2016 Summer Olympics
|Host city||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Motto||A new world
(Portuguese: Um mundo novo)
|Events||306 in 28 sports|
|Opening ceremony||5 August|
|Closing ceremony||21 August|
|Officially opened by||Vice President Michel Temer
as Acting President
|Athlete's Oath||Robert Scheidt|
|Judge's Oath||Martinho Nobre|
|Coach's Oath||Adriana Santos|
|Olympic Torch||Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima|
|Part of a series on|
The 2016 Summer Olympics (Portuguese: Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016),[a] officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was a major international multi-sport event held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 5 August to 21 August 2016.
More than 11,000 athletes from 207 National Olympic Committees, including first time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, and the Refugee Olympic Team, took part. With 306 sets of medals, the games featured 28 Olympic sports, including rugby sevens and golf, which were added to the Olympic program in 2009. These sporting events took place at 33 venues in the host city, and at five in São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília, and Manaus.
These were the first Summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Thomas Bach. The host city Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. Rio became the first South American city to host the Summer Olympics. These were the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first to be held entirely in the host country's winter, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, and the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.
The lead-up to these Games was marked by controversies, including the instability of the country's federal government; health and safety concerns surrounding the Zika virus and significant pollution in the Guanabara Bay; and a doping scandal involving Russia, which has affected the participation of its athletes in the Games.
The United States topped the medal table for the fifth time in the past six Summer Olympics, winning the most golds (46) and most medals overall (121). Great Britain finished second and became the first country in the history of the modern Olympics to increase its tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation. China finished third. Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, its most at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place. Fiji, Jordan, Kosovo, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Tajikistan, and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes (from Kuwait). The United States won its 1,000th Olympic gold medal in this edition.
- 1 Bidding process
- 2 Development and preparation
- 3 The Games
- 3.1 Opening ceremony
- 3.2 Sports
- 3.3 Participating National Olympic Committees
- 3.4 Calendar
- 3.5 Records
- 3.6 Medal table
- 3.7 Event scheduling
- 3.8 Closing ceremony
- 4 Broadcasting
- 5 Marketing
- 6 Concerns and controversies
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The bidding process for the 2016 Olympic Games was officially launched on 16 May 2007. The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each applicant city by 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020. The IOC did not promote Doha to the candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, because of their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku also failed to make the cut.
Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids. The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections.
Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift. Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media.
Ultimately, you are communicating with just 115 people and each one has influencers and pressure groups but you are still speaking to no more than about 1,500 people, perhaps 5,000 in the broadest sense. It is not just about getting ads out there but it is about a targeted and very carefully planned campaign.
The final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Madrid and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting, respectively, while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round. The lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics.
|2016 Summer Olympics bidding results|
|City||NOC||Round 1||Round 2||Round 3|
|Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||26||46||66|
Development and preparation
On 26 June 2011, it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes just five months after CCO Flávio Pestana quit for personal reasons. Pestana withdrew later during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was then appointed as COO.
Venues and infrastructure
Events will take place at eighteen existing venues (eight of which require some redevelopment), nine new venues constructed for the Summer Games, and seven temporary venues which will be removed following the games.
Each event will be held in one of four geographically segregated Olympic clusters: Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro, and Maracanã. The same was done for the 2007 Pan American Games. Several of the venues will be located at the Barra Cluster Olympic Park. Athletes could access their venues in shorter than 10 minutes and about 75 percent could do so in less than 25 minutes. Of the 34 competition locales, eight have undergone permanent works, seven are limited, and nine are perpetual legacy venues.
The largest venue at the games in terms of seating capacity is the Maracanã Stadium, officially known as Jornalista Mário Filho Stadium, which can hold 74,738 spectators and will serve as the official Olympic Stadium, hosting the opening and closing ceremonies as well as football finals. The second largest stadium is Estádio Nilton Santos, Botafogo club home field, which can hold 60,000 spectators and will host all track and field events. In addition, five venues outside Rio de Janeiro will host football events, in the cities of Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Manaus, Salvador and São Paulo.
The athletes' village is said to be the largest in Olympic history. Fittings will include about 80,000 chairs, 70,000 tables, 29,000 mattresses, 60,000 clothes hangers, 6,000 television sets and 10,000 smartphones.
The Barra Olympic Park is a cluster of nine sporting venues in Barra da Tijuca, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil that will be used for the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics. The site of the Olympic Park was formerly occupied by the Autódromo Internacional Nelson Piquet, also known as Jacarepaguá.
The nine venues to be used within the Olympic Park are: Carioca Arena 1: basketball (capacity: 16,000); Carioca Arena 2: wrestling, judo (capacity: 10,000); Carioca Arena 3: fencing, taekwondo (capacity: 10,000); Future Arena: handball (capacity: 12,000); Maria Lenk Aquatics Centre: diving, synchronised swimming, water polo (capacity: 5,000); Olympic Aquatics Stadium: swimming, water polo play-offs (capacity: 15,000); Olympic Tennis Centre: tennis (capacity: 10,000 Main Court); Rio Olympic Arena: gymnastics (capacity: 12,000); and Rio Olympic Velodrome: track cycling (capacity: 5,000).
