2018 Brazil truck drivers' strike

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2018 truck drivers' strike
Fila postos Brasília.jpg
Line for refueling at a gas station in Brasília
Date21 May 2018 – early June
Location
All Brazilian states and the Federal District
Caused by
Goals
  • Reduction of the price of diesel fuel
  • Truckers' exemption from tolls (trucks with suspended axels)
  • Enaction of the law 528 of 2015
  • Creation of a trucker regulation[1]
Methodsstrike action, roadblock
StatusStrike ended:
  • Most of the demonstrations ended by June 1
  • distribution of foods, medicine and fuel normalized after the strike.
Parties to the civil conflict

The 2018 Brazil truck drivers' strike, also called the diesel crisis, was a strike of self-employed truck drivers[6][7] that began on 21 May 2018.[8][9][10]

The protesters demanded a decrease of the price of diesel, exemption from certain tolls,[11] as well as a legal and tax reform related to truck driving. Oil prices increased in Brazil after a 2016 policy change[12] that made oil prices float with international prices.[13][14]

The nationwide paralysis of roads caused a shortage of food, medicines, and oil across Brazil, with long queues of vehicles to gas stations.[15]

Background[edit]

Price of diesel on 21 May 2018, USD per liter

Starting in late 2016, the price of oil in Brazil rose due to the termination of policies coming from Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff's terms in office. Under Michel Temer's administration, the prior policy of pricing domestically sold oil lower than the international price was changed by the state-owned oil company, Petrobrás, to sell at the international market price. Furthermore, the value of the dollar relative to the Brazilian real also rose in the weeks before the strike, driving up the domestic cost of oil in the local currency.[16][17]

On 18 May 2018, truckers and Abcam (Associação Brasileira dos Caminhoneiros, the Brazilian Association of Truckers, which claims to have more than 600,000 members) threatened to strike if the government did not reduce the tax burden on diesel.[18] With no response by the government, the strike began on 21 May.

Timeline[edit]

18 to 20 May[edit]

On 18 May, truckers announced a strike starting on 21 May if the government did not halt increases in diesel prices.[1] The following day, Petrobrás announced a price increase of 0.8% for diesel and 1.34% for gas, based on the increase of international oil prices and the company's new policy.[19]

On 20 May, the Federal Justice prohibited any blockade of the federal highways in Paraná. This move was made by the General Counsel for the Federal Government (Advocacia Geral da União) on request of the Federal Highway Police.[20]

21 and 22 May[edit]

During the first day of the strike, some highways were partially or totally blocked. In some areas, tires were burned by truckers and in others the truckers stayed on the road side.[21] By the end of the evening, president Michel Temer had a meeting with members of his cabinet.[22]

Airports warned of potential future problems with fuel, and car companies such as Ford, Chevrolet and Fiat also announced problems related to the strike.[23] In order to deal with the strike, the Minister of Public Security Raul Jungmann announced the creation of a crisis cabinet.[22]

23 and 24 May[edit]

On 23 May, airports started to suffer a lack of fuel; Infraero announced that airports like Congonhas and Recife International only had fuel for that day.[24] As a result of trucks halting fuel deliveries to gas stations and food deliveries to markets and other establishments, prices started to rise. In Recife, gasoline reached the price of R$8.99 (approximately US$2.45)[25] and in Rio de Janeiro a bag of potatoes could cost as much as R$500 (approximately US$136.30).[26] The same day, Abcam announced it would let trucks with livestock and medicine pass through the blockades until Friday of the same week (25 May).[27]

Temer asked for a truce for two or three days so the problem could be solved[28] and Petrobrás announced that it would make diesel 10% cheaper for fifteen days.[29] According to the company's president, Pedro Parente, the measure was taken exceptionally so the government could talk to the truckers during the fifteen days.[30]

