2016 G20 Hangzhou summit

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2016 G20 Hangzhou summit
Group photo, on 4 September 2016
Host countryChina
Date4–5 September 2016
MottoTowards an Innovative, Invigorated, Interconnected, and Inclusive World Economy
Venue(s)Hangzhou International Exhibition Centre[1][2]
CitiesHangzhou, Zhejiang
ParticipantsG20 members
Guest invitees: Chad, Egypt, Kazakhstan, Laos, Senegal, Spain, Singapore, Thailand
ChairXi Jinping, President
Follows2015 G20 Antalya summit
Precedes2017 G20 Hamburg summit

The 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit was the eleventh meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20). It was held on 4–5 September 2016 in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang. It was the first ever G20 summit to be hosted in China[3] and the second in an Asian country after 2010 G20 Seoul summit was hosted in South Korea.


Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama, on 5 September 2016.

Pollution in China[edit]

In the days before the G20 Hangzhou summit, only some vehicles were allowed through the city, construction sites were stopped, inhabitants received a week-long holidays (and were encouraged to leave the city) and factories in the region (including more than two hundred steel mills) were asked to stop their production (in order to temporarily reduce air pollution).[3][4][5][6]

Climate change[edit]

On 3 September 2016, Barack Obama and Xi Jinping announced the ratification of the Paris Agreement (of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference) by their countries,[7][8] bringing the total number of countries ratifying the agreement to 26;[9] the United States and China represent respectively 18 percent and 20 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions (the driving force behind global warming).[8][10]

Economic statements[edit]

The main themes of final communiqué of the summit are:[11]

Summit documents[edit]

The heads of state and government of G20 issued a joint statement with a summary of the main results of the meeting. The statement is divided in the following documents:

  • Communiqué 2016[12]
  • Annex to the Leaders' Declaration[13]
  • Hangzhou Action Plan[14]
  • Blueprint on Innovative Growth[15]
  • G20 Action Plan on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development[16]

Participating leaders[edit]

List of leaders who took part in the 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit:[17]

Invited guests[edit]

International organizations[edit]


Internet censorship[edit]

Xi Jinping in the speech quoted "Guoyu", Traditional Chinese history books, in Chapter 9 of the "通商" (tōng shāng kuān nóng, meaning reducing taxes and make road easy to walk, promote commercialization, and relax agriculture[20]), but he mistakenly pronounced it as "通商宽衣" ("" kuān yī means Undress), the Central Propaganda Department ordered media and social platforms to prohibit this discussion.[21]


  1. ^ "外交部在京举行G20杭州峰会中外媒体吹风会" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 30 August 2016.
  2. ^ The welcoming ceremony (G20 summit evening gala), directed by Zhang Yimou, was held at the West Lake on 4 September 2016.
  3. ^ a b (in French) Frédéric Lelièvre, "La Chine championne du monde de la finance verte" Archived 14 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Le temps, 29 August 2016 (page visited on 2 September 2016).
  4. ^ Tom Phillips, "Ghost town: how China emptied Hangzhou to guarantee 'perfect' G20" Archived 24 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, Monday 5 September 2016 (page visited on 5 September 2016).
  5. ^ Reuters, "China's Hangzhou Turns Ghost Town as G20 Leaders Arrive", The New York Times, 3 September 2016 (page visited on 4 September 2016).
  6. ^ A similar approach was used for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, see Air pollution at the 2008 S15 China Victory Day Parade.
  7. ^ (in French) Étienne Dubuis, "L’accord de Paris pourrait entrer en vigueur d’ici à la fin de l’année" Archived 14 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Le temps, 1 September 2016 (page visited on 2 September 2016).
  8. ^ a b "Paris climate deal: US and China formally join pact" Archived 2 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 3 September 2016 (page visited on 4 September 2016).
  9. ^ (in French) ""Le débat avec les climatosceptiques est terminé", selon Ban Ki-Moon" Archived 8 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Radio télévision suisse, 4 September 2016 (page visited on 4 September 2016).
  10. ^ Simon Roger and Brice Pedroletti, "La Chine et les États-Unis ratifient l’accord de Paris sur le climat" Archived 17 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Le Monde, 3 September 2016 (page visited on 4 September 2016).
  11. ^ (in French) "Accord du G20 pour « s’opposer au protectionnisme » et lutter contre l’évasion fiscale" Archived 8 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Le Monde, 5 September 2016 (page visited on 5 September 2016).
  12. ^ https://www.g20.org/Content/DE/_Anlagen/G7_G20/2016-09-04-g20-kommunique-en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=6[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ https://www.g20.org/Content/DE/_Anlagen/G7_G20/2016-09-05-g20-abschluss-annex-eng.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=7[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ https://www.g20.org/Content/DE/_Anlagen/G7_G20/2016-09-08-g20-action-plan-en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ https://www.g20.org/Content/DE/_Anlagen/G7_G20/2016-09-08-g20-blueprint-on-innovation-growth.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ https://www.g20.org/Content/DE/_Anlagen/G7_G20/2016-09-08-g20-agenda-action-plan.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang's Regular Press Conference on 24 August 2016". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China. 24 August 2016. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016.
  18. ^ a b c "G20 Hangzhou Summit preparations going smoothly" Archived 22 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua News Agency, 16 February 2016 (page visited on 4 September 2016).
  19. ^ Derrick Ho, "PM Lee expresses confidence in long-term outlook of China's economy, accepts invitation to G-20 summit" Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Straits Times, 7 November 2015 (page visited on 4 September 2016).
  20. ^ "Language Log » Annals of literary vs. vernacular, part 2". Archived from the original on 17 June 2017.
  21. ^ 中国网络审查员狂删习近平“宽衣”口误议论帖 (in Chinese). Voice of America. 6 September 2016. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.

External links[edit]