As well as the Estádio Olímpico João Havelange and Maracanã and in Rio de Janeiro, some football games will take place at 5 venues in the cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília and Manaus.
Rio's historical downtown is undergoing a large-scale urban waterfront revitalization project called Porto Maravilha. It covers 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi) in area. The project aims to redevelop the port area, increasing the city center's attractiveness and enhancing Rio's competitive position in the global economy. The urban renovation involves: 700 km (430 mi) of public networks for water supply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 4 km (2.5 mi) of tunnels; 70 km (43 mi) of roads; 650 km2 (250 sq mi) of sidewalks; 17 km (11 mi) of bike path; 15,000 trees; three sanitation treatment plants. As part of this renovation, a new tram will be built and will run from the Santos Dumont Airport to Rodoviária Novo Rio. It was due to open in April 2016.
The Games require more than 200 kilometres of security fencing. To store material, Rio 2016 is using two warehouses. A 15,000 square metre warehouse in Barra da Tijuca in western Rio is being used to assemble and supply the furniture and fittings for the Olympic Village. A second warehouse of 90,000 square metres, located in Duque de Caxias near the roads that provide access to the venues, contains all the equipment needed for the sporting events.
The Rio Olympic Games will have novel robotic technology, created by Mark Roberts Motion Control, to broaden the reach of photographers at multiple venues.
The medal design was unveiled on 15 June 2016; they were produced by the Casa da Moeda do Brasil. The bronze and silver medals contained 30% recycled materials, while the gold medals were produced using gold that had been mined and extracted using means that met a series of sustainability criteria, such as being extracted without the use of mercury. The medals feature a wreath design, while the obverse, as is traditional, features Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. They were accompanied by a wooden carrying box, while medallists also received a trophy of the Games' emblem.
As an aspect of its bid, Rio's organizing committee committed to a focus on sustainability and environmental protection as a theme of these Games, going on to dub them a "Green Games for a Blue Planet". Organizers intended to, as legacy projects, introduce a wider array of public transport options, upgrade the infrastructure of the favelas to provide improved transport and access to utilities, upgrade Rio's sewer system in order to remediate the level of pollution in the Guanabara Bay. and plant 24 million seedlings to offset the expected carbon emissions of the Games. However, some of these projects were met with delays or faced with economic shortfalls, which led some critics to believe that Rio would not be able to accomplish them.
The focus on environmental protection also influenced the implementation of certain Olympic protocols: the Olympic cauldron was designed to be smaller than previous iterations in order to reduce emissions, and utilizes a kinetic sculpture to enhance its appearance in lieu of a larger body of flames. The bronze and silver medals, as well as ribbons on all medals, incorporate recycled materials, and athletes were not presented with flowers during medal ceremonies, as had been traditionally done at prior Olympics (although flowers were still used as part of the staging of medal presentations). Organizers considered the practice to be wasteful since they were often thrown away, and "would struggle to survive in the tropical Brazilian climate" if kept. The podiums were also designed so that their materials could be recycled to make furniture. The Future Arena, host of handball competitions, was designed as a modular temporary venue whose components can be reconstructed to build schools.
Phase I – Applicant city
|Revenue||Federal Government||State Government||Total|
Phase II – Candidate city
¹LATAM Airlines contributed with R$1,233,726.00 in the form of discounts in air tickets.
Note: The residual balance was used to fund the first months of operation of Rio 2016 Organizing Committee.
|Olympic Park||R$5.6 billion||R$1.46 billion||R$4.18 billion|
|Public Transport||R$24 billion||R$13.7 billion||R$10.3 billion|
|General Total||R$29.6 billion||R$15.16 billion||R$14.48 billion|
Note: The total investment in Olympic park and public transport in Rio to the 2016 Summer Olympics.
The Olympic flame was lit at the temple of Hera in Olympia on 21 April 2016, the traditional start of the Greek phase of the torch relay. On 27 April the flame was handed over to the Brazilian organizers at a ceremony at the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens. A brief stop was made in Switzerland to visit the IOC headquarters and the Olympic Museum in Lausanne as well as the United Nations Office at Geneva.
The torch relay began its Brazilian journey on 3 May at the capital Brasília. The torch relay visited more than 300 Brazilian cities (including all the 26 states capitals and the Brazilian Federal District), with the last part held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, lighting the cauldron during the 2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony on 5 August.
