2018–2020 Nicaraguan protests
|2018–2020 Nicaraguan protests|
|Part of 2014–2020 Nicaraguan protests and 2019 Latin American protests|
Situation of Nicaragua during the development of the protests (April 2018)
|Date||18th April 2018 – ongoing|
(2 years, 3 months and 3 weeks)
|Parties to the civil conflict|
The 2018–2020 Nicaraguan protests began on 18 April 2018 when demonstrators in several cities of Nicaragua began protests against the social security reforms decreed by President Daniel Ortega that increased taxes and decreased benefits. After five days of unrest in which nearly thirty people were killed, Ortega announced the cancellation of the reforms. However, the opposition has grown - through the 2013–2018 Nicaraguan protests - to denounce Ortega and demand his resignation, becoming one of the largest protests in his government's history and the deadliest civil conflict since the end of the Nicaraguan Revolution. On 29 September 2018, political demonstrations were declared illegal by President Ortega.
Pensions for small contributors
The 2013–2018 Nicaraguan protests began in June 2013 when some elderly people with only a small contribution (less than 750 weeks) demanded a reduced pension from the Nicaraguan Social Security Institute. Soon, students and young people joined their protests. After a week of demonstration, the peaceful protesters were attacked by paramilitary groups associated with the Sandinista Youth, while police had moved back only moments before. Later, to calm down the protests, concessions to the pensioners were made by president Daniel Ortega to supply a reduced pension.
Over a year later protests started again, this time opposing the construction of a proposed Chinese-funded inter-oceanic canal through Nicaragua, with environmental impact, land use, and indigenous rights, as well as Nicaraguan sovereignty among the chief concerns of demonstrators. By February 2018, the project was widely viewed as defunct, though a 60% absent vote to revoke the 2013 legislation creating the project, the Chinese company (HKND) granted the concession to develop the canal maintains legal rights to it as well as to ancillary infrastructure projects.
In early April 2018, demonstrators marched in Managua, the country's capital, to protest what they regarded as an insufficient government response to forest fires that burned 13,500 acres (5,500 hectares) of the Indio Maíz Biological Reserve, a tropical nature preserve that is home to Rama and Kriol indigenous people, as well as significant biodiversity and endangered species. There were suspicions that the government had an interest in the fire, as it is the largest natural reserve through which the Nicaraguan Canal is planned to make. Counterprotests also occurred at the time in support of the Sandinista Front government.
In 2013, the Nicaraguan Social Security Institute was in a deficit situation that had been grown annually, reaching 2,371 million Nicaraguan córdobas by the end of 2017. This deficit has increased by over 50% annually for the last two years. The IMF alerted Nicaragua in 2017 that in the absence of the reform, the cash reserves would be depleted by 2019. The government of Daniel Ortega prepared a reform plan for the INSS based on the IMF's report. The government rejected some of the proposed remedies, such as increasing the retirement age, arguing that older people have fewer possibilities of finding employment, and that the urgency of the reform required fast results to ensure the INSS's viability, as some measures suggested by the IMF would not yield results for three or four years.
In early April 2018, the Superior Council for Private Enterprise (COSEP) announced the start of negotiations with the government to reform the INSS, declaring that the solution must include an increase to the contribution of the employers and employees, as well as fiscal reform. These negotiations excluded small and medium-sized enterprises. The reforms were announced on 16 April 2018, and published by presidential decree in March 2018 in La Gaceta (official government record) on 18 April 2018. The reform included an incremental increase of 0.75% (from 6.25% to 7%) on the employee contribution and 2% (from 19% to 21%) on the employers, starting July 2018. The employers' contribution would increase annually until reaching 22.5% in 2020. Pensions would also be taxed 5%. The 5% tax has been criticized as unconstitutional, since only the National Assembly has the power of taxation, and Law 160, signed by Ortega, indicates that pensions are not subject to any retentions.
The government-aligned unions Workers' National Front and the Employees National Union supported the reform, while the COSEP rejected it, indicating it did not have consensus and filed a writ of amparo in an attempt to reverse it.
Timeline of events
Start of protests
Citizens protest on 18 April after already being angered by the handling of the fires in response to the Ortega administration's announcement of social security reforms that raised income and payroll taxes while reducing pension benefits by 5%. Demonstrations involving mostly elderly individuals, university students, and other activists broke out in Managua and six other cities, which were repressed by authorities reporting to President Ortega. Authorities were seen using live ammunition on protesters while also arming Sandinista Youth members with weapons. At least 26 people were killed, including journalist Ángel Gahona of the news program Meridiano, with Gahona being shot to death outside of the city hall in Bluefields while streaming on Facebook Live. Various forms of independent media were censored during the protests.
The following day on 19 April, Vice President and first lady Rosario Murillo made a speech mocking the demonstrators and labeling them of "small groups, small souls, toxic, full of hate", bent on the destruction of the country, assaulting peace and development. She also labeled the demonstrators that had been attacked as "aggressors" and the attack by pro-Ortega groups and police as "legitimate defense". Protests began to intensify with confrontations occurring in León, Managua, Granada, Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Rivas, Matagalpa and Masaya. TELCOR ordered the suspension of transmissions of four independent TV channels that were reporting the news: channels 12, 23, 51, and 100% Noticias. Also the Catholic Episcopal Conference's TV channel. The suspension lasted several hours, except for 100% Noticias, who was off the air until April 25. Murillo accused the protesters of being manipulated and trying to "destabilize" and "destroy" Nicaragua.
Two days after the beginning of protests and the subsequent crackdown by authorities, Ortega made his first public appearance on 21 April and announced he would hold negotiations for a possible revision of the reforms, planned to take effect on 1 July 2018; however, he stated he would meet only with business leaders and alleged that demonstrators were being manipulated by gangs and other political interests. Demonstrations increased in response, with protesters objecting to the repression of demonstrations and the exclusion of other sectors from the negotiations, as well as the reforms themselves. The COSEP business chamber announced it would only participate in the negotiation if police violence ceased, detained protesters were released and free speech were restored. Nicaragua's Roman Catholic Conference of Bishops also called for an end to the police violence and criticized unilateral reforms; Pope Francis subsequently added his call for peace in the country.
As the press began to describe the unrest as the biggest crisis of Ortega's presidency, Ortega announced the cancellation of the social security reforms on April 22, acknowledging they were not viable and had created a "dramatic situation". He again proposed negotiations on the issue, which would now include Catholic Cardinal Leopoldo Brenes as well as the business community.
On 23 April, marches of citizens, businessmen and students were held in Managua demanding the end of violence in the country, the release of students arrested by the police, the cessation of censorship of television media, and a response from the government about the students who died during the protests. The protests were the largest seen during the Ortega administration, with tens to hundreds of thousands of demonstrators participating and calling for the president's resignation. The next day on April 24, 2018, detainees were released by Nicaraguan authorities as a result of dialogue between the government and other organizations.
Investigations and resignations
Nicaraguan Attorney General Inés Miranda announced on 26 April that a formal investigation into the deaths during the protests. On 27 April, President of the National Assembly Gustavo Porras announced a truth commission to examine the deaths and violence during the unrest. Head of the National Police Aminta Granera announced her resignation in face of the criticism of her handling of the unrest and alleged police repression of protests.
Hundreds of thousands participated in marches for "peace and justice" organized on 28 April by the Catholic churches in Nicaragua in the cities of Managua, Matagalpa and León. At the events, "bishops, feminists, homosexuals, family members of those killed in the repression... and thousands of peasants" gathered in unity to demonstrate. Peasants who lived in rural areas traveled to Managua by a caravan of trucks, arriving to protest against the Nicaragua Canal proposal by Chinese businessmen and the Ortega government.
Days later on 30 April, tens of thousands of Ortega's supporters participated in a rally showing him support, though there were some reports of government workers being forced to join the pro-Ortega rally. The rally consisted mostly of singing and dancing to music of the 1960s and 1970s, popular to the former Sandinista guerrillas.
On 2 May, police in riot gear blocked a student march from Central American University (UCA) to the National Assembly, with students instead marching to the Polytechnic University of Nicaragua (UPOLI) to show solidarity with other groups entrenched there. After pro-Ortega groups appeared on their route, they cancelled another planned march, so students reinforced barricades surrounding UPOLI under the watch of authorities. Anonymous Nicaragua hacked the website of the National Police of Nicaragua, calling for them to support of anti-Ortega protesters. The next day, elite troops of the Nicaraguan armed forces and police assaulted UPOLI in the early morning at about 01:00 CT, dispersing students stationed at the university. The incident left six students injured, one seriously. Student group Movimiento 19 de Abril responded to the incident stating that they would not participate in a dialogue with Ortega after he sent forces to attack them, placing peace talks in jeopardy. By 9 May, members of the independent press of Nicaragua condemned the killings, censorship and repression of the Government of Nicaragua.
