2017 Iran–Iraq earthquake

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2017 Iran–Iraq earthquake
2017 Kermanshah earthquake by Farzad Menati - Sarpol-e Zahab (02).jpg
Damage in Kermanshah.
UTC time2017-11-12 18:18:17
ISC event617943542
USGS-ANSSComCat
Local date12 November 2017 (2017-11-12)
Local time21:48 IRST
Magnitude7.3 Mw[1][2] [3][4][5]
Depth19.0 km (12 mi)[1]
Epicenter34°54′18″N 45°57′22″E / 34.905°N 45.956°E / 34.905; 45.956Coordinates: 34°54′18″N 45°57′22″E / 34.905°N 45.956°E / 34.905; 45.956[1]
FaultZagros fold and thrust belt
TypeThrust[1]
Areas affected
Max. intensityIX (Violent)[6]
LandslidesYes
Casualties630 dead[7][8]
8,100+ injured[9][10][11]
70,000+ homeless[11]

On 12 November 2017 at 18:18 UTC (21:48 Iran Standard Time, 21:18 Arabia Standard Time), an earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.3 occurred on the Iran–Iraq border, with the Iraqi Kurdish city of Halabja, and the Kurdish dominated places of Ezgeleh, Salas-e Babajani County, Kermanshah Province in Iran,[2][3][4][1][14] closest to the epicentre, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of the city of Halabja, Iraqi Kurdistan.[1]

It was felt as far away as Israel and the United Arab Emirates. With at least 630 people killed (mostly in Iraq's Kurdish Halabja area and the Iranian Kurdish dominated province of Kermanshah),[7][8] and more than 8,100 injured, as well as many more unaccounted for,[15][9][16] it was the deadliest earthquake of 2017.[17]

Tectonic setting[edit]

The earthquake was located within the Zagros fold and thrust belt, part of the broad and complex zone of continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates. At this location, the relative convergence of the plates is about 26 mm per year.[1] The convergence is quite oblique to the Zagros belt, although it is partitioned into orthogonal dip-slip motion within the active thrust belt and dextral (right lateral) strike-slip motion along the Main Recent Fault to the northeast of the Zagros Mountains.[18]

Earthquake[edit]

USGS shakemap.
Damaged apartment block of the Mehr housing project in Sarpol-e Zahab, Iran
Red Crescent offering help for the injured people
Chart of the aftershocks that followed 12 November main shock

The earthquake occurred near the Iran–Iraq border,[2][19][4][5] approximately 220 kilometres (140 mi) northeast of Baghdad.[2][19][4] According to the United States Geological Survey, the earthquake measured 7.3 on the moment magnitude scale[3] and was caused by movement on a thrust fault dipping at a shallow angle to the northeast. The epicentre was at a depth of 19.0 kilometres (11.8 mi), and the maximum perceived intensity was IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale.[1]

This was the strongest earthquake recorded in the region since a 6.1 Mw event in January 1967.[1] The earthquake was felt throughout the Middle East and as far away as Israel, the Arabian Peninsula and Turkey.[20][21][22][10]

Aftershocks[edit]

Date Mw Casualties Notes Source(s)
2017-12-11 5.4 50 injured Several houses destroyed [23][24]
2018-01-06 5.0 51 injured Additional damage [25][26]
2018-01-11 5.5 5 injured Some old homes destroyed [27][28]
2018-04-01 5.0 54 injured - [29][30]
2018-06-26 4.7 12 injured - [31][32]
2018-07-22 5.8 287 injured Severe damage [33][34]
2018-08-26 6.0 3 dead, 243 injured Further damage [35][36]
2018-11-26 6.3 1 dead, 761 injured Severe damage [37][38]

The Iranian seismological centre registered at least 50 aftershocks within a few hours of the earthquake, with a total of 242 earthquakes. These aftershocks killed at least four and injured at least 1,488 others.[39][40]

Aftermath[edit]

Casualties and damage[edit]

The province of Kermanshah was the most affected area along with the cities of Halabja, Iraq and Sarpol-e Zahab being the hardest-hit.[3][19][4][41][5][2] Ezgeleh was the nearest city to the epicentre of the earthquake.[42] More than half of the Iranian casualties were from Sarpol-e-Zahab and the Ezgeleh District, which have a combined population of over 30,000.[43] Officials announced that schools in Kermanshah and Ilam provinces would be closed following the quake.[44]