One day later, gasoline reached R$10 (approximately US$2.72)[31] in the Federal District. During the same day, less buses were in circulation and hospitals started to have small problems due to the lack of fuel and other equipment.[32] The day was mainly marked by the announcement by the Chief of Staff, Eliseu Padilha, that the government had reached an agreement with representatives of the truckers after a six-hour meeting. The agreement involved the strike being suspended for fifteen days[33] and Jungmann said there are indications that the strike was actually a lockout and that the government would look into the situation.[34]

25 May[edit]

Despite the announcement of the deal on the previous day, Abcam did not adhere to it and the trucker's strike continued.[35] Airports started to run out of fuel and cancel flights,[36] federal universities started to suspend classes[37] and the lack of fuel limited the circulation of ambulances in some states and also caused surgeries that were not emergencies to be cancelled in states like Santa Catarina.[38]

Temer criticized the truckers who continued in the strike, calling them part of a "radical minority", and announced he would send troops to end the roadblocks made by the truckers.[39] Meanwhile, the Attorney General of Brazil asked the Supreme Federal Court to declare the strike illegal.[40] The Supreme Federal Court authorized the use of force and imposed a fine to those who refused to end the roadblocks[41] By the end of the evening, the government claimed to have already removed 45% of all roadblocks.[42]

The cities of São Paulo,[43] Rio de Janeiro[44] and Porto Alegre,[45] as well as the state of Pernambuco,[46] declared a state of emergency.

26 and 27 May[edit]

On Saturday, 26 May, Minister Carlos Marun stated that the government will start to fine any company that does not obey the agreement made to unblock the highways in the amount of R$100,000 per hour, and also said that it believes that the event is not a strike but a lockout.[47] The state of Mato Grosso declared a state of emergency.[48]

Surgeries that are not urgent were cancelled all across the state of Rio de Janeiro.[49]

By the end of the afternoon, President Temer asked Henrique Meirelles to discuss measures to contain the strike with an special emphasis on reducing the tax over diesel (PIS/Confins) to zero.[50] A group of autonomous truckers was called by the government to meet later that day.[51] The city of Teresina declared a state of emergency.[52]

By the end of the day, Temer made a public pronouncement listing the measures that would be taken: reduction of diesel's price by R$0.46 per litre (for 60 days; after that just monthly adjustments would continue); suspension of taxes on suspended axles on federal highways; the warranty of autonomous truckers earning 30% of Conab (Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento) fare; and the establishment of a minimum shipping table (the last two are provisional measures).

At this point, agricultural producers estimated that 64 million birds had to be sacrificed due to the lack of food, while the Guarulhos International Airport sees risk of shortage on fuel supply during the coming week due to a promised Wednesday strike by Petrobrás workers.[53]

28 May[edit]

Even after Temer's speech, many truckers continued to protest. Abcam's president, José da Fonseca Lopes, said that the truckers want to get back to work, the government gave them what they wanted and the strike did not stop yet because "a group of interventionists want to overthrow the government". Unicam's president José Araujo Silva said many that truck drivers still do not know about the deal but are being informed so they can stop with the strike. Gilson Baitaca, a member of the Movement of Grain Transporters of Mato Grosso, said that truckers who are connected to his movement will start unblocking the roads but some autonomous drivers want other things. Cláudio Ferreira of Fetrabens said he would meet with the governor of São Paulo discuss a way to anticipate the end of the strike in the state. The National Federation of Transport (CNT) informed that they believe the truckers' goals were achieved and that they should now go back to work. CNTA decided to let unions decide whether the strike should continue or if it should stop, but they oriented those who plan to continue to let fuel, milk, food going to schools, products going to hospitals and trucks with the civil defense sticker to pass.[54]

Ibovespa index fell during the morning, registering a drop of 2.45%, and the dollar rose, reaching R$3.70.[55] Some gas stations in São Paulo refuse to accept the supply of fuel due to threats that have been made during the days by supporters of the strike in order to prevent its end.[56] In some parts of the blockades, some protesters drill truck tires to prevent the police from forcing them to move away.[57] Abcam's president José da Fonseca Lopes said that the deal with the government have been concluded and that from now on the strike is not a matter of this institution or its autonomous truckers, but a matter of political parties and "people who want to overthrow the government".

