2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed May 17, 2016
Last system dissipated December 18, 2016
Strongest storm
Name Vardah
 • Maximum winds 130 km/h (80 mph)
(3-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure 975 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Depressions 10
Deep depressions 5
Cyclonic storms 4
Severe cyclonic storms 1
Very severe cyclonic storms 1
Total fatalities 401 total
Total damage $7.17 billion (2016 USD)
Related articles
North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone seasons
2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018

The 2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It was the deadliest season since 2010, killing about 400 people. The season was an average one, seeing four named storms, with one further intensifying into a very severe cyclonic storm. The first named storm, Roanu, developed on 19 May while the season's last named storm, Vardah, dissipated on 13 December. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with the two peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

The scope of this article is limited to the Indian Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, east of the Horn of Africa and west of the Malay Peninsula. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean — the Arabian Sea to the west of the Indian subcontinent, abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD); and the Bay of Bengal to the east, abbreviated BOB by the IMD. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center releases unofficial advisories. On average, three to four cyclonic storms form in this basin every season.[1]

Season summary[edit]

Cyclone VardahCyclone Roanu

The season officially started with the formation of Cyclone Roanu over in the Bay of Bengal on 17 May. The beginning of June witnessed no storms, although a lot of low pressure areas formed over Bay of Bengal, but none of these intensified into a depression due to a very strong southwest monsoon. At the end of June, Depression ARB 01 formed but weakened within two days. July witnessed no storms until a deep depression formed in August under the influence of an upper air cyclonic circulation over Gangetic West Bengal. However, multiple low pressure areas occurred on the Bay of Bengal, with Cyclonic Storm Kyant forming in October and Cyclonic Storm Nada in November. Due to warm sea surface temperatures Very Severe Cyclone Vardah formed in December.

Systems[edit]

Cyclonic Storm Roanu[edit]

Cyclonic storm (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Roanu 2016-05-21 0450Z.jpg Roanu 2016 track.png
Duration May 17 – May 22
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (3-min)  983 hPa (mbar)

Under the influence of a trough, a low pressure area formed over the Bay of Bengal on 14 May.[2][3] It slowly consolidated, prompting the IMD to classify it as a depression on 17 May.[4] By the late hours of 17 May, a tropical cyclone formation alert (TCFA) was issued, following which, the JTWC upgraded the system to tropical storm intensity.[5][6] On the next day, the IMD upgraded the storm to a Deep Depression, prompting the issuance of cyclone warnings for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.[7] On 19 May, the IMD reported that the storm had reached cyclonic storm intensity, naming it Roanu.[8] The cyclone drifted in a northeastward track, and continued to gain intensity until persistent wind shear and its proximity to land eventually caused it to start weakening, on the same day.[9][10] However, the wind shear soon decreased, and Roanu reintensified as deep convection became established over and around the low-level circulation center (LLCC).[11][12] Moving generally east-northeastwards, the storm made landfall near Chittagong, Bangladesh on 21 May, upon which it rapidly weakened.[13] The system dissipated over Gangetic West Bengal on 22 May. The outer rainbands of the storm gave heavy rain in south Bengal including Kolkata.[citation needed]

Depression ARB 01[edit]

Depression (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
ARB01 2016-06-27 0645Z.jpg ARB 01 2016 track.png
Duration June 27 – June 29
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

On 27 June, a low pressure system intensified into a depression in the Arabian Sea. It turned westwards and moved to the cooler sections of the Arabian sea and gradually weakened. It dissipated on open waters on 29 June. Rain in Oman was the result of the depression. The depression that formed over the Northwest Arabian Sea and moved towards the Oman coast, and weakened. However, this weakened system continued to give rain over Oman in Ash Sharqiya and Al Wusta region. Mostly southern parts of Oman was affected by this system.[citation needed]

Land Depression 01[edit]

Depression (IMD)
LAND 01 2016-07-06.jpg LAND01 2016 track.png
Duration July 6 – July 7
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

On 6 July, a depression formed over north central India. The Land Depression dissipated on the next day. [14]

Land Depression 02[edit]

