Jump to content

2016 United States presidential election

Page semi-protected
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2016 United States presidential election

← 2012 November 8, 2016 2020 →

538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Opinion polls
Turnout60.1%[1] Increase 1.5 pp
Nominee Donald Trump Hillary Clinton
Party Republican Democratic
Home state New York New York
Running mate Mike Pence Tim Kaine
Electoral vote 304[a] 227[a]
States carried 30 + ME-02 20 + DC
Popular vote 62,984,828[2] 65,853,514[2]
Percentage 46.1% 48.2%

2016 United States presidential election in California2016 United States presidential election in Oregon2016 United States presidential election in Washington (state)2016 United States presidential election in Idaho2016 United States presidential election in Nevada2016 United States presidential election in Utah2016 United States presidential election in Arizona2016 United States presidential election in Montana2016 United States presidential election in Wyoming2016 United States presidential election in Colorado2016 United States presidential election in New Mexico2016 United States presidential election in North Dakota2016 United States presidential election in South Dakota2016 United States presidential election in Nebraska2016 United States presidential election in Kansas2016 United States presidential election in Oklahoma2016 United States presidential election in Texas2016 United States presidential election in Minnesota2016 United States presidential election in Iowa2016 United States presidential election in Missouri2016 United States presidential election in Arkansas2016 United States presidential election in Louisiana2016 United States presidential election in Wisconsin2016 United States presidential election in Illinois2016 United States presidential election in Michigan2016 United States presidential election in Indiana2016 United States presidential election in Ohio2016 United States presidential election in Kentucky2016 United States presidential election in Tennessee2016 United States presidential election in Mississippi2016 United States presidential election in Alabama2016 United States presidential election in Georgia2016 United States presidential election in Florida2016 United States presidential election in South Carolina2016 United States presidential election in North Carolina2016 United States presidential election in Virginia2016 United States presidential election in West Virginia2016 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2016 United States presidential election in Maryland2016 United States presidential election in Delaware2016 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania2016 United States presidential election in New Jersey2016 United States presidential election in New York2016 United States presidential election in Connecticut2016 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2016 United States presidential election in Vermont2016 United States presidential election in New Hampshire2016 United States presidential election in Maine2016 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2016 United States presidential election in Hawaii2016 United States presidential election in Alaska2016 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2016 United States presidential election in Maryland2016 United States presidential election in Delaware2016 United States presidential election in New Jersey2016 United States presidential election in Connecticut2016 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2016 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2016 United States presidential election in Vermont2016 United States presidential election in New Hampshire
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Trump/Pence and blue denotes those won by Clinton/Kaine. Numbers indicate electoral votes cast by each state and the District of Columbia. On election night, Trump won 306 electors and Clinton 232. However, because of seven faithless electors (five Democratic and two Republican), Trump received 304 votes and Clinton 227.

President before election

Barack Obama

Elected President

Donald Trump

The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican ticket, businessman Donald Trump and Indiana governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former secretary of state and First Lady of the United States Hillary Clinton and the junior senator from Virginia, Tim Kaine, in what was considered one of the biggest political upsets in American history.[3] It was also the sixth presidential election in which both major party candidates were registered in the same home state; the others have been in 1860, 1904, 1920, 1940, and 1944.

Incumbent Democratic president Barack Obama was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the Twenty-second Amendment to the US Constitution. Clinton secured the nomination over U.S. senator Bernie Sanders in the Democratic primary and became the first female presidential nominee of a major American political party. Trump emerged as his party's front-runner amidst a wide field of candidates in the Republican primary, defeating U.S. senators Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, governors John Kasich and Jeb Bush, among other candidates. Trump's right-wing populist, nationalist campaign, which promised to "Make America Great Again" and opposed political correctness, illegal immigration, and many United States free-trade agreements[4] garnered extensive free media coverage due to Trump's inflammatory comments.[5][6] Clinton emphasized her extensive political experience, denounced Trump and many of his supporters as a "basket of deplorables", bigots and extremists, and advocated the expansion of president Barack Obama's policies; racial, LGBT, and women's rights; and inclusive capitalism.[7]

The tone of the general election campaign was widely characterized as divisive, negative, and troubling.[8][9][10] Trump faced controversy over his views on race and immigration, incidents of violence against protestors at his rallies,[11][12][13] and numerous sexual misconduct allegations including the Access Hollywood tape. Clinton's popularity and public image were tarnished by concerns about her ethics and trustworthiness,[14] and a controversy and subsequent FBI investigation regarding her improper use of a private email server while serving as secretary of state, which received more media coverage than any other topic during the campaign.[15][16] Clinton led in almost every nationwide and swing-state poll, with some predictive models giving Clinton over a 90 percent chance of winning.[17][18]

On Election Day, Trump over-performed his polls, winning several key swing states, while losing the popular vote by 2.87 million votes.[19] Trump received the majority in the Electoral College and won upset victories in the Rust Belt region. The pivotal victory in this region, which Trump won by less than 80,000 votes in the three states, was considered the catalyst that won him the Electoral College vote. Trump's surprise victories were perceived to have been assisted by Clinton's lack of campaigning in the region, and the influence of Sanders–Trump voters who refused to back her after Bernie Sanders dropped out.[20][21][22] Ultimately, Trump received 304 electoral votes and Clinton 227, as two faithless electors defected from Trump and five from Clinton. Trump was the first president with neither prior public service nor military experience. It was the fifth and most recent presidential election in which the winning candidate lost the popular vote.[2][23] Trump flipped six states that had voted Democratic in 2012: Florida, Iowa, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, as well as Maine's 2nd congressional district.

With ballot access to the entire national electorate, Libertarian nominee Gary Johnson received nearly 4.5 million votes (3.27%), the highest nationwide vote share for a third-party candidate since Ross Perot in 1996,[24] while Green Party nominee Jill Stein received almost 1.45 million votes (1.06%). Independent candidate Evan McMullin received 21.4% of the vote in his home state of Utah, the highest share of the vote for a non-major party candidate in any state since 1992.[25]

On January 6, 2017, the United States Intelligence Community concluded that the Russian government had interfered in the 2016 elections[26][27] in order to "undermine public faith in the U.S. democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency."[28] A Special Counsel investigation of alleged collusion between Russia and the Trump campaign began in May 2017[29][30] and ended in March 2019. The investigation concluded that Russian interference to favor Trump's candidacy occurred "in sweeping and systematic fashion", but it "did not establish that members of the Trump campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government."[31][32]


The incumbent in 2016, Barack Obama. His second term expired at noon on January 20, 2017.

Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, and residents of the United States for a period of at least 14 years.[33] Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the political parties, in which case each party devises a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors in turn directly elect the president and vice president.[34]

President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U.S. senator from Illinois, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to the restrictions of the American presidential term limits established by the Twenty-second Amendment; in accordance with Section 1 of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at noon eastern standard time on January 20, 2017.[35][36]

Both the Democratic and Republican parties, as well as third parties such as the Green and Libertarian parties, held a series of presidential primary elections and caucuses that took place between February and June 2016, staggered among the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories. This nominating process was also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elected their party's presidential nominee. Speculation about the 2016 campaign began almost immediately following the 2012 campaign, with New York magazine declaring that the race had begun in an article published on November 8, two days after the 2012 election.[37] On the same day, Politico released an article predicting that the 2016 general election would be between Clinton and former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, while an article in The New York Times named New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and Senator Cory Booker from New Jersey as potential candidates.[38][39]


Republican Party


With seventeen major candidates entering the race, starting with Ted Cruz on March 23, 2015, this was the largest presidential primary field for any political party in American history,[40] before being overtaken by the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries.[41]

Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 1, 2016, Perry, Walker, Jindal, Graham, and Pataki withdrew due to low polling numbers. Despite leading many polls in Iowa, Trump came in second to Cruz, after which Huckabee, Paul, and Santorum withdrew due to poor performances at the ballot box. Following a sizable victory for Trump in the New Hampshire primary, Christie, Fiorina, and Gilmore abandoned the race. Bush followed suit after scoring fourth place to Trump, Rubio, and Cruz in South Carolina. On March 1, 2016, the first of four "Super Tuesday" primaries, Rubio won his first contest in Minnesota, Cruz won Alaska, Oklahoma, and his home state of Texas, and Trump won the other seven states that voted. Failing to gain traction, Carson suspended his campaign a few days later.[42] On March 15, 2016, the second "Super Tuesday", Kasich won his only contest in his home state of Ohio, and Trump won five primaries including Florida. Rubio suspended his campaign after losing his home state.[43]

Between March 16 and May 3, 2016, only three candidates remained in the race: Trump, Cruz, and Kasich. Cruz won the most delegates in four Western contests and in Wisconsin, keeping a credible path to denying Trump the nomination on the first ballot with 1,237 delegates. Trump then augmented his lead by scoring landslide victories in New York and five Northeastern states in April, followed by a decisive victory in Indiana on May 3, 2016, securing all 57 of the state's delegates. Without any further chances of forcing a contested convention, both Cruz[44] and Kasich[45] suspended their campaigns. Trump remained the only active candidate and was declared the presumptive Republican nominee by Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus on the evening of May 3, 2016.[46]

A 2018 study found that media coverage of Trump led to increased public support for him during the primaries. The study showed that Trump received nearly $2 billion in free media, more than double any other candidate. Political scientist John M. Sides argued that Trump's polling surge was "almost certainly" due to frequent media coverage of his campaign. Sides concluded "Trump is surging in the polls because the news media has consistently focused on him since he announced his candidacy on June 16."[47] Prior to clinching the Republican nomination, Trump received little support from establishment Republicans.[48]


2016 Republican Party ticket
Donald Trump Mike Pence
for President for Vice President
Chairman of
The Trump Organization
Governor of Indiana


Major candidates were determined by the various media based on common consensus. The following were invited to sanctioned televised debates based on their poll ratings.

Trump received 14,010,177 total votes in the primary. Trump, Cruz, Rubio and Kasich each won at least one primary, with Trump receiving the highest number of votes and Ted Cruz receiving the second highest.

Candidates in this section are sorted by reverse date of withdrawal from the primaries
John Kasich Ted Cruz Marco Rubio Ben Carson Jeb Bush Jim Gilmore Carly Fiorina Chris Christie
Governor of Ohio
U.S. senator
from Texas
U.S. senator
from Florida
Dir. of Pediatric Neurosurgery,
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Governor of Florida
Governor of Virginia
CEO of
Governor of New Jersey
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: May 4
4,287,479 votes
W: May 3
7,811,110 votes
W: Mar 15
3,514,124 votes
W: Mar 4
857,009 votes
W: Feb 20
286,634 votes
W: Feb 12
18,364 votes
W: Feb 10
40,577 votes
W: Feb 10
57,634 votes
[49] [50][51][52] [53][54][55] [56][57][58] [59][60] [61][62] [63][64] [65][66]
Rand Paul Rick Santorum Mike Huckabee George Pataki Lindsey Graham Bobby Jindal Scott Walker Rick Perry
U.S. senator
from Kentucky
U.S. senator
from Pennsylvania
Governor of Arkansas
Governor of New York
U.S. senator
from South Carolina
Governor of Louisiana
Governor of Wisconsin
Governor of Texas
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: Feb 3
66,781 votes
W: Feb 3
16,622 votes
W: Feb 1
51,436 votes
W: December 29, 2015
2,036 votes
W: December 21, 2015
5,666 votes
W: November 17, 2015
222 votes
W: September 21, 2015
1 write-in vote in New Hampshire
W: September 11, 2015
1 write-in vote in New Hampshire
[67][68][69] [70][71] [72][73] [74] [75][76] [77][78] [79][80][81] [81][82][83]

Vice presidential selection

Trump turned his attention towards selecting a running mate after he became the presumptive nominee on May 4, 2016.[84] In mid-June, Eli Stokols and Burgess Everett of Politico reported that the Trump campaign was considering New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich from Georgia, Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama, and Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin.[85] A June 30 report from The Washington Post also included Senators Bob Corker from Tennessee, Richard Burr from North Carolina, Tom Cotton from Arkansas, Joni Ernst from Iowa, and Indiana governor Mike Pence as individuals still being considered for the ticket.[86] Trump also said he was considering two military generals for the position, including retired Lieutenant General Michael Flynn.[87]

In July 2016, it was reported that Trump had narrowed his list of possible running mates down to three: Christie, Gingrich, and Pence.[88]

On July 14, 2016, several major media outlets reported that Trump had selected Pence as his running mate. Trump confirmed these reports in a message Twitter on July 15, 2016, and formally made the announcement the following day in New York.[89][90] On July 19, the second night of the 2016 Republican National Convention, Pence won the Republican vice presidential nomination by acclamation.[91]

Democratic Party


Former secretary of state Hillary Clinton, who also served in the U.S. Senate and was the first lady of the United States, became the first Democrat in the field to formally launch a major candidacy for the presidency with an announcement on April 12, 2015, via a video message.[92] While nationwide opinion polls in 2015 indicated that Clinton was the front-runner for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, she faced strong challenges from independent Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont,[93] who became the second major candidate when he formally announced on April 30, 2015, that he was running for the Democratic nomination.[94] September 2015 polling numbers indicated a narrowing gap between Clinton and Sanders.[93][95][96] On May 30, 2015, former governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley was the third major candidate to enter the Democratic primary race,[97] followed by former independent governor and Republican senator of Rhode Island Lincoln Chafee on June 3, 2015,[98][99] former Virginia senator Jim Webb on July 2, 2015,[100] and former Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig on September 6, 2015.[101]

On October 20, 2015, Webb announced his withdrawal from the primaries, and explored a potential independent run.[102] The next day, Vice President Joe Biden decided not to run, ending months of speculation, stating, "While I will not be a candidate, I will not be silent."[103][104] On October 23, Chafee withdrew, stating that he hoped for "an end to the endless wars and the beginning of a new era for the United States and humanity."[105] On November 2, after failing to qualify for the second DNC-sanctioned debate after adoption of a rule change negated polls which before might have necessitated his inclusion in the debate, Lessig withdrew as well, narrowing the field to Clinton, O'Malley, and Sanders.[106]

On February 1, 2016, in an extremely close contest, Clinton won the Iowa caucuses by a margin of 0.2 points over Sanders. After winning no delegates in Iowa, O'Malley withdrew from the presidential race that day. On February 9, Sanders bounced back to win the New Hampshire primary with 60% of the vote. In the remaining two February contests, Clinton won the Nevada caucuses with 53% of the vote and scored a decisive victory in the South Carolina primary with 73% of the vote.[107][108] On March 1, eleven states participated in the first of four "Super Tuesday" primaries. Clinton won Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia and 504 pledged delegates, while Sanders won Colorado, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and his home state of Vermont and 340 delegates. The following weekend, Sanders won victories in Kansas, Nebraska, and Maine with 15- to 30-point margins, while Clinton won the Louisiana primary with 71% of the vote. On March 8, despite never having a lead in the Michigan primary, Sanders won by a small margin of 1.5 points and outperforming polls by over 19 points, while Clinton won 83% of the vote in Mississippi.[109] On March 15, the second "Super Tuesday", Clinton won in Florida, Illinois, Missouri, North Carolina, and Ohio. Between March 22 and April 9, Sanders won six caucuses in Idaho, Utah, Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, and Wyoming, as well as the Wisconsin primary, while Clinton won the Arizona primary. On April 19, Clinton won the New York primary with 58% of the vote. On April 26, in the third "Super Tuesday" dubbed the "Acela primary", she won contests in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, while Sanders won in Rhode Island. Over the course of May, Sanders accomplished another surprise win in the Indiana primary[110] and also won in West Virginia and Oregon, while Clinton won the Guam caucus and Kentucky primary (and also non-binding primaries in Nebraska and Washington).

On June 4 and 5, Clinton won two victories in the Virgin Islands caucus and Puerto Rico primary. On June 6, 2016, the Associated Press and NBC News reported that Clinton had become the presumptive nominee after reaching the required number of delegates, including pledged delegates and superdelegates, to secure the nomination, becoming the first woman to ever clinch the presidential nomination of a major U.S. political party.[111] On June 7, Clinton secured a majority of pledged delegates after winning primaries in California, New Jersey, New Mexico, and South Dakota, while Sanders won only Montana and North Dakota. Clinton also won the final primary in the District of Columbia on June 14. At the conclusion of the primary process, Clinton had won 2,204 pledged delegates (54% of the total) awarded by the primary elections and caucuses, while Sanders had won 1,847 (46%). Out of the 714 unpledged delegates or "superdelegates" who were set to vote in the convention in July, Clinton received endorsements from 560 (78%), while Sanders received 47 (7%).[112]

Although Sanders had not formally dropped out of the race, he announced on June 16, 2016, that his main goal in the coming months would be to work with Clinton to defeat Trump in the general election.[113] On July 8, appointees from the Clinton campaign, the Sanders campaign, and the Democratic National Committee negotiated a draft of the party's platform.[114] On July 12, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton at a rally in New Hampshire in which he appeared with her.[115] Sanders then went on to headline 39 campaign rallies on behalf of Clinton in 13 key states.[116]


2016 Democratic Party ticket
Hillary Clinton Tim Kaine
for President for Vice President
U.S. Secretary of State
U.S. Senator
from Virginia


The following candidates were frequently interviewed by major broadcast networks and cable news channels or were listed in publicly published national polls. Lessig was invited to one forum, but withdrew when rules were changed which prevented him from participating in officially sanctioned debates.

Clinton received 16,849,779 votes in the primary.