More than 10 cities were the scene of heavy fighting on 12 May in at least eight departments in the north, center, and Pacific areas of Nicaragua. The biggest clashes took place in Chinandega, Granada, León, Managua, Masaya, and Rivas in the Pacific, as well as Estelí and Matagalpa in the north. In Masaya, the clashes lasted for more than 12 hours between demonstrators, anti-riot police and youth shock groups of the Sandinista party. The following day, President Ortega called for a cessation of violence, reading a short statement, in which he called for "an end to death and destruction, that does not continue to shed blood of Nicaraguan brothers". The Military of Nicaragua assured that it would not engage in acts of repression against citizens who were protesting and advocated a dialogue to help resolve the crisis in the country, according to statements made by spokesman Colonel Manuel Guevara. In a demonstration, thousands of people arrived on 13 May from Managua to Masaya in a caravan to support that city for the loss of at least one life and 150 wounded in the past days.
After weeks of conflict, the National Dialogue began on 16 May 2018. When Ortega and Murillo arrived at the Seminary of Our Lady of Fatima, the site of the national dialogue, the presidential couple was greeted with shouts of "assassins, murderers" by people on the outskirts of the event.
A delegation from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) arrived in Nicaragua on 17 May to observe in loco the situation of human rights in the country. The IACHR visit occurred as Nicaraguan human rights organizations were reporting between 61 and 67 people dead and more than 500 injured in the repression exercised against protesters. The delegation was headed by Antonia Urrejola, rapporteur for Nicaragua at the IACHR.
On 18 May, the second day of dialogue, the IACHR now included in talks called "on the State of Nicaragua to immediately cease the repression of the protest, the commission also calls on the State to guarantee the independence and functioning of the media in the country", the rapporteur said, also indicating that the mission of the IACHR in the country will be the observation in the field in accordance with human rights. She indicated that she would meet with all sectors. There was friction between university students and members of the state-media press before the dialogue. The government and the Nicaraguan opposition agreed to a truce over the weekend, a month after having started demonstrations and protests. Several people appeared before the Inter-American Commission to lodge complaints against the violations carried out by the police forces and supporters of the Daniel Ortega government.
The national dialogue continued on its third day on 21 May where the resignation of Ortega and his wife and the Nicaraguan government was requested in order to return the country to normality. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), issued a preliminary report on the investigations of what happened in the protests in Nicaragua. The IACHR counted at least 76 people killed in the protests in Nicaragua and more than 800 injured, and denounced serious events and violations of human rights by the Government of Nicaragua. It included the official visit of the IACHR to Nicaragua. The representatives of the organization were in Managua, Masaya, León and Matagalpa.
A week after beginning, the National Dialogue between the government of Nicaragua and students, the private sector and civil society was suspended indefinitely. The leader of the Nicaraguan Catholic Church, Bishop Leopoldo Brenes, who had acted as a mediator of this dialogue, explained that the lack of agreement on an agenda of issues to be discussed prevented negotiations from continuing.
On 30 May, the day on which the Nicaraguan mothers are celebrated, a march was held in honor of the victims killed during the protests. It was repressed by the national police in the company of paramilitary groups and pro-government mobs, leaving approximately 15 dead. Most of the victims died from accurate shots to the head, neck and chest. The march was led by the Mothers of April Movement, the Student Movement 19 April, Civil Society and Private Enterprise.
In the early hours of 1 June, there were reports in Masaya of a new wave of looting and robberies against businesses and stores in the city. Movements, associations of professionals and Nicaraguan social groups called for a civic-citizen national strike and civil disobedience since 1 June, as a means of pressure for President Daniel Ortega and his wife, Vice President Rosario Murillo, to leave power. Five banks have closed in Masaya for lootings. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) condemned the deaths and new acts of violence that occurred in Nicaragua and urged the state to stop the repression of the protests. The IACHR also urges the government to investigate and punish the use of force by parapolitical actors, dismantle these groups, and seek a peaceful, constitutional and democratic solution to the current political crisis affecting the country.
On 8 July, at least 38 were killed during skirmishes between protesters, authorities and pro-Sandinista paramilitary groups, raising the death toll to more than 300 Nicaraguans killed since the beginning of protests.
Attacks on bishops and opposition
Mobs, some hooded and armed, set out on 9 July surrounding and assaulted Catholic bishops, including Cardinal Leopoldo Brenes, Auxiliary Bishop Silvio José Báez, and the ambassador of the pope in Nicaragua Waldemar Sommertag, after arriving in Diriamba, Carazo. Men in plain clothes, hooded and some armed, first verbally offended the religious and then attacked them physically, wounding some of them, while the journalists robbed and beat. The next day, Vice President of Nicaragua, Rosario Murillo, said that the government presiding over her husband, Daniel Ortega, is "indestructible" and that the opposition "could not" defeat him, while also justifying the actions of violence against the Nicaraguan bishops and the apostolic Nuncio in Diriamba.
On 11 July, the Nicaraguan opposition and academic Felix Maradiaga was attacked in the city of León (northwest Nicaragua) by a group of Sandinista sympathizers of the government of President Daniel Ortega.
Church of Divine Mercy incident
Police and paramilitaries attacked the Rubén Darío University Campus (RURD) of the UNAN Managua on 13 July. After hours of facing attacks, more than 100 students took refuge in the nearby Church of Divine Mercy where they were fired upon by police and paramilitaries, after the youths left the facilities the paramilitaries set fire to the university campus setting fire to a CDI and one of the pavilions of the college The Church of Divine Mercy was then the target of attacks and was besieged throughout the night of Friday the 13th and into the early morning of Saturday the 14th, leaving two students dead. The bullet holes in the walls, windows and religious objects in addition to the bloodstains were still visible in the days following the attack.
On 14 July, clashes were reported in Granada, Masaya and Managua. Leaving two students killed by Nicaraguan police and pro-government paramilitary forces had to go with the presence of Cardinal Brenes, the apostolic Nuncio accompanied by members of the national and international organizations to rescue the wounded and besieged. Those rescued were received at the Cathedral of Managua, where they were received by ecclesiastical authorities and national and international human rights organizations. In the cathedral were also dozens of people waving flags of Nicaragua and UNAN to receive the students.
Government stands firm
As a result of crackdowns in July 2018, the government forced people from protest centers and established a more firm presence in Nicaragua, though protests still continued in the following months.
The international community intensified pressure on the Government of Nicaragua on 16 July in order to stop the repression and disarm the paramilitaries after nearly 300 deaths during three months of protests demanding the exit of President Daniel Ortega. The United States, 13 Latin American countries and the Secretary-General of the UN, Antonio Guterres, demanded Ortega to end the repression of the demonstration. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights also denounced the Law on Terrorism that was recently approved by the pro-Ortega Parliament of Nicaragua, which it said can be used to criminalize peaceful protests.
On 17 July, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Nicaragua raised its "strongest protest" for the "biased declarations" of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, defending the Law on Terrorism. Days later on 24 July, President Ortega said that he will not resign from the presidency of Nicaragua before finishing his term in 2021, ignoring the demand of opponents who demand his immediate exit from power to overcome the crisis.
An early-September general lockout organized to demand the release of political prisoners saw 90% participation of businesses in Nicaragua. It was estimated that the national lockout cost the country $20 million to $25 million per day.
Ban on protests
On September 29, 2018, President Ortega declared that political protests were "illegal" in Nicaragua, stating that demonstrators would "respond to justice" if they attempted to publicly voice their opinions. The United Nations condemned the actions as being a violation of human rights regarding freedom of assembly.
In December 2018, the government revoked the licenses of five human rights organizations, closed the offices of the cable news and online show Confidencial, and beat journalists when they protested.
The Confidential newspaper and other media were seized and taken by the government of Daniel Ortega Several service stations of the Puma brand were closed in the afternoon of December 20 by representatives of the Nicaraguan Energy Institute (INE), a state entity that has the mandate to regulate, among others, the hydrocarbons sector. Puma Energy entered the Nicaraguan oil and fuel derivatives market at the end of March 2011, when it bought the entire network of Esso stations in Nicaragua as part of a regional operation that involved the purchase of 290 service stations and eight storage terminals of fuel in four countries of Central America.