At this time there were still 556 (46%) active blockades around the country.[58] During this day the biggest registered impacts were on public transportation and schools.[59]

29 May[edit]

After nine days of blockade, there was still a lack of food supply, especially perishables, on hypermarkets of 22 Brazilian state capitals. Rio's Ceasa is operating with around 80 and 90% of its stores closed, and the lack of fuel on gas stations deeply affects 15 state capitals including São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.[60]

The Federal Police opened 48 inquiries for lockout investigation and arrest requests, but all of them were denied by the court.[61]

At this time there were 3 complete blockades and 616 minor blockades still active, as well as many other parallel manifestations supporting the truckers' struggle and adding more claims to the overall act. The Federal Highway Police sent to AGU 176 assessments of stopped vehicles in some highways, with fines of R$100,000/hour for companies and R$10,000/day for individuals.[62]

Armed Forces General Staff Admiral Ademir Sobrinho denied any intent of the Brazilian Army on attending demonstrations that ask for military intervention over the state.[63]

30 May[edit]

A trucker was killed by a protestor in Rondônia because he was leaving the blockade and a suspect was arrested,[64] while in São Carlos a TV team was assaulted during a coverage of the protests on Anhanguera Highway.[65] Another criminal act issue is being investigated by the Public Prosecutor's Office on abusive coercion techniques used by some protesters on truck drivers to difficult the police work, such as dismantling the blockades by parking their trucks in difficult positions and keeping the fuel trucks out of reach. Other acts were classified as kidnapping, since they were forbidden to leave.[66]

The Supreme Federal Court determined a fine in total amount of R$141.4 million divided between 96 transport companies.[67] Minister Carlos Marun claimed that the R$0.46 discount on diesel price should be applied on Friday, with the expectation of economic stabilization in seven days.[68] The government estimates a total economic loss of R$75 billion until this point, with R$2.7 billion being for supermarkets, R$11.5 billion for fuel distributors, R$3 billion for agribusiness, R$8 to 10 billion loss for livestock, R$1.8 billion for textile and R$2.5 billion for chemical industries.[69]

31 May[edit]

The Federal Police "Operation Unlocked", started a day before based on complaints, conducted 3 search and 1 temporary arrest warrants on companies suspected of supporting the strike. Some companies are accused by security minister Raul Jungmann of taking advantage of the strike to pressure the government. [70]

The government claimed that the diesel price reduction would cause R$3.4 billion in expenses, which would result in an increase in taxes on exporters, soft drinks and chemical industries and that some programs would have cuts as well, including R$368.9 million on transport, R$135 million on SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde), R$55.1 million on education, R$4.1 million on prevention and repressions on drug trafficking and R$1.5 million on police.[71] At this point, the president has proposed three provisional measures: exemption from tolls on trucks with suspended axles (attending one of the striker´s goals); a reserve of 30% of Conab (Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento), transports to autonomous truckers; and the setting of a minimum shipping price.[72] Eliseu Padilha, chief of staff of Temer's government, claimed gas stations that refuse to lower the diesel price would be fined up to R$9.4 million. [73]

The ANTT (Agência Nacional de Transporte Terrestre) published a new minimum price table. Elisângela Lopes, technical advisor for infrastructure and logistics at CNA (Confederação de Agricultura e Pecuária), said it would make the truckers' jobs even more difficult, since compliance requires precise accounting and computer knowledge.[74]

Oil worker strike[edit]

During the course of the events concerning the trucker's strike, oil works at Petrobrás organised themselves in order to conduct another strike, aiming for the resignation of the company's president, Pedro Parede, and the reduction of fuel and cooking gas prices.