Deep depression (IMD)
LAND 02 2016-08-10 0730Z.jpg LAND 02 2016 track.png
Duration August 9 – August 12
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (3-min)  994 hPa (mbar)

A well-marked low-pressure area developed into a depression on 9 August, close to Canning, West Bengal, India. The next day, it moved northeastwards and intensified into a deep depression overland in Bangladesh, about 100 km (62 mi) east-northeast of Kolkata.[15]

Eight trawlers with a collective 118 fishermen aboard went missing over the Bay of Bengal during the storm;[16] at least 2 people are feared dead. The Indian Coast Guard launched a large-scale search and rescue operation to locate the missing fishermen.[17] All of the trawlers later returned to port, with one requiring assistance due to engine failure.[18] 5 fishermen went missing due to the storm out of which 2 died in the Hugli delta.[citation needed]

The deep depression moved towards Jharkhand on 11 August, and quickly degenerated into a depression. Heavy rain fell over districts in West Bengal, such as Birbhum, Purulia, and Bardhaman, and even in Kolkata, which led to flooding in some areas. Flooding also occurred in Jharkhand and West Bengal, due to the increase of river waters in Damodar and Hugli.[citation needed]

Deep Depression BOB 02[edit]

Deep depression (IMD)
BOB02 2016-08-18 0750Z.jpg BOB02 2016 track.png
Duration August 16 – August 20
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (3-min)  994 hPa (mbar)

A low pressure area formed over the Bay of Bengal in mid-August 2016. It slowly consolidated, prompting the IMD to upgrade the system to a Depression on 16 August.[19] The system slowly moved northwestward, and intensified into a Deep Depression on the following day, before making landfall over the coast of West Bengal between Digha and Diamond Harbour.[citation needed]

The system brought heavy rainfall to the eastern states of India, a region which was experiencing deficient monsoon rains. Chandabali and Balasore in Odisha recorded 146 mm (5.7 in) and 90 mm (3.5 in) of rainfall respectively in a span of 21 hours. Heavy rains fell in West Bengal, including Kolkata, which recorded winds of 70 km/h. At least 6 people died in Kolkata, directly due to the storm.[20] In Jharkhand, two teams of the National Disaster Response Force were deployed in the Garhwa and Chatra districts of the state, amid concerns of a possible flash flood.[21]

Cyclonic Storm Kyant[edit]

Cyclonic storm (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Kyant 2016-10-26 0500Z.jpg Kyant 2016 track.png
Duration October 21 – October 27
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (3-min)  988 hPa (mbar)

An area of low pressure formed over east-central Bay of Bengal on 19 October.[22] It slowly consolidated and was upgraded to a Depression on 21 October.[23] The system tracked over a marginally favorable environment, and intensified into a Deep Depression on 23 October.[24] This was shortly followed by the JTWC issuing a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) for the system.[25] On 24 October, both the IMD and JWTC reported the storm had reached tropical cyclone strength, naming it Kyant.[26][27] Initially following a northeastward path, the storm re-curved westward off the coast of Myanmar, along the southern periphery of a subtropical ridge, towards the eastern coast of India.[28] Shortly thereafter, Kyant reached its peak intensity, with sustained winds exceeding 85 km/h (50 mph) and a minimal central pressure of 998 mbar (29.47 inHg). Over the next day, the system experienced dry-air intrusion, due to proximity to land, and within a span of six hours, it lost most of its convective structure and rapidly degenerated, as the storm drifted further west-southwestward.[citation needed] The JTWC issued its final warning at 21:00 UTC on 26 October, and Kyant was last noted as a well-marked low pressure area off the coast of southern Andhra Pradesh, on 28 October.[29][30]

Depression BOB 04[edit]

Depression (IMD)
BOB 04 2016-11-04 0455Z.jpg BOB04 2016 track.png
Duration November 2 – November 6
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min)  997 hPa (mbar)

