2018–2019 Iranian general strikes and protests
|Iranian economic protests|
Closed stores at Tehran Bazaar
|Date||14 April 2018–present|
|Methods||Demonstrations, civil disobedience, strikes|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Arrested||10+ in Bazaar strikes |
5 Kurdish activists
40+ teachers 61 workers
The Iranian general strikes are a series of protests that are taking place across Iran against the economic situation.
- 1 Timeline
- 2 Casualties
- 3 Suppression
- 4 Gallery
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
On 22 May 2018 truckers stopped working in 160 cities. Their strikes continued for ten days.
On 25 June 2018, shops were shut and thousands gathered in the Bazaar area of Tehran to protest the economic situation. This was met with security forces firing tear gas at the protestors. Protests against the economic situation also occurred in Shahriar, Karaj, Qeshm, Bandar Abbas, and Mashhad. Some of the stores were closed enforcedly by unknown individuals.
People in Tehran took to the streets for the third straight day on 26 June, with many shops in Tehran's Bazaar remaining closed. Videos from social media showed the crowd in downtown Tehran chanting "Death to the dictator" and "Death to Palestine". Security forces clamped down on the protesters once again, arresting a large number of people.
Protests continued for a third day in Tehran, despite a heavy security presence, Reuters referred to the three days as "the biggest unrest since the start of the year". Iran's Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, addressed the protests for the first time and called on the judiciary to punish those who disrupted economic security. Many of the protests involved traders in the Grand Bazaar in Tehran, who complained that the devaluation of the Iranian rial had forced them to stop trading.
On 28 June, sources told Radio Farda that merchants had closed down the Bazaar in the city of Arak. Tehran's prosecutor general stated that a large number of protesters had been arrested and would likely face trial. Jafar Dolatabadi also stated in an interview that the protesters grievances are not only economic, and that "people are grappling with political and social concerns".
On 11 September 2018, shopkeepers in Iranian Kurdistan initiated a one-day strike in response to the missile attack by the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps on the headquarters of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran, and the execution of Ramin Panahi and two other Kurd activists. In response to the strikes, the security forces arrested five Kurdish activists.
On 22 September 2018, truckers across several Iranian cities restarted their strikes against the rising expenses of their jobs. On 26 September, the strikes continued and were seen in Ahvaz, Qazvin, Shahreza, Borujerd, and Urmia. 40 to 70 truckers in Fars, Tehran, and Qazvin province were arrested on 27 September, as strikes continued into their fifth day. The Free Truckers Union announced that the strike had spread to 31 provinces across the country. The judiciary stated that those arrested could face the death penalty. On 29 September, on the eight day of the strikes, the number of truckers arrested reached 89.
On 1 October, the truckers strikes reached their 10th straight day and were seen in Bukan, Khosrowshah, Arak, Fooladshahr, Nishapur, Tiran, Takestan, Kermanshah, Sanandaj, Qazvin, Karaj, Bandar Abbas, Ardabil, Dezful, Yazd, and Najafabad. The number of arrested also reached 156. By the 13th straight day of the strike over 230 truckers were arrested. The strikes continued into 8 October, and reached their 17th consecutive day. Security forces responded by arresting a number of truckers, which increased the number of people arrested to 256. On the same day, Bazaaris in multiple cities across Iran closed their shops and went on strike in protest to the economic situation. Strikes were seen in Sanandaj, Bukan, Saqqez, Marivan, Baneh, Miandoab, Tehran, Isfahan, Mashhad, Tabriz, and Chabahar. The strikes continued into 9 October, although they were reduced in size from the previous day, and were seen in Tabriz, Shahriar, Shahreza, and Sanandaj.
On 13 October 2018, teachers across Iran started a two-day nationwide strike in protest to high expenses and inflation. Teachers in Tehran, Mashhad, Tabriz, Isfahan, Shiraz, Kermanshah, Ilam, Yasuj, Sanandaj, Simorgh, Hamedan, Amol, Zarrin Shahr, Gonabad, Eslamabad[disambiguation needed], Torbat-e Heydarieh, Marivan, Sarvabad, and Garmeh, went on strike. At least two teachers were arrested on the first day of the strike.
Teachers went on strike for a second day on 14 October.
On 1 November 2018, truckers in Tehran, Zanjan, Isfahan, Asaluyeh, Nahavand, and Shahrud went on strike for the fourth time this year in protest to the arrest of hundreds of truckers in October. Workers from several factories in Iran have been on constant strikes due to unpaid wages and inflation. On 2 November 2018, workers at the Haft Tappeh Cane Sugar Company's factory in Shush start their own strikes.
