2016 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Rio 2016" redirects here. For the 2016 Paralympic Games, see 2016 Summer Paralympics.
Games of the XXXI Olympiad
2016 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Motto Live your passion
(Portuguese: Viva sua paixão)
Nations participating 146 qualified (206 expected)
Athletes participating 5,412 (more than 10,500 expected)
Events 306 in 28 sports
Opening ceremony August 5
Closing ceremony August 21
Stadium Maracanã Stadium
Rio 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics Head offices

The 2016 Summer Olympics (Portuguese: Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016),[1] officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, and commonly known as Rio 2016, are a major international multi-sport event that will take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from August 5 to August 21, 2016. Record numbers of countries and sets of medals are awaiting in the games. More than 10,500 athletes from 206 National Olympic Committees (NOCs), including from Kosovo and South Sudan for the first time, will take part in this sporting event.[2] With 306 sets of medals, the games will feature 28 Olympic sports — including rugby sevens and golf, which were added by the International Olympic Committee in 2009. These sporting events will take place on 33 venues in the host city and additionally on 5 venues in the cities of São Paulo (Brazil's largest city), Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília (Brazil's capital), and Manaus.[2]

The host city of Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. The other finalists were Madrid, Spain; Chicago, United States; and Tokyo, Japan. Rio will become the first South American city to host the Summer Olympics, the second city in Latin America to host the event after Mexico City in 1968, and the first since 2000 in the Southern Hemisphere. This will be the third time the Summer Olympics are held in a developing country, after the 1968 Games in Mexico and the 1988 Games in South Korea.

Bidding process[edit]

Then President Lula (center with flag of Brazil), Brazilian footballer Pelé (hugging) and then-governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro Sérgio Cabral (right) when, in 2009, Rio was announced as host.

The bidding process for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games was officially launched on 16 May 2007.[3] The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each applicant city by 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo (which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020). The IOC did not promote Doha to the Candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, due to their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku also failed to make the cut.[4]

Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids. The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections.[5]

Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift. Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media.

Ultimately, you are communicating with just 115 people and each one has influencers and pressure groups but you are still speaking to no more than about 1,500 people, perhaps 5,000 in the broadest sense. It is not just about getting ads out there but it is about a targeted and very carefully planned campaign.

— Jon Tibbs, a consultant on the Tokyo bid[6]

The final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Madrid and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting, respectively, while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round. The lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics. Failed bids from other South American cities include Buenos Aires (1936, 1956, 1968, 2004), Cali (1976, 1988, 2004), and Brasília, which withdrew during the 2000 Summer Olympic bidding process.

2016 Summer Olympics bidding results[7]
City NOC Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 26 46 66
Madrid  Spain 28 29 32
Tokyo  Japan 22 20
Chicago  United States 18

Development and preparation[edit]

Map of Rio de Janeiro showing the competition venues for the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Engenhão (Estádio Nilton Santos), site of athletic events and some football matches.
Maracanã Stadium, site of the opening and closing ceremonies, in addition to the finals of football.

On 26 June 2011 it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes just five months after CCO Flávio Pestana quit for personal reasons.[8] Pestana withdrew later during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was then appointed as COO.[9]

Venues and infrastructure[edit]

In Rio de Janeiro, Barra da Tijuca will host most of the venues of the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. The rest will be located in three other zones of the host city: Copacabana Beach, Maracanã and Deodoro. Barra da Tijuca will also house the Olympic Village.

Rio's historical downtown is undergoing a large-scale urban waterfront revitalization project called Porto Maravilha.[10] It covers 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi) in area. The project aims to redevelop the port area increasing the city center's attractiveness and enhancing Rio’s competitiveness position in the global economy. The urban renovation involves: 700 km (430 mi) of public networks for water supply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 4 km (2.5 mi) of tunnels; 70 km (43 mi) of roads; 650 km2 (250 sq mi) of sidewalks; 17 km (11 mi) of bike path; 15,000 trees; three sanitation treatment plants. As part of this renovation, a new tram will be built and will run from the Santos Dumont Airport to Rodoviária Novo Rio. It is due to open in April 2016.[11]

Additionally some of football games will take place on 5 venues in the cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília and Manaus.