The ticket prices were announced on 16 September 2014, all of which will be sold in Brazilian reais (BRL). A total of 7.5 million tickets will[when?] be sold; 200,000 tickets less compared to the 2012 Summer Olympics, because the size of many arenas is smaller. Ticket prices range from BRL 40 for many events to BRL 4,600 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. About 3.8 million of these tickets will be available for BRL 70 or less. The street events such as road cycling, race walk and the marathon can be watched along their routes for free.
The opening ceremony took place in the Maracanã Stadium on 5 August 2016, and was directed by Fernando Meirelles, Daniela Thomas and Andrucha Waddington. The ceremony highlighted aspects of Brazilian history and culture, and featured a segment narrated by Fernanda Montenegro and Judi Dench with an appeal to environmental conservation and preventing global warming. The ceremony also featured the inaugural presentation of the Olympic Laurel, an honour bestowed by the IOC to those that have made "significant achievements in education, culture, development and peace through sport", to Kipchoge "Kip" Keino. The Games were officially opened by Acting President of Brazil Michel Temer.
The Olympic cauldron was lit by Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima, the men's marathon bronze medallist at the 2004 Summer Olympics who was also awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship by the IOC after being attacked by a spectator and losing his lead. The cauldron was originally expected to be lit by Brazilian footballer Pelé, but he declined to participate due to health problems. A public cauldron was lit in front of the Candelária Church by a 14-year-old participant in Rio's Vila Olimpica program—which provides access to training facilities to disadvantaged youth.
The 2016 Summer Olympic program features 28 sports and a total of 41 disciplines and 306 events.
- Archery (4)
- Athletics (47)
- Badminton (5)
- Basketball (2)
- Boxing (13)
- Slalom (4)
- Sprint (12)
- BMX (2)
- Mountain biking (2)
- Road (4)
- Track (10)
- Dressage (2)
- Eventing (2)
- Jumping (2)
- Fencing (10)
- Field hockey (2)
- Football (2)
- Golf (2)
- Artistic (14)
- Rhythmic (2)
- Trampoline (2)
- Handball (2)
- Judo (14)
- Modern pentathlon (2)
- Rowing (14)
- Rugby sevens (2)
- Sailing (10)
- Shooting (15)
- Table tennis (4)
- Taekwondo (8)
- Tennis (5)
- Triathlon (2)
- Volleyball (2)
- Beach volleyball (2)
- Weightlifting (15)
- Freestyle (12)
- Greco-Roman (6)
The two new sports for 2016 Olympic Games are golf and rugby sevens. There were two open spots for sports and initially seven sports began the bidding for inclusion in the 2016 program. Baseball and softball, which were dropped from the program in 2005, karate, squash, golf, roller sports, and rugby union all applied to be included. Leaders of the seven sports held presentations in front of the IOC executive board in June 2009.
In August, the executive board initially gave its approval to rugby sevens—a seven-player version of rugby union—by a majority vote, thus removing baseball, roller sports, and squash from contention. Among the remaining three—golf, karate, and softball—the board approved golf as a result of consultation. The final decision regarding the remaining two sports was made on 9 October 2009, the final day of the 121st IOC Session. A new system was in place at this session; a sport now needed only a simple majority from the full IOC committee for approval rather than the two-thirds majority previously required.
International Golf Federation executive director Antony Scanlon said that the top players, including Tiger Woods and Annika Sörenstam, would show their continued support of golf's Olympic involvement by participating in the events.
The International Sailing Federation announced in May 2012 that windsurfing would be replaced at the 2016 Olympics by kitesurfing, but this decision was reversed in November. The IOC announced in January 2013 that it would review the status of cycling events, following Lance Armstrong's admission of using performance-enhancing drugs and accusations that cycling's governing body had covered up doping.
Participating National Olympic Committees
All 206 National Olympic Committees have qualified at least one athlete. The first three nations to qualify athletes for the Games were Germany, Great Britain, and the Netherlands who each qualified four athletes for the team dressage by winning medals in the team event at the 2014 FEI World Equestrian Games.
As host nation, Brazil has received automatic entry for some sports including in all cycling disciplines and six places for weightlifting events. The 2016 Summer Olympics are the first games in which Kosovo and South Sudan are eligible to participate. Bulgarian and Russian weightlifters were banned from Rio Olympics for numerous anti-doping violations.
Due to the European migrant crisis and other reasons, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) allowed athletes to compete as Independent Olympians under the Olympic Flag. In the previous Olympic Games, refugees were ineligible to compete because of their inability to represent their home NOCs. On 2 March 2016, the IOC finalized plans for a specific Refugee Olympic Team (ROT); out of 43 refugee athletes deemed potentially eligible, 10 were chosen to form the team.
Due to the suspension of the National Olympic Committee of Kuwait, participants from Kuwait were allowed to participate under the Olympic Flag as Independent Olympic Athletes.