On 15 November, the workers strikes escalated and protests spilled onto the streets of Shush. Some workers in Shush called for the factory to be operated by a workers council. The following day, the workers disrupted the Friday Prayer service of the city. They chanted "Hossein, Hossein is their cry, theft is their pride", "Death to oppressors, long live workers", and "Workers are willing to die, but will not accept oppression". Protests continued in the streets of Shush on 17 November, despite the presence of the security forces and riot police.
On the same day, hundreds of workers of the Foolad Company in Ahvaz protested in front of the Governor's office. Protestors in Ahvaz chanted "Let go of Kashoggi, think of us", and "Inflation, increasing prices, be responsible Rouhani". On 18 November, nineteen protestors were arrested in Shush. By 21 November , thirteen of the protesters in Shush were released from prison, the arrested protestors faced charges of "acting against the regime". On 24 November, workers joined by ordinary citizens, protested in Ahvaz and clashed with the security forces. On the same day, workers of the vegetable oil factory of Zanjan protested in front of the governor's office in Zanjan due to unpaid wages. On 28 November, workers protested for the 24th consecutive day in Shush, despite the city's police commander stating that any gatherings were against the law. Protests occurred in Ahvaz on the same day, as thousands of workers took to the streets.
On 18 November 2018 Workers Syndicate at the Haft Tappeh sugar mill in Iran’s Khuzestan province announced that the security forces had arrested two of their representatives, Esmail Bakhshi and Mohsen Armand. The syndicate also announced that on 29 November 2018 government forces arrested its senior member Ali Nejati in his house.
On 4 December, workers in Ahvaz protested for the 25th straight day, and chanted "Palestine and Syria are the root of our problems". On 17 December, the security forces cracked-down and arrested 31 workers in Ahvaz whom they i/refdentified as the leaders of the protests. The day before workers had gathered in Ahvaz and declared that they would take their protest to the capital Tehran, if their demands were not met. On 13 December, Ali Nejati, was transferred to hospital, after long and distressing interrogations.
On 18 December, a lone protester on the island of Kish, stood in front of the main square of the city and graffitied anti-regime and pro-worker slogans, which included: "Imprisoned workers must be freed", and "long live the Shah". On 18 and 19 December 2018 the security forces stormed the houses of Foolad workers in Khuzestan province and arrested up to 41 workers.
15 workers at Ilam Petrochemical Plant in central western Iran were convicted to six months’ imprisonment and 74 lashes by a state court after they gathered in protest outside the factory for their fellow experienced workers being laid off. The court charged them with “disrupting public order and peace”.
On 21 December, truck drivers across the country started their fifth round of nationwide strikes in protest to inflation and rising expenses.
On 27 December 2018 Security forces attacked with tear gas a teachers gathering outside the education office in Isfahan, central Iran. Teachers were protesting their low salary and the arrest of their colleagues who are now in jail.
Farmers gathered in Isfahan on 2 January to protest the lack of water in the Zayanderud. The protestors were met by security forces who fired tear gas and live rounds into the air to disperse the crowds. On 22 January, retirees gathered in front of the parliament building in Tehran and chanted "Torture and forced confessions, have no effect anymore". Two days later, on 24 January, teachers gathered in five provinces to protest their current living and teaching conditions.
On 14 February, teachers in Ardabil, Mashhad, Marivan, Sanandaj, Orumieh, and Kermanshah gathered outside of the offices of the Ministry of Education and protested the arrest of teachers, and unfavourable living and teaching conditions. On the same day a teacher's rights activist was arrested in Sanandaj.
On 26 February, railway workers in Tabriz and Shahroud went on strike. Earlier that day, a large group of retirees gathered in front of the parliament building in Tehran to protest low pensions. Protesters chanted "no nation has seen such a dishonourable parliament" and "shame on those who claim to be the upholders of justice".
On 3 March, teachers across Iran started a three-day nationwide sit in, in protest to low living wages and unfavourable job conditions. This is the third sit in this year by teachers across Iran. The same day, railway workers in Andimeshk went on strike to protest unpaid wages and blocked the Ahvaz to Mashhad train from running its route. The families of Esmail Bakhshi and Sepideh Gholian also gathered in front of the judiciary in Shush to protest their arrest.
The following day on 4 March, mobile bazars in Tehran, Tabriz, Ahvaz, Mashhad, and Isfahan went on strike to protest the new initiative started by the Ministry of Communications which prevents them from registering the smartphones they want to sell.