630 people died.[7][8] More than 7,000 others were injured.[20][45] In Sarpol-e Zahab, the hospital was damaged and at least 142 people were killed, many who had lived in social housing complexes built by former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[11][10][39] At least seven people were killed and another 500 injured in neighbouring Iraq, according to officials in Iraqi Kurdistan.[44][46] Further damages were seen as possible due to the threat of landslides induced by the shallow depth of the earthquake.[47]

The earthquake left about 70,000 people homeless across 14 Iranian provinces,[11][48] destroying approximately 12,000 homes and damaging another 15,000.[49] Relief camps in Iran distributed 22,000 tents and 52,000 blankets in the days after the earthquake.[49] On 17 November, the Iranian government announced that the disaster has caused at least €5 billion of damage.[50]

In Sarpol-e Zahab, some residents blamed the widespread destruction on poor construction quality and government corruption.[11] It was noted that older buildings remained standing, while many newer blocks collapsed.[11]

Aid[edit]

Military plane at Merhabad Airport carrying injured people

Turkey was the first country to offer aid, through its Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, announcing that 92 rescue personnel were on standby, together with 4,000 tents and 7,000 blankets.[46]

European Union Foreign Policy Chief Federica Mogherini said the bloc was ready to cooperate with Iran in providing emergency relief aid,[46] and Italy's government issued orders to send 12 tonnes of tents, blankets and mobile kitchens on 13 November.[51]

The International Committee of the Red Cross had arrived by 13 November.[51] Sunni charities, such as the Iranian Call and Reform Organisation, were providing tents and water.[11] Rescue dogs were also used by the Iranian Red Crescent in order to search for survivors.[52]

The South Korean actress Lee Young-ae donated $45,000 to the Embassy of Iran in Seoul to help the victims of the earthquake.[53]

On 14 November, Iranian minister of foreign affairs Mohammad Javad Zarif expressed his gratitude for all the sympathy and offers of assistance Iran has received but declared that his country can manage the situation with its own resources for the time being.[54]

