2017–18 North Korea crisis
|2017–18 North Korea crisis|
|Part of the inter-Korean conflict|
North Korea's Hwasong-14 launch in July 2017
|Parties involved in the crisis|
|Commanders and leaders|
The 2017–18 North Korean crisis was a period of heightened tension between North Korea and the United States throughout 2017 and half of 2018, which began when North Korea conducted a series of missile and nuclear tests that demonstrated the country's ability to launch ballistic missiles beyond its immediate region and suggested that North Korea's nuclear weapons capability was developing at a faster rate than had been assessed by the U.S. intelligence community.
This, as well as a regular joint U.S.–South Korea military exercise undertaken in August 2017 and U.S. threats, raised international tensions in the region and beyond. During 2017, North Korea conducted its sixth nuclear test in early September, and heated rhetoric was exchanged, stoking fears about a possible war.
While the tensions were mostly between the United States, North Korea threatened Australia twice with nuclear strikes throughout 2017, accusing them of siding with the U.S. and 'blindly' following them. 
By the beginning of 2018, however, tensions began to ease dramatically, with North Korea announcing the restoration of the Seoul–Pyongyang hotline and agreeing to hold talks with South Korea about participation at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang. Diplomatic activity flourished during the next few months, with the suspension of nuclear and missile tests by North Korea, and the 2018 inter-Korean summit in late April which culminated in the signing of the Panmunjom Declaration on April 27, 2018. An unprecedented bilateral summit between Kim and Trump was held in Singapore on 12 June 2018. It resulted in a joint declaration calling for the "full denuclearization of the Korean peninsula". A second summit between Kim and Trump took place in Hanoi, Vietnam on February 27–28, 2019.
- 1 Background
- 2 Timeline
- 2.1 USS Carl Vinson's movements: April 2017
- 2.2 ICBM test-flight on 4 July
- 2.3 Rhetorical escalation in August 2017
- 2.4 Sixth nuclear test and aftermath: September 2017
- 2.4.1 Missile test over Japan on September 15
- 2.4.2 U.S. and China agree on "pressure"
- 2.4.3 Trump's speech at UN GA, and Kim Jong-un's response
- 2.4.4 Argument about nuclear armament of South Korea and Japan
- 2.4.5 Armistice violation in early November 2017
- 2.4.6 Re-listing as State Sponsor of Terrorism
- 2.5 Third ICBM test and aftermath: November 2017
- 2.6 Winter Olympics "détente" and further developments: January–February 2018
- 2.7 Beginning of peace efforts
- 2.8 Suspicion of continued nuclear program
- 2.9 2019 Hanoi summit
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
North Korea's nuclear weapons program
In his New Year's Day speech on January 2, 2017, Kim Jong-un, the leader of North Korea, said that the country was in the "last stage" of preparations to test-fire an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
On May 3, North Korea issued a rare and harshly worded criticism of its chief ally, China, stating that "One must clearly understand that the D.P.R.K.'s line of access to nukes for the existence and development of the country can neither be changed nor shaken[...] And that the D.P.R.K. will never beg for the maintenance of friendship with China, risking its nuclear program which is as precious as its own life, no matter how valuable the friendship is... China should no longer try to test the limits of the D.P.R.K.'s patience[...] China had better ponder over the grave consequences to be entailed by its reckless act of chopping down the pillar of the D.P.R.K.-China relations." The harsh commentary also accused the Chinese media (which is tightly controlled by the government) of dancing to the tune of the U.S.
In early August 2017, The Washington Post reported an assessment, made by the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency in July 2017, which said that North Korea had successfully developed nuclear warheads for missiles capable of reaching the U.S. mainland (a miniaturized nuclear warhead that can fit inside its missiles).
Sanctions on North Korea; trade with China
Since North Korea's first nuclear test in 2006, the UN Security Council had passed a number of resolutions that imposed various sanctions on the DPRK, including restrictions on economic activity. Nevertheless, North Korea's gross domestic product grew by an estimated 3.9 percent in 2016, to about $28.5 billion, the fastest pace in 17 years; the progress was largely attributed to continued trade with China, which accounted for more than 90% of North Korea's international trade.
In late February 2017, following North Korea's February 12 test of the Pukkuksong-2 medium-range ballistic missile, China, which regards its trade with North Korea and the putative missile threat to the U.S. as separate issues, said it would comply with UN Resolution 2321 and halt all coal imports (North Korea's main export) from North Korea. The halt notwithstanding, in April 2017, China said that its trade with North Korean had expanded. In July 2017, China's trade with North Korea, while the ban on North Korean coal was said to have slowed imports from the DPRK, was worth $456 million, up from $426 million in July 2016, the year-to-date trade being up 10.2 percent at $3.01 billion.
In 2017, North Korea was sanctioned several times by the UN Security Council. The latest ones were imposed on December 22, 2017. According to this resolution, oil supplies to the DPRK are prohibited, and all countries have decided to expel North Korean labor migrants from the territories of the countries where they work within 24 months.
Imprisonment of U.S. citizens
American university student Otto Warmbier was freed from North Korea in June 2017, while in a coma after nearly 18 months of captivity. Warmbier died without regaining consciousness on June 19, 2017, six days after his return to the United States. Some U.S. officials blamed North Korea for his death. In July 2017, U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson authorized a "Geographical Travel Restriction" which banned Americans from entering North Korea.
THAAD in South Korea
Ostensibly to counter North Korea's missile threat, United States Forces Korea (USFK) had been planning deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) in South Korea, which is designed to detect and destroy intermediate- and medium-range ballistic missiles (not intercontinental ballistic missile). The deployment had faced strong oppositions from China, Russia, and North Korea. In late April 2017, it was reported that while THAAD had originally been scheduled to become operational by the end of 2017, this could occur sooner. According to U.S. Forces Korea's announcement, THAAD stationed in South Korea had reached initial operating capability (IOC) on May 1, 2017.
USS Carl Vinson's movements: April 2017
Following North Korea's test-firing of a medium-range ballistic missile from its eastern port of Sinpo into the Sea of Japan on April 5, which came a month after four ballistic missiles were fired towards the Sea of Japan, tensions increased as U.S. president Donald Trump had said the U.S. was prepared to act alone to deal with the nuclear threat from North Korea. On April 9, the U.S. Navy announced it was sending a navy strike group headed by the USS Carl Vinson supercarrier to the West Pacific ("to sail north and report on station in the Western Pacific Ocean after departing Singapore April 8"), but due to apparent miscommunication inside the U.S. administration, the naval move was presented as one towards the Korean peninsula. This information was backtracked by the U.S. government a few days later.