Candidates in this section are sorted by date of withdrawal from the primaries
Bernie Sanders Martin O'Malley Lawrence Lessig Lincoln Chafee Jim Webb
U.S. senator from Vermont
governor of Maryland
Harvard Law professor
Governor of Rhode Island
U.S. senator
from Virginia
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
LN: July 26, 2016
13,167,848 votes
W: February 1, 2016
110,423 votes
W: November 2, 2015
4 write-in votes in New Hampshire
W: October 23, 2015
0 votes
W: October 20, 2015
2 write-in votes in New Hampshire
[117] [118][119] [106] [120] [121]

Vice presidential selection

In April 2016, the Clinton campaign began to compile a list of 15 to 20 individuals to vet for the position of running mate, even though Sanders continued to challenge Clinton in the Democratic primaries.[122] In mid-June, The Wall Street Journal reported that Clinton's shortlist included Representative Xavier Becerra from California, Senator Cory Booker from New Jersey, Senator Sherrod Brown from Ohio, Housing and Urban Development Secretary Julián Castro from Texas, Mayor of Los Angeles Eric Garcetti from California, Senator Tim Kaine from Virginia, Labor Secretary Tom Perez from Maryland, Representative Tim Ryan from Ohio, and Senator Elizabeth Warren from Massachusetts.[123] Subsequent reports stated that Clinton was also considering Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, retired Admiral James Stavridis, and Governor John Hickenlooper of Colorado.[124] In discussing her potential vice presidential choice, Clinton said the most important attribute she looked for was the ability and experience to immediately step into the role of president.[124]

On July 22, Clinton announced that she had chosen Senator Tim Kaine from Virginia as her running mate.[125] The delegates at the 2016 Democratic National Convention, which took place July 25–28, formally nominated the Democratic ticket.

Minor parties and independents

Campaign signs of third-party candidates Jill Stein and Gary Johnson, October 2016 in St. Johnsbury, Vermont

Third party and independent candidates who obtained more than 100,000 votes nationally or on ballot in at least 15 states are listed separately.

Libertarian Party

Additional Party Endorsements: Independence Party of New York

Ballot access to all 538 electoral votes


2016 Libertarian Party ticket
Gary Johnson Bill Weld
for President for Vice President
Governor of New Mexico
Governor of Massachusetts

Green Party

Ballot access to 480 electoral votes (522 with write-in):[126] map

  • As write-in: Georgia, Indiana, North Carolina[127][128]
  • No ballot access: Nevada, South Dakota, Oklahoma[127][129]


2016 Green Party ticket
Jill Stein Ajamu Baraka
for President for Vice President
from Lexington, Massachusetts
from Washington, D.C.

Constitution Party

Ballot access to 207 electoral votes (451 with write-in):[130][131] map

  • As write-in: Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia[130][132][133][134][135]
  • No ballot access: California, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma[130]


2016 Constitution Party ticket

Darrell Castle Scott Bradley
for President for Vice President
from Memphis, Tennessee
from Utah


Additional Party Endorsement: Independence Party of Minnesota, South Carolina Independence Party

Ballot access to 84 electoral votes (451 with write-in):[137] map

  • As write-in: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin[137][138][139][140][141][142][143]
  • No ballot access: District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Mississippi, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wyoming

In some states, Evan McMullin's running mate was listed as Nathan Johnson on the ballot rather than Mindy Finn, although Nathan Johnson was intended to only be a placeholder until an actual running mate was chosen.[144]

2016 Independent ticket
Evan McMullin Mindy Finn
for President for Vice President
Chief policy director for the
House Republican Conference (2015–2016)
President of
Empowered Women

Party for Socialism and Liberation

2016 Socialism and Liberation ticket
Gloria La Riva Eugene Puryear
for President for Vice President
Newspaper printer and activist from California Activist from Washington, D.C.

Other nominations

Party Presidential nominee Vice presidential nominee Attainable electors
Popular vote States with ballot access
Party for Socialism and Liberation

Peace and Freedom[146]
Liberty Union Party[147]

Gloria La Riva
Newspaper printer and activist from California
Eugene Puryear
Activist from Washington, D.C.
California, Colorado, Iowa, Louisiana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Vermont, Washington[148][149]
(Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia)[139][140][142][134][150][151][152][153][154]
Independent Richard Duncan
Real Estate Agent from Ohio
Ricky Johnson
Preacher from Pennsylvania
(Alabama, Alaska, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia)[134][150][151][156][157][152][153][149][154][158][159][160][161]

General election campaign

A general election ballot, listing the presidential and vice presidential candidates

Beliefs and policies of candidates

Hillary Clinton focused her candidacy on several themes, including raising middle class incomes, expanding women's rights, instituting campaign finance reform, and improving the Affordable Care Act. In March 2016, she laid out a detailed economic plan basing her economic philosophy on inclusive capitalism, which proposed a "clawback" that rescinds tax cuts and other benefits for companies that move jobs overseas; with provision of incentives for companies that share profits with employees, communities and the environment, rather than focusing on short-term profits to increase stock value and rewarding shareholders; as well as increasing collective bargaining rights; and placing an "exit tax" on companies that move their headquarters out of the U.S. in order to pay a lower tax rate overseas.[162] Clinton promoted equal pay for equal work to address current alleged shortfalls in how much women are paid to do the same jobs men do,[163] promoted explicitly focus on family issues and support of universal preschool,[164] expressed support for the right to same-sex marriage,[164] and proposed allowing undocumented immigrants to have a path to citizenship stating that it "[i]s at its heart a family issue."[165]

Donald Trump's campaign drew heavily on his personal image, enhanced by his previous media exposure.[166] The primary slogan of the Trump campaign, extensively used on campaign merchandise, was Make America Great Again. The red baseball cap with the slogan emblazoned on the front became a symbol of the campaign and has been frequently donned by Trump and his supporters.[167] Trump's right-wing populist positions—reported by The New Yorker to be nativist, protectionist, and semi-isolationist—differ in many ways from traditional U.S. conservatism.[168] He opposed many free trade deals and military interventionist policies that conservatives generally support, and opposed cuts in Medicare and Social Security benefits. Moreover, he has insisted that Washington is "broken" and can be fixed only by an outsider.[169][170][171] Support for Trump was high among working and middle-class white male voters with annual incomes of less than $50,000 and no college degree.[172] This group, particularly those without a high-school diploma, suffered a decline in their income in recent years.[173] According to The Washington Post, support for Trump is higher in areas with a higher mortality rate for middle-aged white people.[174] A sample of interviews with more than 11,000 Republican-leaning respondents from August to December 2015 found that Trump at that time found his strongest support among Republicans in West Virginia, followed by New York, and then followed by six Southern states.[175]

Media coverage

Clinton had an uneasy—and, at times, adversarial—relationship with the press throughout her life in public service.[176] Weeks before her official entry as a presidential candidate, Clinton attended a political press corps event, pledging to start fresh on what she described as a "complicated" relationship with political reporters.[177] Clinton was initially criticized by the press for avoiding taking their questions,[178][179] after which she provided more interviews.

In contrast, Trump benefited from free media more than any other candidate. From the beginning of his campaign through February 2016, Trump received almost $2 billion in free media attention, twice the amount that Clinton received.[180] According to data from the Tyndall Report, which tracks nightly news content, through February 2016, Trump alone accounted for more than a quarter of all 2016 election coverage on the evening newscasts of NBC, CBS and ABC, more than all the Democratic campaigns combined.[181][182][183] Observers noted Trump's ability to garner constant mainstream media coverage "almost at will."[184] However, Trump frequently criticized the media for writing what he alleged to be false stories about him[185] and he has called upon his supporters to be "the silent majority."[186] Trump also said the media "put false meaning into the words I say", and says he does not mind being criticized by the media as long as they are honest about it.[187][188]


Both Clinton and Trump were seen unfavorably by the general public, and their controversial reputations set the tone of the campaign.[189]

Trump campaigns in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2016

Clinton's practice during her time as Secretary of State of using a private email address and server, in lieu of State Department servers, gained widespread public attention back in March 2015.[190] Concerns were raised about security and preservation of emails, and the possibility that laws may have been violated.[191] After allegations were raised that some of the emails in question fell into this so-called "born classified" category, an FBI probe was initiated regarding how classified information was handled on the Clinton server.[192][193][194][195] The FBI probe was concluded on July 5, 2016, with a recommendation of no charges, a recommendation that was followed by the Justice Department.

Also, on September 9, 2016, Clinton said: "You know, just to be grossly generalistic, you could put half of Trump's supporters into what I call the basket of deplorables. They're racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, Islamophobic—you name it."[196] Donald Trump criticized her remark as insulting his supporters.[197][198] The following day Clinton expressed regret for saying "half", while insisting that Trump had deplorably amplified "hateful views and voices."[199] Previously on August 25, 2016, Clinton gave a speech criticizing Trump's campaign for using "racist lies" and allowing the alt-right to gain prominence.[200]

Clinton campaigns in Raleigh, North Carolina, October 22, 2016

On September 11, 2016, Clinton left a 9/11 memorial event early due to illness.[201] Video footage of Clinton's departure showed Clinton becoming unsteady on her feet and being helped into a van.[202] Later that evening, Clinton reassured reporters that she was "feeling great."[203] After initially stating that Clinton had become overheated at the event, her campaign later added that she had been diagnosed with pneumonia two days earlier.[202] The media criticized the Clinton campaign for a lack of transparency regarding Clinton's illness.[202] Clinton cancelled a planned trip to California due to her illness. The episode drew renewed public attention to questions about Clinton's health.[203]

On the other side, on October 7, 2016, video and accompanying audio were released by The Washington Post in which Trump referred obscenely to women in a 2005 conversation with Billy Bush while they were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. In the recording, Trump described his attempts to initiate a sexual relationship with a married woman and added that women would allow male celebrities to grope their genitalia (Trump used the phrase "grab 'em by the pussy"). The audio was met with a reaction of disbelief and disgust from the media.[204][205][206] Following the revelation, Trump's campaign issued an apology, stating that the video was of a private conversation from "many years ago."[207] The incident was condemned by numerous prominent Republicans like Reince Priebus, Mitt Romney, John Kasich, Jeb Bush[208] and the Speaker of the House Paul Ryan.[209] Many believed the video had doomed Trump's chances for election. By October 8, several dozen Republicans had called for Trump to withdraw from the campaign and let Pence and Condoleezza Rice head the ticket.[210] Trump insisted he would never drop out, but apologized for his remarks.[211][212]

Donald Trump also delivered strong and controversial statements towards Muslims and Islam on the campaign trail, saying, "I think Islam hates us."[213] He was criticized and also supported for his statement at a rally declaring, "Donald J. Trump is calling for a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country's representatives can figure out what is going on."[214] Additionally, Trump announced that he would "look into" surveilling mosques, and mentioned potentially going after the families of domestic terrorists in the wake of the San Bernardino shooting.[215] His strong rhetoric towards Muslims resulted in leadership from both parties condemning his statements. However, many of his supporters shared their support for his proposed travel ban, despite the backlash.[214]

Throughout the campaign, Trump indicated in interviews, speeches, and Twitter posts that he would refuse to recognize the outcome of the election if he was defeated.[216][217] Trump falsely stated that the election would be rigged against him.[218][219] During the final presidential debate of 2016, Trump refused to tell Fox News anchor Chris Wallace whether or not he would accept the election results.[220] The rejection of election results by a major nominee would have been unprecedented at the time as no major presidential candidate had ever refused to accept the outcome of an election until Trump did so himself in the following 2020 presidential election.[221][222]

The ongoing controversy of the election made third parties attract voters' attention. On March 3, 2016, Libertarian Gary Johnson addressed the Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington, DC, touting himself as the third-party option for anti-Trump Republicans.[223][224] In early May, some commentators opined that Johnson was moderate enough to pull votes away from both Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump who were very disliked and polarizing.[225] Johnson also began to get time on national television, being invited on ABC News, NBC News, CBS News, CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, Bloomberg, and many other networks.[226] In September and October 2016, Johnson suffered a "string of damaging stumbles when he has fielded questions about foreign affairs."[227][228] On September 8, Johnson, when he appeared on MSNBC's Morning Joe, was asked by panelist Mike Barnicle, "What would you do, if you were elected, about Aleppo?" (referring to a war-torn city in Syria). Johnson responded, "And what is Aleppo?"[229] His response prompted widespread attention, much of it negative.[229][230] Later that day, Johnson said that he had "blanked" and that he did "understand the dynamics of the Syrian conflict—I talk about them every day."[230]

On the other hand, Green Party candidate Jill Stein said the Democratic and Republican parties are "two corporate parties" that have converged into one.[231] Concerned by the rise of the far right internationally and the tendency towards neoliberalism within the Democratic Party, she has said, "The answer to neofascism is stopping neoliberalism. Putting another Clinton in the White House will fan the flames of this right-wing extremism."[232][233]

In response to Johnson's growing poll numbers, the Clinton campaign and Democratic allies increased their criticism of Johnson in September 2016, warning that "a vote for a third party is a vote for Donald Trump" and deploying Senator Bernie Sanders (Clinton's former primary rival, who supported her in the general election) to win over voters who might be considering voting for Johnson or for Stein.[234]

On October 28, eleven days before the election, FBI Director James Comey informed Congress that the FBI was analyzing additional Clinton emails obtained during its investigation of an unrelated case.[235][236] On November 6, he notified Congress that the new emails did not change the FBI's earlier conclusion.[237][238] In the week following the "Comey Letter" of October 28, Clinton's lead dropped by 3 percentage points, leading some commentators - including Clinton herself - to conclude that this letter cost her the election,[239][240][241] though there are dissenting views.[240]

Ballot access

Presidential ticket Party Ballot access Votes[2][242] Percentage
States Electors % of voters
Trump / Pence Republican 50 + DC 538 100% 62,984,828 46.09%
Clinton / Kaine Democratic 50 + DC 538 100% 65,853,514 48.18%
Johnson / Weld Libertarian 50 + DC 538 100% 4,489,341 3.28%
Stein / Baraka Green 44 + DC 480 89% 1,457,218 1.07%
McMullin / Finn Independent 11 84 15% 731,991 0.54%
Castle / Bradley Constitution 24 207 39% 203,090 0.15%
  • Candidates in bold were on ballots representing 270 electoral votes, without needing write-in states.
  • All other candidates were on the ballots of fewer than 25 states, but had write-in access greater than 270.

Party conventions

Map of United States showing Philadelphia, Cleveland, Orlando, and Houston
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City
Map of the locations of party conventions for presidential/vice-presidential candidacy nominations.
  Democratic Party
  Republican Party
  Libertarian Party
  Green Party
  Constitution Party
Republican Party
Democratic Party
  • July 25–28, 2016: Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[245]
Libertarian Party
  • May 26–30, 2016: Libertarian National Convention was held in Orlando, Florida.[246][247]
Green Party
Constitution Party
  • April 13–16, 2016: Constitution Party National Convention was held in Salt Lake City, Utah.[250]

Campaign finance

Wall Street spent a record $2 billion trying to influence the 2016 United States presidential election.[251][252]

The following table is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission (FEC) and released in September 2016. Outside groups are independent expenditure-only committees—also called PACs and SuperPACs. The sources of the numbers are the FEC and OpenSecrets.[253] Some spending totals are not available, due to withdrawals before the FEC deadline. As of September 2016, ten candidates with ballot access have filed financial reports with the FEC.

Candidate Campaign committee (as of December 9) Outside groups (as of December 9) Total spent
Money raised Money spent Cash on hand Debt Money raised Money spent Cash on hand
Donald Trump[254][255] $350,668,435 $343,056,732 $7,611,702 $0 $100,265,563 $97,105,012 $3,160,552 $440,161,744
Hillary Clinton[256][257] $585,699,061 $585,580,576 $323,317 $182 $206,122,160 $205,144,296 $977,864 $790,724,872
Gary Johnson[258][259] $12,193,984 $12,463,110 $6,299 $0 $1,386,971 $1,314,095 $75,976 $13,777,205
Rocky De La Fuente[260] $8,075,959 $8,074,913 $1,046 $8,058,834 $0 $0 $0 $8,074,913
Jill Stein[261][262] $11,240,359 $11,275,899 $105,132 $87,740 $0 $0 $0 $11,275,899
Evan McMullin[263] $1,644,102 $1,642,165 $1,937 $644,913 $0 $0 $0 $1,642,165
Darrell Castle[264] $72,264 $68,063 $4,200 $4,902 $0 $0 $0 $68,063
Gloria La Riva[265] $31,408 $32,611 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $32,611
Monica Moorehead[266] $14,313 $15,355 -$1,043 -$5,500[A] $0 $0 $0 $15,355
Peter Skewes[267] $8,216 $8,216 $0 $4,000 $0 $0 $0 $8,216
  1. ^ Debt owed to committee

Voting rights

The 2016 presidential election was the first in 50 years without all the protections of the original Voting Rights Act.[268] Fourteen states had new voting restrictions in place, including swing states such as Virginia and Wisconsin.[269][270][271][272][273]

Newspaper endorsements

Clinton was endorsed by The New York Times,[274] the Los Angeles Times,[275] the Houston Chronicle,[276] the San Jose Mercury News,[277] the Chicago Sun-Times[278] and the New York Daily News[279] editorial boards. Several papers which endorsed Clinton, such as the Houston Chronicle,[276] The Dallas Morning News,[280] The San Diego Union-Tribune,[281] The Columbus Dispatch[282] and The Arizona Republic,[283] endorsed their first Democratic candidate for many decades. The Atlantic, which has been in circulation since 1857, gave Clinton its third-ever endorsement (after Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon Johnson).[284]

Trump, who frequently criticized the mainstream media, was not endorsed by the vast majority of newspapers.[285][286] The Las Vegas Review-Journal,[287] The Florida Times-Union,[288] and the tabloid National Enquirer were his highest profile supporters.[289] USA Today, which had not endorsed any candidate since it was founded in 1982, broke tradition by giving an anti-endorsement against Trump, declaring him "unfit for the presidency."[290][291]

Gary Johnson received endorsements from several major daily newspapers, including the Chicago Tribune,[292] and the Richmond Times-Dispatch.[293] Other traditionally Republican papers, including the New Hampshire Union Leader, which had endorsed the Republican nominee in every election for the last 100 years,[294] and The Detroit News, which had not endorsed a non-Republican in its 143 years,[295] endorsed Gary Johnson.