In November 2015, Russia was provisionally suspended from all international athletic competitions by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) following a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) report into a doping program in the country. The IAAF announced that it would allow individual Russian athletes to apply for "exceptional eligibility" to participate in the Games as "neutral" athletes, if it were independently verified that they had not engaged in doping nor in the Russian doping program.
On 24 July 2016, the IOC rejected the IAAF and WADA's recommendations to allow clean athletes to compete neutrally, stating that the Olympic Charter "does not foresee such 'neutral athletes'" and that it was up to each country's National Olympic Committee to decide which athletes would be competing.
Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees
During the Games some countries and continents had a national house. These temporary meeting places for supporters, athletes and other followers were located throughout Rio de Janeiro.
|Africa House||Barra da Tijuca||Africa House|
|Australia||Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Convention Center||Australia House|
|Czech Republic||Barra da Tijuca||Czech House|
|Germany||Leblon||Germany Beach House|
|Great Britain||Parque Lage, Jardim Botânico||British House Olympics|
|Hungary||Gávea||House of Hungary|
|Netherlands||Lagoa||Holland Heineken House
(Casa da Holanda)
|PyeongChang 2018||Copacabana||PyeongChang House|
|Russia||Copacabana||Russian Olympic Team Fans House|
|Slovakia||Barra da Tijuca||Slovak House|
|Tokyo 2020||Barra da Tijuca||Tokyo 2020 Japan House|
|Tokyo Metropolitan Government||Paço Imperial||Tokyo Metropolitan Government House|
This is currently based on the schedule released on the same day as ticket sales began, 31 March 2015.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Gold medal events||EG||Exhibition gala||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Gold medal events|
|Ceremonies (opening / closing)||OC||CC|
|Total gold medal events||12||14||14||15||20||19||24||21||22||17||25||16||23||22||30||12||306|
|Gold medal events|
Twenty-seven world records and ninety-one Olympic records were set during the 2016 Summer Olympics. The records were set in archery, athletics, canoeing, cycling track, modern pentathlon, rowing, shooting, swimming and weightlifting.
The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below. Host nation Brazil finished in 13th place with a total of 19 medals (7 gold, 6 silver, and 6 bronze).
|1||United States (USA)||46||37||38||121|
|2||Great Britain (GBR)||27||23||17||67|
|8||South Korea (KOR)||9||3||9||21|
|Total (87 NOCs)||307||307||360||974|
(Brazil is ranked at #13. See the complete medals table at Host nation (Brazil)2016 Summer Olympics medal table.)
A number of events, most notably in aquatics, beach volleyball, and track and field, were scheduled with sessions and matches occurring as late as 22:00 to 00:00 BRT. These scheduling practices were influenced primarily by United States broadcast rightsholder NBC (due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has sometimes allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximize U.S. television ratings when possible), as well as the main Brazilian rightsholder Rede Globo. As Brasília time is only one hour ahead of the U.S. Eastern Time Zone, certain marquee events were scheduled so they could occur during the lucrative U.S. primetime hours (traditionally 20:00 to 23:00 ET, or 21:00 to 00:00 BRT), allowing them to be broadcast live on the U.S. east coast as opposed to being delayed. This practice was also to the benefit of domestic broadcaster Rede Globo, which elected to not preempt its widely viewed lineup of primetime telenovelas for the Games. However, Globo did preempt its telenovelas for the opening ceremony; a Brazilian television critic noted that Globo very rarely preempts its telenovelas.
The closing ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics was held on 21 August 2016 from 20:00 to 22:50 BRT at the Maracanã Stadium. As per traditional Olympic protocol, the ceremony featured cultural presentations from both the current (Brazil) and following (Japan) host countries, as well as closing remarks by International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Thomas Bach and the leader of the Games' organizing committee Carlos Arthur Nuzman, the official handover of the Olympic flag from Rio de Janeiro mayor Eduardo Paes to Tokyo governor Yuriko Koike, whose city will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, and the extinguishing of the Olympic flame.
The creative director for the ceremony was Rosa Magalhães. Amid heavy rainfall, the ceremony began with interpretive dancers representing various landmarks in the host city. Martinho da Vila then performed a rendition of the classic song "Carinhoso" by Pixinguinha. In another segment, introducing the athletes, pop singer Roberta Sá channeled Carmen Miranda, the fruit-headdress-wearing, midcentury Hollywood diva who endures as a beloved camp figure. The Parade of Flags followed shortly after a choir of 27 children, representing the states of Brazil, sang the Brazilian national anthem.