The April 8 announcement by the Navy led to a "glitch-ridden sequence of events". On April 17, North Korea's deputy United Nations ambassador accused the United States of turning the Korean peninsula into "the world's biggest hotspot" and the North Korean government stated "its readiness to declare war on the United States if North Korean forces were to be attacked." In reality on April 18, the Carl Vinson and its escorts were 3,500 miles from Korea engaged in scheduled joint Royal Australian Navy exercises in the Indian Ocean. On April 24 the Japanese destroyers Ashigara and Samidare participated with the USS Carl Vinson in tactical training drills near the Philippines; North Korea threatened to sink her with a single strike. The Carl Vinson aircraft carrier had been in the South China Sea in 2015 and again in February 2017 on routine patrols. In late April 2017, Trump stated that "[t]here is a chance that we [the United States] could end up having a major, major conflict with North Korea".
On April 24, North Korea marked the 85th anniversary of the Korean People's Army by what was said to be "its largest ever military drill", conducted in Wonsan. The following day, it was reported that the United States and South Korea had begun installing key elements of the THAAD missile defense in South Korea's Seongju County.
ICBM test-flight on 4 July
On July 4[i] North Korea conducted the first publicly announced flight test of its ICBM Hwasong-14, timed to coincide with the U.S. Independence Day celebrations. This flight had a claimed range of 933 kilometres (580 mi) eastwards into the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea) and reached an altitude of 2,802 kilometres (9,193,000 ft) during a 39-minute flight. The U.S. government experts classified the missile launch as a big step in Pyongyang's quest to acquire a nuclear-tipped weapon capable of hitting the U.S. North Korea declared it was now "a full-fledged nuclear power that has been possessed of the most powerful inter-continental ballistic rocket capable of hitting any part of the world".
USFK said in a statement dated July 4, 2017: "Eighth U.S. Army and Republic of Korea (ROK) military personnel conducted a combined event exercising assets countering North Korea's destabilizing and unlawful actions on July 4." South Korea's Hyunmoo-2B and U.S. Army Tactical Missile System missiles were launched during the drill.
Rhetorical escalation in August 2017
On August 8, 2017, President Donald Trump warned that North Korean nuclear threats would "be met with fire, fury and frankly power, the likes of which the world has never seen before," after the mass media reported that a US intelligence assessment had found that the country had successfully produced a miniaturised nuclear warhead capable of fitting inside its missiles. President Trump also remarked of North Korea's leader Kim Jong-un: "He has been very threatening beyond a normal state." Within hours, North Korea responded by announcing that it was considering attacking U.S. military bases in the US territory of Guam.
On August 10, 2017, North Korean Lt. Gen. Kim Rak-gyom responded to Trump's speech of "fire and fury," saying his words were "nonsense" and asserting that "reasonable dialogue" wasn't possible with Trump as president of the US. The North Korean governmental news agency KCNA reported that Kim Jong-un's military was considering a plan to fire four ICBMs, type Hwasong-12, into the Philippine Sea just 30–40 kilometres away from the island Guam. The flight time of missiles was estimated to be exactly 17 minutes and 45 seconds. A report by the KCNA suggested the plan would be put into operation in mid-August. U.S. officials stated that Joseph Y. Yun, the US envoy for North Korea policy, and Pak Song-il, a senior North Korean diplomat at the country's UN mission, were making regular contact during this dispute, through a conduit of communication they called the New York channel.
On August 11, Trump wrote on Twitter: "Military solutions are now fully in place,locked and loaded,should North Korea act unwisely. Hopefully Kim Jong Un will find another path!" Former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations John Bolton and former U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta stated that the standoff between the U.S. and North Korea over Pyongyang's nuclear weapons program was comparable to the Cuban Missile Crisis.
On August 14, Ukraine's Chairman of the National Security and Defense Council, Oleksandr Turchynov denied that it had ever supplied defense technology to North Korea, responding to an article in the New York Times that said North Korea might have purchased rocket engines from Ukrainian factory Yuzhmash, who have also denied the report.
On August 15, the North Korean leader said he was delaying a decision on firing missiles towards the US Pacific territory of Guam while he waits to see what Trump does next.
From August 21–31, the U.S. and South Korea conducted the 2017 Ulchi-Freedom Guardian exercise that was billed by U.S. Forces Korea as slightly smaller than the previous year's, with 17,500 U.S. troops participating; an editorial carried by North Korea's official Rodong Sinmun newspaper condemned the drills as "the most explicit expression of hostility against us."
On August 25, North Korea fired three missiles from Kangwon Province in the southeastern part of the country. According to Cmdr. Dave Benham of US Pacific Command, one of the missiles exploded on launch while the other two suffered critical failures in flight, splashing down in the Sea of Japan after flying a distance of 250 kilometers.
Missile test over Japan on 29 August
On August 29, just before 6 am JST, North Korea launched a missile which flew over Hokkaido, Japan. The missile reached an altitude of 550 km and flew a total distance of around 2,700 km before crashing into the Pacific. The missile was not shot down by the Japanese military. This was the third time, with two prior events in 1998 and 2009, that a North Korean missile had passed over Japanese territory. However, in both of those prior cases, North Korea had claimed that they were launching satellites. The missile prompted activation of the J-Alert warning system in Tohoku and Hokkaido, advising people to seek shelter. The launch was scheduled on the 107th anniversary of the Japan-Korea annexation treaty, and KCNA said that it was "a bold plan to make the cruel Japanese islanders insensible on bloody August 29." The missile launched was said to have followed a much flatter trajectory than those tested earlier in 2017.
An emergency UN Security Council meeting was called for later that day to discuss the event. In a statement issued by the White House in response to the launch, US President Donald Trump said that "All options are on the table" regarding North Korea.
U.S. response at the end of August
On August 30, President Trump issued a statement via Twitter saying "The U.S. has been talking to North Korea and paying them extortion money, for 25 years. Talking is not the answer!" However, when asked by reporters at a meeting with South Korean Defence Minister Song Young-Moo whether diplomacy was off the table, US Secretary of Defence James Mattis stated that "We're never out of diplomatic solutions" and "We always look for more. We're never complacent."
On August 31, the US flew a squadron of bombers, including two B-1B's and four F-35's, and conducted bombing drills in what US Pacific Command described as a "direct response to North Korea's intermediate range ballistic missile launch," referring to North Korea's IRBM launch on August 29.