Since the award of the 2016 Olympics to Rio de Janeiro, the city's crime problems have received more attention. A police helicopter was shot down over a favela during one of the city's many drug wars, and the pilot was killed in the incident.[12] Rio's mayor has admitted that there are "big issues" facing the city in securing the Games from violence. However, he also said that such concerns and issues were presented to the IOC throughout the bidding process.[13] The governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro also highlighted the fact that London faced security problems, with a terrorist attack occurring on the day following the IOC session that chose the city to host the 2012 Olympic Games.

The IOC, however, has expressed optimism regarding the ability of the city and the nation of Brazil to address these concerns, saying that seven years is enough time for Rio de Janeiro to clean up its crime problem.[14] IOC spokesman Mark Adams told The Associated Press, "we have confidence in their capacity to deliver a safe Games in seven years. Security is of course a very important aspect of any Olympic Games no matter where it is in the world. This is of course entirely under the national, regional and city authorities."[15][16][17] Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, former president of Brazil, noted that the city has hosted other high-profile events without major incidents, for example the 2007 Pan American Games.[18]

Rio de Janeiro is planning to pacify local neighbourhoods, or favelas. Community-based Police Pacification Units (UPPs) will be used to build trust in individual communities through the use of street patrols and civic work.[19] Moreover, The Regional Institute of Public Safety reported that the homicide rate of Rio de Janeiro for the first five months of 2012 was at its lowest in the past 21 years, with 10.9 homicides for every 100,000 habitants.[20][21] Nonetheless, despite the decline in homicides and human rights abuses, Human Rights Watch urged Brazil to investigate extrajudicial killings.[22]

Concerns over completion[edit]

Maracanãzinho Gymnasium, site of volleyball.
BRT map to the Olympics.
Bus Rapid Transit in Rio de Janeiro International Airport. The system connects the airport with the Olympic areas.
Rio de Janeiro Metro map, including the connection with the Olympic area in Barra da Tijuca.

On 9 May 2014, the London Evening Standard reported IOC vice-president John Coates calling Brazil’s preparations "the worst I’ve experienced" and went on to claim that construction and infrastructure projects were severely behind schedule. "The IOC has formed a special task force to try to speed up preparations but the situation is critical on the ground," the paper quoted him as saying, concluding that such an intervention was "unprecedented".[23] Coates' concerns had previously been reported elsewhere in the media.[24][25]

Despite these initial worries, the Rio Olympics Committee reported on 29 December 2015 that most all venues are complete except the Rio Olympic Velodrome (76%) and the Youth Arena (75%).[26]


Phase I – Applicant City[edit]

Revenue Federal Government State Government Total
Public Funds R$3,022,097.88 R$3,279,984.98 R$6,302,082.86
Private Funds R$2,804,822.16
General Total R$9,106,905.02

Phase II – Candidate City[edit]

Public revenues

Revenue Public funds
Federal government R$47,402,531.75
State government R$3,617,556.00
Municipal government R$4,995,620.93
General Total R$56,015,708.68

Private revenues

Revenue Private funds
EBX R$13,000,000.00
Eike Batista R$10,000,000.00
Bradesco R$3,500,000.00
Odebrecht R$3,300,000.00
Embratel R$3,000,000.00
TAM Airlines¹ R$1,233,726.00
General Total R$34,033,726.00

¹TAM Airlines contributed with R$1,233,726.00 in the form of discounts in air tickets.