Olympic Broadcasting Services served as the host broadcaster for these Games; produced from a total of 52 mobile units, OBS distributed 40,000 hours of television footage and 60,000 hours of digital footage of the Games to its international rightsholders; for the first time in Olympic history, digital-oriented footage exceeded the amount of television-oriented footage. The International Broadcast Centre was constructed in the Barra da Tijuca cluster. NHK and OBS once again filmed portions of the Games, including the opening ceremony and selected events, in 8K resolution video. Additionally, expanding upon a 180-degree trial at the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics, 85 hours of video content were originated in 360-degree virtual reality formats. In the United States, NBC offered 4K content, downconverted from the 8K footage and with HDR and Dolby Atmos support, to participating television providers. Owing to their expertise in domestic broadcasts of the new sports introduced in Rio, NBC and Sky New Zealand staff handled the production of the golf and rugby sevens events on behalf of OBS.
In August 2009, the IOC reached a deal to sell domestic broadcast rights to the 2016 Summer Olympics to Grupo Globo. Replacing Rede Record, the deal covers free-to-air coverage on Rede Globo, pay TV, and digital rights to the Games. In turn, Globo sub-licensed partial free-to-air rights to Rede Record, along with Rede Bandeirantes. IOC board member Richard Carrión described the agreement as "unprecedented", touting that "by working with Brazil's leading media organizations, we are confident that this represents a great deal for Olympic fans in the region. There will be a huge increase in the amount of Olympic action broadcast, both during and outside Games time, and Brazilians will have more choice of how, when and where they follow their Olympic Games."
The official mascots of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 November 2014. The Olympic mascot Vinicius, named after musician Vinicius de Moraes, represents Brazilian wildlife and carries design traits of cats, monkeys, and birds. According to their fictional backgrounds, the mascots "were both born from the joy of Brazilians after it was announced that Rio would host the Games." Brand director Beth Lula stated that the mascots are intended to reflect the diversity of Brazil's culture and people. The names of the mascots were determined by a public vote whose results were announced on 14 December 2014; the names, which reference the co-writers of the song "The Girl from Ipanema", won over two other sets of names, tallying 44 percent of 323,327 votes. At the Olympic wrestling events, coaches were given plush dolls of Vinicius to throw into the ring when they wished to challenge a referee's call.
The official emblem for the 2016 Summer Olympics was designed by the Brazilian agency Tatíl Design and unveiled on 31 December 2010, winning in a competition against 139 agencies. The logo represents three figures joined at their arms and feet, with the overall shape reflecting that of Sugarloaf Mountain. The emblem was also designed to have a three-dimensional form, which designer Fred Gelli claimed made it the "first 3D logo in the history of the Olympics."
The logo has been noted as evoking Henri Matisse's painting Dance. There were also allegations by the Colorado-based Telluride Foundation that the logo had been plagiarized from its own. While also consisting of several figures linked in motion, the Telluride Foundation logo contains four figures. This is not the first time that the foundation had alleged plagiarism of its logo by a Brazilian event; in 2004, the linked figures element had been copied for the logo of Carnival celebrations in Salvador. Gelli defended the allegations, stating that the concept of figures linked in embrace was not inherently original as it was "an ancient reference" and "in the collective unconscious". Gelli cited Dance as an influence of the logo's concept, and stated that the designers had intentionally aimed to make the interpretation of the concept as dissimilar to others as possible.
Concerns and controversies
An ongoing outbreak of the mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil has raised fears regarding its potential impact on athletes and visitors. Organizers plan to perform daily inspections of Olympic venues to prevent puddles of stagnant water that allow mosquitoes to breed. Zika virus transmission was also attributed to inefficient sewage treatment in the area, and sewage treatment was being improved in preparation for the Games. In May 2016, a group of 150 physicians and scientists sent an open letter to the World Health Organization, calling upon them to, according to co-author Arthur Caplan, have "an open, transparent discussion of the risks of holding the Olympics as planned in Brazil". The WHO dismissed the request, stating that "cancelling or changing the location of the 2016 Olympics will not significantly alter the international spread of Zika virus", and that there was "no public health justification" for postponing them. Some athletes did not attend the Games because of the epidemic. On 2 September 2016, the World Health Organization reported that there were no confirmed cases of Zika among athletes or visitors during the Olympics.
The Guanabara Bay, whose waters will be used for sailing and windsurfing competitions, is heavily polluted. Among the chief causes of the pollution are uncollected trash fed into the bay via polluted rivers and slums along the coast. Pollution of the Guanabara has been a long-term issue. Officials promised at the Earth Summit in 1992 that they would begin to address the pollution but previous attempts to do so have been insufficient. As an aspect of their bid for the Games, Rio once again committed to making efforts towards cleaning the bay. However, some of these proposed initiatives have faced budgetary issues. Prior to these efforts, only 17% of Rio's sewage was treated; this raw sewage also leaked into the bay. Although Mayor of Rio Eduardo Paes stated that the city may not be able to reach its goal of having 80% of sewage treated, at least 60% of sewage was treated by March 2016, with a projected goal of 65% of sewage being treated by the time the Olympics started.