Sixth nuclear test and aftermath: September 2017
On September 3, at 3:31 am UTC, the United States Geological Survey reported that it had detected a magnitude 6.3 earthquake in North Korea near the Punggye-ri test site. Given the shallow depth of the quake and its proximity to North Korea's primary nuclear weapons testing facility, experts concluded that the country had conducted a sixth nuclear weapon test since the country first exploded a nuclear device in 2006. North Korea claimed that they had tested a hydrogen bomb capable of being mounted on an ICBM. The independent seismic monitoring agency NORSAR estimated that the blast had a yield of around 120 kilotons. An official KCNA statement of September 3, also claimed North Korea's ability to conduct a "super-powerful EMP attack".
On the same day, U.S. Defense Secretary James Mattis speaking on behalf of the White House, warned there would be "a massive military response" to any threat from North Korea against the United States, including Guam, or its allies.
Early on September 4, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) conducted a ballistic missile exercise that involved the South's Hyunmoo ballistic missile and the F-15K fighter jets, which was billed to be in response to North's detonation. The state news agency Yonhap said the South's military had carried out a live-fire exercise simulating an attack on the North's nuclear site, hitting "designated targets in the East Sea".
On the same day, the UN Security Council convened to discuss further measures against North Korea; the leaked draft the relevant UNSC resolution prepared by the U.S. was said to call for an oil embargo on North Korea, ban on the country's exports of textiles, on the hiring of North Korean workers abroad as well as personal sanctions against Kim Jong-un. Despite resistance from China and Russia, the United States on 8 September formally requested a vote of the United Nations Security Council on the U.S. resolution. UNSC 2375 passed on September 11 as a significantly watered-down version of the United States' request.
In an interview on September 4, Liu Jieyi, China's ambassador to the United Nations, called for dialogue, saying that the issue needed to be resolved "peacefully". He said, "China will never allow chaos and war on the peninsula."
President Vladimir Putin speaking to the Chinese press on September 5, 2017, described U.S. proposals for further sanctions on Pyongyang as "useless"; he said, "Ramping up military hysteria in such conditions is senseless; it's a dead end." Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov has likened the war of words between U.S. President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un to a kindergarten fight between two children, saying "Together with China we'll continue to strive for a reasonable approach and not an emotional one like when children in a kindergarten start fighting and no-one can stop them."
A plan proposed by both China and Russia calls for a joint freeze (freeze-for-freeze) – of North's missile tests, and U.S. and South Korean military exercises; the next step would be starting talks. The joint initiative of Russia and China envisages the involved parties' commitment to "four nos": concerning regime change, regime collapse, accelerated reunification, and military deployment north of the thirty-eighth parallel.[not in citation given]
On September 6, Donald Trump, after a telephone conversation with China's Xi Jinping, said that the United States would not tolerate North Korea's provocations, although military action was not his "first choice".
On September 10, the Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Jens Stoltenberg said in an interview with BBC television: "The reckless behavior of North Korea is a global threat and requires a global response and that of course also includes NATO"; when asked whether an attack on the U.S. Pacific territory of Guam would trigger NATO's Article 5, he said: "I will not speculate about whether Article 5 will be applied in such a situation."
Missile test over Japan on September 15
On September 14, North Korea issued a threat to "sink" Japan, and turn the US to "ashes and darkness". The statement drew strong condemnation from Yoshihide Suga, who described the speech as "extremely provocative and egregious". The next day, an IRBM was fired from near Pyongyang and flew over Hokkaido, Japan before splashing down in the western Pacific about two thousand kilometers off Cape Erimo at about 7:16 am local time.
The missile traveled 3,700 kilometres (2,300 mi) achieving a maximum apogee of 770 kilometres (480 mi) during its 19-minute flight. It was the furthest any North Korean IRBM missile has gone above and beyond Japan. On September 18, North Korea announced that any further sanctions would only cause acceleration of their nuclear program.
U.S. and China agree on "pressure"
On September 18, the White House said president Donald Trump and Chinese president Xi Jinping had discussed North Korea's continued nuclear weapons and ballistic missile tests and committed to "maximising pressure on North Korea through vigorous enforcement" of UN Security Council resolutions on North Korea; North Korea said the sanctions would accelerate its nuclear program.
Trump's speech at UN GA, and Kim Jong-un's response
On September 19, Donald Trump, in his first address to the United Nations General Assembly, said that the United States: "if it is forced to defend itself or its allies, we will have no choice but to totally destroy North Korea. Rocket Man [Kim Jong-un] is on a suicide mission for himself and for his regime. The United States are ready, willing and able, but hopefully this will not be necessary." Also, without mentioning it by name, Donald Trump criticised China for maintaining relations with NK, calling it "an outrage that some nations would not only trade with such a regime, but would arm, supply, and financially support a country that imperils the world with nuclear conflict".
On September 20, U.S. president Donald Trump signed an executive order that further toughened U.S. sanctions against North Korea: the U.S. Treasury was thereby authorised to target firms and financial institutions conducting business with NK. Commenting on the executive order, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said, "Foreign financial institutions are now on notice that going forward they can choose to do business with the United States or North Korea, but not both."
On September 21, responding directly for the first time to President Trump's threat, North Korea's leader Kim Jong-un in his capacity of Chairman of State Affairs of DPRK called Trump a "mentally deranged U.S. dotard" (Korean: 늙다리 미치광이, romanized: Neukdari michigwangi, lit. 'Old man lunatic') and vowed the "highest level of hard-line countermeasure in history." (The ad hominem insults aside, no reference was made to the "hostile policy" of the United States, a staple of North Korean statements otherwise.) Foreign minister Ri Yong-ho likewise alluded to Trump as a barking dog, and furthermore remarked that North Korea might be considering the largest test of a hydrogen bomb ever in the Pacific Ocean, which would constitute the first atmospheric nuclear test in the world since 1980 (last performed by China).
On September 25, North Korea's Foreign Minister Ri Yong Ho accused Trump of declaring war on his country, referring to Trump's recent tweet that North Korea "won't be around much longer." The White House responded that the USA has not declared war.
On September 30, Rex Tillerson stated while on a trip to China, that the U.S. and North Korea were in "direct contact". "We have lines of communications to Pyongyang" he said, "We're not in a dark situation". He further stated that the U.S. was "probing" the possibility of direct talks. "So stay tuned". The Associated Press has claimed that a long-used back-channel has been re-opened in the past months, the 'New York Channel', facilitating communication between Washington and Pyongyang. The next day however, Trump made a series of posts on Twitter which seemed to undermine Tillerson's efforts, claiming that Tillerson was "wasting his time" trying to negotiate with North Korea and that "we'll do what has to be done".
