marchan para preparar "paro nacional" en Ecuador" [Unions march to prepare "national strike" in Ecuador]. Diario de Yucatán (in Spanish). 24 June 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Morla, Rebeca (25 March 2015). "Correa's Social-Media Troll Center Exposed in Quito". PanAm Post. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2015.