In 2014, Operation Car Wash, an investigation by the Federal Police of Brazil, uncovered unprecedented money laundering and corruption at the state-controlled oil company Petrobras. In early 2015, a series of protests against alleged corruption by the government of President Dilma Rousseff began in Brazil, triggered by revelations that numerous politicians were involved in the Petrobras affair. By early 2016, the scandal had escalated into a full-blown political crisis affecting not only President Rousseff, but also former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, resulting in massive demonstrations all over the country involving millions of protesters, both anti and pro-Rousseff. At the same time, Brazil faced its worst economic recession since the 1990s, raising questions about whether the country was adequately prepared for the Games against a volatile political and economic backdrop. On 12 May, President Rousseff was stripped of her powers and duties for 180 days, after an impeachment vote in the Federal Senate, thus Vice President Michel Temer will be acting president during the Games.
Since the award of the 2016 Olympics to Rio de Janeiro, the city's crime problems received more attention. Rio's mayor said that there are "big issues" facing the city in securing the Games from violence. However, he also said that such concerns and issues were presented to the IOC throughout the bidding process. The governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro also highlighted the fact that London faced security problems, with a terrorist attack occurring on the day following the IOC session that chose the city to host the 2012 Olympic Games. The estimate was that 5,000 men of the National Public Security Force and 22,000 military officers (14,800 Army; 5,900 Navy and 1,300 of the Brazilian Air Force), in addition to the fixed quota of Rio January, would act during the Olympic Games. On 21 July 2016, two weeks before the scheduled start of the Games, Brazilian Federal Police broke up an Islamic jihadist terrorist ring, with 10 ISIS associates arrested and two more on the run.
While the whole city is undergoing major infrastructure improvements, there were concerns that some projects will never materialise. On 21 April—the day that the Olympic torch was lit—a 50 metres (164 ft) section of the Tim Maia bike path, crossing the Oscar Niemeyer Avenue in São Conrado neighborhood and a part of the legacy of the games, was hit by a giant wave and collapsed, causing the death of two pedestrians and injuries to three more. The athlete's village has been described as the largest in Olympic history, but two weeks before the Olympics opened, officials also described it as "unliveable" and unsafe because of major plumbing and electrical hazards, blocked toilets, leaking pipes, exposed wiring, darkened stairwells where no lighting has been installed, and dirty floors. More than 500 employees of the local Olympic committee worked to fix the problems reported by the delegations.
In November 2015, Russia's track and field team was provisionally suspended from all international athletic competitions by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) following a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) report into a doping program in the country. On 18 July 2016, an independent investigation commissioned by WADA reported that Russia's Ministry of Sport and Federal Security Service had operated a "state-dictated" system to implement an extensive doping program and to cover up positive samples. Based on the finding the International Olympic Committee called for an emergency meeting to consider banning Russia from the Summer Olympics. The IOC decided against completely banning Russian participation and instead decided to set additional, stricter requirements for all Russian participants entered into the Olympic Games. Originally Russia submitted a list of 389 athletes for competition. On 7 August 2016, the IOC cleared 278 athletes, while 111 were removed because of the scandal.
- The Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation is [ˈʒɔɡuz oˈlĩpikus dʒi veˈɾɐ̃w dʒi ˈdojz ˈmiw i dʒizeˈsejs], in Brazil's standard pronunciation.
- "Olympic Athletes". Rio 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- "About Rio 2016 Summer Olympics". Rio 2016 Olympics Wiki. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Why Winter Olympics Bypass the Southern Hemisphere – Winter Olympics 2014".
- "2016 Bid Process Launched". International Olympic Committee. 16 May 2007.
- "Four on 2016 Olympics short-list". BBC News. 4 June 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
- "Olympic News – Official Source of Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Rings Around the World[dead link] Communicate magazine, April 2009
- "Past Bid Results". GamesBids.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Around the Rings – Articles Archive". aroundtherings.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Rio 2016™ contrata Renato Ciuchini como Diretor-Executivo Comercial" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 4 October 2012.
- "Sports and Venues" (PDF), Rio de Janeiro 2016 Candidate File (PDF), 2, BOC, 16 February 2009, pp. 10–11, archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2010, retrieved 29 June 2015.[dead link]
- "Introduction" (PDF), Rio de Janeiro 2016 Candidate File (PDF), 1, London, United Kingdom: BOC, 16 February 2009, retrieved 5 May 2009.
- Rio 2007 Pan Am Games Get Debriefed Ahead Of 2016 Bid, Toronto, Canada: GamesBids, 9 March 2008, retrieved 5 May 2009.[dead link]
- "An introduction to the Venues at the 2016 Rio Games". Olympic.org. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "8,400 shuttlecocks, 250 golf carts, 54 boats... the mind-blowing numbers behind the Rio 2016 Games".