Former CIA Director John O. Brennan, during a Q&A session at Fordham University on October 18, remarked that "I think the prospects of military conflict in the Korean peninsula are greater than they have been in several decades... I don't think it's likely or probable, but if it's a 1-in-4 or 1-in-5 chance, that's too high."
Argument about nuclear armament of South Korea and Japan
An argument emerged in both South Korea and Japan about the nuclear option, driven by worry that the United States might hesitate to defend the countries if doing so might provoke a missile launched from the North at major U.S. cities. In South Korea, polls show that 60 percent of the population favors building nuclear weapons, and that nearly 70 percent want the United States to reintroduce tactical nuclear weapons, which were withdrawn in 1991. In October, Hong Jun-pyo, one of the leading South Korean opposition figures, argued "only by deploying tactical nuclear weapons on South Korean territory can we negotiate with North Korea on an equal footing." Republican Senator John McCain urged that the U.S. should consider deploying nuclear weapons to South Korea. Former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger mentioned "If North Korea continues to have nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons must spread in the rest of Asia."
Armistice violation in early November 2017
On November 13, North Korean soldiers unsuccessfully attempted to prevent Oh Chong-song, a defector from crossing the border in the Joint Security Area. The UN Command stated that North Korean soldiers had violated the armistice agreement by firing more than 40 shots in the demilitarized zone and in the case of one soldier by briefly crossing the military demarcation line.
Re-listing as State Sponsor of Terrorism
Third ICBM test and aftermath: November 2017
On November 28, North Korea conducted its third intercontinental ballistic missile test, marking the end of a two-month span in which no missile tests were conducted. Photos of Hwasong-15 show the missile's booster engines are two Hwasong-14 engines bundled for its first stage, as agreed by three separate analysts, Tal Inbar, Kim Dong-yub, and Chang Young-Keun. The missile was said to have flown to a record altitude of 2,800 miles and landed in the Sea of Japan into the exclusive economic zone, a distance of 600 miles. breaking up into three pieces. Initial assessments made by the Pentagon and subsequent analysis suggested that it was an ICBM judging by the height it traveled and, if fired on a normal trajectory, would more than be able to reach anywhere in the continental United States. The South Korean and Japanese defense ministries also concluded that an ICBM was likely launched and that it had traveled in a lofted trajectory. Japanese defense minister Itsunori Onodera also added that the missile broke apart into at least three pieces before it crashed into the waters located within the exclusive economic zone, indicating that the re-entry vehicle failed to survive re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. It was launched from a larger launcher vehicle, with 9 axles, as opposed to the 8-axle vehicles purchased from China. Each of the three ICBMs launched so far have been launched from three different locations.
In a press conference shortly after the launch, President Trump said regarding North Korea's ICBM launch that "we'll handle it".
Reports of sanction violations in December 2017
In late December 2017, it was reported that Chinese and Russian-flagged tanker ships had been observed conducting at-sea transfers of oil and petroleum products to North Korean ships over the course of the previous year, violating sanctions imposed by the US and United Nations. In posts on Twitter, Trump blasted China for defying the sanctions and continuing to support North Korea. One of these vessels, the Lighthouse Winmore registered out of Hong Kong with 23 Chinese crew members, was seized by South Korean officials after reportedly delivering 600 tons of oil illegally to a North Korean vessel, the Sam Jong 2 in a part of the West Sea, between China and South Korea back in October.
Executive Order 13722 blocks, among other items, the export of laborers which benefit the government of North Korea, or the Worker's Union Party. On 1 January 2018 The New York Times reported that as many as 147,000 workers from North Korea now work abroad, and that the Worker's Union Party of Pyongyang garnishes from 30 to 80 percent of the workers' wages. The specific businesses reported included a shipyard, a shipping container manufacturer, and greenhouses in Poland.
Winter Olympics "détente" and further developments: January–February 2018
The crisis had caused concern about the safety of the 2018 Winter Olympics to be held in Pyeongchang in South Korea. It is widely believed that if North Korea participates in the Games, the risk of escalation diminishes. This theory was later put to the test when North Korea's leader Kim Jong-un signaled a possibility to send athletes to the Games after all in his New Year's speech for 2018, saying "North Korea's participation in the Winter Games will be a good opportunity to showcase the national pride and we wish the Games will be a success. Officials from the two Koreas may urgently meet to discuss the possibility". The announcement was followed by South Korean agreement to participate in the first high-level talks with the North since December 2015. The talks were scheduled for 9 January 2018. North Korea is also prepared to talk to the IOC that week. In preparation for the North–South talks, the two countries restored the Seoul–Pyongyang hotline, which had been inactive for almost two years, and exchanged related documents via fax. After these developments, North Korea's IOC member Chang Ung said that the participation of North Korean figure skaters again looked likely. The possibility of North Korean participation has stirred up talk about a possible Olympic boycott by the United States, after the administration of President Donald Trump, who has been at loggerheads with Kim Jong-un, has issued mixed messages. After discussions on 9 January 2018, North Korea announced they would send athletes to compete along with a delegation to attend the Winter Olympics.
North and South Korea marched together in the Olympics opening ceremony and fielded a united women's ice hockey team. As well as the athletes, North Korea sent an unprecedented high-level delegation, headed by Kim Yo-jong, sister of Kim Jong-un, and President Kim Yong-nam, and including performers like the Samjiyon Orchestra. The delegation passed along an invitation to President Moon to visit North Korea.
According to North Korea expert Sung-Yoon Lee, North Korea's policy toward the Olympics is to enhance North Korea's status: "One doesn't need to be a genius to see that this is what North Korea does: After having created a war-like, crisis atmosphere, (Kim [Jong-un]) takes a small step back and there's a collective sigh of relief that there's no war. It does wonders for North Korea's image."
False alarms in Hawaii and Japan
Residents and tourists in the U.S. state of Hawaii were briefly thrown into a panic when an emergency alert was issued January 13, 2018, advising of an imminent ballistic missile threat. Another message was sent out about 40 minutes later describing the first alert as a false alarm. The incident is under investigation.