On December 21, 2018, the Nicaraguan police raided the offices of the 100% News Channel. They arrested Miguel Mora, owner of the Canal; Lucía Pineda, Head of Press of 100% Noticias; and Verónica Chávez, wife of Miguel Mora and host of the Ellas Lo Dicen Program. Subsequently, Verónica Chávez was released. Miguel Mora and Lucia Pineda were accused of terrorist crimes and provoking hatred and discrimination between the police and Sandinistas.
The application of the Democratic Charter
The Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS), Luis Almagro, announced that he will begin the steps for an eventual application of the Democratic Charter to the State of Nicaragua, which would isolate the country from the inter-American community.
The National Dialogue began on 16 May. Ortega kicked off the "dialogue for peace Wednesday" saying, "We all suffer the death of our loved ones, but we have the obligation not to respond to violence with more violence, because otherwise we have scales that end in wars, and the people are tired of that." Students led with a strong demand. "We have decided to be at this table to demand them right now to order the immediate cessation of the attacks that are happening in the country," said student leader Lesther Alemán, as protests continued throughout the country. After hearing the student, Ortega questioned the wave of protests, calling it "irrational violence". Monseñor Mata made three requests to Ortega.
On 23 May, the National Dialogue was suspended. Archbishop Brenes suggested to create mixed commission of three representatives by each part to discuss an action plan to restore the table of the National Dialogue. The Nicaraguan Foreign Minister, Dennis Moncada Colindres, objected that the agenda of the National Dialogue involves 40 points that all lead to a single point; an agenda for a coup d'état for a change of government outside the constitution and violating the laws of the country. On the other hand, the university students, businessmen and civil society asked that a Framework Law be debated, which would allow to advance the elections, prohibit the presidential re-election and change the Supreme Electoral Council (CSE).
Following the repression and over a dozen deaths in the 30 May protests, the Nicaraguan archbishops cancelled the National Dialogue and protests continued.
The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights adopted precautionary measures of protection for the entire leadership that make up the University Coalition in Nicaragua and that have led the civic protests against the government since 18 April. The US government urged Nicaragua to fully implement the recommendations of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) to prevent further violence in the protests against the government of President Daniel Ortega.
325 people have been killed as of February 6, 2019, as a result of the Nicaraguan government's repression of protests.
At least 42 people were killed in the first week of protests in April, with most injured by bullet wounds. Nicaraguan authorities used live ammunition to fire upon demonstrators resulting in hundreds of injured. Government forces were also reported to have armed pro-Sandinista groups with weapons to use against protesters. Following the government crackdown, rioting and looting ensued. On 2 May 2018, The Miami Herald reported a total dead of "At least 63 people, almost all of the student protesters" since the start of the demonstrations. By the end of May, over 105 people killed. As of 4 April 2019, between 325 and 568 have died over the period of the protests.
In July 2018 police arrested the mayor of Mulukuku and accused him of being involved in the deaths of three police officers.
Individuals detained during protests alleged torture by the Nicaraguan authorities, with hundreds of prisoners later released by the roadside in the outskirts of Managua with shaved heads and bare feet.
The Inter-American Human Rights Commission received allegations about some families being forced by the government not to file complaints about the deaths of their family members, mistreatment of detainees and threats against human rights defenders in the Central American country.
Alleged foreign support
Many protesters tortured have reported hearing both Cuban and Venezuelan accents in the clandestine prisons operated by the Nicaraguan government.
There were reports of media organizations being censored during the protests. Miguel Mora, the director of 100% Noticias de Nicaragua, stated that the Nicaraguan government censored his channel on cable networks in the country. The censorship of 100% Noticias was not lifted until 25 April. One journalist, Ángel Gahona, was shot and killed while reporting on the protests on Facebook Live. Radio Darío, a radio station known for being critical of the Ortega government, was said to be attacked and burned down on 20 April 2018 by pro-Ortega groups, leaving the facility at a total loss.
The United Nations Human Rights Council criticized the attacks on media and censorship performed by the Ortega government. The Inter-American Press Association also called on the Ortega administration to stop its efforts of censorship, with its president Gustavo Mohme Seminario stating that its actions toward the media "unmasks the authoritarianism of a government that in its eleven years in power has only sought to dismantle the State for its benefit and that of his family members".
Anonymous Nicaragua, a group of the Anonymous movement, joined the protests against the government and launched Operación Nicaragua, or #OpNicaragua. The operation consists of a campaign of cyber attacks against Nicaragua's government web pages or accused to be related to it. The campaign started on 26 April with an attack that left the National Assembly website out of service. The attacks continued against the websites of Juventud Presidente, Canal 2, and the Office of the Attorney General of the Republic, the Nicaraguan Institute of Civil Aeronautics, Nicaraguan Institute of Culture, El 19 Digital or Canal 6.
The state agency Nicaraguan Institute of Telecommunications and Postal Services (TELCOR) cited the corporations that provide the internet service to see what actions to take to form a unity against hackers. TELCOR summoned these providers to a meeting to address security measures to take around the cyber attacks executed by the international hackers against web portals of the government and private corporations.
The Nicaraguan Medical Association (AMN) denounced the alleged arbitrary dismissals of 146 doctors, specialists and subspecialists of the state health units, as a form of retaliation for their participation or support in the protests carried out in the last three months. With clashes, a medical march in Nicaragua has ended against the dismissals for treating the wounded during the protests against the Ortega government since last April.
The dismissal of state teachers who support the demonstrations against the government caused an act of "student disobedience" in the city of Condega, in the north of Nicaragua, which is going through a crisis that has left between 317 and 448 dead since last April. Marist Institute students refused to enter the classrooms, in rejection of the decision of the Ministry of Education (Mined) to dismiss several of their professors "because they have their own criteria and do not support the murderers", informed the Student Movement 19 of April-Condega.
Flight of Nicaraguan citizens
Since the end of July and the beginning of August, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship and the Directorate of Immigration and Foreigners of Costa Rica reported a moderate increase in the entry of Nicaraguans into Costa Rican territory. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), an average of 200 Nicaraguans per day apply for asylum in Costa Rica, overwhelming the country's immigration authorities. In addition, the Commissioner reported that about 8 000 Nicaraguan refuge requests have been reported since the beginning of the protests.
Among the Nicaraguans who have sought refuge in Costa Rica are several university leaders, who fled Nicaragua after constant threats that forced them to leave the country. Among them the university leader Victor Cuadras Andino.
The Vice President and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Costa Rica, Epsy Campbell, reported that more than 1,000 Nicaraguan refugee claims have been denied, in order to avoid an immigration crisis and to prevent the entry of illegal persons and maintain security in the region.
On 3 August 2018 Nicaraguan singer-songwriter Carlos Mejía Godoy reported that he left his country because his life is in danger as part of protests against the government of President Daniel Ortega, of whom he is critical and adding to the hundreds of Nicaraguans who have refuge request
The Nicaraguan Association for Human Rights (ANPDH), highlighted in the rescue of injured, detained or harassed protesters in the Nicaraguan Protests of 2018 announced on Sunday 5 August 2018 the temporary closure of their offices due to serious threats and siege by illegal armed groups sponsored and supported by the President of Nicaragua Daniel Ortega and Rosario Murillo. The flight from Nicaragua of the human rights activist Álvaro Leiva, after the popular singer-songwriter Carlos Mejía Godoy, for threats attributed to pro-government groups, triggered the alarms between humanitarian agencies, the UN and the OAS. Representatives of the Special Follow-up Mechanism for Nicaragua (Meseni) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (Acnudh) discussed this situation
Nicaragua cut its spending budget for 2018 by $186.3 million, 1.3% of its GDP, in the midst of the crisis. An amendment sent urgently by President Daniel Ortega mainly affects public investment programs, health and education portfolios, and transfers to municipalities, according to the project approved by the FSLN deputies and their allies.
OAS Working Group and New Protests
The Organization of American States (OAS) approved the creation of a 'working group' for Nicaragua, whose mission will be to support the national dialogue and contribute to the 'search for peaceful and sustainable solutions' for the crisis, the bloodiest since the 1980s. Nicaragua closed its doors to a Working Group of 12 countries created by the Permanent Council of the OAS, which seeks to support the national dialogue and contribute to the search for solutions to the crisis in the country. The government of President Daniel Ortega declared the presence of that Working Group for Nicaragua unacceptable, which he described as an "interventionist Commission." While so many protests continue in the capital and several departments of the Central American country. Affiliation to the INSS is in a tailspin: Nicaragua retreated to 2005 Villagers who were demonstrating in the municipality of Santa María, in Nueva Segovia, were kidnapped by Sandinista paramilitaries. Citizens participated in a march against the government of Daniel Ortega.