Note: The residual balance was used to fund the first months of operation of Rio 2016 Organizing Committee.[27]


Olympics/City Investment Public Private
Olympic Park R$5.6 billion R$1.46 billion R$4.18 billion
Public Transport R$24 billion R$13.7 billion R$10.3 billion
General Total R$29.6 billion R$15.16 billion R$14.48 billion

Note: The total investment in Olympic park and public transport in Rio to the 2016 Summer Olympics.[28]


The ticket prices were announced on 16 September 2014, and all will be sold in Brazilian Reals (BRL). A total of 7.5 million tickets will be sold; 200,000 tickets less compared to the 2012 Summer Olympics, because the size of many arenas is smaller. Ticket prices range from BRL 40 for many events to BRL 4,600 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. About 3.8 million of these tickets will be available for BRL 70 or less.[29][30] The street events such as road cycling, race walk, and the marathon can be watched along their routes for free.

Football venues for the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Torch relay[edit]

The torch relay will begin its Brazilian journey on 3 May 2016. The torch relay will visit more than 300 Brazilian cities (including all the 26 states capitals and the Brazilian Federal District), after the Greek phase (Olympia to Athens). The Brazilian phase starts in the capital Brasília, with the last part to be held in Rio de Janeiro city).[31]

The Games[edit]

Opening ceremony[edit]

The opening ceremony will take place in the Maracanã Stadium on 5 August 2016.


The 2016 Summer Olympic program features 28 sports and a total of 41 disciplines and 306 events.

New sports[edit]

There were two open spots for sports and initially seven sports began the bidding for inclusion in the 2016 program. Baseball and softball, which were dropped from the program in 2005, karate, squash, golf, roller sports, and rugby union all applied to be included. Leaders of the seven sports held presentations in front of the IOC executive board in June 2009.[32]

In August, the executive board initially gave its approval to rugby sevens—a seven-player version of rugby union—by a majority vote, thus removing baseball, roller sports, and squash from contention. Among the remaining three—golf, karate, and softball, the board approved golf as a result of consultation. The final decision regarding the remaining two sports was made on 9 October 2009, the final day of the 121st IOC Session. A new system was in place at this session; a sport now needed only a simple majority from the full IOC committee for approval rather than the two-thirds majority previously required.[33][34] International Golf Federation executive director Antony Scanlon said that the top players, including Tiger Woods and Annika Sörenstam, would show their continued support of golf's Olympic involvement by participating in the events.[35]

The International Sailing Federation announced in May 2012 that windsurfing would be replaced at the 2016 Olympics by kitesurfing,[36] but this decision was reversed in November.[37] The IOC announced in January 2013 that it would review the status of cycling events, following Lance Armstrong's admission of using performance-enhancing drugs and accusations that the cycling's governing body had covered up doping.[38]

In contrast to the exception during the 2012 Olympics, the International Gymnastics Federation announced that these Games will have a gala event for gymnastics.[39]

Participating National Olympic Committees[edit]

As of 12 February 2016, 152 out of the current 206 National Olympic Committees have qualified at least one athlete. One Independent Olympian has also qualified.

As host nation, Brazil has received automatic entry for some sports including in all cycling disciplines and six places for weightlifting events.[40][41] The first three nations to qualify athletes for the Games were Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands who each qualified four athletes for the team dressage by winning medals in the team event at the 2014 FEI World Equestrian Games.[42]

South Sudan and Kosovo are expecting to debut in the Olympic Games.

Kuwait was banned in October 2015 for the second time in five years over government interference in the country's Olympic committee.[43]

Russia was provisionally suspended in November 2015 from all international athletic (track and field) competitions, including the 2016 Summer Olympics, by the IAAF following a World Anti-Doping Agency report into doping in athletics.[44]

Due to the European migrant crisis and for other reasons, the IOC will allow athletes to compete as Independent Olympians under the Olympic Flag. In the previous Olympic Games, refugees were ineligible to compete due to their inability to represent their home NOCs.[45]

Participating National Olympic Committees


This is currently based on the schedule released on the same day as ticket sales began, March 31, 2015.[46]