2018 State of the Union Address
In his first State of the Union address, President Trump devoted much time to North Korea, stoking fears that an American strike was under serious consideration and not mere saber-rattling, particularly given the withdrawal of Dr. Victor Cha as Ambassador to the Republic of Korea and its similarity to George W. Bush's Axis of Evil 2002 State of the Union Address.
Speculation about attack on North Korea
In mid-February, as the Olympics were ongoing, after previous media reports, the Trump administration denied considering a so-called preemptive "bloody nose" attack on North Korea's nuclear program. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Susan Thornton confirmed that the administration's policy remains one of "maximum pressure" via economic sanctions in order to get North Korea to negotiate on eliminating its nuclear weapons. Thornton however reiterated that military options are still "on the table" and that Pyongyang would be forced to give up its nuclear weapons "one way or another".
Beginning of peace efforts
This section needs to be updated.September 2018)(
On April 27, the two leaders met at the Joint Security Area, with Kim Jong-un crossing the MDL in South Korean territory, the first time a North Korean leader has done so. President Moon also briefly crossed into the North's territory. Both Moon and Kim signed the Panmunjom Declaration, declaring the Korean conflict over and to sign a proper peace treaty by the end of the year. With that, Moon agreed to visit Pyongyang in the fall.
2018 Singapore summit
On March 8, in a surprise departure from the hostile dialogue during 2017, Trump announced that he would meet with leader Kim Jong-un, and the two would meet likely by May. Press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders said that "in the meantime, all sanctions and maximum pressure must remain." North Korea accepts South Korea's proposal to hold the high-level inter-Korean talks, which took place on March 29. On May 24, President Trump cancelled the planned meeting with Chairman Kim over "tremendous anger and open hostility" displayed by Kim. On June 1, President Trump reversed the cancellation and confirmed that the summit would take place on June 12 as planned.
Following their talks, both leaders signed a joint declaration titled "Joint Statement of President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong-un of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at the Singapore Summit". It states:
- The United States and the DPRK commit to establish new U.S.–DPRK relations in accordance with the desire of the peoples of the two countries for peace and prosperity.
- The United States and the DPRK will join their efforts to build a lasting and stable peace regime on the Korean Peninsula.
- Reaffirming the April 27, 2018 Panmunjom Declaration, the DPRK commits to work towards the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
- The United States and the DPRK commit to recovering POW/MIA remains including the immediate repatriation of those already identified.
Suspicion of continued nuclear program
In June 2018, NBC News reported that U.S. intelligence believed that North Korea was increasing production of enriched uranium for nuclear weapons and that, in addition to its known fuel-producing facility at Yongbyon, it had multiple secret nuclear sites. In August 2018, US officials said that North Korea could be continuing to build nuclear weapons, and days later the United Nations Security Council received reports that North Korea may not have stopped its nuclear program. The reports also claimed that North Korea was violating the UN sanctions.
In late September 2018, Trump claimed that North Korea had already stopped nuclear testing, and he said that the United States would not impose any required timeline for North Korea's total denuclearization. "I've got all the time in the world...we are not playing the 'time game.' If takes two years, three years, or five months, it doesn't matter," Trump said. He was responding to and denying U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo's claim that North Korea's denuclearization would be completed by January 2021. Trump maintained that sanctions against North Korea would stay in place until it had denuclearized.
Satellite images obtained by CNN in December 2018 show that the Yeongjeo-dong long-range missile base (the existence of which was already public knowledge) remains active. The images also revealed continued construction on an underground facility and construction on a facility (the existence of which was previously unknown to the public) several miles from Yeongjeo-dong.
2019 Hanoi summit
A second summit between Kim and Trump occurred on February 27–28, 2019.
- 2017 North Korean missile tests
- 2017 North Korean nuclear test
- Korean conflict
- Korean reunification
- List of North Korean missile tests
- "North Korea threatens Australia with nuclear strike over US allegiance". News.com.au. April 24, 2017. Archived from the original on September 15, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "Kim Jong Un vows to 'leave the past behind' after historic Singapore summit with Donald Trump".
- "North Korea threatens Australia with disaster if it continues to support US stance on Pyongyang". ABC News. October 15, 2017. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Intelligence Agencies Say North Korean Missile Could Reach U.S. in a Year Archived January 14, 2018, at the Wayback Machine NYT, July 25, 2017.
- Warrick, Joby (August 8, 2017). "North Korea now making missile-ready nuclear weapons, U.S. analysts say". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- Three things to know about North Korea's missile tests: With advances in its long-range missile programme, here are three technical milestones and why they matter. Archived November 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Aljazeera, September 3, 2017.
- North Korea's Potential Targets: Guam, South Korea and Japan Archived January 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine NYT, August 9, 2017.
- Reporter, Defence; Greene, rew (April 22, 2017). "Defiant Bishop fires back over North Korean nuclear threat". ABC News. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- "North Korea warns Australia will face disaster if it continues to support US". ABC News. October 15, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- "Kim Jong Un to arrive in Vietnam on Feb 25 ahead of Trump summit". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
- Kim, Jong-Un. "Kim Jong Un's 2017 New Year's Address (KCNA – speech full text)". Korean Central News Agency – National Committee On North Korea. Archived from the original on January 11, 2017. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (May 4, 2017). "North Korean Media, in Rare Critique of China, Says Nuclear Program Will Continue". New York Times. Archived from the original on May 5, 2017.
- North Korea's Secret Weapon? Economic Growth. Rising living standards will limit the effect of sanctions. Archived September 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Bloomberg, 14 September 2017.
- China imposes import bans on North Korean iron, coal and seafood Archived November 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine BBC, 15 August 2017.
- China Has Nothing To Gain From Sanctioning North Korea Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Forbes, August 13, 2017.
- "United Nations Security Council: Resolution 2321 (2016): Adopted by the Security Council at its 7821st meeting, on 30 November 2016" (PDF). United Nations. November 30, 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
- China bans all coal imports from North Korea amid growing tensions Archived September 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine CNN, February 20, 2017.
- China Says Its Trade With North Korea Has Increased Archived November 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine NYT, April 13, 2017.
- China July trade with North Korea slows from June as coal ban bites Archived October 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Reuters, August 23, 2017.
- CNN (24 December 2017) UN adopts tough new sanctions on North Korea Archived January 25, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
- Exclusive: U.S. prepares new sanctions on Chinese firms over North Korea ties – officials Archived November 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Reuters, July 13, 2017.