Alleged household searches
Several families claimed to have had their homes searched without a warrant from Nicaraguan Paramlitary and Police forces. Video footage of the alleged incident was released from their neighbours, which showed paramilitary groups exiting the premises and leaving on national police vehicles. The video does not make clear what those groups were doing prior to their exit.
Expulsion of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
The president of Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega, has expelled from the country a mission of the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which denounced the "high degree of repression" of the protests against the Government. announced the president of the Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights (CENIDH), Vilma Núñez, who described as "unprecedented" the decision of the Government of Daniel Ortega, while the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Nicaragua said in a statement that "they stopped the reasons" they gave walk to that invitation.
NCHR legal personality cancellation
The National Assembly of Nicaragua, canceled the legal personality of the Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights (Cenidh), the main organization of its subject in this country, which has denounced the abuses and misuses of the Government since April, when The demonstrations that demand the departure of the former Sandinista guerrilla began. This decision, considered a "revenge" by activists, is a blow to an organization with a long history in the defense of human rights in the Central American country, which has made it worthy of several international recognitions. The legal personality of Hagamos Democracia was also canceled, an organization dedicated to, among other activities, overseeing the actions of the Nicaraguan Legislative Body. Previously, it had canceled the legal personality of the Institute for Strategic Studies and Public Policies (IEEPP), which directs Felix Maradiaga and the feminist organization Information and Health Advisory Services Center (CISAS), run by feminist Ana Quirós, who three days earlier had been expelled to Costa Rica, by orders of the government of Nicaragua. Accusing them of terrorism and putschists  fact that has outraged international organizations.
The Sandinista parliamentary majority, composed of 70 deputies, has canceled the legal status of three Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), including the Institute for the Development of Democracy (Ipade), which is headed by Mauricio Zúniga.The other two organizations that have been canceled this morning are the Segovias Leadership Institute Foundation, led by Hayde Castillo and the Foundation for the Conservation and Development of the South East of Nicaragua (Fundación del Río), directed by Amaro Ruiz.
Expulsion of international human rights organizations
The Nicaraguan government headed by Daniel Ortega expelled two missions of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), after accusing them of acting in an "interventionist" and biased manner in their assessment of the country's situation in the context of anti-government protests, The country remains "practically without independent human rights bodies," declared the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, claiming to be "very alarmed" because the Government of Nicaragua has expelled two MESENI institutions from the country. the GIEI * -established by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
Hard report from the Interdisciplinary Group of Independent Experts (GIEI)
Repression, torture and sexual assault "among other crimes. It has been eight months since the last wave of protests against Daniel Ortega's government in Nicaragua began, and the crisis does not seem to subside. The demonstrations have already left at least 325 dead and hundreds injured and detained. On behalf of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (CIDH) and the Nicaraguan government itself, the Interdisciplinary Group of Independent Experts (GIEI) began an investigation six months ago to clarify the first deaths. The group presented a report this Friday, two days after being expelled from the country by the Nicaraguan authorities.The report focuses on the violent events that occurred between April 18 and May 30, 2018. In this period, the GIEI has 109 deaths (95 due to firearms), more than 1,400 injured and more than 690 detainees. Where the Nicaraguan government is held responsible for the violent acts.
On 20 December 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump signed the Nica Act, a law that imposes a series of financial sanctions on the Nicaraguan government, and on migration to officials involved in acts of violation of human rights. Trump signed the law in the White House, according to information provided to journalists by the press office of former congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, one of the driving forces behind the project. The Nica Act was approved in the Senate on 27 November and in Congress on 11 December. The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America-Peoples Trade Treaty (ALBA-TCP) rejected the approval, by the United States Congress, of Nicaragua's Investment and Conditionality Law (Nica Act). Jorge Arreaza, Venezuelan chancellor, explained that the mechanism limits the capacity of the Central American country to obtain financing from international organizations.
Death of Political Prisoner
The Nicaraguan Ministry of the Interior reported the death of the 57-year-old political prisoner Eddy Antonio Montes Praslin due to a shot by a prison guard when they "allegedly" controlled a riot, the events happened during a visit of the Cross International Red. The death of this prisoner provoked protests at the head of the La Modelo Prison by relatives of political prisoners who want to know about the physical state of the detainees from the Sandinista government.
Release of political prisoners
On June 11, several political prisoners were released. Among them were the journalists Miguel Mora Barberena and Lucía Pineda Ubau, the peasant leader Medardo Mairena and the student leader Edwin Carcache.
Aggression against protesters after thanksgiving masses for release
On Sunday June 16, after a thanksgiving Mass for the release of political prisoners in the Managua Cathedral, there was a protest on the grounds of that temple which was attacked by the police with tear gas and rubber bullets. The protesters took refuge behind the perimeter wall of the cathedral.
End of the customs blockade of La Prensa
On February 4 2020, the end of the retention, at customs, of the paper and ink of the newspaper La Prensa was reported. This newspaper confirmed that, through the efforts of the apostolic nuncio, a communication channel was opened with the General Directorate of Customs (DGA) to deliver the retained material.
Formation of the National Coalition
Repression of February 25
From the early hours of February 25, 2020, the Nicaraguan Police kept all the entrances to Managua taken on the same day that the opposition to Daniel Ortega's regime plans to demonstrate to demand the release of political prisoners. At the checkpoints, the officers requisition private vehicles, buses and detain people to question them about the reasons for their visit to the capital. In several places, the police attacked citizens who protested and showed their disagreement with the authoritarian government of Ortega and in these actions the police and civil or paramilitary groups related to Sandinismo attacked and threatened Journalists.
Funeral of Ernesto Cardenal
The neutrality of this section is disputed. (May 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Followers of the ruling Sandinista Front of Nicaragua desecrated on March 3, 2020 with insults, robberies and aggressions the mass present in honor of the late poet and revolutionary priest Ernesto Cardenal in the Cathedral of Managua, denounced the assistants. The attacks began when Bishop Rolando Álvarez spoke and intensified at the conclusion of the ceremony. At least one young opponent and four journalists were beaten, and some of the communicators were robbed of their equipment. Government supporters occupied the benches on the left side and around the church, from where they shouted government slogans and expletives to relatives, friends and opponents who attended the ceremony, which was chaired by the apostolic nuncio Waldemar Stanislaw. Support coup d'état, criminals, free country or die, Long live Sandino!", Shouted the Sandinista supporters carrying flags and handkerchiefs of the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN, left), when the poet's family tried to get his coffin out of the cathedral behind end the mass. At the end of the Mass, the relatives decided to remove the coffin of the poet as soon as possible from the church before the tension increased. They couldn't do it through the front door. They had to remove it from the side of the Cathedral. After the coffin was removed in the funeral carriage of the religious precinct, government supporters and media reporters harassed Gioconda Belli and other assistants. Diplomats and cultural personalities witnessed the embarrassing episodes.
U.S. Treasury Sanctions
On March 5, 2020, the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the United States Department of the Treasury sanctioned the Nicaraguan National Police (NNP), the main law enforcement entity in Nicaragua, and three NNP commissioners because they are "responsible for human rights abuses in Nicaragua" according to the US Treasury.
On March 18, 2020, Rosario Murillo confirmed Nicaragua's first case in a growing pandemic affecting the world to be a Nicaraguan man who had recently traveled to Panama. Two days later, a second case was confirmed for another Nicaraguan who had recently traveled to Colombia. Nicaragua took fewer government actions to address the pandemic than its neighbors. They notably allowed for major sporting events and the annual Easter celebrations to carry on as usual. The health minister justifies this decision by stressing the need to support the Nicaraguan economy, after the recession caused by the protests of the two previous years.
- Nicaragua – Vice President and First Lady of Nicaragua Rosario Murillo characterized the protesters as "criminals", "vampires in search of blood" and "minuscule and toxic groups." Following his return to public view after being absent for the first 72 hours of protests, President Ortega quickly reversed the social security reform and agreed to a Catholic church-mediated dialogue.
Protesters generally were spread across the political spectrum, and Murillo's statements angered the left-wing sector, which responded by destroying her metal "Trees of Life" public art pieces in Managua. The majority of those demonstrating do not see any negotiation without the results being Ortega's removal.
The NGO Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights (CENIDH) stated that President Ortega and his wife "encouraged and directed" the repression against protesters and that "the demonstrations are legitimized by a social rejection of the authoritarian way of governing by President Ortega and his wife, Rosario Murillo" and called for dialogue monitored by the United Nations and the Organization of American States.