Involvement of other countries

Russian involvement

On December 9, 2016, the Central Intelligence Agency issued an assessment to lawmakers in the US Senate, stating that a Russian entity hacked the DNC and John Podesta's emails to assist Donald Trump. The Federal Bureau of Investigation agreed.[296] President Barack Obama ordered a "full review" into such possible intervention.[297] Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper in early January 2017 testified before a Senate committee that Russia's meddling in the 2016 presidential campaign went beyond hacking, and included disinformation and the dissemination of fake news, often promoted on social media.[298] Facebook revealed that during the 2016 United States presidential election, a Russian company funded by Yevgeny Prigozhin, a Russian businessman with ties to Vladimir Putin,[299] had purchased advertisements on the website for US$100,000,[300] 25% of which were geographically targeted to the U.S.[301]

President-elect Trump originally called the report fabricated.[302] Julian Assange said the Russian government was not the source of the documents.[303] Days later, Trump said he could be convinced of the Russian hacking "if there is a unified presentation of evidence from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other agencies."[304]

Several U.S. senators—including Republicans John McCain, Richard Burr, and Lindsey Graham—demanded a congressional investigation.[305] The Senate Intelligence Committee announced the scope of their official inquiry on December 13, 2016, on a bipartisan basis; work began on January 24, 2017.[306]

A formal Special Counsel investigation headed by former FBI director Robert Mueller was initiated in May 2017 to uncover the detailed interference operations by Russia, and to determine whether any people associated with the Trump campaign were complicit in the Russian efforts. When questioned by Chuck Todd on Meet the Press on March 5, 2017, Clapper declared that intelligence investigations on Russian interference performed by the FBI, CIA, NSA and his ODNI office had found no evidence of collusion between the Trump campaign and Russia.[307] Mueller concluded his investigation on March 22, 2019, by submitting his report to Attorney General William Barr.[308]

On March 24, 2019, Barr submitted a letter describing Mueller's conclusions,[309][310] and on April 18, 2019, a redacted version of the Mueller report was released to the public. It concluded that Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election did occur "in sweeping and systematic fashion" and "violated U.S. criminal law."[311][312]

The first method detailed in the final report was the usage of the Internet Research Agency, waging "a social media campaign that favored presidential candidate Donald J. Trump and disparaged presidential candidate Hillary Clinton."[313] The Internet Research Agency also sought to "provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States."[314]

The second method of Russian interference saw the Russian intelligence service, the GRU, hacking into email accounts owned by volunteers and employees of the Clinton presidential campaign, including that of campaign chairman John Podesta, and also hacking into "the computer networks of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and the Democratic National Committee (DNC)."[315] As a result, the GRU obtained hundreds of thousands of hacked documents, and the GRU proceeded by arranging releases of damaging hacked material via the WikiLeaks organization and also GRU's personas "DCLeaks" and "Guccifer 2.0."[316][317] To establish whether a crime was committed by members of the Trump campaign with regard to Russian interference, the special counsel's investigators "applied the framework of conspiracy law", and not the concept of "collusion", because collusion "is not a specific offense or theory of liability found in the United States Code, nor is it a term of art in federal criminal law."[318][319] They also investigated if members of the Trump campaign "coordinated" with Russia, using the definition of "coordination" as having "an agreement—tacit or express—between the Trump campaign and the Russian government on election interference." Investigators further elaborated that merely having "two parties taking actions that were informed by or responsive to the other's actions or interests" was not enough to establish coordination.[320]

The Mueller report writes that the investigation "identified numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump campaign", found that Russia "perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency" and that the 2016 Trump presidential campaign "expected it would benefit electorally" from Russian hacking efforts. Ultimately, "the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities."[321][322]

However, investigators had an incomplete picture of what had really occurred during the 2016 campaign, due to some associates of Trump campaign providing either false, incomplete or declined testimony, as well as having deleted, unsaved or encrypted communications. As such, the Mueller report "cannot rule out the possibility" that information then unavailable to investigators would have presented different findings.[323][324] In March 2020, the US Justice Department dropped its prosecution of two Russian firms linked to interference in the 2016 election.[325][299]

Other countries

Special Council Robert Mueller also investigated the Trump campaign's alleged ties to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Qatar, Israel, and China.[326][327] According to The Times of Israel, Trump's longtime confidant Roger Stone "was in contact with one or more apparently well-connected Israelis at the height of the 2016 US presidential campaign, one of whom warned Stone that Trump was 'going to be defeated unless we intervene' and promised 'we have critical intell[sic].'"[328][329]

The Justice Department accused George Nader of providing $3.5 million in illicit campaign donations to Hillary Clinton before the elections and to Trump after he won the elections. According to The New York Times, this was an attempt by the government of United Arab Emirates to influence the election.[330]

In December 2018, a Ukrainian court ruled that prosecutors in Ukraine had meddled in the 2016 election by releasing damaging information on Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort.[331]

Voice of America reported in April 2020 that "U.S. intelligence agencies concluded the Chinese hackers meddled in both the 2016 and 2018 elections."[332]

In July 2021, the US federal prosecutors accused Trump's former adviser Tom Barrack for being an unregistered foreign lobbying agent for the United Arab Emirates during the 2016 presidential campaign of Donald Trump.[333] In 2022, Barrack was found not guilty on all charges.[334]

Notable expressions, phrases, and statements

By Trump and Republicans:

  • "Because you'd be in jail": Off-the-cuff quip by Donald Trump during the second presidential debate, in rebuttal to Clinton stating it was "awfully good someone with the temperament of Donald Trump is not in charge of the law in our country."[335]
  • "Big-league": A word used by Donald Trump most notably during the first presidential debate, misheard by many as bigly, when he said, "I'm going to cut taxes big-league, and you're going to raise taxes big-league."[336][337]
  • "Build the wall": A chant used at many Trump campaign rallies, and Donald Trump's corresponding promise of the Mexican Border Wall.[336]
  • "Drain the swamp": A phrase Donald Trump invoked late in the campaign to describe what needs to be done to fix problems in the federal government. Trump acknowledged that the phrase was suggested to him, and he was initially skeptical about using it.[338]
  • "Grab 'em by the pussy": A remark made by Trump during a 2005 behind-the-scenes interview with presenter Billy Bush on NBCUniversal's Access Hollywood, which was released during the campaign. The remark was part of a conversation in which Trump boasted that "when you're a star, they let you do it."
  • "I like people who weren't captured": Donald Trump's criticism of Senator John McCain, who was held as a prisoner of war by North Vietnam during the Vietnam War.[339][340]
  • "Lock her up": A chant first used at the Republican convention to claim that Hillary Clinton was guilty of a crime. The chant was later used at many Trump campaign rallies and even against other female politicians critical of Trump, such as Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer.[341][342]
  • "Make America Great Again": Donald Trump's campaign slogan.
  • "Mexico will pay for it": Trump's campaign promise that if elected he will build a wall on the border between the US and Mexico, with Mexico financing the project.[343][344]
  • Nicknames used by Trump to deride his opponents: These include "Crooked Hillary", "Little Marco", "Low-energy Jeb", and "Lyin' Ted."
  • "Russia, if you're listening": Used by Donald Trump to invite Russia to "find the 30,000 emails that are missing" (from Hillary Clinton) during a July 2016 news conference.[345]
  • "Such a nasty woman": Donald Trump's response to Hillary Clinton after her saying that her proposed rise in Social Security contributions would also include Trump's Social Security contributions, "assuming he can't figure out how to get out of it."[336] Later reappropriated by supporters of Clinton[346][347][348] and liberal feminists.[349][350][351]
  • "They're bringing drugs. They're bringing crime. They're rapists. And some, I assume, are good people": Donald Trump's controversial description of those crossing the Mexico–United States border during the June 2015 launch of his campaign.[352]
  • "What the hell do you have to lose?": Said by Donald Trump to inner-city African Americans at rallies starting on August 19, 2016.[353][354]

By Clinton and Democrats:


Primary election

General election

Map of United States showing debate locations
Hofstra University Hempstead, NY
Hofstra University
Hempstead, NY
Longwood University Farmville, VA
Longwood University
Farmville, VA
Washington University in St. Louis, MO
Washington University in St. Louis, MO
University of Nevada Las Vegas
University of Nevada
Las Vegas
Sites of the 2016 general election debates

The Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD), a non-profit organization, hosted debates between qualifying presidential and vice-presidential candidates. According to the commission's website, to be eligible to opt to participate in the anticipated debates, "in addition to being Constitutionally eligible, candidates must appear on a sufficient number of state ballots to have a mathematical chance of winning a majority vote in the Electoral College, and have a level of support of at least 15 percent of the national electorate as determined by five selected national public opinion polling organizations, using the average of those organizations' most recently publicly-reported results at the time of the determination."[361]

The three locations (Hofstra University, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Nevada, Las Vegas) chosen to host the presidential debates, and the one location (Longwood University) selected to host the vice presidential debate, were announced on September 23, 2015. The site of the first debate was originally designated as Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio; however, due to rising costs and security concerns, the debate was moved to Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York.[362]

On August 19, Kellyanne Conway, Trump's campaign manager confirmed that Trump would participate in a series of three debates.[363][364][365][366] Trump had complained two of the scheduled debates, one on September 26 and the other October 9, would have to compete for viewers with National Football League games, referencing the similar complaints made regarding the dates with low expected ratings during the Democratic Party presidential debates.[367]

There were also debates between independent candidates.

Debates among candidates for the 2016 U.S. presidential election
No. Date Time Host City Moderator(s) Participants Viewership


P1 September 26, 2016 9:00 p.m. EDT Hofstra University Hempstead, New York Lester Holt Donald Trump
Hillary Clinton
VP October 4, 2016 9:00 p.m. EDT Longwood University Farmville, Virginia Elaine Quijano Mike Pence
Tim Kaine
P2 October 9, 2016 8:00 p.m. CDT Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri Anderson Cooper
Martha Raddatz
Donald Trump
Hillary Clinton
P3 October 19, 2016 6:00 p.m. PDT University of Nevada, Las Vegas Las Vegas, Nevada Chris Wallace Donald Trump
Hillary Clinton


President Barack Obama casting his vote early in Chicago on October 7, 2016

Election night and the next day

The news media and election experts were surprised at Trump's winning the Electoral College. On the eve of the vote, spread betting firm Spreadex had Clinton at an Electoral College spread of 307–322 against Trump's 216–231.[369] The final polls showed a lead by Clinton and in the end she did receive more votes.[370] Trump himself expected, based on polling, to lose the election, and rented a small hotel ballroom to make a brief concession speech, later remarking: "I said if we're going to lose I don't want a big ballroom."[371] Trump performed surprisingly well in all battleground states, especially Florida, Iowa, Ohio, and North Carolina. Even the Democratic-leaning Rust Belt states of Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, were narrowly won by Trump.[372]

According to the authors of Shattered: Inside Hillary Clinton's Doomed Campaign, the White House had concluded by late Tuesday night that Trump would win the election. Obama's political director David Simas called Clinton campaign manager Robby Mook to persuade Clinton to concede the election, with no success. Obama then called Clinton directly, citing the importance of continuity of government, to ask her to publicly acknowledge that Trump had won.[373] Believing that Clinton was still unwilling to concede, the president then called her campaign chair John Podesta, but the call to Clinton had likely already persuaded her.[374]

The Associated Press called Pennsylvania for Trump at 1:35AM EST, putting Trump at 267 electoral votes. By 2:01AM EST, they called both Maine and Nebraska's second congressional districts for Trump, putting him at 269 electoral votes, making it impossible for Clinton to reach 270. One minute after this, John Podesta told Hillary Clinton's victory party in New York the election was too close to call. At 2:29AM, the Associated Press called Wisconsin, and the election, for Trump, giving him 279 electoral votes. By 2:37AM, Clinton had called Trump to concede the election.[375][376]

On Wednesday morning at 2:30 a.m. Eastern Time (ET), it was reported that Trump had secured Wisconsin's 10 electoral votes, giving him a majority of the 538 electors in the Electoral College, enough to make him the president-elect of the United States,[377] and Trump gave his victory speech at 2:50 a.m.[377]

Later that day, Clinton asked her supporters to accept the result and hoped that Trump would be "a successful president for all Americans."[378] In his speech, Trump appealed for unity, saying "it is time for us to come together as one united people", and praised Clinton as someone who was owed "a major debt of gratitude for her service to our country."[379]

Statistical analysis

The 2016 election was the fifth and most recent presidential election in which the winning candidate lost the popular vote.[2][23] Six states plus a portion of Maine that Obama won in 2012 switched to Trump (Electoral College votes in parentheses): Florida (29), Pennsylvania (20), Ohio (18), Michigan (16), Wisconsin (10), Iowa (6), and Maine's second congressional district (1). Initially, Trump won exactly 100 more Electoral College votes than Mitt Romney had in 2012, with two lost to faithless electors in the final tally. Thirty-nine states swung more Republican compared to the previous presidential election, while eleven states and the District of Columbia swung more Democratic.[242] Based on United States Census Bureau estimates of the voting age population (VAP), turnout of voters casting a vote for president was nearly 1% higher than in 2012. Examining overall turnout in the 2016 election, the University of Florida's Michael McDonald estimated that 138.8 million Americans cast a ballot. Considering a VAP of 250.6 million people and a voting-eligible population (VEP) of 230.6 million people, this is a turnout rate of 55.4% VAP and 60.2% VEP.[380] Based on this estimate, voter turnout was up compared to 2012 (54.1% VAP) but down compared to 2008 (57.4% VAP). An FEC report of the election recorded an official total of 136.7 million votes cast for President—more than any prior election.[1]

By losing New York, Trump became the fourth and most recent victorious candidate to lose his home state, which also occurred in 1844, 1916, and 1968. And along with James Polk in 1844, Trump is one of two victorious presidential nominees to win without either their home state or birth state (in this case, both were New York). Data scientist Hamdan Azhar noted the paradoxes of the 2016 outcome, saying that "chief among them [was] the discrepancy between the popular vote, which Hillary Clinton won by 2.8 million votes, and the electoral college, where Trump won 304–227." He said Trump outperformed Mitt Romney's 2012 results, while Clinton only just matched Barack Obama's 2012 totals. Hamdan also said Trump was "the highest vote earner of any Republican candidate ever", exceeding George W. Bush's 62.04 million votes in 2004, though neither reached Clinton's 65.9 million, nor Obama's 69.5 million votes in 2008. He concluded, with help from The Cook Political Report, that the election hinged not on Clinton's large 2.8 million overall vote margin over Trump, but rather on about 78,000 votes from only three counties in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Michigan.[381] Clinton was the first former Secretary of State to be nominated by a major political party since James G. Blaine in 1884.

This is the first and only election since 1988 in which the Republican nominee won the states of Michigan and Pennsylvania, and the first since 1984 in which they won Wisconsin. It was the first time since 1988 that the Republicans won Maine's second congressional district and the first time since George W. Bush's victory in New Hampshire in 2000 that they won any electoral votes in the Northeast. This marked the first time that Maine split its electoral votes since it began awarding them based on congressional districts in 1972, and the first time the state split its electoral vote since 1828. The 2016 election marked the eighth consecutive presidential election where the victorious major party nominee did not receive a popular vote majority by a double-digit margin over the losing major party nominee(s), with the sequence of presidential elections from 1988 through 2016 surpassing the sequence from 1876 through 1900 to become the longest sequence of such presidential elections in U.S. history.[382][383] It was also the sixth presidential election in which both major party candidates were registered in the same home state; the others have been in 1860, 1904, 1920, 1940, and 1944. It was also the first election since 1928 that the Republicans won without having either Richard Nixon or one of the Bushes on the ticket.

Trump was the first president with neither prior public service nor military experience. This election was the first since 1908 where neither candidate was currently serving in public office. This was the first election since 1980 where a Republican was elected without carrying every former Confederate state in the process, as Trump lost Virginia in this election.[b] Trump became the only Republican to earn more than 300 electoral votes since the 1988 election and the only Republican to win a Northeastern state since George W. Bush won New Hampshire in 2000. This was the first time since 1976 that a Republican presidential candidate lost a pledged vote via a faithless elector and additionally, this was the first time since 1972 that the winning presidential candidate lost an electoral vote. With ballot access to the entire national electorate, Johnson received nearly 4.5 million votes (3.27%), the highest nationwide vote share for a third-party candidate since Ross Perot in 1996, while Stein received almost 1.45 million votes (1.06%), the most for a Green nominee since Ralph Nader in 2000. Johnson received the highest ever share of the vote for a Libertarian nominee, surpassing Ed Clark's 1980 result.[384]

Independent candidate Evan McMullin, who appeared on the ballot in eleven states, received over 732,000 votes (0.53%). He won 21.4% of the vote in his home state of Utah, the highest share of the vote for a third-party candidate in any state since 1992. Despite dropping out of the election following his defeat in the Democratic primary, Senator Bernie Sanders received 5.7% of the vote in his home state of Vermont, the highest write-in draft campaign percentage for a presidential candidate in American history. Johnson and McMullin were the first third-party candidates since Nader to receive at least 5% of the vote in one or more states, with Johnson crossing the mark in nine states and McMullin crossing it in two.[384] Trump became the oldest non-incumbent candidate elected president, besting Ronald Reagan in 1980, although this would be surpassed by Joe Biden in the next election.