- "Coma-stricken student released from North Korea arrives back in US" Archived June 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, ABC News, June 12, 2017
- Svrluga, Susan (June 19, 2017). "Otto Warmbier dies days after release from North Korean detainment". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2017.(subscription required)
- "John McCain: Otto Warmbier 'murdered by the Kim Jong-un regime'" Archived June 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Washington Examiner, June 19, 2017
- Torbati, Yeganeh; Lee, Se Young (July 21, 2017). "U.S. State Department to clamp ban on travel to North Korea". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 22, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- U.S. Forces Korea Commander confident THAAD will enhance Alliance's defense against North Korean Threats 주한미군 사령관, 사드 (THAAD)가 북한 위협으로부터 한미동맹의 방어력을 제고할 것을 확신 Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine USFK, August 1, 2017.
- "China, Russia share opposition to U.S. THAAD in South Korea: Xi". Reuters. July 3, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- "North Korea Warns of a 'Physical' Response if U.S. Missile Deployment Goes Ahead". Time. July 11, 2016. Archived from the original on June 3, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- We are a target': South Korean village wakes up on frontline with North: Arrival of Thaad defence system in Seongju fails to reassure villagers as voters in Seoul call for engagement with Pyongyang not threats Archived November 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Guardian, 27 April 2017.
- It's Official: THAAD Missile Defense Is Up and Running in South Korea Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Diplomat, May 2, 2017.
- Trump ready to 'solve' North Korea problem without China Archived November 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine BBC, April 3, 2017.
- "North Korea missiles: US warships deployed to Korean peninsula". BBC. April 9, 2017. Archived from the original on April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Carl Vinson Strike Group Departs Singapore for Western Pacific Archived April 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine navy.mil, Story Number: NNS170409-02 Release Date: April 9, 2017.
- Ryan Browne (April 8, 2017). "US aircraft carrier-led strike group headed toward Korean Peninsula". CNN. Archived from the original on April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- "U.S. armada heads to Korea". RT. April 13, 2017. Archived from the original on April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
We are sending an armada. Very powerful," Trump told Fox. "We have submarines. Very powerful. Far more powerful than the aircraft carrier. That I can tell you.
- 'Armada' Trump claimed was deployed to North Korea actually heading to Australia Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Independent, April 19, 2017.
- Landler, Mark (April 18, 2017). "Aircraft Carrier Wasn't Sailing to Deter North Korea, as U.S. Suggested". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 24, 2017.
- "Aircraft carrier 3500 miles from Korea". The New York Times. April 18, 2017. Archived from the original on April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Edith M. Lederer (April 17, 2017). "North Korea says it's ready to react to any mode of war desired by the US". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Cavas, Christopher P. (April 17, 2017). "Nothing to see here: US carrier still thousands of miles from Korea". Defense News. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Acosta, Jim; Ryan Browne (April 18, 2017). "Official: White House, Pentagon miscommunicated on aircraft carrier's location". CNN. Archived from the original on April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Junko, Ogura (April 24, 2014). "North Korea threatens to sink US aircraft carrier". CNN. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017.
- "South China Sea: US carrier group begins 'routine' patrols". BBC. February 19, 2017. Archived from the original on April 10, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- "Trump fears 'major, major conflict' with North Korea". BBC. April 28, 2017. Archived from the original on April 28, 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
- North Korea marks anniversary with massive artillery drill Archived September 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine CNN, April 26, 2017.
- Missile Defense System Takes Shape in South Korea as North Holds Drills Archived September 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine NYT, April 25, 2017.
- "North Korea's Kim Jong Un says ICBM an Independence Day 'gift' to 'American b**tards': KCNA". The Straits Times. July 5, 2017. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "What is True and Not True About North Korea's Hwasong-14 ICBM: A Technical Evaluation". 38 North. July 10, 2017. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017.
As was noted at the time, the Hwasong-14 was launched on a very high angle "lofted" trajectory to avoid overflying Japan, ...
- US bombers fly over Korean Peninsula in response to N. Korea's ICBM test Archived September 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine CNN, July 8, 2017.
- Trump warns North Korea of 'severe' options over missile test Archived September 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine BBC, July 6, 2017.
- North Korea missile: US confirms long-range test Archived September 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine BBC, July 5, 2017.
- ROK-US Alliance Demonstrates Precision Firing Capability Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine USFK, July 4, 2017.
- U.S., South Korea stage show of force after North Korea ICBM test Archived September 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Reuters, July 5, 2017.
- US, ROK Conduct Precision-Strike Drill in Response to North Korean ICBM Launch: The U.S. Army and Republic of Korea military personnel test fired missiles in response to North Korea's most recent ICBM test. Archived September 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Diplomat, July 5, 2017.
- Trump promised 'fire and fury' for North Korea if it continued threats – hours later, it threatened strikes on Guam Archived November 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Business Insider, August 8, 2017.
- "North Korea considering firing missiles at Guam, per state media". Foxnews.com. August 8, 2017. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- "Atom: Nordkorea legt detaillierten Plan für Raketenangriff Richtung Guam vor". Die Welt. August 10, 2017. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- Bob Fredericks (August 11, 2017). "White House has quietly engaged in back-channel talks with North Korea". New York Post. Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
- @realDonaldTrump (August 11, 2017). "Donald J. Trump on Twitter" (Tweet). Archived from the original on October 28, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2017 – via Twitter.
- "John Bolton: North Korea standoff comparable to Cuban Missile Crisis". Fox News. August 11, 2017. Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- "Panetta: North Korea 'most serious crisis' involving nukes since Cuba". CNN. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- "Ukraine denies selling missile technology to North Korea". Reuters. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- "Kim Jong-un to hold off on Guam missile plan, state media reports". Abc.net.au. August 15, 2017. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- US, South Korea Begin Ulchi-Freedom Guardian 2017 War Games Amid Threats From North Korea Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Diplomat, August 21, 2017.
- Gady, Franz-Stefan (August 29, 2017). "Russia Flies Nuclear-Capable Bombers Near North Korea". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- North Korea slams upcoming US-South military exercises: Manoeuvres are viewed by Pyongyang as a rehearsal for an invasion and akin to 'pouring gasoline on fire'. Archived January 26, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Aljazeera, August 20, 2017.