An area of convection persisted in the Gulf of Thailand on 31 October. It crossed the Malay Peninsula and drifted northwestwards into the Bay of Bengal over the next few days, as it steadily organized. Being located in a highly favourable environment, the system rapidly consolidated, which inclined the JTWC to issue a TCFA on 2 November.[31] The IMD reported that the area of low pressure had organized into a Depression on the next day.[32] However, the storm moved into an area of very high wind shear, prompting the JTWC to cancel the TCFA on 4 November.[33] The system gradually weakened as it tracked along the eastern coast of India over the next two days, and dissipated near southeast Bangladesh on 6 November. However, the weakened system triggered heavy rainfall in coastal areas of West Bengal and Bangladesh, killing 80 people directly.[34]

Cyclonic Storm Nada[edit]

Cyclonic storm (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Nada 2016-11-30 1835Z.jpg Nada 2016 track.png
Duration November 29 – December 2
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (3-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

Under the influence of a trough, a low pressure area formed in the extreme southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal. The low pressure area slowly consolidated, until it strengthened into Depression BOB 05 on 29 November. This was followed by the JTWC issuing a TCFA for the system, while it was rapidly intensifying to a Deep Depression. Remaining as a Deep Depression for a short time, the storm quickly intensified into a Cyclonic Storm, and was named Nada by the IMD. Shortly thereafter, the storm reached its peak intensity, with winds exceeding 75 km/h (45 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 1,000 mbar (29.53 inHg). Over the next two days, the storm encountered high wind shear, which combined with land interaction caused the storm to rapidly weaken, and cross the coast of Tamil Nadu, near Karaikal, as a depression. The system was last noted as a well-marked low pressure area over southern Karnataka on 2 December.[citation needed]

In the wake of Nada, the schools in Tamil Nadu declared a two-day holiday, in order to be available as cyclone shelters. Heavy rainfall lashed southern India and Sri Lanka. Mamallapuram in Tamil Nadu recorded 110 mm (4.3 in) rainfall within 24 hours on 2 December. Jaffna, Sri Lanka also reported 110 mm (4.3 in) of rainfall.Tirupati airport Recorded a total of 272 mm (10.7 in), which was highest total from the Cyclone. 12 deaths were reported, due to incidents related to the storm.[35]

Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Vardah[edit]

Very severe cyclonic storm (IMD)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Vardah 2016-12-11 0515Z.jpg Vardah 2016 track.png
Duration December 6 – December 13
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (3-min)  975 hPa (mbar)

Under the influence of a persistent area of convection, a low pressure area formed in the Malay Peninsula and adjoining north Sumatra, in early December 2016. The low pressure area emerged as a tropical disturbance over the next several days, as it slowly moved towards the southeast Bay of Bengal. On 6 December, The IMD classified the system as Depression BOB 06, as it had sufficiently organized itself, with winds of 45 km/h (30 mph).[36] Owing to low wind shear and favorable sea surface temperatures, the storm gradually intensified into a Deep Depression on the following day.[37] Skirting off the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as a Deep Depression, BOB 06 was upgraded to a Cyclonic Storm by the IMD and JTWC, in the early hours of 8 December, and was assigned the name Vardah.[38]

With conditions favorable for further development, Vardah intensified into a Severe Cyclonic Storm on 9 December.[39] Although predicted to maintain its intensity, Vardah strengthened further, as it followed a generally west-northwestwards track, prompting the IMD to upgrade its intensity to a Very Severe Cyclonic Storm status, on 10 December.[40] Gradually intensifying as it moved westwards, Vardah reached its peak intensity on 11 December, with maximum sustained winds of 130 km/h (80 mph), and a minimum central pressure of 982 mbar (29.00 inHg).[41] On 12 December, Vardah made landfall in southern India and weakened rapidly, before weakening into a remnant low on 13 December.

Vardah brought heavy rainfall to Andaman and Nicobar Islands as a Deep Depression. Hut Bay recorded 166 mm (6.5 in) of rainfall on 6 December, while Port Blair recorded 167 mm (6.6 in) of rainfall on 7 December.[42] More than 1,400 tourists were stranded on the Havelock and Neil islands of the archipelago.[43] The cyclone prompted India's largest evacuation in 2 years of 16000 people. 24 deaths related to the cyclone were reported in the State of Tamil Nadu. The cyclone dumped extreme amounts of rainfall, at 382 mm (15.0 in) in Sathyabama University, Chennai, and 341 mm (13.4 in) in Katupakkam, a suburb of Chennai, within 24 hours of making landfall.[44]