Of the 3,153 counties/districts/independent cities making returns, Trump won the most popular votes in 2,649 (84.02%) while Clinton carried 504 (15.98%).[385]

Electoral results

Electoral results
Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote[2] Electoral
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote[2]
Donald Trump Republican New York 62,984,828 46.09% 304 (306) Mike Pence Indiana 305[c]
Hillary Clinton Democratic New York 65,853,514 48.18% 227 (232) Tim Kaine Virginia 227
Gary Johnson Libertarian New Mexico 4,489,341 3.28% 0 William Weld Massachusetts 0
Jill Stein Green Massachusetts 1,457,218 1.07% 0 Ajamu Baraka Illinois 0
Evan McMullin Independent Utah 731,991 0.54% 0 Mindy Finn District of Columbia 0
Darrell Castle Constitution Tennessee 203,090 0.15% 0 Scott Bradley Utah 0
Gloria La Riva Socialism and Liberation California 74,401 0.05% 0 Eugene Puryear District of Columbia 0
Tickets that received electoral votes from faithless electors
Bernie Sanders[d] Independent Vermont 111,850 [e] 0.08% [e] 1 (0) Elizabeth Warren[d] Massachusetts 1
John Kasich[d][f] Republican Ohio 2,684 [e] 0.00% [e] 1 (0) Carly Fiorina[d][f] Virginia 1
Ron Paul[d][f] Libertarian[386] Texas 124 [e] 0.00% [e] 1 (0) Mike Pence Indiana 1
Colin Luther Powell[d] Republican Virginia 25 [e] 0.00% [e] 3 (0) Elizabeth Warren[d] Massachusetts 1
Maria Cantwell[d] Washington 1
Susan Collins[d] Maine 1
Faith Spotted Eagle[d] Democratic South Dakota 0 0.00% 1 (0) Winona LaDuke[d] Minnesota 1
Other 760,210 0.56% Other
Total 136,669,276 100% 538 538
Needed to win 270 270


  1. ^ a b In state-by-state tallies, Trump earned 306 pledged electors, Clinton 232. They lost respectively two and five votes to faithless electors. Vice presidential candidates Pence and Kaine lost one and five votes, respectively. Three other votes by electors were invalidated and recast.
  2. ^ In 1980, Democrat Jimmy Carter carried his home state of Georgia despite losing the election.
  3. ^ Pence received 37 electoral votes in Texas while Trump received 36.[1]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Received electoral vote(s) from a faithless elector
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Candidate received votes as a write-in. The exact numbers of write-in votes have been published for three states: California, Vermont, and New Hampshire.[387]
  6. ^ a b c Two faithless electors from Texas cast their presidential votes for Ron Paul and John Kasich, respectively. Chris Suprun said he cast his presidential vote for John Kasich and his vice presidential vote for Carly Fiorina. The other faithless elector in Texas, Bill Greene, cast his presidential vote for Ron Paul but cast his vice presidential vote for Mike Pence, as pledged. John Kasich received recorded write-in votes in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Vermont.
Popular vote[2][242]
232 306
Clinton Trump
Electoral vote—pledged
Electoral vote—President
Spotted Eagle
Electoral vote—Vice President

Results by state

The table below displays the official vote tallies by each state's Electoral College voting method. The source for the results of all states is the official Federal Election Commission report.[2] The column labeled "Margin" shows Trump's margin of victory over Clinton (the margin is negative for every state that Clinton won). A total of 29 third party and independent presidential candidates appeared on the ballot in at least one state. Former Governor of New Mexico Gary Johnson and physician Jill Stein repeated their 2012 roles as the nominees for the Libertarian Party and the Green Party, respectively.[388]

Aside from Florida and North Carolina, the states that secured Trump's victory are situated in the Great Lakes/Rust Belt region. Wisconsin went Republican for the first time since 1984, while Pennsylvania and Michigan went Republican for the first time since 1988.[389][390][391] Stein petitioned for a recount in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. The Clinton campaign pledged to participate in the Green Party recount efforts, while Trump backers challenged them in court.[392][393][394] Meanwhile, American Delta Party/Reform Party presidential candidate Rocky De La Fuente petitioned for and was granted a partial recount in Nevada.[395] According to a 2021 study in Science Advances, conversion of voters who voted for Obama in 2012 to Trump in 2016 contributed to Republican flips in Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania.[396]

States/districts won by Clinton/Kaine
States/districts won by Trump/Pence
At-large results (for states that split electoral votes)
State or
Hillary Clinton
Donald Trump
Gary Johnson
Jill Stein
Evan McMullin
Others Margin Total
Votes %
Votes %
Votes %
Votes %
Votes %
Votes %
Votes %
Ala. 729,547 34.36% 1,318,255 62.08% 9 44,467 2.09% 9,391 0.44% 21,712 1.02% 588,708 27.73% 2,123,372 [397]
Alaska 116,454 36.55% 163,387 51.28% 3 18,725 5.88% 5,735 1.80% 14,307 4.49% 46,933 14.73% 318,608 [398]
Ariz. 1,161,167 44.58% 1,252,401 48.08% 11 106,327 4.08% 34,345 1.32% 17,449 0.67% 32,968 1.27% 91,234 3.50% 2,604,657 [399]
Ark. 380,494 33.65% 684,872 60.57% 6 29,949 2.64% 9,473 0.84% 13,176 1.17% 12,712 1.12% 304,378 26.92% 1,130,676 [400]
Calif. 8,753,788 61.73% 55 4,483,810 31.62% 478,500 3.37% 278,657 1.96% 39,596 0.28% 147,244 1.04% −4,269,978 −30.11% 14,181,595 [401]
Colo. 1,338,870 48.16% 9 1,202,484 43.25% 144,121 5.18% 38,437 1.38% 28,917 1.04% 27,418 0.99% −136,386 −4.91% 2,780,247 [402]
Conn. 897,572 54.57% 7 673,215 40.93% 48,676 2.96% 22,841 1.39% 2,108 0.13% 508 0.03% −224,357 −13.64% 1,644,920 [403]
Del. 235,603 53.09% 3 185,127 41.72% 14,757 3.32% 6,103 1.37% 706 0.16% 1,518 0.34% −50,476 −11.37% 443,814 [404][405]
D.C. 282,830 90.86% 3 12,723 4.09% 4,906 1.57% 4,258 1.36% 6,551 2.52% −270,107 −86.77% 311,268 [406]
Fla. 4,504,975 47.82% 4,617,886 49.02% 29 207,043 2.20% 64,399 0.68% 25,736 0.28% 112,911 1.20% 9,420,039 [407]
Ga. 1,877,963 45.64% 2,089,104 50.77% 16 125,306 3.05% 7,674 0.19% 13,017 0.32% 1,668 0.04% 211,141 5.13% 4,114,732 [408][409]
Hawaii 266,891 62.22% 3 128,847 30.03% 15,954 3.72% 12,737 2.97% 4,508 1.05% 1 −138,044 −32.18% 428,937 [410]
Idaho 189,765 27.49% 409,055 59.26% 4 28,331 4.10% 8,496 1.23% 46,476 6.73% 8,132 1.18% 219,290 31.77% 690,255 [411]
Ill. 3,090,729 55.83% 20 2,146,015 38.76% 209,596 3.79% 76,802 1.39% 11,655 0.21% 1,627 0.03% −944,714 −17.06% 5,536,424 [412]
Ind. 1,033,126 37.91% 1,557,286 56.82% 11 133,993 4.89% 7,841 0.27% 2,712 0.10% 524,160 19.17% 2,734,958 [413]
Iowa 653,669 41.74% 800,983 51.15% 6 59,186 3.78% 11,479 0.73% 12,366 0.79% 28,348 1.81% 147,314 9.41% 1,566,031 [414]
Kan. 427,005 36.05% 671,018 56.65% 6 55,406 4.68% 23,506 1.98% 6,520 0.55% 947 0.08% 244,013 20.60% 1,184,402 [415]
Ky. 628,854 32.68% 1,202,971 62.52% 8 53,752 2.79% 13,913 0.72% 22,780 1.18% 1,879 0.10% 574,177 29.84% 1,924,149 [416]
La. 780,154 38.45% 1,178,638 58.09% 8 37,978 1.87% 14,031 0.69% 8,547 0.42% 9,684 0.48% 398,484 19.64% 2,029,032 [417]
Maine 357,735 47.83% 2 335,593 44.87% 38,105 5.09% 14,251 1.91% 1,887 0.25% 356 0.05% −22,142 −2.96% 747,927 [418][419]
ME-1Tooltip Maine's 1st congressional district 212,774 53.96% 1 154,384 39.15% 18,592 4.71% 7,563 1.92% 807 0.20% 209 0.05% −58,390 −14.81% 394,329
ME-2Tooltip Maine's 2nd congressional district 144,817 40.98% 181,177 51.26% 1 19,510 5.52% 6,685 1.89% 1,080 0.31% 147 0.04% 36,360 10.29% 353,416
Md. 1,677,928 60.33% 10 943,169 33.91% 79,605 2.86% 35,945 1.29% 9,630 0.35% 35,169 1.26% −734,759 −26.42% 2,781,446 [420]
Mass. 1,995,196 60.01% 11 1,090,893 32.81% 138,018 4.15% 47,661 1.43% 2,719 0.08% 50,559 1.52% −904,303 −27.20% 3,325,046 [421]
Mich. 2,268,839 47.27% 2,279,543 47.50% 16 172,136 3.59% 51,463 1.07% 8,177 0.17% 19,126 0.40% 10,704 0.23% 4,799,284 [422]
Minn. 1,367,716 46.44% 10 1,322,951 44.92% 112,972 3.84% 36,985 1.26% 53,076 1.80% 51,113 1.74% −44,765 −1.52% 2,944,813 [423]
Miss. 485,131 40.06% 700,714 57.86% 6 14,435 1.19% 3,731 0.31% 5,346 0.44% 215,583 17.83% 1,209,357 [424]
Mo. 1,071,068 38.14% 1,594,511 56.77% 10 97,359 3.47% 25,419 0.91% 7,071 0.25% 13,177 0.47% 523,443 18.64% 2,808,605 [425]
Mont. 177,709 35.75% 279,240 56.17% 3 28,037 5.64% 7,970 1.60% 2,297 0.46% 1,894 0.38% 101,531 20.42% 497,147 [426][427]
Nebr. 284,494 33.70% 495,961 58.75% 2 38,946 4.61% 8,775 1.04% 16,051 1.90% 211,467 25.05% 844,227 [428]
NE-1Tooltip Nebraska's 1st congressional district 100,132 35.46% 158,642 56.18% 1 14,033 4.97% 3,374 1.19% 6,181 2.19% 58,500 20.72% 282,338
NE-2Tooltip Nebraska's 2nd congressional district 131,030 44.92% 137,564 47.16% 1 13,245 4.54% 3,347 1.15% 6,494 2.23% 6,534 2.24% 291,680
NE-3Tooltip Nebraska's 3rd congressional district 53,332 19.73% 199,755 73.92% 1 11,668 4.32% 2,054 0.76% 3,451 1.28% 146,367 54.19% 270,109
Nev. 539,260 47.92% 6 512,058 45.50% 37,384 3.29% 36,683 3.23% −27,202 −2.42% 1,125,385 [429]
N.H. 348,526 46.98% 4 345,790 46.61% 30,777 4.15% 6,496 0.88% 1,064 0.14% 11,643 1.24% −2,736 −0.37% 744,296 [430]
N.J. 2,148,278 55.45% 14 1,601,933 41.35% 72,477 1.87% 37,772 0.98% 13,586 0.35% −546,345 −14.10% 3,874,046 [431]
N.M. 385,234 48.26% 5 319,667 40.04% 74,541 9.34% 9,879 1.24% 5,825 0.73% 3,173 0.40% −65,567 −8.21% 798,319 [432]
N.Y. 4,556,124 59.01% 29 2,819,534 36.52% 176,598 2.29% 107,934 1.40% 10,373 0.13% 50,890 0.66% −1,736,590 −22.49% 7,721,453 [433]
N.C. 2,189,316 46.17% 2,362,631 49.83% 15 130,126 2.74% 12,105 0.26% 47,386 1.00% 173,315 3.66% 4,741,564 [434]
N.D. 93,758 27.23% 216,794 62.96% 3 21,434 6.22% 3,780 1.10% 8,594 2.49% 123,036 35.73% 344,360 [435]
Ohio 2,394,164 43.56% 2,841,005 51.69% 18 174,498 3.17% 46,271 0.84% 12,574 0.23% 27,975 0.51% 446,841 8.13% 5,496,487 [436]
Okla. 420,375 28.93% 949,136 65.32% 7 83,481 5.75% 528,761 37.08% 1,452,992 [437]
Ore. 1,002,106 50.07% 7 782,403 39.09% 94,231 4.71% 50,002 2.50% 72,594 3.63% −219,703 −10.98% 2,001,336 [438]
Pa. 2,926,441 47.46% 2,970,733 48.18% 20 146,715 2.38% 49,941 0.81% 6,472 0.11% 65,176 1.06% 44,292 0.72% 6,165,478 [439]
R.I. 252,525 54.41% 4 180,543 38.90% 14,746 3.18% 6,220 1.34% 516 0.11% 9,594 2.07% −71,982 −15.51% 464,144 [440]
S.C. 855,373 40.67% 1,155,389 54.94% 9 49,204 2.34% 13,034 0.62% 21,016 1.00% 9,011 0.43% 300,016 14.27% 2,103,027 [441]
S.D. 117,458 31.74% 227,721 61.53% 3 20,850 5.63% 4,064 1.10% 110,263 29.79% 370,093 [442]
Tenn. 870,695 34.72% 1,522,925 60.72% 11 70,397 2.81% 15,993 0.64% 11,991 0.48% 16,026 0.64% 652,230 26.01% 2,508,027 [443]
Texas 3,877,868 43.24% 4,685,047 52.23% 36 283,492 3.16% 71,558 0.80% 42,366 0.47% 8,895 0.10% 2 807,179 8.99% 8,969,226 [444]
Utah 310,676 27.46% 515,231 45.54% 6 39,608 3.50% 9,438 0.83% 243,690 21.54% 12,787 1.13% 204,555 18.08% 1,131,430 [445]
Vt. 178,573 56.68% 3 95,369 30.27% 10,078 3.20% 6,758 2.14% 639 0.20% 23,650 7.51% −83,204 −26.41% 315,067 [446]
Va. 1,981,473 49.73% 13 1,769,443 44.41% 118,274 2.97% 27,638 0.69% 54,054 1.36% 33,749 0.85% −212,030 −5.32% 3,984,631 [447]
Wash. 1,742,718 52.54% 8 1,221,747 36.83% 160,879 4.85% 58,417 1.76% 133,258 4.02% 4 −520,971 −15.71% 3,317,019 [448]
W.Va. 188,794 26.43% 489,371 68.50% 5 23,004 3.22% 8,075 1.13% 1,104 0.15% 4,075 0.57% 300,577 42.07% 714,423 [449]
Wis. 1,382,536 46.45% 1,405,284 47.22% 10 106,674 3.58% 31,072 1.04% 11,855 0.40% 38,729 1.30% 22,748 0.77% 2,976,150 [450]
Wyo. 55,973 21.88% 174,419 68.17% 3 13,287 5.19% 2,515 0.98% 9,655 3.78% 118,446 46.29% 255,849 [451]
Total 65,853,516 48.18% 227 62,984,825 46.09% 304 4,489,221 3.28% 1,457,216 1.07% 731,788 0.54% 1,152,671 0.84% 7 −2,868,691 −2.10% 136,669,237
Hillary Clinton
Donald Trump
Gary Johnson
Jill Stein
Evan McMullin
Others Margin Total

Two states (Maine[a] and Nebraska) allow for their electoral votes to be split between candidates by congressional districts. The winner within each congressional district gets one electoral vote for the district. The winner of the statewide vote gets two additional electoral votes.[453][454] Results are from The New York Times.[455]

States and EV districts that flipped from Democratic to Republican

Battleground states

Vote margin swing by state 2012 to 2016. Only eleven states (as well as the District of Columbia and Nebraska's 2nd congressional district) shifted more Democratic. The large swing in Utah is mostly due to the votes for third-party candidate Evan McMullin and the 2012 candidacy of Mitt Romney.