- "North Korea fires three missiles into sea". BBC News. August 25, 2017. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- "Kim guided North Korean missile test". skynews.com.au. August 30, 2017. Archived from the original on August 29, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
- North Korea Fires Missile Over Japan Archived August 28, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, New York Times, CHOE SANG-HUN and DAVID E. SANGER, August 28, 2017
- Roberts, Rachel (August 28, 2017). "North Korea just launched a missile over Japan". The Independent. Archived from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "North Korea fires missile over Japan in 'unprecedented threat'". BBC News. August 29, 2017. Archived from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- McCurry, Justin (August 30, 2017). "North Korea's Kim Jong-un says missile launch a prelude to 'containing Guam'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 30, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
- Trump and Abe vow to increase pressure after North Korea fires missile over Japan Archived September 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Guardian, August 29, 2017.
- Rosenfeld, Everett (August 28, 2017). "UN Security Council will meet Tuesday on North Korea missile launch". CNBC. Archived from the original on August 29, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "Statement by President Donald J. Trump on North Korea". White House (Press release). August 28, 2017. Archived from the original on August 29, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Singman, Brooke (August 30, 2017). "Trump says talking to North Korea 'not the answer,' rips US 'extortion' payments". FoxNews.com. Archived from the original on August 30, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- Wilts, Alexandra (August 30, 2017). "Trump's defence secretary just contradicted him over North Korea". Independent.co.uk. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- Lee, Taehoon; James Griffiths; Joshua Berlinger (August 31, 2017). "US fighter jets stage mock bombing drill over Korean Peninsula". Edition.cnn.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- Jeffrey Lewis (13 Sep 2017) SAR image of Punggye-ri Archived October 22, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- "North Korea nuclear test: Hydrogen bomb 'missile-ready'". BBC News. September 3, 2017. Archived from the original on September 3, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- Mason, Jeff; Michael Martina (September 3, 2017). "Trump says U.S. not 'putting up with' North Korea's actions". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "Large nuclear test in North Korea on 3 September 2017". NORSAR. September 3, 2017. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
- Kim Jong Un Gives Guidance to Nuclear Weaponization Archived November 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Korean Central News Agency, September 3, 2017.
- Mattis warns of 'massive military response' to NK nuclear threat Archived November 4, 2017, at the Wayback Machine CNN, September 3, 2017.
- South Korea Missile Exercise After North Korea Nuke Test: Yonhap: South Korea's military said the range to the simulated targets were equivalent to the North's Punggye-ri nuclear test site in its northeastern province. Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine NDTV, September 4, 2017.
- S. Korea holds missile drill in response to North's nuclear test Archived November 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine France 24/AFP, September 4, 2017.
- Security Council Condemns Underground Nuclear Test by Democratic People's Republic of Korea, with Members Calling for Tougher Sanctions Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine UN, September 4, 2017.
- North Korea: Trump doesn't rule out military strike but says it is 'not our first choice' after call with China Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Independent, September 6, 2017.
- U.S. Demands UN Vote On North Korea Sanctions Despite Russian, Chinese Resistance Archived October 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, September 9, 2017.
- Lederer, Edith M. (September 11, 2017). "UN approves watered-down new sanctions against North Korea". Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
- Chinese Ambassador: China 'will never allow chaos and war' on the Korean Peninsula Archived November 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Hill, September 4, 2017.
- North Korea nuclear crisis: Putin warns of planetary catastrophe: As Kim Jong-un reportedly prepares further missile launch, Russian president says further sanctions would be 'useless' Archived December 22, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Guardian, September 5, 2017.
- "Russia says war of words between Donald Trump and North Korea is 'a fight between two children' Archived January 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine". The Independent. 23 September 2017.
- North Korea crisis: What will Russia do? Archived January 28, 2018, at the Wayback Machine BBC, September 9, 2017.
- Sengupta, Somini (September 11, 2017). "After U.S. Compromise, Security Council Strengthens North Korea Sanctions". The New York Times. USA. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- NATO's Stoltenberg says North Korea's 'reckless behavior' requires global response Archived October 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Reuters, September 10, 2017.
- McCurry, Justin (September 14, 2017). "We will sink Japan and turn US to 'ashes and darkness', says North Korea". The Guardian. Tokyo. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- South Korea: North Korea launched missile over Japan Archived January 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine CNN Politics, September 14, 2017.
- "North Korea says sanctions will accelerate nuclear programme". Bbc.co.uk. September 18, 2017. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- North Korea says sanctions will accelerate nuclear programme Archived January 16, 2018, at the Wayback Machine BBC, September 18, 2017.
- Remarks by President Trump to the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly Archived November 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine the White House, September 19, 2017.
- "Trump Vows to 'Totally Destroy' North Korea if It Threatens U.S." The New York Times. September 19, 2017. Archived from the original on September 19, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- Presidential Executive Order on Imposing Additional Sanctions with Respect to North Korea Archived September 22, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The White House, September 21, 2017.
- North Korea: Trump signs new order to widen sanctions Archived September 21, 2017, at the Wayback Machine BBC, September 21, 2017.
- Remarks by Secretary Mnuchin on President Trump's Executive Order on North Korea Archived January 2, 2018, at the Wayback Machine U.S. Department of the Treasury, September 21, 2017.
- Treasury puts foreign institutions 'on notice' over business with North Korea Archived January 30, 2018, at the Wayback Machine The Washington Examiner, September 21, 2017.
- "Deranged! Donald Trump and Kim Jong-un's war of words". BBC. September 22, 2017. Archived from the original on December 4, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
- "Statement of Chairman of State Affairs Commission of DPRK". KCNA Watch. September 22, 2017. Archived from the original on September 22, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
- "North Korean leader Kim called Trump a what? A 'dotard'". September 22, 2017.