On 5 March, workers of Chamshir Dam in Gachsaran went on strike and gathered outside the governorate to protest 14 months of unpaid wages. On the same day, workers of the Ministry of Agriculture gathered in front of the parliament building in Tehran and protested their low wages. Railway strikes also continued in Tabriz and Lorestan province.
On 6 March, Foolad retirees took to the streets in Isfahan due to low pensions. The protestors chanted "Our revolution was a mistake" and "Rouhani the liar, resign". Teachers again took the streets on 7 March in multiple cities across Iran. Protests were reported in Kermanshah, Urmia, Ardabil, Mashhad, and Isfahan.
On 1 May (May day), workers, students, and teachers gathered in front of the parliament building in Tehran to protest poor economic conditions, and lack of individual rights. Protesters chanted "Workers, teachers, students, unite" and "High costs and inflation are hurting people's lives". The security forces clamped down on the protests and 40 demonstrators were arrested.
On 29 November 2018, it was reported by various news outlets that Esmaeil Bakhshi, one of the leaders of the strikes in Shush, was severely tortured during his detention and transferred to a hospital in Ahvaz. Officials in Khuzestan province quickly denied the news. On 4 December, members of the Haft Tape Union, warned that the health of Esmaeil Bakhshi and Sepideh Ghelyan is in a dire state, as they could not tell what time of day it was. It was later revealed that while in custody, Bakhshi was attacked repeatedly with a baton, to the point where he now has difficulty walking, sitting, and sleeping. He was also given unspecified drugs.
On 20 December 2018 Human rights Watch urged the regime in Iran to investigate and find an explanation for the death of Vahid Sayadi Nasiri who had been jailed for insulting the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. According to his family Nasiri had been on hunger strike but he was denied medical attention before he died.
Bakhshi and Ghelyan were arrested again in January 2019. In February 2019, it was reported that Bakhshi's health was in serious condition while in jail.
Addressing students in Qom, in early March 2019, Musa Ghazanfarabadi, an Iranian official and head of the Islamic Courts in Tehran, said that if needed they can bring Hashd al-Shaabi militias from Iraq, Houthis from Yemen and others from Pakistan and Afghanistan to suppress the demonstrations.
Protesters in front of Bank Melli
- Economy of Iran
- History of the Islamic Republic of Iran
- 2017–2019 Iranian protests
- Internet activism during the 2009 Iranian election protests
- 1953 Iranian coup d'état
- Iran student protests, July 1999
- 2009 Iranian presidential election protests
- 2011–12 Iranian protests
- 2018 Dervish protests
- 2018 Khuzestan protests
- 2018 Iranian water protests
- "نوزدهمین روز از دور جدید اعتصاب سراسری کامیونداران؛ افزایش شمار بازداشتشدگان به دستکم 261 تن/ ویدئو - خبرگزاری هرانا". Hra-news.org. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "اعتصاب گسترده در شهرهای کردنشین ایران". Bbc.com. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "تجمعهای اعتراضی معلمان در شهرهای مختلف ایران". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Nation-wide strikes of teachers in several cities of the country". Kalameh (in Persian). 14 October 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- "Six teachers arrested and condemned to be whipped in teachers' strikes". Deutsche Welle (in Persian). 25 September 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "Teachers' strike; protesters were arrested". BBC Persian (in Persian). 15 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- "کارگران بازداشتی "هفت تپه" با وثیقه هم آزاد نشدند". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "برخورد امنیتی با کارگران فولاد اهواز در ایران ادامه دارد؛ تعداد بازداشت شدگان به ۳۱ نفر رسید". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "General Strike in Kurdish Cities". Pdki.org. 22 April 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Tehran sees biggest protests since 2012". Bbc.com. 25 June 2018.
- "Thousands protest in Iran over failing economy, forcing closure of Tehran's Grand Bazaar". Abc.net.au. 26 June 2018.
- Staff, Our Foreign (25 June 2018). "Iran protesters confront police at parliament in fresh wave of demonstrations". Telegraph.co.uk.
- "اعتصاب بازار تهران: درگیری و اعتراض به گرانی در چند شهر ایران". Bbc.com. 25 June 2018.
- "Behind the scenes of the events of today's Tehran market" (in Persian). Isna News Agency. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Shutters that were pulled down by force" (in Persian). Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Dozens Arrested As Tehran Bazaar Protest Spreads To Other Cities". En.radiofarda.com.