  • On 27 May, oil workers started joining the strike and protests. Employees of the refinery "President Getúlio Vargas" in Paraná protested in front of it.[75]
  • On 29 May, the Superior Labour Court forbade the promised strike Petrobrás workers scheduled to happen from Wednesday to Friday, claiming it is unconstitutional and abusive and defining a fine penalty of R$500,000 per day in case of noncompliance. Those strikers protested for a reduction on fuel and cooking gas prices and the resignation of Petrobrás president Pedro Parente.[76]
  • On 31 May, the Federation of Petroleum Workers (Federação Única dos Petroleiros, FUP) recommended an end to the oil worker's strike, after the Supreme Federal Court increased the fine on trade unions.[77]
  • On 1 June, Pedro Parente, Petrobrás president since June 2016, asked for resignation in the morning for being pressured for his defense on the new price police since the beginning of his mandate, which had been the target of critics in the last weeks even inside government's allied base, which was one of the main motivations for the beginning of the strike. He claimed in an open letter that "Just a few could see that it [the crisis] is the reflection of chocks that reaches global economy, with domestic effects". His resignation surprised ministers and other authorities. [78] Pedro Parente said that his leadership had "ceased to be positive".[79]

Impact[edit]

Gas station in Belo Horizonte during the strike, with sign indicating to be without fuel.

Paulo Feldman, a University of São Paulo (USP) professor, estimates a loss of at least R$30 billion of economic production caused by the strike over five days.[80] Some of the most notable impacts are:

  • 11 airports had their activities halted due to the lack of fuel,[81] and other airports have been operating under a critical state with many cancelled flights.[82][83]
  • Lack of fuel at gas stations all over the country.[15][84]
  • Lack of food distribution in many regions and consequently an increase in food prices. In some cases stores have imposed per buyer limits.[85][86]
  • Many exports from Brazil have been impacted due to lack of distribution channels.[87]
  • Suspension of classes in schools and universities and suspension of the second stage of OAB exams.[88][89][90]
  • Lack of staple products in supermarkets.[91]
  • Suspension of some procedures in some hospitals due to lacking medicine.[91]
  • Suspension of production in 19 car factories.[91]
  • Disposal of milk by some producers due to lack of distribution leading to it spoiling.[91]
  • A reduction of service by bus fleets.[92]
  • Risk of shortage of drinking water in the Federal District due to the lack of products required for its treatment.[93]

Statements and reactions[edit]

A telephone poll of 1500 adults by Datafolha on 30 May reported that 55% of Brazilians reject the privatization of Petrobrás, 74% reject any possible sale to foreign investors and companies, and 87% of the population supports the ongoing strike and are against public budget cuts and rise on taxes to attend their demands, with 56% supporting that they must continue the strike for a longer time.[94][95]

While there was an overall negative impact on the economy, some people benefited, like Uber drivers, who reported a doubling in their income during the strike.[96]

Politicians[edit]

Several Brazilian politicians, including potential candidates for president in the coming election, commented about the crisis.

  • Álvaro Dias supported the strike. According to him, the truckers have a good reason to protest. Dias also stated that the strike can't be ignored and that the protests are the "revolt of a whole nation".[97][98]
  • Ciro Gomes called the rising prices of fuel an aberration and criticized Petrobrás on Twitter.[99][100]
  • Geraldo Alckmin did not explicitly say if he was for the strike or against, but he did try to offer a solution to the problem that caused the strike.[101]
  • Guilherme Boulos said that the fuel crisis is a result of Michel Temer's and Petrobrás CEO Pedro Parente's pricing policy at Petrobrás, enacted to make a profit for its shareholders. "A public company should serve the Brazilian people and not give profit to half a dozen shareholders."[102]
  • Jair Bolsonaro declared support for the truck drivers but criticized the roadblocks made by them. The deputy also opposed the fines, prisons and confiscation against the truck drivers and called for the revocation of these penalties if elected.[103][104]
  • João Amoêdo did not explicitly say if he supported the strike or not but he called for the privatization of Petrobrás, spending cuts and tax cuts as solutions to the problem that started the strike.[105][99]
  • Manuela d'Ávila criticized Temer, calling his government illegitimate and saying that it does not have authority against the truckers.[97]
  • Marina Silva criticized Temer's government for not preparing for the strike. She also criticized him for sending troops to end blockades, calling that "the action of an incompetent". She also criticized Petrobrás.[106][97][107]
  • Paulo Rabello de Castro, an economist and pre-candidate, claimed that solving the crisis requires the creation of a stabilization fund managed outside of the government. The BNDES ex-president also supported a tax reform.[108]