Most media outlets announced the beginning of the presidential race about twenty months prior to Election Day. Soon after the first contestants declared their candidacy, Larry Sabato listed Virginia, Colorado, Iowa, New Hampshire, Florida, Nevada, and Ohio as the seven states most likely to be contested in the general election. After Donald Trump clinched the Republican presidential nomination, many pundits felt that the major campaign locations might be different from what had originally been expected.[456]

Rust Belt states such as Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and even Michigan were thought to be in play with Trump as the nominee, while states with large minority populations, such as Colorado and Virginia, were expected to shift towards Clinton.[457] By the conventions period and the debates, however, it did not seem as though the Rust Belt states could deliver a victory to Trump, as many of them were considered to be part of the "blue wall" of Democratic-leaning states. Trump's courting of the Polish-American vote, a sizable number of whom were Reagan Democrats, has been cited as the cause for the loss of the Rust Belt by the Democratic nominee.[458] According to Politico[459] and FiveThirtyEight, his path to victory went through states such as Florida, North Carolina, Nevada, New Hampshire, and possibly Colorado.[460][461][462][463]

Early polling indicated a closer-than-usual race in former Democratic strongholds such as Washington, Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, Maine (for the two statewide electoral votes), and New Mexico.[464][465][466]

A consensus among political pundits developed throughout the primary election season regarding swing states.[467] From the results of presidential elections from 2004 through to 2012, the Democratic and Republican parties would generally start with a safe electoral vote count of about 150 to 200.[468][469] However, the margins required to constitute a swing state are vague, and can vary between groups of analysts.[470][471] It was thought that left-leaning states in the Rust Belt could become more conservative, as Trump had strong appeal among many blue-collar workers.[472] They represent a large portion of the American populace and were a major factor in Trump's eventual nomination. Trump's primary campaign was propelled by victories in Democratic states, and his supporters often did not identify as Republican.[473]

Media reports indicated that both candidates planned to concentrate on Florida, Pennsylvania, Ohio and North Carolina.[474][475] Among the Republican-leaning states, potential Democratic targets included Nebraska's second congressional district, Georgia, and Arizona.[476] Trump's relatively poor polling in some traditionally Republican states, such as Utah, raised the possibility that they could vote for Clinton, despite easy wins there by recent Republican nominees.[477] However, many analysts asserted that these states were not yet viable Democratic destinations.[478][479] Several sites and individuals publish electoral predictions. These generally rate the race by the likelihood for each party to win a state.[480] The "tossup" label is usually used to indicate that neither party has an advantage, "lean" to indicate a party has a slight edge, "likely" to indicate a party has a clear but not overwhelming advantage, and "safe" to indicate a party has an advantage that cannot be overcome.[481]

As the parameters of the race established themselves, analysts converged on a narrower list of contested states, which were relatively similar to those of recent elections. On November 7, the Cook Political Report categorized Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin as states with close races. Additionally, a district from each of Maine and Nebraska were considered to be coin flips.[482] Meanwhile, FiveThirtyEight listed twenty-two states as potentially competitive about a month before the election—Maine's two at-large electoral votes, New Mexico, Minnesota, Michigan, Colorado, Virginia, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Nevada, Florida, North Carolina, Ohio, Iowa, Arizona, Georgia, Alaska, South Carolina, Texas, Indiana, Missouri, and Utah—as well as Maine's second and Nebraska's second congressional districts.[483] Nate Silver, the publication's editor-in-chief, subsequently removed Texas, South Carolina, Missouri, and Indiana from the list after the race tightened significantly.[484] These conclusions were supported by models such as the Princeton Elections Consortium, the New York Times Upshot, and punditry evaluations from Sabato's Crystal Ball and the Cook Political Report.[485][486][487][488]

Hillary Clinton won states like New Mexico by less than 10 percentage points.[489] Among the states where the candidates finished at a margin of within seven percent, Clinton won Virginia (13 electoral votes), Colorado (9), Maine (2), Minnesota (10), and New Hampshire (4). On the other hand, Trump won Michigan (16), Pennsylvania (20), Wisconsin (10), Florida (29), North Carolina (15), Arizona (11), Nebraska's second district (1), and Georgia (16). States won by Obama in the 2012, such as Ohio (18), Iowa (6), and Maine's second district (1), were also won by Trump. The close result in Maine was not expected by most commentators, nor were Trump's victory of over 10 points in the second district and their disparities.[490][491][492] The dramatic shift of Midwestern states towards Trump were contrasted in the media against the relative movement of Southern states towards the Democrats.[493] For example, former Democratic strongholds such as Minnesota and Maine leaned towards the GOP while still voting Democratic, albeit by smaller margins. Meanwhile, Iowa voted more Republican than Texas did, Georgia was more Democratic than Ohio, and the margin of victory for Trump was greater in North Carolina than Arizona.[494][495] Trump's smaller victories in Alaska and Utah also took some experts by surprise.[496]

Close states

States where the margin of victory was under 1% (50 electoral votes; 46 won by Trump, 4 by Clinton):

  1. Michigan, 0.23% (10,704 votes) – 16 electoral votes
  2. New Hampshire, 0.37% (2,736 votes) – 4 electoral votes
  3. Pennsylvania, 0.72% (44,292 votes) – 20 electoral votes (tipping point state, including two faithless GOP electors)[497]
  4. Wisconsin, 0.77% (22,748 votes) – 10 electoral votes (tipping point state, excluding the two faithless GOP electors)[497]

States/districts where the margin of victory was between 1% and 5% (83 electoral votes; 56 won by Trump, 27 by Clinton):

  1. Florida, 1.20% (112,911 votes) – 29 electoral votes
  2. Minnesota, 1.52% (44,765 votes) – 10 electoral votes
  3. Nebraska's 2nd Congressional District, 2.24% (6,534 votes) – 1 electoral vote
  4. Nevada, 2.42% (27,202 votes) – 6 electoral votes
  5. Maine, 2.96% (22,142 votes) – 2 electoral votes
  6. Arizona, 3.50% (91,234 votes) – 11 electoral votes
  7. North Carolina, 3.66% (173,315 votes) – 15 electoral votes
  8. Colorado, 4.91% (136,386 votes) – 9 electoral votes

States where the margin of victory was between 5% and 10% (94 electoral votes; 76 won by Trump, 18 by Clinton):

  1. Georgia, 5.16% (211,141 votes) – 16 electoral votes
  2. Virginia, 5.32% (212,030 votes) – 13 electoral votes
  3. Ohio, 8.13% (446,841 votes) – 18 electoral votes
  4. New Mexico, 8.21% (65,567 votes) – 5 electoral votes
  5. Texas, 8.99% (807,179 votes) – 38 electoral votes
  6. Iowa, 9.41% (147,314 votes) – 6 electoral votes

Red denotes states or congressional districts won by Republican Donald Trump; blue denotes those won by Democrat Hillary Clinton.

County statistics

Counties with highest percentage of Republican vote:[242]

  1. Roberts County, Texas 94.58%
  2. King County, Texas 93.71%
  3. Motley County, Texas 92.03%
  4. Hayes County, Nebraska 91.83%
  5. Shackelford County, Texas 91.62%

Counties with highest percentage of Democratic vote:

  1. Washington, D.C. 90.86%
  2. Bronx County, New York 88.52%
  3. Prince George's County, Maryland 88.13%
  4. Petersburg, Virginia 87.20%
  5. Claiborne County, Mississippi 86.80%


Voter demographics

Voter demographic data for 2016 were collected by Edison Research for the National Election Pool, a consortium of ABC News, CBS News, MSNBC, CNN, Fox News, and the Associated Press. The voter survey is based on exit polls completed by 24,537 voters leaving 350 voting places throughout the United States on Election Day, in addition to 4,398 telephone interviews with early and absentee voters.[498] Trump's crucial victories in the Midwest were aided in large part by his strong margins among non-college whites—while Obama lost those voters by a margin of 10 points in 2012, Clinton lost this group by 20 percent. The election also represented the first time that Republicans performed better among lower-income whites than among affluent white voters.[499] Clinton however had the majority amongst lower-income Americans overall.

Trump narrowed Clinton's margin compared to Obama by seven points among blacks and African-Americans, eight points among Latinos, and 11 points among Asian-Americans. Meanwhile, Trump increased his lead with non-Hispanic white voters through one percent over Mitt Romney's performance, and American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders shifted their support towards the Republican candidate using the same relative amount.[500] Additionally, although 74 percent of Muslim voters supported Clinton, Trump nearly doubled his support among those voters compared to Mitt Romney at 13 percent, according to the Council on American–Islamic Relations exit poll.[501]

However, "more convincing data"[502] from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Hispanic vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Hispanic voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain).[503] Additionally, the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study found that Clinton's share of the Hispanic vote was one percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was seven percentage points lower than Romney's.[504]

Similarly, a large, multi-lingual study by the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund found that Clinton won 79% of Asian-American voters, higher than the Edison exit poll showed, while Trump won only 18%, a decrease from McCain's and Romney's numbers.[505] Furthermore, according to the AALDEF's report, Trump received merely 2% of the Muslim-American vote, whereas Clinton received 97%.[506] The low percentage of Muslim votes for Trump may have been influenced by much of his rhetoric during the campaign regarding Muslims and Islam. The issue of islamophobia was demonstrated to be an important political issue for Muslim voters; an ISPU study done in 2016 found that, "...outside the issues of discrimination and Islamophobia there aren't, like, one or two big issues that unite all Muslims."[507]

2016 presidential election by demographic subgroup (Edison Exit Polling)[498]
Demographic subgroup Clinton Trump Other % of
total vote
Total vote 48 46 6 100
Liberals 84 10 6 26
Moderates 52 41 7 39
Conservatives 15 81 4 35
Democrats 89 9 2 37
Republicans 7 90 3 33
Independents 41 47 12 31
Party by gender
Democratic men 87 10 3 14
Democratic women 90 8 2 23
Republican men 6 90 4 17
Republican women 9 89 2 16
Independent men 37 51 12 17
Independent women 46 43 11 14
Men 41 52 7 47
Women 54 41 5 53
Marital status
Married 44 52 4 59
Unmarried 55 37 8 41
Gender by marital status
Married men 37 58 5 29
Married women 49 47 4 30
Non-married men 46 45 9 19
Non-married women 61 32 7 23
White 37 57 6 70
Black 88 8 4 12
Asian 65 29 6 4
Other 56 37 7 3
Hispanic (of any race) 65 29 6 11
Gender by race/ethnicity
White men 31 62 7 34
White women 43 52 5 37
Black men 80 13 7 5
Black women 94 4 2 7
Latino men (of any race) 62 32 6 5
Latina women (of any race) 68 26 6 6
All other races 61 32 7 6
Protestant 37 59 4 27
Catholic 45 52 3 23
Mormon 25 59 16 1
Other Christian 41 55 4 24
Jewish 71 24 5 3
Other religion 58 31 11 7
None 67 26 7 15
Religious service attendance
Weekly or more 40 54 6 33
Monthly 46 49 5 16
A few times a year 48 46 6 29
Never 62 31 7 22
White evangelical or born-again Christian
White evangelical or born-again Christian 16 81 3 26
Everyone else 58 35 7 74
18–24 years old 56 35 9 10
25–29 years old 53 39 8 9
30–39 years old 51 40 9 17
40–49 years old 46 49 5 19
50–64 years old 44 53 3 30
65 and older 45 53 2 15
Age by race
Whites 18–29 years old 43 47 10 12
Whites 30–44 years old 37 54 9 16
Whites 45–64 years old 34 62 4 30
Whites 65 and older 39 58 3 13
Blacks 18–29 years old 85 9 6 3
Blacks 30–44 years old 89 7 4 4
Blacks 45–64 years old 89 7 4 5
Blacks 65 and older 91 9 n/a 1
Latinos 18–29 years old 67 26 7 3
Latinos 30–44 years old 65 28 7 4
Latinos 45–64 years old 64 32 4 4
Latinos 65 and older 73 25 2 1
Others 61 32 7 6
Sexual orientation
LGBT 77 14 9 5
Heterosexual 47 48 5 95
First time voter
First time voter 54 39 7 10
Everyone else 47 47 6 90
High school or less 44 51 5 18
Some college education 42 52 6 32
College graduate 49 45 6 32
Postgraduate education 58 36 6 18
Education by race/ethnicity
White college graduates 45 49 6 37
White no college degree 28 67 5 34
Non-white college graduates 71 22 7 13
Non-white no college degree 75 20 5 16
Education by race/ethnicity/sex
White women with college degrees 51 45 4 20
White men with college degrees 39 53 8 17
White women without college degrees 34 61 5 17
White men without college degrees 23 71 6 16
Non-whites 74 21 5 29
Family income
Under $30,000 53 41 6 17
$30,000–49,999 51 42 7 19
$50,000–99,999 46 48 6 31
$100,000–199,999 47 48 5 24
$200,000–249,999 48 49 3 4
Over $250,000 46 48 6 6
Union households
Union 51 42 7 18
Non-union 46 48 6 82
Military service
Veterans 34 60 6 13
Non-veterans 50 44 6 87
Issue regarded as most important
Foreign Policy 52 34 14 13
Immigration 32 64 4 13
Economy 52 42 6 52
Terrorism 39 57 4 18
Northeast 55 40 5 19
Midwest 44 49 7 23
South 44 52 4 37
West 53 39 8 21
Community size
Cities (population 50,000 and above) 59 35 6 34
Suburbs 45 49 6 49
Rural areas 32 62 6 17


The 2016 election was highly-viewed, setting viewership records on CNN and Fox News. Over 28 million people watched the election on cable television, with 63.99 million viewers including broadcast television. While more highly-viewed than 2012 (60.86 million viewers), it was less viewed than 2008 (71.5 million viewers).[508]

Comparison to polls and other forecasts

Final polling averages for the 2016 election by state. Polls from lightly shaded states are older than September 1, 2016.
    Hillary Clinton216
    Donald Trump184
  Margin of error between Clinton and Trump
  No data

Various methods were used to forecast the outcome of the 2016 election.[509] There were many competing election forecast approaches including Nate Silver's FiveThirtyEight, The Upshot at The New York Times, Daily Kos, Princeton Election Consortium, Cook Political Report, Rothenberg and Gonzales, PollyVote, Sabato's Crystal Ball and Electoral-Vote. These models mostly showed a Democratic advantage since the nominees were confirmed, and were supported by pundits and statisticians, including Nate Silver of FiveThirtyEight, Nate Cohn at The New York Times, and Larry Sabato from the Crystal Ball newsletter, who predicted a Democratic victory in competitive presidential races and projected consistent leads in several battleground states around the country.[510] However, FiveThirtyEight's model pointed to the possibility of an Electoral College-popular vote split widening in the final weeks based on Trump's improvement in swing states like Florida or Pennsylvania. This was due to the demographics targeted by Trump's campaign which lived in big numbers there, in addition to Clinton's poor performance in several of those swing states in comparison with Obama's performance in 2012, as well as having a big number of her potential voters in very populated traditionally 'blue' states, but also in some very populated states traditionally 'red', like Texas, which were projected safe for Trump.[511]

Early exit polls generally favored Clinton.[512] After the polls closed and some of the results came in, the forecasts were found to be inaccurate, as Trump performed better in the competitive Midwestern states, such as Iowa, Ohio, and Minnesota, than expected. Three states (Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Michigan) which were considered to be part of Clinton's firewall, were won by Trump.[512] Of the states in the Great Lakes region, Clinton won the swing state of Minnesota by one point, as well as traditional Democratic strongholds such as New York and Illinois with populous urban centers. This result stands in contrast to that of 2012, when President Barack Obama won all but Indiana, which he carried in 2008. This table displays the final polling average published by Real Clear Politics on November 7, the actual electoral margin, and the over-performance by either candidate relative to the polls.

State Electoral
Polling average Final result Difference
Arizona 11 Trump +4[513] Trump +3.5 Clinton +0.5
Colorado 9 Clinton +2.9[514] Clinton +4.9 Clinton +2
Florida 29 Trump +0.2[515] Trump +1.2 Trump +1
Georgia 16 Trump +4.8[516] Trump +5.1 Trump +0.3
Iowa 6 Trump +3[517] Trump +9.5 Trump +6.5
Maine 4 Clinton +4.5[518] Clinton +2.9 Trump +1.6
Michigan 16 Clinton +3.4[519] Trump +0.3 Trump +3.7
Minnesota 10 Clinton +6.2[520] Clinton +1.5 Trump +4.7
Nevada 6 Trump +0.8[521] Clinton +2.4 Clinton +3.2
New Hampshire 4 Clinton +0.6[522] Clinton +0.3 Trump +0.3
New Mexico 5 Clinton +5[523] Clinton +8.3 Clinton +3.3
North Carolina 15 Trump +1[524] Trump +3.7 Trump +2.7
Ohio 18 Trump +3.5[525] Trump +8.1 Trump +4.6
Pennsylvania 20 Clinton +1.9[526] Trump +0.7 Trump +2.6
Virginia 13 Clinton +5[527] Clinton +5.4 Clinton +0.4
Wisconsin 10 Clinton +6.5[528] Trump +0.7 Trump +7.2

Many pollsters were puzzled by the failure of mainstream forecasting models to predict the outcome of the 2016 election.[529][530] Some journalists compared the 2016 election to the failure of prognosticator Arthur Henning in the "Dewey Defeats Truman" incident from the 1948 presidential election.[531][532] Sean Trende, writing for RealClearPolitics, wrote that many of the polls were accurate, but that the pundits' interpretation of these polls neglected polling error.[533] Nate Silver found that the high number of undecided and third-party voters in the election was neglected in many of these models, and that many of these voters decided to vote for Trump.[534] According to a February 2018 study by Public Opinion Quarterly, the main sources of polling error were "a late swing in vote preference toward Trump and a pervasive failure to adjust for over-representation of college graduates (who favored Clinton)", whereas the share of "shy" Trump voters (who declined to admit their support for Trump to the pollsters) proved to be negligible.[535] Political scientist Lloyd Gruber said, "One of the major casualties of the 2016 election season has been the reputation of political science, a discipline whose practitioners had largely dismissed Donald Trump's chances of gaining the Republican nomination."[536] Trump said that he was surprised, and added "I always used to believe in [polls]. I don't believe them anymore."[371]

FiveThirtyEight's final polls-plus forecast predicted 18 states, plus the second congressional districts of Maine and Nebraska, with an interval of confidence lower than 90%.[537][538] However, every major forecaster, including FiveThirtyEight, The New York Times Upshot, prediction markets aggregator PredictWise, ElectionBettingOdds from Maxim Lott and John Stossel, the DailyKos, the Princeton Election Consortium, the Huffington Post, the Cook Political Report, Larry Sabato's Crystal Ball, and the Rothenberg and Gonzales Report, called every state the same way (although Cook and Rothenberg-Gonzales left two and five states as toss-ups, respectively). The lone exception was Maine's 2nd congressional district. Of the forecasters who published results on the district, the Times gave Trump a 64% chance of winning and PredictWise a 52% chance, FiveThirtyEight gave Clinton a 51% chance of winning in polls-only and 54% in polls-plus, Princeton gave her a 60% chance, Cook labelled it a toss-up, and Sabato leaned it towards Trump.[112] The following table displays the final winning probabilities given by each outlet, along with the final electoral result. The states shown have been identified by Politico,[539] WhipBoard,[540] The New York Times,[541] and the Crystal Ball as battlegrounds.