Depression ARB 02[edit]

Depression (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
ARB 02 2016-12-18 0700Z.jpg Vardah 2016 track.png
Duration December 17 – December 18
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min)  994 hPa (mbar)

The remnants of Cyclone Vardah crossed the Indian Subcontinent and entered the Arabian Sea on 14 December.[45] Owing to warm sea surface temperatures, the system consolidated into a depression on 17 December.[46][47] On the next day, the system entered an area marked by colder sea surface temperatures and high wind shear, causing it to rapidly weaken into a well-marked low pressure area.[48][49]

Season effects[edit]

This is a table of all storms in the 2016 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. It mentions all of the season's storms and their names, duration, peak intensities (according to the IMD storm scale), damage, and death totals. Damage and death totals include the damage and deaths caused when that storm was a precursor wave or extratropical low, and all of the damage figures are in 2016 USD.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Roanu 17 – 22 May Cyclonic storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 983 hPa (29.03 inHg) Sri Lanka, East coast of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Yunnan $2 billion 227 [50][51]
ARB 01 27 – 29 June Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Oman, Gujarat None None
LAND 01 6 – 7 July Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) East India Unknown None
LAND 02 9 – 12 August Deep depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 994 hPa (29.35 inHg) East India, Bangladesh Minimal 20
BOB 02 16 – 20 August Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 994 hPa (29.35 inHg) East India, Bangladesh $40 million 17
Kyant 21 – 27 October Cyclonic storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Andaman Islands, Myanmar, South India None None
BOB 04 2 – 6 November Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Malaysia, Thailand, West Bengal, Bangladesh $19 million 80
Nada 29 November – 2 December Cyclonic storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Sri Lanka, South India $16 million 12
Vardah 6 – 13 December Very severe cyclonic storm 130 km/h (80 mph) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) Sumatra, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, South India $5.87 billion 38
ARB 02 17 – 18 December Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 994 hPa (29.35 inHg) Somalia Minimal 7
Season aggregates
10 systems 17 May –
18 December
130 km/h (80 mph) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) $7.18 billion 401