International[edit]

  •  United States: On 24 May, the State Department's mission to Brazil issued a security alert that recommended Americans in Brazil take measures to ensure an adequate stock of water, domestic goods, and fuel. The alert warned that it could take some time for the situation in the country to restabilize. It also recommended a means of checking road conditions online before taking a trip outside of the cities, due to the risk of vehicles running out of fuel.[109][110]
  • On 25 May Amnesty International condemned the use of army against protestors and truckers claiming that "the freedom of expression is a human right", [111] and the French journal Le Monde also criticized this action, claiming that "this crisis exposes the fragility of Michel Temer's government".[112]

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BBC (24 May 2018). "Quem são e o que querem os caminhoneiros que estão parando o país?". G1 (in Portuguese). Globo.com. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  2. ^ "Motoristas de vans escolares aderem à paralisação em São Paulo". Estadão (in Portuguese).
  3. ^ "Motoristas do Uber e motoboys se juntam a caminhoneiros em protestos em Brasília" (in Portuguese). Estadão. 24 May 2018.
  4. ^ "Agricultores, motoboys e prefeituras aderem à greve dos caminhoneiros" (in Portuguese). Zero Hora. 25 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Quem são e o que querem os caminhoneiros que estão parando o país?". Uol (in Portuguese).
  6. ^ Moura, Renata (24 May 2018). "A cronologia da crise do diesel, do controle de preços de Dilma à greve dos caminhoneiros". BBC Brasil (in Portuguese).
  7. ^ "Crise do diesel: governo pede trégua a caminhoneiros". VEJA.com (in Portuguese).
  8. ^ "Greve dos caminhoneiros se arrasta; afinal, quando isso tudo deve acabar?" (in Portuguese). UOL. 24 May 2018.
  9. ^ Leonardo Goy (24 May 2018). "Greve de caminhoneiros autônomos é reforçada com adesão de transportadoras" (in Portuguese). Folha de S.Paulo.
  10. ^ "Greve de caminhoneiros, no 5º dia, causa reflexos pelo país". G1 (in Portuguese). Globo.com. 25 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  11. ^ "Representante de caminhoneiros em MT diz que greve não se resume à redução do diesel e cita outras reivindicações". G1 (in Portuguese).
  12. ^ "Entenda a composição do preço da gasolina e o que diz a Petrobras". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  13. ^ "6 perguntas para entender a alta nos preços da gasolina e do diesel" (in Portuguese). G1. 23 May 2018.
  14. ^ ""Não, a culpa não é da Petrworks", diz consultor financeiro; entenda como o preço é calculado" (in Portuguese). Infomoney. 24 May 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Brazil Truckers Strike for Fourth Day". Bloomberg. 24 May 2018.
  16. ^ "Dólar fecha em alta, a R$3,59; entenda por que a moeda está subindo". G1 (in Portuguese). 9 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  17. ^ "Dólar sobe pelo 3º dia e fecha a R$3,66, maior valor desde abril de 2016". G1 (in Portuguese). 15 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Caminhoneiros cobram do governo diesel mais barato e ameaçam greve nacional". G1 (in Portuguese). 18 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  19. ^ "Petrobras eleva preços de gasolina e diesel a novas máximas neste sábado" (in Portuguese). ANOTICIA.TV. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  20. ^ "Justiça proíbe bloqueio de rodovias no Paraná por caminhoneiros" (in Portuguese). Jornal do Brasil. 20 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  21. ^ "Caminhoneiros protestam contra alta do diesel no país". G1 (in Portuguese). 21 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  22. ^ a b "CRONOLOGIA: greve dos caminhoneiros". G1 (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  23. ^ "Chevrolet, Fiat e Ford têm a produção prejudicada por atos de caminhoneiros". G1 (in Portuguese). 22 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  24. ^ Gallo, Ricardo (23 May 2018). "Infraero alerta que aeroportos de Congonhas, em São Paulo, e os de Recife, Palmas, Maceió e Aracaju só têm combustível para esta quarta-feira" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  25. ^ "Protesto de caminhoneiros afeta fornecimento e gasolina chega a ser vendida a R$8,99 no Recife". G1 (in Portuguese). 23 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  26. ^ "Batata a 500 reais". O Antagonista (in Portuguese). 23 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  27. ^ Garcia, Gustavo (23 May 2018). "Associação de caminhoneiros diz que mantém até sexta-feira liberação de transporte de remédios e carga viva". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  28. ^ "Temer diz que pediu 'trégua' de dois ou três dias a caminhoneiros para encontrar 'solução satisfatória'". G1 (in Portuguese). 23 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  29. ^ "Presidente da Petrworks anuncia redução de 10% no preço do diesel por 15 dias". Folha de São Paulo (in Portuguese). 23 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  30. ^ Satriano, Nicolás (23 May 2018). "Petrobras anuncia redução de 10% no diesel; medida deve valer por 15 dias". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  31. ^ "Gasolina chega a R$9,99 em Brasília; motoristas fazem fila em postos" (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  32. ^ "Greve de caminhoneiros afeta abastecimento de oxigênio em hospitais na BA". Veja (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  33. ^ Mazui, Guilherme (24 May 2018). "Governo e caminhoneiros anunciam proposta de acordo para suspender paralisação por 15 dias". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  34. ^ "Jungmann diz que governo apura se houve locaute de empresas na paralisação de caminhoneiros". G1 (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  35. ^ "Acordo suspende greve por 15 dias; Unicam e Abcam não assinam". Istoé (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  36. ^ "Aéreas cancelam voos e remarcam passagens por conta da greve dos caminhoneiros; veja orientações". G1 (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  37. ^ "Universidades de MS suspendem aulas nesta sexta-feira (26)". G1 (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  38. ^ "Falta de combustível limita circulação de ambulâncias e cancela cirurgia em alguns estados; preocupação é nacional, dizem entidades". G1 (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  39. ^ "Temer diz que governo acionou 'forças federais' para desbloquear estradas". G1 (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  40. ^ "AGU aciona STF para que greve dos caminhoneiros seja declarada ilegal". G1 (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  41. ^ Oliveira, Mariana (25 May 2018). "Ministro do STF authoriza uso de força para desbloqueio de rodovias e impõe multa a quem descumprir decisão". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  42. ^ Skodowski, Thais (25 May 2018). "Governo diz que 45% dos bloqueios em rodovias foram liberados". R7 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  43. ^ "Bruno Covas decreta estado de emergência em São Paulo e pode apreender combustível". G1 (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  44. ^ "Prefeitura do Rio declara estado de atenção por bloqueios". Terra (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  45. ^ Teixeira, Lucas Borges (25 May 2018). "Cidades de quatro estados declaram emergência por falta de combustíveis". UOL (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  46. ^ Coelho, Antonio (25 May 2018). "Pernambuco decreta situação de emergência devido ao desabastecimento de combustível". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  47. ^ "Governo aplicará multa de R$100 mil por hora para conter greve | EXAME". exame.abril.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  48. ^ "Governo de MT decreta situação de emergência por causa da greve dos caminhoneiros e por falta de combustível". G1 (in Portuguese). 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  49. ^ "Cirurgias eletivas são suspensas em hospitais da rede estadual do RJ". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  50. ^ Sadi, Andréia (27 May 2018). "Temer chama Meirelles e discute medidas para conter greve dos caminhoneiros". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  51. ^ "Caminhoneiros autônomos se reúnem com integrantes do governo no Planalto". G1 (in Portuguese). 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  52. ^ "Prefeito decreta situação de emergência em Teresina por falta de combustível". PortalR10 (in Portuguese). 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  53. ^ "Temer anuncia redução no diesel e preço mínimo de frete". Folha. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.[not in citation given]