State The New York Times Upshot[541] Five­Thirty­Eight[541] Predict­Wise[541] Princeton Election Consortium[541] Sabato's Crystal Ball[541] 2012 margin 2016 margin
Alaska 83% R 76% R 94% R 96% R Likely R 14 R 15 R
Arizona 84% R 67% R 82% R 91% R Lean R 9 R 4 R
Colorado 89% D 78% D 95% D 96% D Likely D 5 D 5 D
Florida 67% D 55% D 77% D 69% D Lean D 1 D 1 R
Georgia 83% R 79% R 91% R 88% R Likely R 8 R 6 R
Iowa 62% R 70% R 79% R 74% R Lean R 6 D 10 R
Maine (statewide) 91% D 83% D 98% D 98% D Likely D 15 D 3 D
Maine (CD-2) 64% R 51% D 52% R 60% D Lean R 9 D 10 R
Michigan 94% D 79% D 95% D 79% D Lean D 9 D 1 R
Minnesota 94% D 85% D 99% D 98% D Likely D 8 D 2 D
Nebraska (CD-2) 80% R 56% R 75% R 92% R Lean R 7 R 3 R
New Mexico 95% D 83% D 98% D 91% D Likely D 10 D 8 D
Nevada 68% D 58% D 91% D 84% D Lean D 7 D 2 D
New Hampshire 79% D 70% D 84% D 63% D Lean D 6 D 1 D
North Carolina 64% D 56% D 66% D 67% D Lean D 2 R 4 R
Ohio 54% R 65% R 67% R 63% R Lean R 3 D 9 R
Pennsylvania 89% D 77% D 93% D 79% D Lean D 5 D 1 R
Utah 73% R 83% R 86% R 99% R Lean R 48 R 18 R
Virginia 96% D 86% D 98% D 98% D Likely D 4 D 5 D
Wisconsin 93% D 84% D 98% D 98% D Likely D 7 D 1 R

Post-election events and controversies

Trump's victory, considered unlikely by most forecasts,[542][543][544][545][546] was characterized as an "upset" and as "shocking" by the media.[547][548][549][550] Trump himself thought he would lose even as the polls were closing.[551]


News report about the protests in Los Angeles on November 12 from Voice of America

Following the announcement of Trump's election, large protests broke out across the United States with some continuing for several days.[552][553][554][555]

Protesters held up a number of different signs and chanted various shouts including "Not my president" and "We don't accept the president-elect."[556][552] The movement organized on Twitter under the hashtags #Antitrump and #NotMyPresident.[557][558]

High school and college students walked out of classes to protest.[559] At a few protests fires were lit, flags and other items were burned and people yelled derogatory remarks about Trump. Rioters also broke glass at certain locations.[560][561] Celebrities such as Madonna, Cher, and Lady Gaga took part in New York.[562][563][564] Kendrick Lamar's song "Alright" was used repeatedly by protestors, despite the movement receiving no endorsement from Lamar himself.[565][566][567] Some protesters took to blocking freeways in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Portland, Oregon, and were dispersed by police in the early hours of the morning.[568][569] In a number of cities, protesters were dispersed with rubber bullets, pepper spray and bean-bags fired by police.[570][571][572] In New York City, calls were made to continue the protests over the coming days after the election.[573] Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti expressed understanding of the protests and praised those who peacefully wanted to make their voices heard.[574]

Vote tampering concerns

"How Hard Is It to Hack the US Election" video report from Voice of America, November 5, 2016 (three days before the election)

After the election, computer scientists, including J. Alex Halderman, the director of the University of Michigan Center for Computer Security and Society, urged the Clinton campaign to request an election recount in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania (three swing states where Trump had won narrowly) for the purpose of excluding the possibility that the hacking of electronic voting machines had influenced the recorded outcome.[575][576][577] However, statistician Nate Silver performed a regression analysis which demonstrated that the alleged discrepancy between paper ballots and electronic voting machines "completely disappears once you control for race and education level."[578] On November 25, 2016, the Obama administration said the results from November 8 "accurately reflect the will of the American people."[579] The following day, the White House released another statement, saying: "the federal government did not observe any increased level of malicious cyberactivity aimed at disrupting our electoral process on Election Day."[580][581]

In the years following the election, Hillary Clinton has alleged that official maleficence contributed to and may have caused her electoral loss, saying in 2022, "Literally within hours of the polls closing in 2016, we had so much evidence pouring in about voters being turned away in Milwaukee and not being able to vote in Detroit. These states were run by Republicans so there was no way to find out the truth about any of them."[582]

Donald Trump and New Hampshire governor Chris Sununu both complained that liberal voters from Massachusetts were illegally bused into New Hampshire for the 2016 election, and Scott Brown blamed the same phenomenon for losing his senate race in 2014.[583] The New Hampshire Secretary of State and New Hampshire Department of Justice issued a report in 2018 regarding complaints of voters being bused in from Vermont, Maine, and Massachusetts for the 2016 election. They found that in every case, field inspectors were able to determine that the voters were from New Hampshire, though they were riding a bus operated by an out-of-state company (which has its name and address written on the outside of the bus, presumably the source of the confusion).[583] Out of 743,000 votes cast, four were determined to be cast illegally, either because the voters were told to go to the wrong location, or because the voter believed they were able to vote in each town in which they owned property.[583] Out of about 6,000 same-day voter registrations in the state, the report says only 66 voters could not have their residency confirmed (though fraud is not the only explanation for such a failure).[583]

Recount petitions

On November 23, Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein launched a public fundraiser to pay for recounts in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, asserting that the election's outcome had been affected by hacking in those states; Stein did not provide evidence for her claims.[584][585] Changing the outcome of these three states would make Clinton the winner, and this would require showing that fewer than 60,000 votes had been counted for Trump which should have been counted for Clinton. Stein filed for a recount in Wisconsin on November 25,[586] after which Clinton campaign general counsel Marc Elias said their campaign would join Stein's recount efforts in that state and possibly others "in order to ensure the process proceeds in a manner that is fair to all sides."[393][587] Stein subsequently filed for a recount in Pennsylvania on November 28,[588] and in Michigan on November 30.[589] Concurrently, American Delta Party/Reform Party presidential candidate Rocky De La Fuente sought and was granted a partial recount in Nevada that was unrelated to Stein's efforts.[395]

President-elect Donald Trump issued a statement denouncing Stein's Wisconsin recount request saying, "The people have spoken and the election is over." Trump further commented that the recount "is a scam by the Green Party for an election that has already been conceded."[590] The Trump campaign and Republican Party officials moved to block Stein's three recount efforts through state and federal courts.[591][592]

U.S. District Judge Mark Goldsmith ordered a halt to the recount in Michigan on December 7, dissolving a previous temporary restraining order against the Michigan Board of Elections that allowed the recount to continue, stating in his order: "Plaintiffs have not presented evidence of tampering or mistake. Instead, they present speculative claims going to the vulnerability of the voting machinery—but not actual injury."[593] On December 12, U.S. District Judge Paul Diamond rejected an appeal by the Green Party and Jill Stein to force a recount in Pennsylvania, stating that suspicion of a hacked Pennsylvania election "borders on the irrational" and that granting the Green Party's recount bid could "ensure that no Pennsylvania vote counts" given the December 13, 2016, federal deadline to certify the vote for the Electoral College.[594] Meanwhile, the Wisconsin recount was allowed to continue as it was nearing completion and had uncovered no significant irregularities.[595]

The recounts in Wisconsin and Nevada were completed on schedule, resulting in only minor changes to vote tallies.[596][597] A partial recount of Michigan ballot found some precinct imbalances in Detroit, which were corrected. A subsequent state audit found no evidence of voter fraud and concluded that the mistakes, which were "almost entirely" caused by poll-worker mistakes attributed to poor training, did not impair "the ability of Detroit residents to cast a ballot and have their vote counted."[598] The overall outcome of the election remained unchanged by the recount efforts.[596][597][599]

Electoral College lobbying

Intense lobbying (in one case involving claims of harassment and death threats)[600] and grass-roots campaigns were directed at various GOP electors of the United States Electoral College[601] to convince a sufficient number of them (37) to not vote for Trump, thus precluding a Trump presidency.[602] Members of the Electoral College themselves started a campaign for other members to "vote their conscience for the good of America" in accordance with Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Paper No. 68.[603][604][605][606] Former candidate Lawrence Lessig and attorney Laurence Tribe established The Electors Trust on December 5 under the aegis of Equal Citizens to provide pro bono legal counsel as well as a secure communications platform for members of the Electoral College who were considering a vote of conscience against Trump.[607]

On December 6, Colorado Secretary of State Wayne W. Williams castigated Democratic electors who had filed a lawsuit in Federal court to have the state law binding them to the popular vote (in their case for Hillary Clinton) overturned.[608]

On December 10, ten electors, in an open letter headed by Christine Pelosi to the Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, demanded an intelligence briefing[609][610] in light of Russian interference in the election to help Trump win the presidency.[611] Fifty-eight additional electors subsequently added their names to the letter,[610] bringing the total to 68 electors from 17 different states.[612] On December 16, the briefing request was denied.[613]

On December 19, several electors voted against their pledged candidates: two against Trump and five against Clinton. A further three electors attempted to vote against Clinton but were replaced or forced to vote again. The 115th United States Congress officially certified the results on January 6, 2017.[614][615]

Faithless electors

In the Electoral College vote on December 19, for the first time since 1808, multiple faithless electors voted against their pledged qualified presidential candidate.[b] Five Democrats rebelled in Washington and Hawaii, while two Republicans rebelled in Texas.[616] Two Democratic electors, one in Minnesota and one in Colorado, were replaced after voting for Bernie Sanders and John Kasich, respectively.[617][618] Electors in Maine conducted a second vote after one of its members voted for Sanders; the elector then voted for Clinton.[619] Likewise, for the first time since 1896,[c] multiple faithless electors voted against the pledged qualified vice presidential candidate.

  • One Clinton elector in Colorado attempted to vote for John Kasich.[620] The single vote was ruled invalid by Colorado state law, the elector was dismissed, and an alternative elector was sworn in who voted for Clinton.[621][618]
  • One Clinton elector in Minnesota voted for Bernie Sanders as president and Tulsi Gabbard as vice president; his votes were discarded and he was replaced by an alternate who voted for Clinton.[621]
  • One Clinton elector in Maine voted for Bernie Sanders; this vote was invalidated as "improper" and the elector subsequently voted for Clinton.[621]
  • Four Clinton electors in Washington did not vote for Clinton (three votes went to Colin Powell, and one to Faith Spotted Eagle).[622]
  • One Trump elector in Georgia resigned before the vote rather than vote for Trump and was replaced by an alternate.[623]
  • Two Trump electors in Texas did not vote for Trump (one vote went to John Kasich, one to Ron Paul); one elector did not vote for Pence and instead voted for Carly Fiorina for vice-president; a third resigned before the vote rather than vote for Trump and was replaced by an alternate.[622]
  • One Clinton elector in Hawaii voted for Bernie Sanders.[624]

Of the faithless votes, Colin Powell and Elizabeth Warren were the only two to receive more than one; Powell received three electoral votes for president and Warren received two for vice president. Receiving one valid electoral vote each were Sanders, John Kasich, Ron Paul and Faith Spotted Eagle for president, and Carly Fiorina, Susan Collins, Winona LaDuke and Maria Cantwell for vice president. Sanders is the first Jewish American to receive an electoral vote for president. LaDuke is the first Green Party member to receive an electoral vote, and Paul is the third member of the Libertarian Party to do so, following the party's presidential and vice-presidential nominees each getting one vote in 1972. It is the first election with faithless electors from more than one political party. The seven people to receive electoral votes for president were the most in a single election since 1796.

State Party Presidential vote Vice presidential vote Name of elector References
Nationwide Donald Trump, 304 Mike Pence, 305 Pledged
Hillary Clinton, 227 Tim Kaine, 227
Hawaii Bernie Sanders (I-VT) Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) David Mulinix [625]
Texas John Kasich (R-OH) Carly Fiorina (R-VA) Christopher Suprun [626][627]
Ron Paul (L-TX / R-TX) Mike Pence (as pledged) Bill Greene [626][556]
Washington Colin Powell (R-VA)[631] Maria Cantwell (D-WA) Levi Guerra [632][633]
Susan Collins (R-ME) Esther John [112][632]
Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) Bret Chiafalo [112][632]
Faith Spotted Eagle (D-SD)[634] Winona LaDuke (G-MN) Robert Satiacum Jr. [112][632][635]

Democratic objections to vote certification

On January 6, 2017, a Joint Session of Congress was held to count the Electoral College votes, pursuant to the Electoral Count Act. This count was unusual for the many unsuccessful objections raised by Democratic members of the House of Representatives, alleging voter suppression and foreign interference.

Handling of illegal votes

Critics alleged racial bias after comparing the different sentences handed down to two white people and one black person who were convicted of attempting to vote illegally in the 2016 presidential election.[636]

See also


  1. ^ Maine split its electoral votes for the first time since 1828.[452]
  2. ^ The 1872 presidential election also saw multiple electors vote for a different candidate than that pledged, due to the death of Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley, after the popular vote, yet before the meeting of the Electoral College. Greeley still garnered three posthumous electoral votes which were subsequently dismissed by Congress.
  3. ^ Not including 1912, because of the death of James S. Sherman.