All dates are Brasília Time (UTC–3)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony
August 3
Gold medal events
Ceremonies (opening / closing) OC CC
Archery 1 1 1 1 4
Athletics 3 5 4 5 5 4 6 7 7 1 47
Badminton 1 1 2 1 5
Basketball 1 1 2
Boxing 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 13
Canoeing Slalom 1 1 2 16
Sprint 4 4 4
Cycling Road cycling 1 1 2 18
Track cycling 1 2 2 1 1 3
Mountain biking 1 1
Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Equestrian 2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
Field hockey 1 1 2
Football 1 1 2
Golf 1 1 2
Gymnastics Artistic 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 EG 18
Rhythmic 1 1
Trampolining 1 1
Handball 1 1 2
Judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14
Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Rowing 2 4 4 4 14
Rugby sevens 1 1 2
Sailing 2 2 2 2 2 10
Shooting 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 15
Swimming 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 34
Synchronized swimming 1 1 2
Table tennis 1 1 1 1 4
Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8
Tennis 1 1 3 5
Triathlon 1 1 2
Volleyball Beach volleyball 1 1 4
Indoor volleyball 1 1
Water polo 1 1 2
Weightlifting 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15
Wrestling 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 18
Total gold medal events 12 14 14 15 20 19 24 21 22 17 25 16 23 22 30 12 306
Cumulative total 12 26 40 55 75 94 118 139 161 178 203 219 242 264 294 306
August 3
Gold medal events

Event times[edit]

Swimming heats will be held beginning at 13:00 BRT (UTC−3). Swimming finals will be held from 22:00. to 00:00 BRT. Some beach volleyball matches will begin at midnight BRT.[47] Meanwhile, each track and field morning session will include at least one final. There will be at least one final during each of the six morning sessions in the stadium. Eight stadium events will hold morning session finals, a first at the Olympics since 1988. The first is the women’s 10,000m on the first day of track and field competition on Friday 12 August, one week after the Opening Ceremony. The others are the men’s discus (13 August), women’s 3000m steeplechase and hammer throw (15 August), men’s triple jump and women’s discus (16 August), men’s 3000m steeplechase (Aug. 17) and men’s 400m hurdles (Aug. 18).The men's 100m finals will begin at 22h35 BRT on August 14. The women’s 100m final is the night before at 22:35 BRT. The men’s 200m final is Thursday 18 August at 22:30 BRT. The women’s 200m final is Aug. 17 at 22:30. BRT. The men’s 4 × 100 m relay final is Friday 19 August at 22h35. BRT.[48][49]

Closing ceremony[edit]

The closing ceremony will also take place at the Maracanã Stadium on 21 August 2016.


The Rio 2016 logo was designed by Tatil Design, a Brazilian company, and unveiled on December 31, 2010.[50] The logo represents three figures, in the yellow, green, and blue of the Brazilian flag, joined at the arms and in a triple embrace, with the overall shape reflecting that of Sugarloaf Mountain. The logo was based on four concepts: contagious energy, harmonious diversity, exuberant nature, and Olympic spirit. The Rio firm Tatil designed the winning entry for the logo in a competition involving 139 agencies.[51] According to former IOC President Jacques Rogge, the logo captures the vision of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil for these Games. The logo has been noted as evoking Henri Matisse's painting Dance.[52] The logo, however, has been accused of being plagiarized from the Colorado-based philanthropic organisation Telluride Foundation,[53] in the same manner as the also Brazilian 2004 Salvador Carnival logo clearly was.[54]

Official mascot[edit]

Main article: Vinicius and Tom

The official mascots of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 November 2014. The Olympic mascot is called Vinicius and is named after musician Vinicius de Moraes. The Paralympic mascot is called Tom, named after the musician Tom Jobim. The Olympic mascot represents Brazilian wildlife, primarily carrying design traits of mammals. The agility of cats, sway of monkeys and grace of birds. He can stretch his arms and legs as much as he wants. The mascots' fictional backstories state that they were both born from the joy of Brazilians after it was announced that Rio would host the Games. Brand director Beth Lula stated that the mascots are intended to reflect the diversity of Brazil's culture and people. The names of the mascots were determined by a public vote won over two other sets of names, tallying 44 percent of 323,327 votes, whose results were announced on 14 December 2014. The other choices were Oba and Eba and Tiba Tuque and Esquindim.[55][56]