- European Union – On 20 April 2018, the Delegation of the European Union in Nicaragua and the Heads of Mission of the Embassies of the Member States released a statement lamenting the recent violence, sending condolences to those affected, and calling for dialogue and "social peace". On 31 May 2018, the European Parliament condemned the repression used by the Nicaraguan government and called for elections.
- Organization of American States – Secretary General Luis Almagro condemned "all kinds of violence", calling for peace and stating that citizen have a "legitimate right" to protest. The OAS voted on 18 July 2018 a resolution condemning the Sandinista regime and asks him to hold elections for two years, to March 2019. With 21 votes in favor, three against and the same number of absentees and seven abstentions, the Nicaraguan regime received a harsh attention call.
- United Nations – Liz Throssell, spokesperson for the United Nations Human Rights Council, called on the Ortega government to "comply with its international obligations to ensure that people can freely exercise their rights to freedom of expression and the freedom of peaceful assembly and association", condemned attacks on journalists, and expressed concern "that several television channels that were covering the events have been closed by the Government". Following continued repression, the Human Rights Council demanded the Nicaraguan government to allow entry in order to "gather first-hand information about the incidents arising from the public demonstrations" of April and May. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres condemned the ongoing violence in Nicaragua, particularly the killing of a protester during demonstrations in Managua on Wednesday 30 May.
- Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Paraguay Peru – In a joint statement, the Latin American countries shared "concern and regret the acts of violence", making an "urgent call" for all sides to cease hostilities, particularly that "security forces exercise their powers with the utmost prudence to avoid excessive use of force and an escalation of the crisis, allowing the generation of a climate that restores both peace and dialogue, essential to overcome this serious situation".
- Brazil's Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the deepening of repression and the use of lethal and excessive force. The government called for a Nicaraguan ambassador to present herself and provide a statement on the situation. The ministry called for Nicaragua to respect public freedoms and individual rights.
- Canada – Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland of Global Affairs Canada stated that she was "concerned about reports of several deaths and injuries in the demonstrations that are taking place in Nicaragua" and called for dialogue.
- Costa Rica – Minister of Foreign Affairs Christian Guillermet condemned the censorship of media by the Ortega administration.
- Cuba – The Cuban government defended Ortega, criticizing what it called "attempts that aim to destabilize the Republic of Nicaragua, a country that lives in peace and where remarkable social, economic, and security advances have been made in favor of its people".
- Germany – The Federal Foreign Office called on "all factions to immediately renounce the use of force", asked the government of Nicaragua to "promptly and fully clarify the cases of fatalities", criticizing the government's use of force and demanded "free journalistic coverage", stating that "restrictions on press freedom by the Government are unacceptable".
- Mexico – The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mexico called for "the cessation of violence" and supported the idea of dialogue.
- Panama – The Government of the Republic of Panama spoke in relation to the acts of violence recorded in Nicaragua, before which it makes a firm appeal to those responsible for the armed attacks, arson and crimes, to stop these acts and the most strict respect for life, human rights, security, and peace. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Panama of Panama requested that shipments be suspended, by land, of merchandise to Nicaragua while the political conflict in the Central American country is maintained. In a statement, the Foreign Ministry notes that the ambassador of Panama in Nicaragua, Eddy Davis, keeps in touch with the truckers who are stranded in Nicaragua, as a result of which they have not been able to leave that country due to the constant protests and closure of the street that the Nicaraguans maintain against the government of Daniel Ortega. Some have already been released. Panama withdraws the sentence violence acts of the last days where journalists, sarcedotes, university students and Nicaraguan citizens have been affected.
- Spain – The Government of Spain demanded the "maximum restraint" of Nicaragua's security forces and supported dialogue.
- United States – Ambassador Michael G. Kozak, of the United States Department of State's Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor stated that "Nicaragua ... is going the wrong direction on many fronts", stating that the Ortega government had a "long litany of torture, extrajudicial killing". Kozak criticized censorship, called for the support of NGOs and suggested future targeted sanctions against the Ortega administration, saying that the governments of Cuba and Venezuela are the "same camp as Nicaragua". The Trump Administration has repeatedly condemned and sanctioned the Ortega Government for human rights abuses, especially (but not exclusively) after U.S. National Security Advisor John Bolton's troika of tyranny speech in Miami. The most recent sanction was when President Trump signed the NICA Act into law on December 20, 2018.
- Uruguay – The Ministry of Foreign Relations released a statement supporting "calls for reflection and dialogue", denouncing violence and demanding "respect for the law and individual rights".
- Vatican City – Pope Francis expressed concern about the violence in Nicaragua, asking that "unnecessary bloodshed be avoided and that open questions be resolved peacefully and with a sense of responsibility".
- Venezuela – President Nicolás Maduro indicated that the government of Daniel Ortega defeated a "terrorist and coup" plan, saying: "Today, before the imperial aggression, the government of Nicaragua has defeated the terrorist and coup plan. We will win! "Maduro wrote on the social network Twitter a day after the Organization of American States (OAS) approved a critical resolution against Sandinista Government. In the midst of the political crisis in Nicaragua, which amounts to more than 350 deaths in three months of intense protests, Venezuelan Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza offered official support to "defend" the sovereignty of the Central American country. "President Daniel Ortega, if the revolutionaries of Venezuela had to come to Nicaragua to defend Nicaraguan sovereignty and independence, to offer our blood for Nicaragua, we would go like Sandino to the mountain of Nueva Segovia," he said during the commemoration of the 39 years of the Sandinista Revolution, in which the foreign ministers of Venezuela and Cuba were the only representatives of the highest level who accompanied Ortega.
- Netherlands – The Netherlands cancelled aid for the Nicaraguan government due to "severe violations towards the human rights, committed by government officials and paramilitary groups".
- Luxembourg – Luxembourg suspends aid to the Nicaraguan State.
- Amnesty International – Director of the Americas Erika Guevara Rosas condemned "brutal attacks against peaceful demonstrators and journalists covering the protest", saying it "represents a flagrant and disturbing attempt to restrict their rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly" while also stating that the government "must put an immediate end to all acts of aggression against the public and the press, and conduct an expeditious investigation, impartial and independent to bring to justice all those responsible for these sinister attacks".
- Sao Paulo Forum meeting in Havana and in the voice of the Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Ralph Gonsalves said that they should support Venezuela, Brazil and Nicaragua. The Forum expressed its support for the government of Daniel Ortega.
Several protests abroad accompanied the development of the demonstrations against INSS reform in Nicaragua. There were protests held in San José (Costa Rica) Nicaraguan Embassy, Miami and Houston Consulates, and other cities like Cuidad de Guatemala, Madrid or Barcelona. A group of Nicaraguans residing in Panamá demonstrated at the Cinta Costera of Panama's capital. In Spain, there have been at least eight concentrations of the Nicaraguan community in the country. Of the most active cities in this sense, it is worth highlighting the Andalusian Granada, where hundreds of Nicaraguans and Spanish citizens have concentrated to ask for peace, freedom, and democracy in Nicaragua by reading poems of Nicaraguan writers and a manifesto, demanding that the Ortega-Murillo family abandon the power in Nicaragua. There have also been protests in Berlin, Copenhague, London, Australia, Vienna, Finland, Paris, San Francisco, California, New York, Washington, and Toronto, Canada.
- Libération – The French newspaper put on its cover Daniel Ortega and his bleeding wife and wrote an article criticizing the Nicaraguan government and its president in 2018.
- José Mujica – The ex-president of Uruguay and senator for the political party Frente Amplio, joined the criticism of the violence in Nicaragua. "Those who were revolutionaries yesterday lost the meaning of life, there are times when you have to say, 'I'm leaving,'" he said in the Senate on Tuesday.The Uruguayan Senate on Tuesday approved a declaration that "requires the Government of Nicaragua to immediately cease violence against the Nicaraguan people." In addition, he expressed "his strong condemnation of all acts of violence and violations of human rights. But these statements did not fall well in some sectors of the Latin American left and generated the reaction of Chavez leader Diosdado Cabello who criticized him on Thursday in a television audition. "Do not you realize Pepe what is happening in Nicaragua at this time? It's the same thing that they did to Venezuela?" Said Cabello.