  1. ^ a b ("National General Election VEP Turnout Rates, 1789-Present". United States Election Project. CQ Press.)("Official 2016 Presidential General Election Results" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. December 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2018.) ("Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2016". United States Census Bureau. May 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "FEDERAL ELECTIONS 2016 -- Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). Federal Elections Commission. December 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  3. ^ "Trump pulls off biggest upset in U.S. history". POLITICO. November 9, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2023.
  4. ^ Becker, Bernie (February 13, 2016). "Trump's six populist positions". Politico. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  5. ^ Nicholas Confessore & Karen Yourish, "Measuring Donald Trump's Mammoth Advantage in Free Media", The New York Times (March 16, 2016).
  6. ^ Walsh, Kenneth. "How Donald Trump's Media Dominance Is Changing the 2016 Campaign". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  7. ^ Chozick, Amy (March 4, 2016). "Clinton Offers Economic Plan Focused on Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  8. ^ Wallace, Gregory (November 8, 2016). "Negative ads dominate in campaign's final days". CNN. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  9. ^ Cassidy, John (November 5, 2016). "Closing Arguments: The Logic of Negative Campaigning". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 8, 2018. "This Presidential campaign has been the most bitter in recent American history."
  10. ^ Pew Research Center (November 21, 2016). "Voters' evaluations of the campaign: Campaign viewed as heavy on negative campaigning, light on issues". Retrieved March 8, 2018
  11. ^ Tiefenthaler, Ainara (March 14, 2016). "Trump's History of Encouraging Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  12. ^ Nguyen, Tina (March 11, 2016). "Donald Trump's Rallies Are Becoming Increasingly Violent". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  13. ^ Jacobs, Ben (March 11, 2016). "Trump campaign dogged by violent incidents at rallies". The Guardian. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  14. ^ McCarthy, Justin (July 1, 2016). "Americans' Reactions to Trump, Clinton Explain Poor Images". Gallup News. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  15. ^ "News Coverage of the 2016 National Conventions: Negative News, Lacking Context". Shorenstein Center. September 21, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  16. ^ "Partisanship, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Online Media and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election | Berkman Klein Center". cyber.harvard.edu. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  17. ^ Wang, Sam (November 8, 2016). "Final Projections 2016". Princeton Election Consortium. Archived from the original on January 9, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  18. ^ "2016 Election Forecast". HuffPost. November 8, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  19. ^ "Did Clinton win more votes than any white man in history?". BBC News. December 12, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  20. ^ McQuarrie, Michael (November 2017). "The revolt of the Rust Belt: place and politics in the age of anger". The British Journal of Sociology. 68 (S1): S120–S152. doi:10.1111/1468-4446.12328. ISSN 0007-1315. PMID 29114874. S2CID 26010609.
  21. ^ "Could Sanders voters help Trump win the White House again?". NBC News. March 8, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  22. ^ Kurtzleben, Danielle (August 24, 2017). "Here's How Many Bernie Sanders Supporters Ultimately Voted For Trump". NPR. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  23. ^ a b Larry Sabato; Kyle Kondik; Geoffrey Skelley (2017). Trumped: The 2016 Election That Broke All the Rules. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 7 (The popular vote results mentioned here are slightly different from the official results published in December 2017.). ISBN 9781442279407.
  24. ^ "2016 Presidential Ballot Access Map". July 14, 2016.
  25. ^ "Presidential Election of 2016". 270toWin.com.
  26. ^ Miller, Greg; Entous, Adam (January 6, 2017). "Declassified report says Putin 'ordered' effort to undermine faith in U.S. election and help Trump". The Washington Post.
  27. ^ Eichenwald, Kurt (January 10, 2017). "Trump, Putin and the hidden history of how Russia interfered in the U.S. presidential election". Newsweek.
  28. ^ "Intelligence Report on Russian Hacking". The New York Times. January 6, 2017. p. 11. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
  29. ^ Rosenstein, Rod (May 17, 2017). "Rod Rosenstein's Letter Appointing Mueller Special Counsel". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
  30. ^ "Grand Jury Indicts Thirteen Russian Individuals and Three Russian Companies for Scheme to Interfere in the United States Political System". United States Department of Justice. February 16, 2018.
  31. ^ Mueller Report, vol. I, p. 1: "The Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election in sweeping and systematic fashion. [...] Although the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities."
  32. ^ Geller, Eric (April 18, 2019). "Collusion aside, Mueller found abundant evidence of Russian election plot". Politico. POLITICO LLC. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  33. ^ Spakovsky, Hans von (September 22, 2019). "Spakovsky and Canaparo: California can't pick who runs for president. New law just an attack on Trump". Fox News. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  34. ^ "Legal Provisions Relevant to the Electoral College Process". National Archives. September 5, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  35. ^ Stout, Christopher Timothy; Le, Danvy (October 8, 2012). "Living the Dream: Barack Obama and Blacks' Changing Perceptions of the American Dream". Social Science Quarterly. 93 (5): 1338–1359. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2012.00915.x. ISSN 0038-4941.
  36. ^ "Inaugural Address of PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA". The Black Scholar. 38 (4): 2–5. 2008. doi:10.1080/00064246.2008.11413464. ISSN 0006-4246. JSTOR 41069357. S2CID 147680023.
  37. ^ Amira, Dan (November 8, 2012). "Let the 2016 Campaign Season Begin!". New York. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  38. ^ Martin, Johnathon; Haberman, Maggie (November 8, 2012). "Back to the future: Clinton vs. Bush?". Politico. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
  39. ^ Barbaro, Michael (November 20, 2012). "After Obama, Christie Wants a G.O.P. Hug". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  40. ^ Linshi, Jack (July 7, 2015). "More People Are Running for Presidential Nomination Than Ever". Time. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
  41. ^ Burns, Alexander; Flegenheimer, Matt; Lee, Jasmine C.; Lerer, Lisa; Martin, Jonathan (January 21, 2019). "Who's Running for President in 2020?". The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  42. ^ Rafferty, Andrew (March 4, 2016). "Ben Carson Suspends 2016 Campaign at CPAC". NBC News. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  43. ^ Peters, Jeremy; Barbaro, Michael (March 16, 2016). "Marco Rubio Suspends His Presidential Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  44. ^ Rosenfeld, Everett (May 3, 2016). "Ted Cruz suspends presidential campaign". CNBC. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  45. ^ Kaplan, Thomas (May 4, 2016). "John Kasich Drops Out of Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  46. ^ "Reince Priebus on Twitter". Twitter. May 3, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2016. ."@realDonaldTrump will be presumptive @GOP nominee, we all need to unite ..."
  47. ^ Reuning, Kevin; Dietrich, Nick (2019). "Media Coverage, Public Interest, and Support in the 2016 Republican Invisible Primary". Perspectives on Politics. 17 (2): 326–339. doi:10.1017/S1537592718003274. ISSN 1537-5927.
  48. ^ Albert, Zachary; Barney, David J. (2019). "The Party Reacts: The Strategic Nature of Endorsements of Donald Trump". American Politics Research. 47 (6): 1239–1258. doi:10.1177/1532673x18808022. ISSN 1532-673X. S2CID 158923761.
  49. ^ "John Kasich FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  50. ^ Mascaro, Lisa; Lauter, David (March 22, 2015). "Texas Republican Sen. Ted Cruz Launches Presidential Bid". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  51. ^ Zezima, Katie (March 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz Announces He's Running for President". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  52. ^ "Ted Cruz FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. March 23, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
  53. ^ Parker, Ashley (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio Announces 2016 Presidential Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  54. ^ Nelson, Rebecca (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio Makes His Pitch as the Fresh Face of the GOP in 2016". National Journal. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  55. ^ "Marco Rubio FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. April 13, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  56. ^ Terris, Ben (May 3, 2015). "Ben Carson announces presidential campaign". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  57. ^ Rafferty, Andrew (May 4, 2015). "Ben Carson Announces 2016 Run". NBCNews.com. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  58. ^ "Ben Carson FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 4, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  59. ^ Rafferty, Andrew (June 15, 2015). "Jeb Bush Makes 2016 Run Official". NBC News. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  60. ^ "Jeb Bush FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
  61. ^ Allen, Cooper (July 30, 2015). "Jim Gilmore formally joins GOP presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  62. ^ "Jim Gilmore FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 29, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  63. ^ Gass, Nick (May 4, 2015). [httsp://www.politico.com/story/2015/05/carly-fiorina-2016-presidential-bid-117593.html "Carly Fiorina: 'Yes, I am running for president'"]. Politico. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  64. ^ "Carly Fiorina FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 4, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  65. ^ Barbaro, Michael (June 30, 2015). "Chris Christie Announces Run, Pledging 'Truth' About Nation's Woes". The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  66. ^ "Christopher J. Christie FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 1, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  67. ^ Lambert, Lisa (April 7, 2015). "Republican Rand Paul announces 2016 presidential run on website". Reuters. Archived from the original on April 7, 2015. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
  68. ^ Killough, Ashley (April 7, 2015). "Rand Paul: 'I am running for president'". CNN. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
  69. ^ "Rand Paul FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. April 8, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  70. ^ Jackson, David (May 27, 2015). "Santorum officially begins 2016 presidential campaign". USA Today. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  71. ^ "Rick Santorum FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 27, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  72. ^ Trip, Gabriel (May 5, 2015). "Mike Huckabee Joins Republican Presidential Race". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  73. ^ "Mike Huckabee FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
  74. ^ "George Pataki FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  75. ^ Jaffe, Alexandra (June 1, 2015) "Graham bets on foreign experience in White House bid announcement", CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  76. ^ "Lindsey Graham FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 1, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  77. ^ Fahrenthold, David A.; Hohmann, James (June 24, 2015). "Bobby Jindal announces entry into 2016 presidential race". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
  78. ^ "Bobby Jindal FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  79. ^ Burlij, Terence; Lee, MJ; LoBianco, Tom (July 13, 2015). "Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker officially enters 2016 presidential race". CNN. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  80. ^ "Scott Walker FEC filing". FEC. FEC.gov. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  81. ^ a b "2016 Presidential Primary—Republican President—NHSOS". sos.nh.gov. Archived from the original on October 10, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  82. ^ Beckwith, Ryan Teague; Rhodan, Maya (June 4, 2015). "Rick Perry Announces Presidential Bid". Time. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  83. ^ "Rick Perry FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  84. ^ Keneally, Meghan (May 4, 2016). "Donald Trump Teases Possible VP Requirements". ABC News. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  85. ^ Stokols, Eli; Everett, Burgess (June 17, 2016). "Trump's performance raises hard question: Who'd want to be his VP?". Politico. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  86. ^ Costa, Robert (June 30, 2016). "Gingrich, Christie are the leading candidates to be Trump's running mate". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  87. ^ Zurcher, Anthony (July 8, 2016). "US election: Who will Trump pick as his vice-president?". BBC News. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
  88. ^ O'Donnell, Kelly (July 12, 2016). "Team Trump Plans Public Event Friday With VP Pick". NBC News. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  89. ^ Bash, Dana; Acosta, Jim; Lee, MJ (July 14, 2016). "Donald Trump selects Mike Pence as VP". CNN. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  90. ^ Levingston, Ivan (July 15, 2016). "Donald Trump officially names Mike Pence as his VP". CNBC. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  91. ^ Cook, Tony (July 19, 2016). "Gov. Mike Pence formally nominated as the Republican Party's vice presidential candidate". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  92. ^ Keith, Tamara; Montanar, Domenico (April 10, 2015). "Hillary Clinton Expected To Go Small With Big Announcement". NPR. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
  93. ^ a b "Second straight poll shows Bernie Sanders leading in New Hampshire". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  94. ^ Merica, Dan (April 30, 2015). "Bernie Sanders is running for president". CNN. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  95. ^ "Bernie Sanders surpasses Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire polls". HuffPost. August 25, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  96. ^ "Huffpost Pollster". HuffPost. October 1, 2015. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  97. ^ Jackson, David; Cooper, Allen (May 30, 2015). "Martin O'Malley jumps into presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
  98. ^ DelReal, Jose A. (June 3, 2015). "Lincoln Chafee announces long-shot presidential bid". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  99. ^ "Rhode Island's Chafee enters 2016 Democratic contest". Boston Herald. Associated Press. June 3, 2015. Archived from the original on February 8, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  100. ^ Catanese, David (July 2, 2015). "Jim Webb Announces For President". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
  101. ^ Meyer, Theodoric (September 6, 2015). "Lessig: I'm running for president". Slate. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  102. ^ "Jim Webb to consider running as an independent". Politico. October 19, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  103. ^ "Biden says he's not running in 2016". OnPolitics. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  104. ^ "Joe Biden Not Running for President". ABC News. October 21, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  105. ^ Wagner, John; Weigel, David (October 23, 2015). "Lincoln Chafee ends Democratic bid for president". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  106. ^ a b Strauss, Daniel (November 2, 2015). "Lessig drops out of presidential race". Politico. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
  107. ^ "Nevada Caucus Results". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  108. ^ "South Carolina Primary Results". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  109. ^ "Why The Polls Missed Bernie Sanders's Michigan Upset". FiveThirtyEight. March 9, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  110. ^ Roberts, Dan; Jacobs, Ben (May 4, 2016). "Bernie Sanders pulls off shock victory over Hillary Clinton in Indiana". The Guardian. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  111. ^ Dann, Carrie (June 6, 2016). "Clinton hits 'magic number' of delegates to clinch nomination". NBC News. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  112. ^ a b c d e "Democratic Convention 2016". thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved May 14, 2016.
  113. ^ "Sanders vows to help Clinton beat Trump, but keeps campaign alive". Reuters. June 17, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  114. ^ "Sanders backers frustrated by defeats at Orlando platform meeting". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  115. ^ Reily, Molly (July 12, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Endorses Hillary Clinton For President". HuffPost. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  116. ^ Grayer, Annie (May 30, 2019). "Bernie Sanders takes 'umbrage' when audience member says he didn't support Hillary Clinton in 2016". CNN. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  117. ^ Lee, MJ; Merica, Dan; Zeleny, Jeff (July 12, 2016). "Bernie Sanders endorses Hillary Clinton". CNN. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
  118. ^ Yglesias, Matthew (February 1, 2016) "Iowa Results: Martin O'Malley drops out after third-place finish", Vox.com. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  119. ^ Fritze, John (June 9, 2016). "Martin O'Malley endorses Hillary Clinton". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on June 14, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  120. ^ Merica, Dan; LoBianco, Tom (October 23, 2015) "Lincoln Chafee drops out of Democratic primary race", CNN.com. Retrieved October 23, 2015
  121. ^ Walsh, Michael (October 20, 2015) "Jim Webb drops out of Democratic primary race", Yahoo! Politics. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  122. ^ Healy, Patrick (April 23, 2016). "Hillary Clinton's Campaign, Cautious but Confident, Begins Considering Running Mates". The New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
  123. ^ Matthews, Dylan (June 16, 2016). "Hillary Clinton's VP shortlist has leaked. Here are the pros and cons of each". Vox. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  124. ^ a b Gearan, Anne (July 19, 2016). "Two names emerge from Clinton's VP deliberations: Kaine and Vilsack". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  125. ^ Gearan, Anne; Wagner, John (July 22, 2016). "Sen. Timothy M. Kaine of Virginia chosen as Hillary Clinton's VP". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  126. ^ "New Hampshire Secretary of State Says Jill Stein Petition is Valid". ballot-access.org. September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  127. ^ a b "Ballot Access". gp.org. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
  128. ^ Winger, Richard (August 11, 2016). "Jill Stein Qualifies for Write-in Status in North Carolina; No Other Write-in Presidential Candidate Does So". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  129. ^ "Nevada Green Party Loses Ballot Access Lawsuit". ballot-access.org. September 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  130. ^ a b c "Ballot access | The Constitution Party". www.constitutionparty.com. February 9, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  131. ^ Winger, Richard (September 7, 2016). "North Dakota Says All Three Independent Presidential Petitions are Valid". Ballot Access News.
  132. ^ "2016 Election Information". azsos.gov. Arizona Secretary of State. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  133. ^ Kemp, Brian (September 12, 2016). "Qualifying Candidate Information". sos.ga.gov. Georgia Secretary of State. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
  134. ^ a b c "2016 Candidate Listing". elections.state.md.us. Maryland State Board of Elections. 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  135. ^ "2016 Certification of Write-in Candidates—President and Vice President" (PDF). Virginia Department of Elections. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  136. ^ "Constitution Party Nominates Darrell Castle and Scott Bradley". April 16, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
  137. ^ a b McMullin, Evan. "34 States and Counting". Evan McMullin for President. Rumpf, Sarah. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
  138. ^ "November 8, 2016, General Election Certified List of Write-In Candidates" (PDF). elections.cdn.sos.ca.gov. California Secretary of State. October 28, 2016. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  139. ^ a b "Registered Write-In Candidates November 8, 2016" (PDF). sots.ct.gov. Connecticut Secretary of State. October 28, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2016. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  140. ^ a b "2016 General Election Write-In Presidential Candidates" (PDF). sos.ks.gov. Kansas Secretary of State. October 31, 2016. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
  141. ^ Winger, Richard (October 31, 2016). "Missouri Secretary of State Releases List of Presidential Write-in Candidates". Ballot Access News. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
  142. ^ a b "Official Write-In Candidates for President" (PDF). www.elections.ny.gov. New York State Board of Elections. October 24, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
  143. ^ Winger, Richard (October 20, 2016). "Six Write-in Presidential Candidates File to Have North Dakota Write-ins Counted". ballot-access.org. Ballot Access News. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  144. ^ Strauss, Daniel (September 7, 2016). "Whoops: Independent candidate appears to have accidentally picked a running mate". Politico. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  145. ^ "Anti-Trump Republican Launching Independent Presidential Bid". BuzzFeed News. August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