It was also reported that the Iranian Officials were visiting various affected places to provide assistance, according to CNN.[55]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "M 7.3 – 30km S of Halabjah, Iraq". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e Shirzad Bozorgmehr; James Masters. "Iran-Iraq earthquake is deadliest of 2017". CNN.
  3. ^ a b c d "The Iran-Iraq Earthquake May Soon Be the Deadliest of 2017".
  4. ^ a b c d e "Powerful Iran-Iraq earthquake is deadliest of 2017". 13 November 2017.
  5. ^ a b c "Moment Iran-Iraq earthquake struck – CNN Video".
  6. ^ "M 7.3 - 29km S of Halabjah, Iraq". United States Geological Survey. 12 November 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  7. ^ a b c "Western Iran fatal quake death toll rises to 620". 11 December 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  8. ^ a b c "Iraqi Red Crescent: Increasing the number of the dead to 10 people because of the earthquake and set up camps to shelter the affected families in Darbandikhan and Halapcha". ReliefWeb. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b "Powerful Earthquake on Iran-Iraq Border Kills Over 410". NBC4 Washington. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  10. ^ a b c "Iran-Iraq earthquake: Deadly tremor hits border region". BBC News. 12 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "A 7.3-magnitude earthquake on the Iran-Iraq border leaves hundreds dead". The Economist. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  12. ^ "امداد رسانی به مصدومان زلزله در سرپل‌ذهاب - خبرگزاری تسنیم - Tasnim". Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  13. ^ "خبرگزاری تسنیم – Tasnim – امداد رسانی به مصدومان زلزله در سرپل‌ذهاب".
  14. ^ "Northern Iraq rocked by 7.2 magnitude earthquake". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  15. ^ "Officials raise Iran-Iraq earthquake death toll to at least 530". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  16. ^ "Iraqi Red Crescent: Increasing the number of the dead to 10 people because of the earthquake and set up camps to shelter the affected families in Darbandikhan and Halapcha". ReliefWeb. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  17. ^ "Iran-Iraq quake is 2017's deadliest". BBC News. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  18. ^ Talebian, M.; Jackson J. (2004). "A reappraisal of earthquake focal mechanisms and active shortening in the Zagros mountains of Iran". Geophysical Journal International. Royal Astronomical Society. 156 (3): 506–526. Bibcode:2004GeoJI.156..506T. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02092.x.
  19. ^ a b c "The Iran-Iraq Earthquake May Soon Be the Deadliest of 2017".
  20. ^ a b "Earthquake, Magnitude 7.3 – IRAN-IRAQ BORDER REGION – 2017 November 12, 18:18:17 UTC". EMSC-CSEM. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  21. ^ "Iran-Iraq border quake kills hundreds". BBC News. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  22. ^ "More than 300 killed as strong quake rocks Iran-Iraq border". The National. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  23. ^ "M 5.4 - 23km WSW of Ḩalabja, Iraq". United States Geological Survey. 11 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  24. ^ "50 people hospitalized due to 5.4 magnitude earthquake in Kurdistan". Kurdistan24. 11 December 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  25. ^ "M 5.0 - 16km NNW of Sarpol-e Zahāb, Iran". United States Geological Survey. 6 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  26. ^ "51 people injured as 5.1 magnitude earthquake strikes Kermanshah province in Iran". firstpost.com. 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  27. ^ "M 5.5 - 16km ESE of Mandalī, Iraq". United States Geological Survey. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  28. ^ "Five people injured in Iran's 5.6 Sumar quake". KUNA. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  29. ^ "M 5.0 - 12km WSW of Sarpol-e Zāhāb, Iran". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  30. ^ Farda, Radio. "More Than 50 Injured In Double Quake In Iran". RFE/RL. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  31. ^ "M 4.7 - 32km NE of Sarpol-e Zāhāb, Iran". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  32. ^ "West Iran quake injures 12". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  33. ^ "M 5.8 - 31km ENE of Sarpol-e Zāhāb, Iran". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  34. ^ "Magnitude 5.9 quake injures nearly 290 in western Iran". Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  35. ^ "M 6.0 - 32km SW of Jāvānrūd, Iran". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  36. ^ "Magnitude-5.9 quake in Kermanshah: 3 dead, 243 injured". Tehran Times. 26 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  37. ^ "M 6.3 - 15km SW of Sarpol-e Zāhāb, Iran". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  38. ^ "More than 700 injured in Iran earthquake". BBC News. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  39. ^ a b Jalabi, Raya; Hafezi, Parisa (12 November 2017). "Strong earthquake hits Iraq and Iran, killing at least 210". Reuters. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  40. ^ "Earthquake Impact Database". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  41. ^ "The Iran-Iraq Earthquake May Soon Be the Deadliest of 2017". Yahoo! News.
  42. ^ Erdbrink, Thomas (13 November 2017). "Iran-Iraq Earthquake Kills More Than 450". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  43. ^ "Over 400 dead after Iran-Iraq earthquake". Sky News. 14 November 2017. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  44. ^ a b "Powerful earthquake strike the Iraq-Iran border, at least 123 dead". BNO News. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  45. ^ "زلزله‌ در استان کرمانشاه باعث مرگ دهها نفر شده است" (in Persian). BBC News. 12 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  46. ^ a b c "Iran-Iraq earthquake: What happened and why". Al Jazeera English. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  47. ^ "M7.3 IRAN-IRAQ BORDER REGION on November 12th 2017 at 18:18 UTC". www.emsc-csem.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  48. ^ "The Powerful Earthquake Along the Iran-Iraq Border Has Killed More Than 400 People". Time. 13 November 2017. Archived from the original on 13 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  49. ^ a b "30,000 homes damaged, destroyed by Iran quake". Gulf News. Agence France-Presse. 14 November 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  50. ^ "Iran earthquake caused damage worth €5 billion". Hindustan Times. 17 November 2017.
  51. ^ a b "The Latest: Italy sends aid after Iran earthquake". Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  52. ^ Erdbrink, Thomas (13 November 2017). "Iran-Iraq Earthquake Kills More Than 500". The New York Times.
  53. ^ "Korean actress Lee Young-ae backs quake relief efforts in Iran". Tehran Times. 20 November 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  54. ^ @Javad_Zarif (13 November 2017). "Heartbreaking images from the earthquake damage and loss of life in Kermanshah (and in Iraq). We are grateful for global expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance. For now, we can manage with our own resources. Many thanks for all offers and we will keep you posted" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  55. ^ "Iran protests set to continue amid collapsing currency, increasing pressure on regime".

External links[edit]