- "گزارش واشنگتن فری بیکن: معترضان ایرانی شعار "مرگ بر فلسطین" سر میدهند". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "بازداشت "تعداد زیادی" از معترضان؛ تجمعهای بازاریان به دیگر شهرهای ایران کشیده شد". رادیو فردا.
- "Amid Heavy Security, Tehran Bazaar Partially Open". En.radiofarda.com.
- Dehghanpisheh, Babak. "After protests, Iran's Khamenei demands punishment for those who..." Uk.reuters.com.
- "Iran's power struggle plays out in Tehran's Grand Bazaar". Edition.cnn.com.
- "IRAN: Prosecutor Says 'A Large Number' Of Protesters Arrested, Threatens Others". Payvand.com. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "کامیونداران در ایران بار دیگر دست به اعتصاب زدند". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "افزایش اعتصاب کامیونداران در شهرهای ایران در روز چهارشنبه". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "بازداشت دهها نفر از کامیونداران به خاطر اعتصاب سراسری". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "ادامه اعتصاب کامیونداران؛ حدود ۴۰ تن بازداشت شدند". رادیو فردا. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "اتهام سنگین علیه کامیوندارانی که اعتصاب کردند و بازداشت شدند؛ احتمال صدور حکم اعدام". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "هشتمین روز از دور جدید اعتصاب سراسری کامیونداران؛ شمار بازداشتشدگان به دستکم 89 تن رسید/ ویدئو - خبرگزاری هرانا". Hra-news.org. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "دهمین روز از دور جدید اعتصاب سراسری کامیونداران؛ افزایش شمار بازداشتشدگان به دستکم 156 تن/ ویدئو - خبرگزاری هرانا". Hra-news.org. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "ادامه اعتصاب کامیونداران در چند شهر ایران با وجود بازداشت و برخورد امنیتی". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "#اعتراضات: سیزدهمین روز اعتصاب: ۲۳۸ راننده کامیون بازداشت شدند - رادیو زمانه". Radiozamaneh.com. 5 October 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "هفدهمین روز از دور جدید اعتصاب سراسری کامیونداران؛ افزایش شمار بازداشتشدگان به دستکم 256 تن/ ویدئو - خبرگزاری هرانا". Hra-news.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "اعتصاب بازاریان در برخی از شهرهای ایران". رادیو فردا. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "اعتصاب دوباره بازاریان در ایران؛ از تهران و تبریز تا سنندج و چابهار". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "دومین روز اعتصابها در برخی از شهرهای ایران". Bbc.com. 9 October 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "تحصن معلمان در شهرهای مختلف در اعتراض به گرانی و تورم در ایران". Bbc.com. 14 October 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "آغاز تحصن معلمان در چندین شهر ایران". رادیو فردا. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "Strike of teachers in some Iranian cities". BBC Persian (in Persian). 14 October 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- "ادامه تحصن معلمان و بازداشت یک مسئول صنفی فرهنگیان". رادیو فردا. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "کامیونداران ایران اینبار در اعتراض به بازداشت همکارانشان اعتصاب کردند". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "Iranian teachers went on strike for the second time". Radio Zamaneh (in Persian). Retrieved 13 November 2018.
- "دومین دور تحصن سراسری معلمان؛ گزارشی از روز نخست تحصن معلمان در اعتراض به مشکلات صنفی/ تصاویر - خبرگزاری هرانا". Hra-news.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "تجمع کارگران نیشکر هفت تپه: نه تهدید، نه زندان، دیگر اثر ندارد". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "تظاهرات گسترده در شوش در حمایت از کارگران هفتتپه". Bbc.com. 17 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "حضور اعتراضی کارگران نیشکر هفت تپه در نماز جمعه شوش". رادیو فردا. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "اعتراض کارگران هفت تپه به نماز جمعه کشید". Bbc.com. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "تجمع کارگران نیشکر هفت تپه و خانواده هایشان مقابل فرمانداری شوش". Ir.voanews.com. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "بازداشت ۱۹ نفر در تجمع کارگران "نیشکر هفت تپه" شوش؛ تجمع روز دوشنبه دادگاه را به تعویق انداخت". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "تجمعات اعتراضی کارگران گروه ملی فولاد اهواز و هفت تپه ادامه یافت؛ حضور یگان ویژه در اهواز". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "تظاهرات در اهواز؛ کارگران شرکت فولاد در خیابانها شعارهای اعتراضی سر دادند". Bbc.com. 24 November 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "کارگران معترض روغن نباتی جهان مقابل استانداری زنجان تجمع کردند". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "ادامه اعتراضهای کارگران در خوزستان؛ حضور هزاران معترض در مرکز شهر اهواز". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Workers' representatives arrested at Haft Tappeh sugar mill strike". Iran-hrm.com. 18 November 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "اعتصاب کارگران فولاد ۲۵ روزه شد: "فلسطین، سوریه/ عامل بدبختیه"". رادیو فردا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "کارگران معترض فولاد اهواز: مشکلات حل نشود در تهران تجمع می کنیم". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Prominent Labor Leader Hospitalized After Interrogation". RFE/RL. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "شعار جاویدشاه در اعتراض به حبس کارگران فولاد". Radiofarda.com. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- Anger in Iran after police arrest striking workers in overnight raids