  146. ^ Winger, Richard (August 13, 2016). "Peace & Freedom Party Nominates Gloria LaRiva for President". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  147. ^ Winger, Richard (May 15, 2016). "Liberty Union Party of Vermont Nominates Gloria La Riva for President". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  148. ^ Winger, Richard (September 1, 2016). "September 2016 Ballot Access News Print Edition". ballot-access.org. p. 6. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  149. ^ a b "Candidate Listing". elections.myflorida.com. Florida Department of State, Division of Elections. 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
  150. ^ a b Winger, Richard (July 1, 2016). "Ballot Access News". ballot-access.org. p. 4. Retrieved September 10, 2016. States that allow write-ins in the general election, and don't have write-in filing laws, are legally obliged to count all write-ins: Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Vermont ... Only one state, South Carolina, has a law that says that although write-ins in general elections are permitted, they are not permitted for president.
  151. ^ a b "Declared Write-In Candidates, November 8, 2016 General Election" (PDF). elections.delaware.gov. Delaware Department of Elections. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 11, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  152. ^ a b "Ballot access requirements for presidential candidates in Oregon". ballotpedia.org. Ballotpedia. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  153. ^ a b "Write-In Candidate Listing" (PDF). sos.wv.gov. West Virginia Secretary of State. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  154. ^ a b Tony Roza, ed. (2016). "Minnesota 2016 General Election". thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  155. ^ Husted, Jon (August 24, 2016). "Husted Announces Independent Candidates for President and Vice President". sos.state.oh.us. Ohio Secretary of State. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  156. ^ "2016 General Election Candidate Abbreviated List" (PDF). www.in.gov. Indiana Secretary of State Election Division. August 22, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  157. ^ Roza, Tony (2016). "Nebraska 2016 General Election". thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
  158. ^ "2016 November General Write-In List" (PDF). sos.idaho.gov. Idaho Secretary of State. October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
  159. ^ Jorden, Henry (October 5, 2016). "2016 General Election Official State-Filed Write-In Candidates" (PDF). sos.mt.gov. Montana Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  160. ^ "November 8, 2016 General Election Candidate List". elections.alaska.gov. State of Alaska Division of Elections. 2016. Archived from the original on October 21, 2016. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  161. ^ "Election Candidate Filings—President of the United States". apps.sos.ky.gov. Archived from the original on September 30, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  162. ^ Chozick, Amy (March 4, 2016). "Clinton Offers Economic Plan Focused on Jobs". The New York Times.
  163. ^ "Hillary Clinton: Equal pay, problem-solving would be top priorities". CBS News. February 24, 2015.
  164. ^ a b Lerder, Lisa (April 19, 2015). "Clinton patches relations with liberals at campaign's outset". The Big Story. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015.
  165. ^ Chozick, Amy (May 5, 2015). "A Path to Citizenship, Clinton Says, 'Is at Its Heart a Family Issue'". The New York Times.
  166. ^ Geoff, Colvin (April 28, 2016). "Explaining Donald Trump's Massive Branding Power". Fortune. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
  167. ^ Mai-Duc, Christine (November 12, 2015). "Inside the Southern California factory that makes the Donald Trump hats". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  168. ^ Cassidy, John (February 29, 2016). "Donald Trump Is Transforming the G.O.P. Into a Populist, Nativist Party". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 5, 2016. What is perhaps more surprising, at least to Washington-based conservatives, is how many Republicans are also embracing Trump's populist lines on ending free trade, protecting Social Security, and providing basic health care.
  169. ^ "How Trump Exposed the Tea Party". Politico Magazine. September 3, 2015. For years the Republican elite has gotten away with promoting policies about trade and entitlements that are the exact opposites of the policies favored by much of their electoral base. Populist conservatives who want to end illegal immigration, tax the rich, protect Social Security and Medicare, and fight fewer foreign wars have been there all along. It's just that mainstream pundits and journalists, searching for a libertarian right more to their liking (and comprehension), refused to see them before the Summer of Trump.
  170. ^ Nicholas Confessore (March 28, 2016). "How the G.O.P. Elite Lost Its Voters to Donald Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2016. While wages declined and workers grew anxious about retirement, Republicans offered an economic program still centered on tax cuts for the affluent and the curtailing of popular entitlements like Medicare and Social Security.
  171. ^ Greg Sargent (March 28, 2016). "This one anecdote perfectly explains how Donald Trump is hijacking the GOP". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
  172. ^ Thomas B. Edsall (March 30, 2016). "Who Are the Angriest Republicans?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  173. ^ Steve Rattner (January 8, 2016). "White, working class men back Trump, charts show" (video). Morning Joe MNSBC. Retrieved March 25, 2016. Steve Rattner breaks down the demographics of who is supporting Donald Trump and how these supporters are doing financially. Duration: 2:25
  174. ^ Jeff Guo (March 4, 2016). "Death predicts whether people vote for Donald Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2016. Even after controlling for these other factors, the middle-aged white death rate in a county was still a significant predictor of the share of votes that went to Trump
  175. ^ Nate Cohn, Donald Trump's Strongest Supporters: A Certain Kind of Democrat, The New York Times (December 31, 2015).
  176. ^ Thrush, Glenn; Haberman, Maggie (May 2014). "What Is Hillary Clinton Afraid Of". Politicoo. Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  177. ^ Merica, Dan (March 24, 2015). "Hillary Clinton seeks 'new beginning' with the press". CNN.
  178. ^ Horowitz, Jason (May 22, 2015). "Hillary Clinton, Acutely Aware of Pitfalls, Avoids Press on Campaign Trail". The New York Times. it makes all the political sense in the world for Mrs. Clinton to ignore them
  179. ^ Waldman, Paul (June 2, 2015). "Why Hillary Clinton needs to start treating the press better". The Washington Post.
  180. ^ Nicholas Confessore & Karen Yourish, Measuring Donald Trump's Mammoth Advantage in Free Media, The New York Times (March 16, 2016).
  181. ^ "How much does Donald Trump dominate TV news coverage? This much". CNN. December 6, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  182. ^ Tyndall, Andrew. "COMMENTS: Campaign 2016 Coverage: Annual Totals for 2015". Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  183. ^ Byers, Dylan. "Donald Trump: Media King, 2015". CNN. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  184. ^ Walsh, Kenneth. "How Donald Trump's Media Dominance Is Changing the 2016 Campaign". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  185. ^ "43 Times Donald Trump Has Attacked The Media As A Presidential Candidate". HuffPost. September 28, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  186. ^ Fandos, Nicholas (July 11, 2015). "Donald Trump Defiantly Rallies a New 'Silent Majority' in a Visit to Arizona". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  187. ^ Walsh, Kenneth. "Trump: Media Is 'Dishonest and Corrupt'" Archived September 16, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, U.S. News & World Report (August 15, 2016).
  188. ^ Koppel, Ted. "Trump: 'I feel I'm an honest person'", CBS News (July 24, 2016).
  189. ^ "RealClearPolitics—Clinton & Trump: Favorability Ratings". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  190. ^ Schmidt, Michael S.; Chozick, Amy (March 3, 2015). "Using Private Email, Hillary Clinton Thwarted Record Requests". The New York Times.
  191. ^ Leonnig, Carol D.; Helderman, Rosalind S.; Gearan, Anne (March 6, 2015). "Clinton e-mail review could find security issues". The Washington Post.
  192. ^ Dilanian, Ken (February 4, 2016). "Clinton Emails Held Indirect References to Undercover CIA Officers". NBC News.
  193. ^ Shane, Scott; Schmidt, Michael S. (August 8, 2015). "Hillary Clinton Emails Take Long Path to Controversy". The New York Times.
  194. ^ Cox, Douglas (July 27, 2015). "Hillary Clinton email controversy: How serious is it?". CNN.
  195. ^ Kessler, Glenn (February 4, 2016). "How did 'top secret' emails end up on Hillary Clinton's server?". The Washington Post.
  196. ^ Montanaro, Domenico (September 10, 2016). "Hillary Clinton's 'Basket Of Deplorables,' In Full Context Of This Ugly Campaign". NPR. The remarks also remind of inflammatory remarks in recent presidential elections on both sides—from Barack Obama's assertion in 2008 that people in small towns are "bitter" and "cling to guns or religion," to Mitt Romney's 2012 statement that 47 percent of Americans vote for Democrats because they are "dependent upon government" and believe they are "victims," to his vice presidential pick Paul Ryan's comment that the country is divided between "makers and takers."
  197. ^ Epstein, Jennifer (September 10, 2016). "Clinton Calls Some Trump Supporters 'Basket of Deplorables'". Bloomberg News. Republican pollster Frank Luntz described Clinton's comments as her "47 percent moment," a reference to Republican Mitt Romney's remarks at a private fundraiser in the 2012 campaign.
  198. ^ Chozick, Amy (September 10, 2016). "Hillary Clinton Calls Many Trump Backers 'Deplorables,' and GOP Pounces". The New York Times. Prof. Jennifer Mercieca, an expert in American political discourse at Texas A&M University, said in an email that the "deplorable" comment "sounds bad on the face of it" and compared it to Mr. Romney's 47 percent gaffe. "The comment demonstrates that she (like Romney) lacks empathy for that group," Professor Mercieca said.
  199. ^ Reilly, Katie (September 10, 2016). "Hillary Clinton Says She Regrets Part of Her 'Deplorables' Comment". Time.
  200. ^ Flegenheimer, Matt (August 25, 2016). "Hillary Clinton Says 'Radical Fringe' Is Taking Over G.O.P. Under Donald Trump". The New York Times.
  201. ^ Stephen Collinson (September 12, 2016). "Hillary Clinton stumbles—will her campaign follow?". CNN.
  202. ^ a b c Debenedetti, Gabriel (September 11, 2016). "Press rips Clinton campaign's handling of health incident". Politico.
  203. ^ a b Becker, Amanda (September 12, 2016). "Suffering from pneumonia, Clinton falls ill at 9/11 memorial, ..." Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
  204. ^ Cassidy, John, A Sexual Predator in the Republican Party's Midst, The New Yorker, October 8, 2016.
  205. ^ "Trump recorded having extremely lewd conversation about women in 2005". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  206. ^ "2005 Video Shows Donald Trump Saying Lewd Things About Women". Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  207. ^ "Trump on hot mic: 'When you're a star ... You can do anything' to women". NBC News. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  208. ^ Harrington, Rebecca (October 7, 2016). "RNC Chair Reince Priebus condemns Trump for obscene comments about women in 2005 video". Business Insider. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  209. ^ Lee, Kurtis (October 7, 2016). "Speaker Paul Ryan disinvites Trump to his campaign event, says he's 'sickened' by tape". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  210. ^ Blake, Aaron (October 8, 2016). "HThree dozen Republicans have now called for Donald Trump to drop out". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2024.
  211. ^ Costa, Robert (October 8, 2016). "Amid growing calls to drop out, Trump vows to 'never withdraw'". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  212. ^ Nuzzi, Olivia (October 8, 2016). "Trump: 'I Said It, I Was Wrong, And I Apologize.'". The Daily Beast.
  213. ^ Johnson, Jenna (May 20, 2017). "'I think Islam hates us': A timeline of Trump's comments about Islam and Muslims". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  214. ^ a b Diamond, Jeremy (December 7, 2015). "Donald Trump: Ban all Muslim travel to U.S." CNN. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  215. ^ Johnson, Jenna (February 29, 2016). "Trump's rhetoric on Muslims plays well with fans, but horrifies others". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  216. ^ Golshan, Tara (October 17, 2016). "Donald Trump is going on a furious Twitter tirade about the "rigged" election". Vox. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  217. ^ Sanders, Sam (October 20, 2016). "Donald Trump Says He'll Accept The Results Of The Election ... If He Wins". NPR. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  218. ^ "US election 2016: Trump says election 'rigged at polling places'". BBC News. October 17, 2016. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  219. ^ Samuelsohn, Darren (October 25, 2016). "A guide to Donald Trump's 'rigged' election". Politico. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  220. ^ Rafferty, Andrew; Taintor, David (October 19, 2016). "Trump Won't Say He'll Accept Election Results: 'I Will Keep You In Suspense'". NBC News. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  221. ^ Carroll, Lauren (October 25, 2016). "Is Trump the first-ever candidate not to say he'll accept election results?". PolitiFact. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  222. ^ Melber, Ari (November 8, 2016). "What Happens if Trump Loses and Won't Concede?". NBC News. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  223. ^ "Gary Johnson: Third party is going to be the Libertarian Party". Fox Business. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  224. ^ Benjy Sarlin, Anti-Trump forces have few options for third party alternative, MSNBC (March 4, 2016): "'I am the third party,' former New Mexico Gov. Gary Johnson, the party's 2012 nominee, told conservative gathering CPAC on Thursday. 'The Libertarian Party will be on the ballot in all 50 states.'"
  225. ^ Rogers, Ed (December 14, 2012). "Who is Gary Johnson?". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  226. ^ Watkins, Eli. "Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson: What Donald Trump says is 'ridiculous'". CNN. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  227. ^ Maggie Haberman; Alexander Burns (October 5, 2016). "Gary Johnson Equates Syria Deaths Caused by Assad and West". The New York Times.
  228. ^ Weigel, David (October 7, 2016). "Gary Johnson gives a foreign policy speech and chides the media for giving him pop quizzes". The Washington Post. Johnson tried to put a string of foreign policy gaffes behind him on Friday ...
  229. ^ a b Wright, David. "What is Aleppo?". CNN. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  230. ^ a b Nelson, Louis (September 8, 2016). "Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson: 'What is Aleppo?'". Politico. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  231. ^ "I am Jill Stein, Green Party candidate for President, AMA! • /r/IAmA". reddit. May 11, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  232. ^ "WATCH //Jill Stein: To stop Trump's neofascism, we must stop Clinton's neoliberalism". Haaretz. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  233. ^ "Left Forum 2016, Is Sanders the Answer to Building Left and Black Power?". youtube. Open University of the Left. May 24, 2016. Archived from the original on December 15, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  234. ^ Jonathan Easley; Ben Kamisar (September 28, 2016). "Democrats target Libertarian ticket". The Hill.
  235. ^ Perez, Evan; Brown, Pamela (October 29, 2016). "Comey notified Congress of email probe despite DOJ concerns". CNN. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
  236. ^ Perez, Evan; Brown, Pamela (October 31, 2016). "FBI discovered Clinton-related emails weeks ago". CNNCNN. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  237. ^ "FBI finds no criminality in review of newly discovered Clinton emails". NBC News. November 6, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  238. ^ "Emails Warrant No New Action Against Hillary Clinton, F.B.I. Director Says". The New York Times. November 6, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  239. ^ Silver, Nate (May 3, 2017). "The Comey Letter Probably Cost Clinton The Election". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved July 5, 2024.
  240. ^ a b Cohn, Nate (June 14, 2018). "Did Comey Cost Clinton the Election? Why We'll Never Know". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 5, 2024.
  241. ^ Pengelly, Martin (November 13, 2016). "Hillary Clinton blames Comey letters for election defeat, reports say". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 5, 2024.
  242. ^ a b c d "2016 Presidential General Election Results (These results are slightly different from the official results.)". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Newton, Massachusetts. January 20, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  243. ^ "RNC officially approves Cleveland as 2016 convention host". CBS News. August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  244. ^ Isenstadt, Alex (January 14, 2014). "GOP convention set for July 18–21 in 2016". Politico. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  245. ^ Camia, Catalina; Moore, Martha A. (February 12, 2015). "Democrats pick Philadelphia for 2016 convention". USA Today. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
  246. ^ Winger, Richard (July 11, 2014). "Libertarian Party Moves into National Party Headquarters That it Owns". Ballot Access News. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  247. ^ "Libertarian National Committee Minutes July 15–16, 2012" (PDF). Libertarian National Committee. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 8, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  248. ^ Winger, Richard (August 2, 2015) "Green Party Will Hold Presidential Convention in Houston", Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  249. ^ "Houston, We Have a Solution—Vote Green 2016". Green Party of the United States. April 4, 2016. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  250. ^ Mills, Glen. "The Constitution Party hosts national convention in Salt Lake City". Good4Utah.com. Nexstar Media Group. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  251. ^ "Wall Street spends record $2bn on US election lobbying". Financial Times. March 8, 2017.
  252. ^ "Wall Street Spent $2 Billion Trying to Influence the 2016 Election". Fortune. March 8, 2017.
  253. ^ "2016 Presidential Race". OpenSecrets.
  254. ^ "Summary data for Donald Trump, 2016 Cycle". opensecrets.org. 2016. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  255. ^ "TRUMP, DONALD J. / MICHAEL R. PENCE - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  256. ^ "Summary data for Hillary Clinton, 2016 Cycle". opensecrets.org. 2016. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  257. ^ "CLINTON, HILLARY RODHAM / TIMOTHY MICHAEL KAINE - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on September 3, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  258. ^ "Summary data for Gary Johnson, 2016 Cycle". opensecrets.org. 2016. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  259. ^ "JOHNSON, GARY / WILLIAM "BILL" WELD - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on September 20, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  260. ^ "DE LA FUENTE, ROQUE ROCKY - Candidate overview". FEC.gov. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  261. ^ "Summary data for Jill Stein, 2016 Cycle". opensecrets.org. 2016. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  262. ^ "STEIN, JILL - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on August 13, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  263. ^ "MCMULLIN, EVAN / MINDY FINN - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  264. ^ "CASTLE, DARRELL LANE - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  265. ^ "LA RIVA, GLORIA ESTELA - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  266. ^ "MOOREHEAD, MONICA GAIL - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  267. ^ "SKEWES, PETER ALAN PH.D. - Candidate overview". fec.gov. Federal Election Commission. 2016. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  268. ^ Berman, Ari (November 9, 2016). "The GOP's Attack on Voting Rights Was the Most Under-Covered Story of 2016". The Nation. Archived from the original on December 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  269. ^ "New Voting Restrictions in America". Brennan Center for Justice.
  270. ^ Berman, Ari (May 9, 2017). "Wisconsin's Voter-ID Law Suppressed 200,000 Votes in 2016 (Trump Won by 22,748); A new study shows how voter-ID laws decreased turnout among African-American and Democratic voters". The Nation. Archived from the original on January 15, 2020. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  271. ^ Green, Matthew (November 8, 2016). "MAP: States With New Voting Restrictions in Place for the 2016 Presidential Election". KQED.
  272. ^ Milligan, Susan (April 1, 2016). "I (Wish I) Voted: Recent changes to voting rights impact elections". U.S. News & World Report.
  273. ^ Berry, Deborah Barfield (January 29, 2016). "New state voting laws face first presidential election test". USA Today.
  274. ^ Editorial Board (September 24, 2016). "Hillary Clinton for President". The New York Times. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  275. ^ "LA Times endorses Clinton, bashes Trump". Politico. September 23, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  276. ^ a b Lim, Naomi (August 1, 2016). "Hillary Clinton endorsed by Houston Chronicle, Trump 'danger to the Republic'". CNN.
  277. ^ "Editorial: In battle for America's soul, Hillary Clinton is our pick". The San Jose Mercury News. October 21, 2016.
  278. ^ "Editorial: Vote for Clinton and avert a train wreck". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  279. ^ "Daily News Editorial Board says Vote Hillary Clinton: She's the best choice for President, while Donald Trump represents a clear and present danger to the republic". Daily News. New York. July 28, 2016.
  280. ^ "We recommend Hillary Clinton for president". The Dallas Morning News. September 6, 2016.
  281. ^ "Endorsement Why Hillary Clinton is the safe choice for president". The San Diego Union-Tribune. September 30, 2016.
  282. ^ "For president: Trump unfit, Clinton is qualified". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  283. ^ The Arizona Republic Editorial Board (September 27, 2016). "Endorsement: Hillary Clinton is the only choice to move America ahead".
  284. ^ "The Case for Hillary Clinton And Against Donald Trump". The Atlantic. October 5, 2016.
  285. ^ Diaz, John (October 7, 2016). "Trump strikes out on newspaper endorsements". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 26, 2016.