Concerns and controversies[edit]

Water pollution[edit]

The beaches in Rio de Janeiro have been a major health hazard that has been present and can pose a major threat among athletes. Progress has been very lackluster from the lack of cleanup with trash strewn across the beaches in Rio, while officials have promised to make the water safe.[57] During an Olympic test event in August 2015 a German sailor was infected by multi-resistant germs, which may have been caused by waste water from the city's hospitals and sewer system running into the sea near the Olympic venues.[58]

Zika virus[edit]

An outbreak of the Zika virus occurred in Brazil in January 2016. It was announced that there would be daily inspections of Olympic venues to prevent puddles of stagnant water that allow mosquitoes to breed.[59]


In August 2009, the IOC reached a deal to sell domestic broadcast rights to the 2016 Summer Olympics to Grupo Globo. Replacing Rede Record, the deal covers free-to-air coverage on Rede Globo, pay TV, and digital rights to the Games. In turn, Globo sub-licensed partial free-to-air rights to Rede Record, along with Rede Bandeirantes. IOC board member Richard Carrión described the agreement as "unprecedented", touting that "by working with Brazil’s leading media organizations, we are confident that this represents a great deal for Olympic fans in the region. There will be a huge increase in the amount of Olympic action broadcast, both during and outside Games time, and Brazilians will have more choice of how, when and where they follow their Olympic Games."[60]