  54. ^ "Veja o que dizem as entidades dos caminhoneiros após novo anúncio do governo". G1. 28 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  55. ^ "Bolsa abre em forte queda e dólar bate R$3,70 com greve dos caminhoneiros | EXAME". exame.abril.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  56. ^ "Postos de SP rejeitam combustível após atos de violência; PM usa Choque". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  57. ^ "Manifestantes esvaziam pneus de caminhões na Régis Bittencourt". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  58. ^ "Greve não é mais de caminhoneiro, mas de quem quer derrubar o governo, diz Abcam". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  59. ^ "Oitavo dia de greve prejudica transporte público e aulas nas capitais - Notícias - Cotidiano". Cotidiano (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  60. ^ "Faltam hortifrutis, ovo e até pão em 22 capitais após nove dias". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  61. ^ "Justiça nega pedidos de prisão por locaute na greve dos caminhoneiros". R7.com (in Portuguese). 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  62. ^ "País tem 3 bloqueios totais e 616 "interrupções" em rodovias". Terra (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  63. ^ "Chefe da Forças Armadas nega pedidos por intervenção militar". Terra (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  64. ^ "Caminhoneiro é morto por manifestantes no interior de Rondônia". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  65. ^ "Equipe de TV é agredida por manifestantes no interior de SP". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  66. ^ "MP vai investigar sequestros de caminhoneiros durante greve". Terra (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  67. ^ "Alexandre de Moraes condena transportadoras a pagar R$141 milhões em multas - Painel". Painel (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  68. ^ "Ministro diz que desconto de R$0,46 valerá a partir de sexta". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  69. ^ "Greve de caminhoneiros deixa rastro de prejuízos bilionários em todo o País". Terra (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  70. ^ "Polícia Federal deflagra ação contra empresas suspeitas de locaute no RS". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-31. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  71. ^ "Para reduzir diesel, governo onera exportador e corta até no SUS e educação". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-31. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  72. ^ "Protesto ou locaute? Vídeo explica a greve dos caminhoneiros". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-31. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  73. ^ "Postos que não abaixarem diesel podem pagar multas de até R$ 9,4 mi, diz ministro". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-31. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  74. ^ "Novo frete mínimo pode piorar vida do caminhoneiro". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-31. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  75. ^ "Petroleiros decidem entrar em greve a partir de quarta-feira" (in Portuguese). Gazeta do Povo. 26 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  76. ^ "TST diz que greve dos petroleiros é abusiva e política; multa será de R$500 mil por dia". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  77. ^ Amaral, Fundação Ubaldino do. "Federação Única dos Petroleiros recua sobre a paralisação". Jornal Cruzeiro do Sul (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  78. ^ "Pedro Parente pede demissão da presidência da Petrobras". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-06-01. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  79. ^ "Petrobras CEO Resigns as Strikes Take Down Market Favorite". Bloomberg.com. 2018-06-01. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  80. ^ João Pedro Caleiro (25 May 2018). "Quem vai pagar a conta do acordo dos caminhoneiros". Exame (in Portuguese). Abril. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  81. ^ "Greve de caminhoneiros: veja situação de aeroportos e dos voos pelo país" (in Portuguese). Uol. 25 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  82. ^ "Fraport - Porto Alegre Airport" (in Portuguese). Fraport Porto Alegre. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  83. ^ "Greve deixa aeroportos de Brasília e Recife sem combustível; voos não pousam ou decolam" (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  84. ^ André Graça e Cíntia Acayaba (25 May 2018). "Falta de combustível afeta trabalho de guardas municipais em ao menos 10 cidades da Grande SP". G1 (in Portuguese). Globo.com. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  85. ^ "Greve dos caminhoneiros afeta abastecimento de combustíveis, preço de alimentos e trânsito no RJ". G1 (in Portuguese). Globo.com. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  86. ^ Ana Luiza Albuquerque (23 May 2018). "Greve afeta abastecimento de alimentos e postos de gasolina no Sul". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Uol. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  87. ^ "Greve de caminhoneiros causa desabastecimento e prejudica exportações". Exame (in Portuguese). Abril. 23 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  88. ^ "Universidade de MG suspende aulas por causa da greve dos caminhoneiros" (in Portuguese). Estado de Minas. 25 May 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  89. ^ Luciane Cordeiro (25 May 2018). "Aulas de escolas municipais são suspensas por causa da greve dos caminhoneiros" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  90. ^ "Segunda fase do exame da OAB é adiada por causa da greve dos caminhoneiros". Extra (in Portuguese). Globo.com.
  91. ^ a b c d "Greve de caminhoneiros chega ao 4º dia e causa reflexos pelo país" (in Portuguese). G1. 24 May 2018.
  92. ^ "Greve de caminhoneiros chega ao 5º dia e causa reflexos pelo país; governo aciona forças federais para desbloquear estradas". G1 (in Portuguese).
  93. ^ Grigori, Pedro (25 May 2018). "Greve dos caminhoneiros: DF pode ficar sem água potável a partir de terça" (in Portuguese). Correio Brasiliense. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  94. ^ "No centro da crise, Petrobras tem privatização rejeitada por 55%, diz Datafolha". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  95. ^ "87% dos brasileiros apoiam greve dos caminhoneiros e rejeitam alta de imposto e corte de gasto, diz Datafolha". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  96. ^ "Motoristas da Uber faturam o dobro durante paralisação dos caminhoneiros". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  97. ^ a b c "O que os presidenciáveis dizem sobre a greve dos caminhoneiros". UOL (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  98. ^ "Os caminhoneiros têm toda razão em protestar contra a explosão no preço dos combustíveis. E esse é apenas um dos muitos problemas que eles enfrentam para poder trabalhar". Twitter (in Portuguese). 23 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  99. ^ a b "Pré-candidatos ao Planalto comentam greve de caminhoneiros e Petrobras". Poder 360 (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  100. ^ "A alta dos combustíveis é uma aberração que praticamente nega a razão de ser da própria existência institucional da Petrobras. A política de preços adotada está equivocada e desrespeita a sua estrutura de custos". Twitter (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  101. ^ "Presidenciáveis comentam medidas do governo sobre greve dos caminhoneiros". Folha PE (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  102. ^ "Por mais que a mídia tente esconder, o que estamos vendo hoje no Brasil é resultado da política desastrosa de Temer e Pedro Parente na Petrobrás. Empresa pública tem q servir ao povo brasileiro e não para dar lucro a meia dúzia de acionistas lá fora!". Twitter (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  103. ^ Pitombo, João Pedro (24 May 2018). "Bolsonaro diz que apoia caminhoneiros, mas critica bloqueios de estradas". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  104. ^ "Qualquer multa, confisco ou prisão imposta aos caminhoneiros por Temer/Jungmann, será revogada por um futuro presidente honesto/patriota". Twitter (in Portuguese). 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  105. ^ "Minha opinião sobre a greve dos caminhoneiros". Twitter (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  106. ^ "Presidenciáveis comentam medidas do governo para conter greve dos caminhoneiros". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  107. ^ "O governo Temer mais uma vez usa as Forças Armadas para esconder as suas incompetências. Com a elevação do preço dos combustíveis, a sociedade está pagando um preço muito alto pelos erros de um governo que tudo o que faz é tentar proteger sua própria pele para se manter no poder". Twitter (in Portuguese). 25 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  108. ^ "Pré-candidatos ao Planalto comentam greve de caminhoneiros e Petrobras". Poder360 (in Portuguese). 2018-05-24. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  109. ^ "EUA emite alerta por greve de caminhoneiros no Brasil". Istoé (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  110. ^ "EUA pedem para quem viajar ao Brasil estocar água e itens domésticos". Exame (in Portuguese). 24 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  111. ^ "Anistia Internacional condena uso de força contra protestos de caminhoneiros" (in Portuguese). Folha de S.Paulo. 25 May 2018.
  112. ^ "Le Monde: convocar Exército contra greve dos caminhoneiros é decisão "extrema"". RFI (in Portuguese). 26 May 2018.