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Annual Frequency of Cyclonic Disturbances (Maximum Wind Speed of 17 Knots or More), Cyclones (34 Knots or More) and Severe Cyclones (48 Knots or More) Over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS) and Land Surface of India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  2. ^ "Tropical Weather Outlook" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  3. ^ "All India Weather Summary and Forecast Bulletin, Night of 14 May 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  4. ^ Yadav, B. P. "Special Tropical Outlook for the North Indian Ocean issued at 0600 UTC of 17 May 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  5. ^ "Current Significant Tropical Weather Advisories ABIO10 (Indian Ocean) reissued at 18 May 2016, 0030 UTC". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. 
  6. ^ "Tropical Cyclone 01B (One) Warning #01 Issued on 18 May 2016 at 0900 UTC". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Yadav, B.P. (18 May 2016). "Deep Depression BOB 01 Warning Bulletin 5 issued on 18 May 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. 
  8. ^ Kotal, S. D. "Cyclonic Storm Roanu, Bulletin No. 9 issued at 0300 UTC, 19 May 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  9. ^ "TROPICAL CYCLONE 01B (ROANU) WARNING NR 006". Joint Typhoon Warning Centre. Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  10. ^ "TROPICAL CYCLONE 01B (ROANU) WARNING NR 007". Joint Typhoon Warning Centre. Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  11. ^ "Tropical Cyclone 01B (Roanu) Warning #07". Joint Typhoon Warning Centre. Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  12. ^ "Tropical Cyclone 01B (Roanu) Warning #08". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  13. ^ Mohapatra, M. "Tropical Storm Roanu Advisory No. 16 issued at 1500 UTC of 21 May 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  14. ^ "Best Tracks Data (1990-2017)". Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre for Tropical Cyclones over North Indian Ocean. 13 Apr 2018. Retrieved 28 Apr 2018. 
  15. ^ "Shipping Bulletin for Met. Area Viii(N), North of Equator Valid for 24/48 Hours From 0900 UTC 10th Aug 2016" (PDF). Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre. India Meteorological Department. 10 August 2016. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  16. ^ "Most missing trawlers located". The Statesman. SNS. 11 August 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
  17. ^ "Two of missing Bengal fishermen feared dead BoB". The New Indian Express. IANS. 11 August 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
  18. ^ "Fishermen rescued from Bay of Bengal". The Hindu. Press Trust of India. 11 August 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
  19. ^ Mohapatra, M. "Special Tropical Weather Outlook for the North Indian Ocean issued at 0600 UTC of 17 August 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  20. ^ "Depression in Bay batters Odisha with heavy rains, more in offing". Skymet Weather. Retrieved 17 August 2016. 
  21. ^ "Depression to bring more showers today". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  22. ^ "Tropical Weather Outlook For North Indian Ocean (2016-10-19, 0600z)" (PDF). RSMC New Delhi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  23. ^ Mohapatra, M (21 October 2016). "Tropical Cyclone Bulletin 01 for Depression BOB 03" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. 
  24. ^ Mohapatra, M. "Tropical Cyclone bulletin 12 for Deep Depression BOB 03" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016. 
  25. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert for Deep Depression BOB03". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016. 
  26. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Warning 001 (TC 03B)". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  27. ^ Gopal, Neeta K. "Tropical Storm 'Kyant' Advisory One" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  28. ^ "Tropical Cyclone 03B (Three) Warning 002". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  29. ^ "Tropical Cyclone 03B (Three) Warning 008 (Final)". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016. 
  30. ^ Kumar, Naresh. "Special Tropical Weather Outlook for the North Indian Ocean issued at 0300 UTC of October 28, 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016. 
  31. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (2016-11-02, 0500Z)". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 2 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  32. ^ Kumar, Naresh. "Depression over Central & adjoining southeast Bay of Bengal" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  33. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert Cancellation for 90B". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 2016-11-07. 
  34. ^ Mohapatra, M. "Special Tropical Outlook for the North Indian Ocean issued at 1500 UTC of 6 November 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  35. ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/Be-proactive-to-check-water-stagnation-residents-told/article16738935.ece
  36. ^ Kumar, Naresh. "Special Tropical Weather Outlook for North Indian Ocean issued at 0600 UTC of 7 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  37. ^ Katiyar, Shobhit. "Special Tropical Weather Outlook for North Indian Ocean issued at 1930 UTC of 7 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  38. ^ Katiyar, Shobhit. "Tropical Storm Vardah Advisory Number One issued at 0300 UTC of 8 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  39. ^ Srivastava, Akhil. "Tropical Storm Vardah Advisory Number Fifteen issued at 2000 UTC of 9 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  40. ^ Ravindren, Shambu. "Tropical Storm Vardah Advisory Number Twenty One issued at 1500 UTC of 10 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  41. ^ Singh, Charan. "Tropical Storm Vardah Advisory Number Twenty Eight issued at 1200 UTC of 11 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  42. ^ "Port Blair receives 76 mm in six hours, 1400 tourists stranded in Havelock". Skymet Weather. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  43. ^ PTI. "At least 1400 tourists stranded due to heavy rainfall in the Andamans". The Indian Express. PTI. Retrieved 7 December 2016. 
  44. ^ "All India Weather Summary" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. 13 December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2018. 
  45. ^ "Tropical Weather Outlook for the North Indian Ocean Issued at 0600 UTC of 14 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  46. ^ Gopal, Neetha. "Depression over southwest Arabian Sea" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  47. ^ "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory for the Indian Ocean Issued on 16 December 2016". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  48. ^ Gopal, Neetha. "Special Tropical Weather Outlook for the North Indian Ocean issued at 0600 UTC of 18 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  49. ^ Kumar, Naresh. "Special Tropical Weather Outlook for the North Indian Ocean issued at 1400 UTC of 18 December 2016" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  50. ^ "Sri Lanka finds more landslide fatalities, warns of flood-triggered health crisis". The Japan Times. AFP-JIJI. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  51. ^ "Bangladesh avoids high death toll with cyclone evacuation". The New Indian Express. 23 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 

External links[edit]