- Gustavo Petro – In a tweet, former Colombian presidential candidate Gustavo Petro stated that "In Venezuela as in Nicaragua there is no socialism, what there is is the use of left-wing rhetoric of the 20th century to cover up an oligarchy that steals the state, a minority that governs for itself and violates the rights of the majority"
- The Colombian Senator of the Political Group List of the Decency, Gustavo Bolívar, published a trill in which he questions Maduro and Ortega, but also criticizes the situation that Colombia is facing in terms of human rights, especially for the murder of social leaders. "In 100 days of repression, the Ortega dictatorship killed 305 people. In 125 days of protests, the Maduro dictatorship killed 131 people. In Colombia, without dictatorship, they have killed 342 social leaders," said Bolivar.
- US congressmen Ileana Ros-Lehtinen and Mario Díaz Balart met with members of the Nicaraguan community in South Florida to discuss the crisis in that country.
- Solano, Jacqueline (24 April 2018). "PUSC solicita renuncia de Ortega y Rosario Murillo" (in Spanish). El Diario Extra. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Nicaragua pide la renuncia de Daniel Ortega". La Prensa (in Spanish). Honduras. 28 April 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Salinas, Carlos (29 April 2018). "Nicaragua se vuelca en una gigantesca marcha contra Ortega". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 April 2018.
Convened by the Catholic Church, hundreds of thousands of Nicaraguans take to the streets of the country demanding peace and the end of the regime. The bishops warn Ortega that there can be no dialogue without guarantees
- Garvin, Glenn (30 April 2018). "Rally for embattled Nicaraguan president shows he still has lots of support". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "ONG establece en 568 el número de muertos en crisis de Nicaragua". La Vanguardia. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "Crisis de Nicaragua ha dejado 72 personas lisiadas de por vida en 100 días". 26 July 2018.
- "448 muertos tras 100 días de crisis en Nicaragua". 27 July 2018.
- "Crisis en Nicaragua: los estudiantes formaron una coalición para unificar propuestas de cara al diálogo con el régimen de Daniel Ortega". Infobae (in Spanish). 6 May 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Thousands protest against Nicaragua government, urge calm". ABC News. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Robles, Frances (4 May 2018). "As Nicaragua Death Toll Grows, Support for Ortega Slips". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- "Daniel Ortega declara ilegales las protestas en Nicaragua y amenaza con prisión a organizadores". La Republica (in Spanish). 29 September 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
- "Grupos "del gobierno" atacan a ancianos que protestan en Nicaragua". BBC Mundo. 22 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Las andanzas de Pedro Orozco, el coordinador de la Juventud Sandinista". La Prensa, Nicaragua. 9 July 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Mob attacks pensioners in Nicaragua". The Australian. 23 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- "Adultos mayores celebran logro de la Seguridad Social". El Nuevo Diario. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- Ramírez, Sergio (28 April 2017). "Doña Francisca, el azote contra la Nicaragua de Ortega". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- China Sets Its Sights on South America. Seth Cropsey, The American Interest. Quote: "China has abandoned its attempts to construct a Nicaraguan Canal to compete with its Panamanian counterpart."
- "Incertidumbres financieras desvanecen sueño de canal en Nicaragua". El Financiero, Grupo Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- Gies, Heather (22 April 2018). "At least 10 killed as unrest intensifies in Nicaragua". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Nicaragua puts out forest fire in southern nature reserve". Associated Press. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Martínez Rocha, María José (19 March 2018). "INSS cierra 2017 con C$2,371.8 millones de déficit". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "IMF Executive Board Concludes 2017 Article IV Consultation with Nicaragua". International Monetary Fund. 26 June 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Duarte, Ingrid; Cruz, José Denis (7 February 2018). "FMI: INSS necesita reforma". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). Managua. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- González, Dora; Tórrez García, Cinthya (5 April 2018). "Empresarios y Gobierno negocian en combo una reforma fiscal y al Seguro Social". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- González, Dora; Calero, Mabel (19 April 2018). "Falta de unidad de sector privado en reforma a INSS pasará factura a mipymes". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Galo Romero, Humberto; Cruz, José Denis; Velásquez, Uriel (19 April 2018). "Reformas del INSS entran en vigencia". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Olivares, Iván (18 April 2018). "Impuesto a las pensiones es inconstitucional" (in Spanish). Confidencial. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Peña, Antenor. "Unión Nacional de Empleados de Nicaragua se suman a reformas al Seguro Social" (in Spanish) (2018–04–20). TN8. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Leyva, Tito. "INSS es de los trabajadores, proclama FNT". La Jornada (in Spanish) (2018–04–17). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "¿Qué ocurre en Nicaragua? Claves para entender la reforma del Seguro Social" (in Spanish). CNN Español. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- Salinas, Carlos (22 April 2018). "El presidente de Nicaragua anula la polémica reforma de la Seguridad Social acosado por las protestas". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- "In Nicaragua, deadly protest crackdown spurs Ortega critics". ABC News. 4 May 2018. Archived from the original on 5 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- "Peaceful Protests against Nicaraguan Social Security Reforms Violently Repressed – Havana Times.org". Havana Times. 19 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Social security protest leads to clashes in Nicaragua". KOB 4. 18 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Nicaragua president calls for dialogue". BBC News. 22 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Garvin, Glenn (2 May 2018). "In Nicaragua, the political battle is moving from the streets to the negotiating table". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "U.S. pulling staffers out of Nicaragua as riots, looting intensify". USA Today. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
When the protests heated up, Ortega cracked down. The army was called in to help quell disturbances, and independent media were squeezed.
- Enriquez, Octavio (19 April 2018). "Rosario Murillo describe como "legítima defensa" la agresión de turbas orteguistas" (in Spanish). Hoy. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Salinas, Carlos (20 April 2018). "Varios muertos durante las protestas en Nicaragua contra las reformas de Ortega". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 April 2018.
- "Así han sido las protestas por el INSS en Nicaragua". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). Managua. 19 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- "Gobierno de Nicaragua censura canales por informar de protestas" (in Spanish). Voz de América. 19 April 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
- Gutiérrez, Noelia Celina (25 April 2018). "Reactivan señal en cable a 100% Noticias". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). Managua. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "More protests in Nicaragua, 5 TV channels ordered off air". 19 April 2018.
- "Nicaraguan journalist shot dead on Facebook Live as Pope calls for end of deadly protests". The Telegraph. 22 April 2018. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- "Nicaraguan welfare changes that sparked protests canceled: president". Reuters. 22 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Diao, Alexis (22 April 2018). "Social Security Reforms That Sparked Violent Unrest In Nicaragua Reportedly Canceled". NPR. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- "Así te contamos la multitudinaria marcha contra la represión del Gobierno sandinista". 23 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- "Protestas en Nicaragua: los estudiantes que fueron liberados relataron la brutal tortura que sufrieron en prisión". Infobae (in Spanish). 24 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- Chavez, Nicole; Lugo, Samantha; Plaza, Elizabeth. "More than 40 people were killed in unrest in Nicaragua, rights groups say". CNN. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
- Galeano, Luis Manuel (28 April 2018). "Tens of thousands march for peace, justice in Nicaragua". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Salinas, Carlos (28 April 2018). "Dimite la jefa de la Policía de Nicaragua". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "Antimotines frenan marcha de universitarios en Managua". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). 2 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Universitarios dan siete días para que gobierno de Nicaragua permita ingreso a la CIDH". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). 2 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Anonymous ataca el portal de la Policía Nacional de Nicaragua". El Comercio (in Spanish). 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Nicaragua: choque con la policía deja seis estudiantes heridos". La Jornada (in Spanish). 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- 100 NOTICIAS NICARAGUA (9 May 2018). "Prensa Independiente de Nicaragua condena masacre,censura y represión" – via YouTube.
- 100 NOTICIAS NICARAGUA (9 May 2018). "Posición de periodistas y dueños de medios sobre crisis de Nicaragua" – via YouTube.
- Diario, El Nuevo. "Periodistas de Nicaragua exigen respeto a la libertad de prensa".
- "Cantidad de muertos que se contabilizan por protestas en Nicaragua - Metro". 12 May 2018. Archived from the original on 18 May 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
- "Aumenta represión oficial en municipios de Nicaragua". 12 May 2018.
- "ORTEGA: llama "a ponerle fin a la muerte y destrucción"".
- "Daniel Ortega pide cese de violencia en Nicaragua".
- "Nicaragua: el Ejército llama a la paz y el diálogo en medio de violentas protestas". 13 May 2018.
- "Ejército de Nicaragua "no reprimirá la protesta pacífica"". 13 May 2018.
- "Nicaraguan Army: "We Will Not Repress Peaceful Protest"". 13 May 2018.
- "Marchan en solidaridad con Masaya y repudian represión de Daniel Ortega". La Prensa. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Diario, El Nuevo. "De Managua a Monimbó, homenaje a las víctimas".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Diario, El Nuevo. "La CIDH llega a Nicaragua".