- "بازداشت کارگران معترض فولاد اهواز ادامه دارد". Bbc.com. 18 December 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "ادامه بازداشت کارگران فولاد اهواز: شمار بازداشتیها به "۴۱ تن" رسید". رادیو فردا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Iran sentences 15 Ilam Petrochemical workers to 74 lashes for strike". Irannewswire.org. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "آغاز دور جدید اعتصاب سراسری کامیونداران در ایران". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Police Use Tear Gas Against Teachers Protesting In Isfahan". RFE/RL. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "اعتراض کشاورزان اصفهان در "پل خواجو" به درگیری کشیده شد". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "تجمع کشاورزان اصفهان در میان تدابیر شدید امنیتی". Bbc.com. 2 January 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "بازنشستگان در تجمع اعتراضی شعار"شکنجه، مستند، دیگر اثر ندارند" سردادند". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "تجمع اعتراضی معلمان شاغل و بازنشسته در ۵ استان". رادیو زمانه. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "معلمان در ۶ شهر ایران تجمعات اعتراضی برگزار کردند". رادیو زمانه. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "یک فعال صنفی معلمان در کردستان بازداشت شد". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "#اعتراضات: کارگران راهآهن تبریز و شاهرود اعتصاب کردند". رادیو زمانه. 2019-02-26. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "تجمع بازنشستگان مقابل مجلس: حقوقهای نجومی، فلاکت عمومی". رادیو زمانه. 2019-02-26. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "تحصن معلمان؛ دور سوم تحصنهای سراسری به روز دوم رسید". 2019-03-04. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "#اعتراضات: کارگران راهآهن اندیمشک مانع حرکت قطار مشهد- اهواز شدند". رادیو زمانه. 2019-03-03. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "خانواده سپیده قلیان مقابل دادگستری شوش تجمع کردند". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "بعضی از موبایل فروشان در چند شهر ایران مغازههای خود را بستند". 2019-03-04. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "تجمع و تحصن در پنج شهر ایران". IranWire | خانه (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "کارگران راه آهن تبریز خط را 'بستند'". 2019-03-05. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- تظاهرات بازنشستگان فولاد مقابل استانداری اصفهان (in Persian), retrieved 2019-05-17
- "دوباره معلمان و فرهنگیان چند شهر ایران تجمع اعتراضی برگزار کردند". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "تجمع روز جهانی کارگر در ایران به خشونت کشیده شد؛ دهها نفر بازداشت شدند". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "بازداشت دهها نفر در روز جهانی کارگر در ایران". 2019-05-01. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "تجمع معلمان در شهرهای مختلف ایران؛ دستکم سه معلم بازداشت شدهاند". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "تجمع سراسری معلمان؛ 'فضا امنیتی' و دست کم دو معلم بازداشت شدند". 2019-05-02. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "شماری از معلمان ایران در تجمعهای اعتراضی "روز معلم" بازداشت شدند". رادیو فردا (in Persian). Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- "برخی منابع از شکنجه اسماعیل بخشی نماینده کارگران هفتتپه در زندان خبر دادند". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "مقامهای خوزستان 'شکنجه' اسماعیل بخشی را تکذیب کردند". Bbc.com. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "سندیکای هفتتپه درباره وضعیت سلامت اسماعیل بخشی و سپیده قلیان هشدار داد". Bbc.com. 4 December 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "جزئیاتی تازه از "شکنجه شدید" اسماعیل بخشی؛ از ضربات باتوم تا خوراندن داروهای اعصاب و روان". صدای آمریکا. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Iran: Investigate Suspicious Deaths in Detention, Release Activists". Human Rights Watch. 13 February 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Workers Say Labor Activist In 'Serious Condition'". RFE/RL. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- "Iran Hints at Using Foreign Militias in Domestic Crackdown". VOA. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- Media related to Tehran Bazzar Protests 2018 at Wikimedia Commons