- Most Read (September 22, 2017). "What is the definition of 'dotard,' which North Korea called Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- "Kim's Rejoinder to Trump's Rocket Man: 'Mentally Deranged U.S. Dotard'". The New York Times. September 21, 2017. Archived from the original on September 22, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- Panda, Ankit (September 22, 2017). "Decoding Kim's speech and the Pacific threat". BBC.com. Archived from the original on September 22, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
- "North Korea says Trump speech is 'a dog's bark'". BBC.com. September 21, 2017. Archived from the original on September 24, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
- "North Korea accuses Trump of declaring war". BBC. September 25, 2017. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "North Korea and US "in direct contact" says Tillerson". BBC News. BBC. September 30, 2017. Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
- Pennington, Matthew. "Beyond bluster, US, NKorea in regular contact". AP. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
- "Trump says Tillerson "wasting his time" trying to negotiate with N. Korea". YouTube. CBS News. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- Brennan, John (October 19, 2017). "Former CIA chief John Brennan puts chance of North Korean conflict at 20 to 25 percent". CBS News. Archived from the original on October 20, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
- "North Korea Rouses Neighbors to Reconsider Nuclear Weapons". The New York Times. October 28, 2017. Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- South Korea's Heated Debate Over the Possibility of Tactical Nukes Archived November 8, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- "South Korean opposition leader: Nukes are the only way to guarantee peace". CNN. October 18, 2017. Archived from the original on November 5, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- Berlinger, Joshua (November 22, 2017). "Dramatic video shows North Korean soldier's escape across border". cnn.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- Michael D. Shear; David E. Sanger (November 20, 2017). "Trump Returns North Korea to List of State Sponsors of Terrorism". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
- Westcott, Ben. "North Korea denounces US terror listing as a 'serious provocation'". CNN.com. CNN. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- Michael Elleman, North Korea's Third ICBM Launch Archived December 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine with payload graph
- "North Korea's Latest Missile Test Was Even Scarier Than It Seemed". Wired. December 2017. Archived from the original on January 2, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- "Report claims North Korea obtained rocket engines from a Ukrainian factory". August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on January 14, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- Broad, William J.; Sanger, David E. (September 17, 2017). "The Rare, Potent Fuel Powering North Korea's Weapons". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- "North Korea's new Hwasong-15 missile: What the photos show". Archived from the original on January 21, 2018. in a night launch from a mobile launcher
- Choe Sang-hun The New York Times (1 December 2017) "Photos hint at greater threat of new Korean missile" p. A11
- "U.S. Warns North Korean leadership will be 'utterly destroyed' in". Reuters. November 30, 2017.
- "Trump says North Korea missile launch 'a situation that we will". Reuters. November 28, 2017. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- Choe Sang-Hun (29 December 2017) The New York Times "South Korea Seizes Ship Suspected of Sending Oil to North Korea" Archived January 26, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
- 向朝鮮送油 25船員遭韓拘留 含23中國人 Archived January 4, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Epoch Times, 2017-12-30
- Chinese ships accused of breaking sanctions on North Korea Archived January 3, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Financial Times, 2017-12-27
- Chinese Ship Which Illegally Sold Oil To North Korea Seized By Seoul Archived January 6, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, International Business Times, 2017-12-29
- NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS PROGRAM 16 November 2016 Archived July 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
- (1 January 2018) "Earning wages for Pyongyang within Poland" The New York Times pp. A1, A6
- "Olympics: IOC monitoring North Korea crisis, 2018 Games 'on track'". Reuters. August 10, 2017. Archived from the original on January 13, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- Longman, Jeré (September 27, 2017). "North Korea Skaters Seek Olympic Bid, and Diplomats Cheer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 1, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
- Heekyong Yang; Smith, Josh (January 1, 2018). "North Korea's Kim 'open to dialogue' with South Korea, will only use nukes if threatened". Reuters. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- "North Korea accepts Olympics talks offer". BBC News. January 5, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- "North Korea will meet with South Korea for talks next week in small breakthrough". Chicago Tribune. AP. January 5, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- Kim, Hyung-Jin (January 3, 2018). "North Korea reopens cross-border communication channel with South Korea". Chicago Tribune. AP. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- "Reports: North Korea likely to be at Olympics". ESPN. AP. January 6, 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
- Longman, Jeré (January 3, 2018). "U.S. Skating Officials Brush Aside Talk of Boycotting Olympics". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (January 8, 2018). "North Korea to Send Athletes to Olympics in South Korea Breakthrough". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Gregory, Sean (February 10, 2018). "'Cheer Up!' North Korean Cheerleaders Rally Unified Women's Hockey Team During 8-0 Loss". Time.
- Ji, Dagyum (February 12, 2018). "Delegation visit shows N. Korea can take "drastic" steps to improve relations: MOU". NK News.
- Lieu, Amy (January 2, 2018). "North Korea team at Olympics should prompt US boycott, Graham says". Fox News. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- David, Javier (January 13, 2018). "False alarm sends Hawaii scrambling amid report of a ballistic missile heading toward the island". CNBC. Archived from the original on January 13, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "So this is what it feels like to believe that you could have a nuclear bomb or an incoming missile about to destroy your world. It's not a good feeling. Something must be done. Not just about the flawed mobile warning system in Hawaii but about a situation in which this scenario is even plausible, but about a world in which nations are poised to destroy each other with barely a moment's notice and bring about the end of life on this planet." Archived January 14, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
- William J. Perry (15 January 2018) The Terrifying Lessons of Hawaii's Botched Missile Alert Archived January 16, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
- (16 January 2018) Japanese News Outlet Mistakenly Sends North Korean Missile Alert Archived January 18, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
- Beauchamp, Zack (January 31, 2018). "Trump's South Korea ambassador pick opposed attacking the North. So Trump dumped him. "This suggests that the administration is seriously considering ... a strike."". The Vox. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- Beauchamp, Zack (January 30, 2018). "This was the scariest part of Trump's State of the Union He talked about North Korea the way George W. Bush talked about Iraq". The Vox. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- "The US reportedly wants a limited strike on North Korea to give Kim Jong Un a 'bloody nose'". Business Insider. December 21, 2017.
- "US denies plan for 'bloody nose' strike on North Korea". Star Tribune. February 15, 2018. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- "No 'bloody nose' plan for North Korea: U.S. official, senators". Reuters. February 15, 2018.
- "Trump official denies US planning 'bloody nose' strike on North Korea". The Hill. February 15, 2018.
- "Kim becomes first North Korean leader to cross border into South". Reuters. April 27, 2018.
- Richardson, Matt (March 8, 2018). "Trump will accept Kim Jong Un's invitation to meet, White House says". Fox News. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- Lee, Taehoon (March 24, 2018). "South Korea says North Korea agrees to hold high-level talks". CNN. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
- "Trump calls off Singapore summit with North Korea".
- "US-North Korea summit back on, Trump says after meeting Kim envoy".
- "Joint Statement of President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at the Singapore Summit". The White House. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Brunnstrom, David (June 29, 2018). "U.S. intelligence believes North Korea making more nuclear bomb fuel despite talks: NBC". Reuters. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- "North Korea continuing nuclear programme – UN report". August 4, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Borger, Julian (September 27, 2018). "'All the time in the world': Trump says no rush for North Korea to denuclearise". the Guardian. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- Mitchell, Ellen (December 5, 2018). "Satellite images reveal North Korea upgrading unidentified missile base: report". The Hill. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- "Kim Jong Un to arrive in Vietnam on Feb 25 ahead of Trump summit". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved February 16, 2019.