2017 Macanese legislative election
33 seats in the Legislative Assembly
17 seats to have a majority
The 2017 Macanese general election took place on 17 September 2017 according to the provisions of the Basic Law of Macau. Out of a total of 33 seats, 14 were directly elected by universal suffrage under the highest averages method, while 12 were voted on from the Functional constituency, and 7 from nomination by the Chief Executive.
Formerly a Portuguese colony, Macau has been a Special Administrative Region within China since 1999. As a Special Administrative Region it is entitled to a high degree of autonomy from the mainland Chinese legal system through the year 2050, although China represents the city on foreign policy matters. Macau's economy is based primarily on its status as a tech and financial sector, as well as its internationally famous casino industry.
The previous legislative election took place in 2013. The pro-establishment camp ACUM, led by Chan Meng Kam, received 18.02% votes with 3 seats, and the next largest party, the pro-democracy camp ANMD+APMD, led by António Ng, received 15.73% of the votes with 2 seats while the pro-establishment camp UGM received 11.09% with 2 seats. Due to the characteristics of the Macanese election system, only 14 members are directly elected. On 10 July 2017 twenty-five parties have submitted their nominations for the direct election including current incumbents (Ho Ion Sang, António Ng Kuok Cheong, José Pereira Coutinho, Leong Veng Chai, Song Pek Kei, Si Ka Lon, Wong Kit Cheng, Au Kam San, Angela Leong On Kei, Lei Cheng I, Melinda Chan Mei Yi, Zheng Anting, Mak Soi Kun) and new candidates.
Macanese Election Laws
Macau's direct electoral system is based around proportional representation, with elections carried out through a closed party-list balloting system. This means that each geographic electoral district has multiple members, with the number of its seats filled by each competing party determined by the proportion of the vote that party receives. Parties nominate a slate of candidates (generally, one per seat in each district where the party is competing). After the election, party leaders decide who from the slate will fill the party's legislative seats.
Shortly before usual campaign period for the 2013 elections, the Electoral Affairs Commission of Macau banned the use of commercial advertising by election candidates. The new election rules stipulate that candidates should not carry out activities that could influence voters in the two-month period between their registration and the start of the campaign period on August 31. Commercial advertising is barred from most public areas, except those specially designated by the government. Even in areas where campaigning is permitted, it is still limited to a 14-day official campaign period. These restrictions are intended to limit the advertising advantage of wealthy business interests. However, they have been criticized for limiting the amount of canvassing candidates with less money can do, thus encouraging clientelistic bloc voting where parties simply strike deals with associations, business interests and community leaders to turn out assured votes in their favor. Working around the rules, candidates resorted to using loudspeakers to promote their campaigns.
Among the most powerful special interests in Macau are casinos. Macau's casino industry has a long history of Triad and other organized crime connections. Since laws around casinos were liberalized in 2002 to promote more foreign investment, the Triad has lost its stranglehold on Macau's casino industry (although it remains deeply embedded in it). Casinos have long played a major role in clientelistic politics in Macau, and since liberalization their influence has further increased.
Ballot and Results
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||% of Votes
% of vote
|20||Macau-Guangdong Union (UMG)||17,214||9.97||1.12||2|
|16||Union for Development (UPD)||16,696||9.67||1.50||2||1|
|9||Macau United Citizens' Association (ACUM) - List 1||14,879||8.62||9.40||1||2|
|2||Progress Promotion Union (UPP) - List 1||12,340||7.15||3.65||1||1|
|14||New Macau Development Union (NUDM)||10,452||6.05||2.89||1|
|8||Macau Citizens’ Development Association (ACDM) - ACUM List 2||10,103||5.85||N/A||1||1|
|11||Alliance for a Happy Home (ABL) - UPP List 2||9,496||5.50||N/A||1||1|
|18||Alliance for Change (Mudar)||8,186||4.74||1.24||0||1|
|6||New Hope (NE)||14,386||8.33||0.63||1||1|
|13||New Democratic Macau Association (ANMD)||11,381||6.59||0.56||1|
|3||Democratic Prosperous Macau Association (APMD) - ANM List 1||10,080||5.84||1.66||1|
|7||New Macau Progressives (ANPM) - ANM List 2||9,213||5.34||N/A||1||1|
|19||United Citizens for Building Macau Association (ACUCM)||904||0.52||N/A||0|
|23||Association of Macau Activism for Democracy (ID)||279||0.16||0.47||0|
|1||New Ideals of Macau (NIM)||199||0.12||N/A||0|
|4||Civic Watch (Cívico)||9,590||5.56||1.99||1||1|
|No legislative representation|
|15||Synergy Power (PS)||7,162||4.15||N/A||0|
|25||Front Line of Casino Workers (LFTC)||3,126||1.81||N/A||0|
|24||Pearl Horizon Buyers’ Rights Defence Union (UPHDD)||2,399||1.39||N/A||0|
|22||Mutual Help Grassroots (Grassroots)||1,350||0.78||N/A||0|
|12||Citizens’ Power (PC)||1,305||0.76||N/A||0|
|21||The Aurora of Grassroots (Aurora)||823||0.48||N/A||0|
|10||Powers of Political Thought (PPP)||672||0.39||N/A||0|
|17||Ou Mun Kong I (OMKI)||393||0.23||N/A||0|
|5||Pink Love Citizens (Rosa)|
|Total and Turnout||174,872||100||14|
|Functional constituencies and appointed members|
|—||Macau Union of Employers Interests (OMKC)||781||4|
|—||Federation of Employees Associations (CCCAE)||1,012||2|
|1||Macau Union of Medical Professional Interests (UIMM)||205||37.55||N/A||1||1|
|2||Macau Union of Professional Interests (OMCY)||341||62.45||37.55||2||1|
|—||Association for Promotion of Social Services and Education (APSSE)||1,559||1|
|—||Excellent Culture and Sport Union (União Excelente)||1,499||2|
|—||Members appointed by the Chief Executive||7|
Candidates lists and results
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- Fraser, Niall. "Macau votes for new legislature in 'most hotly contested polls' in years". SCMP. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- Sit, Victor F.S.; Hui, Vivian; Leung, Gladys (2012). Macau Through 500 Years. Enrich Professional Publishing.
- "Apresentação das candidaturas:". Eleições para a Assembleia Legislativa da RAEM. Government of Macau. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "IFES Election Guide | Elections: Macau Parl Sept 2013". www.electionguide.org. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
- "Macau holds low-profile election". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
- "Macau's strict election rules backfire". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
- Lam, Newman M.K.; Scott, Ian (2011). Gaming, Governance and Public Policy in Macau. Hong Kong University Press.
- "World news explained - Casino boss Chan Meng Kam's party biggest winners in Macau elections". RFI. 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
- "Resultado da Eleição dos Deputados à Assembleia Legislativa da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau por Sufrágio Directo e Indirecto" [Results of the legislative election of the Macau special administrative region by direct and indirect suffrage] (in Portuguese). Printing Bureau of Macau SAR government. 28 September 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017.