- Lewis, Peter (15 September 2013). "Rio Olympics 2016: Brazilian city in a race against time to be ready to play host to the Games". ABC News Australia. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "Introducing Carioca Arena 1… the new home of Olympic basketball". Rio 2016. Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Barra Region". Portal Brasil 2016. Governo Federal do Brasil. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro City Hall. Retrieved 10 August 2012. (Portuguese).
- "Rio tram starts test running". Railway Gazette. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Simon, Johnny (4 June 2016). "Rio Games to have smart sports cameras". Mashable. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
- "Innovative medal design unveiled for Rio 2016". IOC. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- Busbee, Jay. "Rio mystery solved: Why don't Olympic medal winners get flowers?". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- "Brazil Made Big Environmental Promises for Its Rio Olympics. Here's Why It Won't Keep Them.". The Atlantic. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Baich, Oliver. "Funding problems hit plan to clean Rio's polluted waterways ahead of Olympics". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "Rio has broken its promise of an environmentally-friendly Olympics". Vice News. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- "Diminutive Rio 2016 cauldron complemented by massive kinetic sculpture". Dezeen. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- "Here's why Olympic medalists don't get flowers at the Summer Games in Rio". Mashable. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- "Rio 2016 handball arena will dismantle to become four schools". Dezeen. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- "The Rio Opening Ceremony Put Climate Change Front And Center". The Huffington Post. 6 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Rio 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "G1 – Passada crise com o COI, Paes diz que obras da Rio 2016 estão 'na mão' – notícias em Rio 450 anos". Rio 450 anos. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Greek fire lights up Rio 2016 Games... Olympic Torch lit in traditional ceremony at Olympia". Rio 2016 website. 21 April 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- "Goiás will be the first state to receive the Rio 2016 Olympic Flame". Diário Mercantil. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "Prijzen tickets Olympische Spelen 2016 in Rio bekend". olympischespelenrio.nl. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Olympic Games ticket prices September 2014" (PDF). Rio 2016. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Rio Olympics committee reveals opening ceremony details". China Central Television. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- Levinson King, Robin (5 August 2016). "Highlights from Rio 2016 Olympic opening ceremony". Toronto Star. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Kip Keino to receive Olympic Laurel distinction". IOC. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- Axon, Rachel (6 August 2016). "No introduction for Brazil's president at start of opening ceremony". USA Today. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "Emanuel surpreende e oferece sua medalha de ouro para Vanderlei Cordeiro" [Emanuel surprises and offers his gold medal to Vanderlei Cordeiro] (in Portuguese). Folha Online. September 1, 2004. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- "Mystery Solved: Why Rio Olympics' cauldron is so tiny". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "Formerly homeless boy who lit Olympic cauldron now has 'beautiful life'". CBC News. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima se eterniza como herói e ganha a medalha de ouro". O Dia. Retrieved 21 August 2016..
- "Golf among seven sports seeking inclusion in 2016 Games". ESPN. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- "Olympic Leaders Approve Golf and Rugby for 2016 Summer Games". Fox News Channel. 13 August 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- "Olympics 2016: IOC Approves Golf And Rugby Sevens To Be Included In Rio De Janeiro Games.". Sky (United Kingdom). Retrieved 15 March 2010.[dead link]
- "Around the Rings - Articles Archive". aroundtherings.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Kiteboarding to replace windsurfing at 2016 Rio Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- "Windsurfing restored to Brazil 2016 Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "Armstrong confession could see cycling out of Olympics". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique : ACRO". Fig-gymnastics.com. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012.[dead link]
- "Rio Olympics gets 1st qualified athletes". USA Today. Associated Press. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "UCI and IOC agree qualification quotas for Rio 2016". Reuters. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Anderson, Gary (2 February 2014). "Weightlifting qualification criteria for Rio 2016 approved by IOC". Inside the Games. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Bulgarian weightlifters banned from Rio Olympics after CAS rejects appeal against ban for doping violations". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 January 2016.