- "CIDH hará visitas a cuatro departamentos y se reunirá con estudiantes y madres de los asesinados en las protestas en Nicaragua". 18 May 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Digital, El 19. "Manifestantes violentos agreden a periodistas en la entrada del Seminario Nacional".
- 100 NOTICIAS NICARAGUA (18 May 2018). "Acuerdan tregua en Diálogo Nacional" – via YouTube.
- afpes (18 May 2018). "Gobierno y oposición logran tregua de fin de semana en Nicaragua" – via YouTube.
- Noticias, 100%. "100% Noticias". 100noticias.com.ni.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Diario, El Nuevo. "CIDH registra 76 muertos en protestas de Nicaragua".
- "CIDH contabiliza 76 muertes por represión gubernamental durante protestas en Nicaragua". 21 May 2018.
- "Cardinal: Nicaragua talks at impasse, suspended indefinitely". 23 May 2018.
- "Se levantó el diálogo en Nicaragua - NTN24 - ntn24.com". www.ntn24.com. 23 May 2018.
- "Frenan diálogo en Nicaragua y estalla violencia". 24 May 2018.
- "Perspectivas de la marcha de las Madres de Abril y el plantón de los orteguistas en Managua". La Prensa (in Spanish). 30 May 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "Alianza Cívica por la Justicia y la Democracia intensificará protestas tras "la peor masacre en tiempos de paz"". La Prensa (in Spanish). 31 May 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "Nueva ola de saqueos en la madrugada de este viernes en Masaya". 1 June 2018.
- "Movimientos sociales llaman a un "paro ciudadano"". 2 June 2018.
- "Profesionales llaman a la desobediencia civil". 1 June 2018.
- "Cinco bancos cierran sus puertas en Masaya tras saqueos en comercio". 1 June 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 June 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Nicaragua is following Venezuela's path to despair". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Noticias, Univision. "El opositor nicaragüense Félix Maradiaga fue agredido por las Juventudes Sandinistas". Univision.
- "Estudiantes evacuan la UNAN-Managua y se reporta un incendio en la universidad". 13 July 2018.
- "Paramilitares atacan la UNAN-Managua y expulsan a los estudiantes atrincherados en la universidad". 14 July 2018.
- Vasca, EiTB Radio Televisión Pública. "Dos personas muertas en las protestas de Nicaragua". www.eitb.eus.
- EC, Redacción (15 July 2018). "Nicaragua - Nicaragua: estudiantes fueron escoltados por la Iglesia Católica rumbo a Catedral - Video".
- Goette-Luciak, Carl David; Houck, Carolina (7 September 2018). "Nicaragua strike brings country to standstill as crisis continues". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- García, Jacobo; Murillo, Álvaro (17 July 2018). "Aumenta la presión internacional contra Ortega por la represión en Nicaragua". El País – via elpais.com.
- Noticias, 100%. "Secretario de Naciones Unidas condena fuertemente represión en Nicaragua". 100noticias.com.ni.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Noticias, 100%. "ONU denuncia que la ley sobre terrorismo en Nicaragua criminaliza la protesta". 100noticias.com.ni.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Noticias, 100%. "Leiva reportó que hay mucha presencia de francotiradores en este momento y que los paramilitares en su recorrido por la ciudad ametrallan las viviendas". 100noticias.com.ni.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Nicaragua aprueba nuevas leyes antiterroristas". 17 July 2018.
- "Nicaragua envía". 18 July 2018.
- EC, Redacción (24 July 2018). "Crisis en Nicaragua: Daniel Ortega dice que no dejará el poder y no persigue a la Iglesia".
- "Paro contra dictadura orteguista detiene el 90% de la economía de Nicaragua durante 24 horas - LaPatilla.com". LaPatilla.com (in Spanish). 8 September 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "Journalists And NGOs Face Shutdowns, Beatings As Nicaragua Stifles Dissent". NPR.org. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Arce, Alberto. "Confidencial, el diario requisado y ocupado por la policía de Nicaragua que sobrevive en la semiclandestinidad de una habitación de hotel". eldiario.es. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "Régimen ordena cierre de gasolineras, ¿qué hay detrás?". Confidencial. 21 December 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Local, Onda. "Onda Local". Onda Local. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Redacción (16 May 2018). "Así fue el duro comienzo de la mesa de diálogo del presidente Ortega con estudiantes y líderes de oposición de Nicaragua". BBC News Mundo – via www.bbc.com.
- Redacción (17 May 2018). ""Nosotros hemos puesto los muertos": el impactante discurso de Lesther Alemán, el estudiante que plantó cara a Daniel Ortega en Nicaragua". BBC News Mundo – via www.bbc.com.
- La Prensa Nicaragua (16 May 2018). "Las palabras con las que el estudiante Lesther Alemán le plantó la cara a Daniel Ortega" – via YouTube.
- El Nuevo Diario • Noticias • Nicaragua (16 May 2018). "Léster Alemán llora tras primera sesión del diálogo de Nicaragua" – via YouTube.
- El Nuevo Diario • Noticias • Nicaragua (16 May 2018). "Monseñor Mata le realiza tres peticiones a Daniel Ortega" – via YouTube.
- "El diálogo en Nicaragua (minuto a minuto)".
- Redacción (24 May 2018). "Suspenden la mesa de Diálogo Nacional en Nicaragua por "falta de consenso"". BBC News Mundo – via www.bbc.com.
- Digital, El 19. "Canciller advierte que Agenda del Diálogo es una agenda para un Golpe de Estado".
- Phillips, Tom (31 May 2018). "Nicaragua: peace talks with Ortega abandoned after 11 killed at protest". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- TV, Vos. "CIDH resuelve adoptar medidas cautelares para protección de estudiantes • VosTV". Vostv.com.ni.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Fear, uncertain future for Nicaragua's student protesters". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "CPDH asegura que protestas en Nicaragua dejan 63 muertos y 15 desaparecidos". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). 26 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- "Nicaragua unrest: Dozens of held protesters released". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- Diario, El Nuevo (1 June 2018). "Más de 100 muertos en protestas en Nicaragua". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "Nicaragua: ONU denuncia "ejecuciones ilegales" en protestas". El Comercio (in Spanish). 24 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- "Denuncian detención ilegal de un alcalde opositor en Nicaragua" (in Spanish). La Tribuna. 31 July 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
- "Nicaragua se niega a visita de CIDH". Organization of American States. 1981. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- "'Víctimas de tortura han escuchado el acento venezolano y el cubano en cárceles clandestinas", denuncian nicaragüenses" (in Spanish). El Nuevo Herald. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "Denuncian censura de prensa en Nicaragua", Voice of America (in Spanish), retrieved 6 May 2018
- Gutiérrez, Noelia Celina (25 April 2018). "Reactivan señal en cable a 100% Noticias". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- Salinas, Carlos (6 May 2018). "La resistencia de Radio Darío en Nicaragua". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "La ONU exige al régimen de Ortega que frene los ataques contra los manifestantes y la censura a los medios en Nicaragua". Infobae (in Spanish). 20 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa responsabiliza a Ortega de la violencia y censura en Nicaragua". La Prensa (in Spanish). 20 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Anonymous ataca sitios web del Gobierno de Nicaragua". Ultima Hora (Paraguay). 27 April 2018.
- "'Anonymous' ataca varias webs gubernamentales de Nicaragua". notimérica (Managua). 30 April 2018.
- "Telcor busca evitar ataques de Anonymous". El Nuevo Diario (Nicaragua). 10 May 2018.
- "Denuncian despido arbitrario de 135 médicos en Nicaragua - Metro". 3 August 2018. Archived from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- "Tensión en la marcha de los médicos que criticaban los despidos por atender a opositores en Nicaragua". 2 August 2018.
- "Denuncian nuevos despidos de médicos por atender a heridos en Nicaragua".
- DCA, Redacción. "Alumnos se declaran en desobediencia en Nicaragua". Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "Costa Rica, abrumada con miles de nicaragüenses que buscan asilo escapando de la violencia en Nicaragua". 1 August 2018.
- Segovia, Bricio. "Crisis de Nicaragua genera migración masiva a Costa Rica".
- Diario, El Nuevo. "Costa Rica niega el acceso a más de mil nicaragüenses por antecedentes penales".
- ""Mi vida estaba en peligro": Cantautor Carlos Mejía Godoy salió de Nicaragua y está en Costa Rica - Teletica". teletica.com.