  1. ^ The Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation is [ˈʒɔgos ɔlimˈpikus dʒi vɛˈɾɐ̃w dʒi ˈdojz ˈmiw i dʒezeˈsejz], in Brazil's standard pronunciation.
  2. ^ a b "About Rio 2016 Summer Olympics". Rio 2016 Olympics Wiki. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  3. ^ "2016 Bid Process Launched". International Olympic Committee. May 16, 2007. 
  4. ^ "Four on 2016 Olympics short-list". BBC News. June 4, 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  5. ^ "Olympic News – Official Source of Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Rings Around the World Communicate magazine, April 2009
  7. ^ "Past Bid Results". GamesBids.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  8. ^ "Around the Rings - Articles Archive". aroundtherings.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  9. ^ [1] Archived 4 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro City Hall. Retrieved 10 August 2012. (Portuguese).
  11. ^ Railway, Gazette (26 November 2015). "Rio tram starts test running". Railway Gazette. Railway Gazette. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  12. ^ "Rio gang violence amid Olympics safety concerns". Press TV. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  13. ^ "Rio's mayor expresses safety concerns for 2016 Olympics , ksdk.com , St. Louis, MO". ksdk.com. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  14. ^ Wilson, Stephen (20 October 2009). "IOC confident in Rio despite new wave of violence". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  15. ^ "Olympic Newsdesk — IOC Confident in Rio; Obama Addresses Critics". Aroundtherings.com. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  16. ^ [2][dead link]
  17. ^ "IOC show confidence in Brazil efforts". ESPN. 20 October 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2012. 
  18. ^ Downie, Andrew (2009-10-19). "Brazil vows Olympic security after Rio violence". MinnPost. 
  19. ^ "Pacifying Rio’s Favelas". latintelligence.com. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  20. ^ Knott, Tracey (June 29, 2012). "Rio de Janeiro Homicides Reach 21-Year Low". InSight Crime. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Homicidios en Río de Janeiro llegan a su nivel más bajo desde 1991". La Nueva Provincia (in Spanish). 27 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  22. ^ Stone, Hannah (19 June 2012). "Human Rights Watch Praises, Criticizes Rio Govt". InSight Crime. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  23. ^ Moore-Bridger, Benedict (9 May 2014). "Could Rio games come to London? Olympic bosses make secret plea to use 2012 venues". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  24. ^ Gibson, Owen (29 April 2014). "Rio 2016 Olympic preparations damned as 'worst ever' by IOC". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  25. ^ "Rio's Olympic preparations 'worst' ever, says IOC's Coate". Reuters. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  26. ^ "2016 Summer Olympics". 
  27. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Rio 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  28. ^ "G1 - Passada crise com o COI, Paes diz que obras da Rio 2016 estão 'na mão' - notícias em Rio 450 anos". Rio 450 anos. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  29. ^ "Prijzen tickets Olympische Spelen 2016 in Rio bekend". olympischespelenrio.nl. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  30. ^ "Olympic Games ticket prices September 2014" (PDF). Rio 2016. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  31. ^ "Goais will be the first state to receive the Rio 2016 Olympic Flame". USA Today. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015. 
  32. ^ "Golf among seven sports seeking inclusion in 2016 Games". ESPN. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2008. 
  33. ^ "Olympic Leaders Approve Golf and Rugby for 2016 Summer Games". Fox News Channel. 13 August 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  34. ^ "Olympics 2016: IOC Approves Golf And Rugby Sevens To Be Included In Rio De Janeiro Games.". Sky (United Kingdom). Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  35. ^ "Around the Rings - Articles Archive". aroundtherings.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  36. ^ "Kiteboarding to replace windsurfing at 2016 Rio Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  37. ^ "Windsurfing restored to Brazil 2016 Olympics". BBC News. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  38. ^ "Armstrong confession could see cycling out of Olympics". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  39. ^ "Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique : ACRO". Fig-gymnastics.com. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  40. ^ "UCI and IOC agree qualification quotas for Rio 2016". Reuters. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  41. ^ Anderson, Gary (2 February 2014). "Weightlifting qualification criteria for Rio 2016 approved by IOC". Inside the Games. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  42. ^ "Rio Olympics gets 1st qualified athletes". USA Today. Associated Press. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  43. ^ "Olympics-Kuwait ban remains in force as ties with IOC deteriorate". Yahoo Sports. Retrieved 2016-01-02. 
  44. ^ "Athletics doping: Russia provisionally suspended by IAAF". BBC Sport. Retrieved 2015-11-14. 
  45. ^ "Refugees can compete for first time in 2016 Rio Olympics, IOC head says". ESPN. 27 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015. 
  46. ^ "Tickets". NOC*NSF. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  47. ^ "Swimming, beach volleyball will be on late in Rio". US News & World Report. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  48. ^ "Athletics timetable for Rio 2016 Olympics published". iaaf.org. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  49. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/download/download?filename=946d16c3-1d8c-4565-8d41-4f390aaea721.pdf&urlSlug=athletics-timetable-rio-2016-olympic-games
  50. ^ Nudd, Tim (14 August 2012). "Hated the London 2012 Logo? You Might Like Rio 2016 Better Brazil's Tatíl Design tells story of its creation". Adweek. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  51. ^ "2016 Summer Olympics Logo: Design and History". Famouslogos.us. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  52. ^ Rio 2016: Another Olympic logo. Another controversy, Steve Douglas, The Logo Factory, 3 January 2011
  53. ^ "Telluride Foundation". Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  54. ^ "Suspeita de plágio arranha divulgação mundial da marca da Rio 2016". Veja. 12 July 2015. Retrieved July 12, 2015. 
  55. ^ "Rio 2016: Olympic and Paralympic mascots launched". Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  56. ^ "Rio 2016 mascots inspired by animals and plants of Brazil". Reuters. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  57. ^ "Rio's waters are so filthy that 2016 Olympians risk becoming violently ill and unable to compete". Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  58. ^ "German sailor blames infections on water at Rio 2016 Olympic test event". The Guardian. 2015-08-28. Retrieved 2016-01-03. 
  59. ^ "Zika virus: Olympic venues to be inspected daily before and during Games". BBC Sport. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016. 
  60. ^ "IOC reaches agreement for 2014 & 2016 broadcast rights in Brazil". International Olympic Committee. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Summer Olympic Games
Rio de Janeiro

XXXI Olympiad (2016)
Succeeded by