- "Strong statement by the IWF Executive Board". International Weightlifting Federation. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Olympics-Kuwait ban remains in force as ties with IOC deteriorate". Yahoo Sports. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Refugees can compete for first time in 2016 Rio Olympics, IOC head says". ESPN. 27 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- "Rio 2016: Refugee team to compete at Olympics". BBC Sport. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- "Athletics doping: Russia provisionally suspended by IAAF". BBC Sport. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Russian whistleblower Yuliya Stepanova to compete as 'neutral athlete' in Rio". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Background Information to the decision of the IOC Executive Board concerning the participation of Russian athletes in the Olympic Games Rio 2016". 24 July 2016. Archived from the original on 25 July 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "National Houses". Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Tickets". NOC*NSF. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Why all the midnight madness for some Olympians?". CBC News. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "Australia's Olympic swimmers can sleep easy at Rio despite late night meets thanks to recovery training". The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "Greed, Passion, Lust, Betrayal, and the Olympics in Between". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
- "Swimming, beach volleyball will be on late in Rio". US News & World Report. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Rio 2016 Ingressos – Compre seu ingresso para as Olímpiadas". ingressos.rio2016.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- "Rio Olympics 2016: Spectacular closing ceremony as Olympic flag goes to Tokyo". BBC Sport. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Rio 2016: Rosa Magalhães deve comandar encerramento". Rio 2016 (in Portuguese). 19 September 2015. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- "Olympic Broadcasting: Inside the Chief Executive's Office". TV Technology. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "Olympics in VR: NBC to Present 85 Hours of Virtual-Reality Content on Samsung Devices". Variety. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "Rio Olympics: NBC Plans 4K and High Dynamic Range for Opening Ceremony Coverage". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "IOC reaches agreement for 2014 & 2016 broadcast rights in Brazil". International Olympic Committee. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- "Meet the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games mascots and help choose their names". Rio 2016. 23 November 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Quarrell, Dan (22 July 2016). "2016 Rio Olympics: Biggest stars, dates, schedule, mascots, logo, Usain Bolt 'triple triple', Zika". Eurosport. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- "Rio 2016: Olympic and Paralympic mascots launched". Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic mascots named Vinicius and Tom by public vote". Rio 2016. 14 December 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Gordon, Aaron (17 August 2016). "Olympic Wrestling Uses Stuffed Animals for Replay Challenges". Vice Sports. Vice Media. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Nudd, Tim (14 August 2012). "Hated the London 2012 Logo? You Might Like Rio 2016 Better Brazil's Tatíl Design tells story of its creation". Adweek. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Rio 2016 motif is "first 3D logo in the history of the Olympics" says designer". Dezeen. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- "Telluride Foundation says Brazil stole its logo for Olympics". The Denver Post. Retrieved 7 May 2016.[dead link]
- "Zika virus: Olympic venues to be inspected daily before and during Games". BBC Sport. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- Khazan, Olga (31 March 2016). "What Happens When There's Poop in the Water". The Atlantic. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- ""The Games will go ahead": Tourists have a near-zero chance of getting Zika at the Rio Olympics". Quartz. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "150 experts say Olympics must be moved or postponed because of Zika". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Zika crisis: WHO rejects 'move Rio Olympics' call". BBC News. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- "Rio 2016: Are tennis players using Zika as an excuse?". CNN. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Reuters (2 August 2016). "Olympics-Golf-Zika an excuse for top ranked players, says Van Zyl". Yahoo!. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- "No Zika cases from Olympics, says WHO". BBC News. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "Note to Olympic Sailors: Don't Fall in Rio's Water". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Carneiro, Julia (10 January 2014). "Rio's Olympic waters blighted by heavy pollution". BBC News. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "German sailor blames infections on water at Rio 2016 Olympic test event". The Guardian. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- "'Super bacteria' found in Rio waters where sailors and windsurfers are supposed to compete in the Olympics". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "USOC, athletes navigate questions swirling around Rio's contaminated water". The Washington Post. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- Flynn, Daniel; Soto, Alonso (14 March 2016). "Record Brazil protests put Rousseff's future in doubt". Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- Segal, David (7 August 2015). "Petrobras Oil Scandal Leaves Brazilians Lamenting a Lost Dream". The New York Times.
- Grandin, Greg (22 March 2016). "Millennials Are Taking to the Streets to Defend Democracy in Brazil". The Nation. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
- , Globo.com, 12 May. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- "Rio's mayor expresses safety concerns for 2016 Olympics , ksdk.com , St. Louis, MO". ksdk.com. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
- "Terroristas divulgam 'manual' para ataques nos Jogos do Rio" (in Portuguese). Terra. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "Brazil police smash ISIS ring". Daily Mail. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- Jaroschewski, Julia (29 April 2016). "Between hope and despair". D+C, development and cooperation. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- "Parte de ciclovia desaba em São Conrado, Zona Sul do Rio" [Part of bike path collapses in São Conrado, south of Rio]. Jornal do Brasil (in Portuguese). 21 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- Charner, Flora; Jones, Julia; Darlington, Shasta (21 April 2016). "Rio bike path collapse kills 2, injures 3". CNN. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
- "Rio Olympics Athletes' village 'unliveable' days before Games begin". Daily Mail. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Ruiz, Rebecca (18 July 2016). "Russia May Face Olympics Ban as Doping Scheme Is Confirmed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- "Decision of the IOC Executive Board concerning the participation of Russian athletes in the Olympic Games Rio 2016". IOC. 24 July 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "IOC confirm 278 Russian athletes are eligible to compete at Rio". 2016-07-09. Archived from the original on 2016-08-09. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
- "Russian athletes participating in Rio Olympic Game by federation". Europe Online Magazine. Archived from the original on 2016-08-09. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2016 Summer Olympics.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for 2016 Summer Olympics.|
|Summer Olympic Games
Rio de Janeiro
XXXI Olympiad (2016)