- "Grupo de derechos humanos cerrará sus oficinas en Nicaragua". 5 August 2018.
- "La huida de un activista de derechos humanos dispara las alarmas en Nicaragua".
- "Nicaragua recorta inversión pública por crisis política". 15 August 2018.
- "OEA aprueba 'comisión especial' para Nicaragua". 3 August 2018.
- "Nicaragua cierra sus puertas a grupo de OEA y oposición sigue en las calles". 16 August 2018.
- Noticias, 100%. "Afiliación al INSS va en picada: Nicaragua retrocedió al 2005". 100noticias.com.ni.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Noticias, 100%. "Paramilitares secuestran a manifestantes en Nueva Segovia". 100noticias.com.ni.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Denuncian nuevos registros ilegales de policías a viviendas de Nicaragua". 18 August 2018.
- Welle (dw.com), Deutsche. "Misión de la ONU abandona Nicaragua tras expulsión - DW - 01.09.2018". DW.COM. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Salinas, Carlos (13 December 2018). "Daniel Ortega arremete contra las ONG de Nicaragua". Retrieved 17 January 2019 – via elpais.com.
- Diario, El Nuevo. "El Nuevo Diario". El Nuevo Diario. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Octubre, Corprensa Apartado 0819-05620 El Dorado Ave 12 de; Panamá, Hato Pintado; Panamá, República de. "Nicaragua cancela personería a ONG acusada de 'terrorismo' y 'golpista'". La Prensa. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Diario, El Nuevo. "El Nuevo Diario". El Nuevo Diario. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "Nicaragua expulsa misiones internacionales de DDHH por "injerencistas"". La Tercera. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "Nicaragua expulsa misiones internacionales de derechos humanos por 'injerencistas'". Diario El Heraldo. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "Nicaragua: Bachelet, "muy alarmada" por la expulsión del MESENI y el GIEI". 21 December 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Redacción (22 December 2018). "El estado de Nicaragua ha tenido conductas que deben considerarse crímenes de lesa humanidad". Retrieved 17 January 2019 – via www.bbc.com.
- Diario, El Nuevo. "El Nuevo Diario". El Nuevo Diario. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "ALBA-TCP rechaza sanciones impuestas por EE.UU. contra Nicaragua". Granma.cu. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Digital, Edición (17 May 2019). "Así te contamos la protesta tras la muerte del reo político, Eddy Montes".
- "Archived copy". Retrieved 17 May 2019.[dead link]
- "The figures of the Nicaraguan protests released under amnesty". El Nuevo Diario. 11 June 2019.
- "IACHR asks the Government to ensure the safety of Nicaraguans after attacks in León and Managua". El Nuevo Diario. 17 June 2019.
- "Orteguista regime lifts blockade against La Prensa". Confidential. 5 February 2020.
- "A new opposition coalition intends to deal with Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua". El País. 25 February 2020.
- Noticias, 100%. "100% Noticias". 100noticias.com.ni.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- https://ondalocal.com.ni/noticias/835-policia-orteguista- asedia-militariza-managua /
- De 2020, 25 De Febrero. "Policía agrede a manifestantes y periodistas en Nicaragua". Infobae.
- "Policía agrede a manifestantes y periodistas en Nicaragua". TVN. 25 February 2020.
- "Sandinistas profanan misa de cuerpo presente de Ernesto Cardenal en Nicaragua". 24matins.es. 4 March 2020.
- "Diplomáticos y personalidades presencian profanación de turbas del gobierno en la Catedral de Managua". 4 March 2020.
- Miranda, Wilfredo (3 March 2020). "Simpatizantes de Ortega invaden el funeral del poeta Ernesto Cardenal para gritarle "traidor"". EL PAÍS.
- "Brutal agresión de turbas sandinistas a periodista de Nicaragua Investiga". 3 March 2020.
- "Treasury Sanctions Nicaraguan National Police and Police Commissioners Involved in Human Rights Abuse | U.S. Department of the Treasury". home.treasury.gov.
- "U.S. sanctions Nicaragua's police, three individuals -Treasury". 5 March 2020 – via www.reuters.com.
- Fuller, Cindy. "Confirman segundo caso de Covid-19 en Nicaragua". La Prensa. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- "The country telling its population to party as the rest of the world stays home". www.9news.com.au. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "Nicaragua: une ONG accuse Ortega d'avoir "encouragé" la répression". L'Express (in French). 5 May 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "DECLARACIÓN LOCAL DE LA UNIÓN EUROPEA SOBRE LA SITUACIÓN EN NICARAGUA - Comisión Europea". EEAS (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Nicaragua: MEPs condemn brutal repression and demand elections". European Parliament. European Union. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "OEA condena actos violentos y llama a la paz en Nicaragua". Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "OEA logra aprobar resolución de condena contra el Gobierno de Nicaragua".
- "La OEA condena a Ortega por la represión en Nicaragua y exige adelantar las elecciones".
- "ONU y AI, preocupadas por los muertos en las protestas en Nicaragua | DW | 20 April 2018". Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Diario, El Nuevo. "ONU reitera solicitud para visitar Nicaragua".
- "UN chief condemns violence in Nicaragua - Xinhua - English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com.
- "Gobierno de Chile lamenta los actos de violencia en Nicaragua y llama a evitar un escalamiento de la crisis". La Tercera (in Spanish). 22 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Morte de cidadã brasileira na Nicarágua". www.itamaraty.gov.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "Canadá se declara "preocupada" por las muertes en las manifestaciones de Nicaragua". EFE (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "¿Qué ocurre en Nicaragua? Claves para entender la reforma del Seguro Social". CNN (in Spanish). 20 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Nicaragua defiende la paz y Cuba la apoya". Granma (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Alemania condena uso de armas contra manifestantes en Nicaragua". Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). 23 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "México apela cese de violencia que se vive en Nicaragua". El Debate (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Panamá insta a cesar la violencia en Nicaragua y respetar los derechos humanos".
- "Cancillería pide suspender envío de mercancías a Nicaragua". 13 June 2018.
- "Panamá reitera su condena ante los hechos de violencia en Nicaragua". 14 July 2018.
- "España llama al fin de la violencia en Nicaragua y ofrece colaboración para abrir una vía de diálogo". Europa Press (in Spanish). 23 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Briefing on the Release of the 2017 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". United States Department of State. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Remarks by National Security Advisor Ambassador John R. Bolton on the Administration's Policies in Latin America". The White House. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- "Statement by the President". The White House. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- "Gobernador de Puerto Rico: En Nicaragua se produce "un atentado contra los derechos humanos"roduce "un atentado contra los derechos humanos"". La Prensa (in Spanish). 22 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Situación en Nicaragua". Ministry of Foreign Relations. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Papa Francisco pide cese de la violencia en Nicaragua". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Maduro dice que Ortega derrotó un plan "terrorista y golpista" en Nicaragua - El Nuevo Diario".
- Singer, Florantonia (21 July 2018). "Venezuela ofrece apoyo para defender a Daniel Ortega" – via elpais.com.
- "Holanda retira una ayuda de 18,4 millones al Gobierno de Nicaragua por la violación de los Derechos Humanos".
- "EE. UU. consideraría sanciones económicas contra Nicaragua; Holanda y Luxemburgo suspenden ayuda - Teletica". www.teletica.com.
- "Piden en Foro de Sao Paulo defender a Venezuela, Brasil y Nicaragua". Panorama.
- Digital, El 19. "Foro Sao Paulo emitió resolución sobre situación en Nicaragua".
- "RESPALDA EL FORO DE SAO PAULO A GOBIERNO DE NICARAGUA". 18 July 2018.
- "La comunidad nicaragüense se concentra en Madrid en solidaridad con las víctimas de la violencia en su país". europa press. 4 April 2018.
- "VOCES INTERNACIONALES EN SOLIDARIDAD CON NICARAGUA". maje. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018.
- "Nicaragua : Ortega, sandiniste sanguinaire".
- "José Mujica también critica a Daniel Ortega por la violencia en Nicaragua: "Quienes ayer fueron revolucionarios perdieron el sentido"". 18 July 2018.
- Observador, El. "Líder chavista a Mujica: "los egos enferman"". El Observador. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- Web, El Nacional (27 July 2018). "Petro: En Venezuela no hay socialismo".
- "Gustavo Petro on Twitter".
- "Gustavo Bolívar: Colombia es peor que Nicaragua y Venezuela". 28 July 2018.
- Noticias, 100%. "Congresistas estadounidenses se reúnen con nicas en La Florida". 100noticias.com.ni.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2018 Nicaraguan protests.|