2018 United States–Canada tornado outbreak

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2018 United States–Canada tornado outbreak
Tornado georgesbilodeau01.jpg
Major damage to apartment buildings in Gatineau, Quebec, as a result of an EF3 tornado
FormedSeptember 20, 2018;[1] EDT
DissipatedSeptember 21, 2018
Tornadoes confirmed80
Max rating1EF3 tornado
Highest winds
  • 265 km/h (165 mph)
Casualties1 fatality, 31 injuries
Areas affectedOhio, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, eastern Ontario, and southern Quebec
1Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita scale

The 2018 United States–Canada tornado outbreak was a two-day tornado outbreak that affected the Great Lakes region of the United States on September 20, 2018, and the National Capital Region of Canada on September 21, 2018. 37 tornadoes were confirmed, including a long-tracked EF3 that moved along a 80 km (50 mi) path from near Dunrobin, Ontario to Gatineau, Quebec, and an EF2 in the Nepean sector of Ottawa. The tornadoes in Ottawa-Gatineau were declared one of the ten most significant weather events of 2018 in Canada by the Meteorological Service of Canada.[2]

Numerous tornadoes touched down in Minnesota on the initial day of the outbreak, including a high-end EF2 that caused major damage in Morristown, Minnesota. Other damage occurred in Eastern Ontario due to downburst winds from the severe thunderstorms. One death was reported as a result of the outbreak, and 31 persons were injured.

Meteorological synopsis[edit]

In the Great Lakes region of the United States, a warm front surged in a hot, unstable air mass ahead of a strong cold front on September 20. An enhanced risk of severe weather was issued by the Storm Prediction Center (SPC), including a 10% hatched risk area for tornadoes stretching from southern Minnesota into Wisconsin.[3] Later that evening, a quasi-linear convective system with numerous embedded circulations and bowing line segments produced many tornadoes across southern Minnesota. This included a high-end EF2 that heavily damaged or destroyed many homes in the town of Morristown, Minnesota. Another EF2 tornado damaged the local airport in Faribault. A few tornadoes were also confirmed in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Ohio, and damaging winds from the line of storms also caused significant damage. Embedded downbursts produced destructive straight-line winds of up to 100 mph (160 km/h) during the event. With 25 tornadoes in a matter of hours, this event was Minnesota's third most prolific tornado day on record.[4][5]

The severe weather threat was expected to move eastward to affect southern Ontario and a part of southwestern Quebec the next day.[6] On September 21, a significant severe weather threat was confirmed across southern Ontario and the Outaouais region of Quebec, with the potential for severe thunderstorms and tornadoes noted.[7]

Severe thunderstorm watches and warnings along with wind warnings and special weather statements were issued across the parts of Ontario as early as the pre-dawn hours of September 21, which remained in effect until that evening. The warm humid air mass reached Ontario that morning of September 21, along with localized thunderstorms with heavy torrential downpours in most of the areas across southern Ontario and again later that day during the tornado outbreak. Record breaking temperatures across southern Ontario ranged from the high 20s into the low 30s. [8] [9] Tornado watches and warnings were issued by that afternoon.

Radar imagery at 2100 UTC (5 pm local) of a tornadic supercell thunderstorm approaching Gatineau, Quebec on September 21. Note the clearly visible hook echo.

On the afternoon of September 21, 2018, a localized outbreak of tornadoes impacted eastern Ontario and southern Quebec. During the event, Environment Canada issued numerous tornado warnings as multiple discrete tornadic supercells moved through the area.[10] Between 3:30 p.m. and 6:30 p.m. EDT, six tornadoes, two of which were strong, caused considerable damage in and around the National Capital Region of Canada.

The most significant tornado of the event made a direct strike on the small community of Dunrobin in the west end of Ottawa, then crossed the Ottawa River and struck the Mont-Bleu residential area in the Hull sector of Gatineau, Quebec. The Dunrobin-Gatineau tornado was classified as a high-end, long-tracked EF3,[11] with peak winds reaching 265 km/h (165 mph).[12] Approximately 25 people were injured by the EF3 tornado, six of those taken to the hospital and five people had life-threatening injuries.[13] At least 200 buildings were damaged and an unknown number were destroyed along the path.[14][15] During the event, the long-tracked EF3 tornado that struck Dunrobin and Gatineau was visible on the horizon behind the Parliament Hill buildings in Ottawa.[16] A still image of the funnel was also captured from a live webcam.[17]

A second EF2 tornado caused significant damage in the Arlington Woods, Craig Henry, and Merivale Road residential areas of Nepean, with peak winds of 220 km/h (140 mph)[18] The tornadoes were preceded by severe thunderstorms throughout Ontario and Quebec.[19][20][21][22] Four other EF1 tornadoes also caused minor to moderate damage in the region, bringing the total of tornadoes confirmed by Environment Canada to six.[23][24][25] A single EF1 tornado also occurred in Iowa during the early morning hours of September 21. The severe weather threat was then expected to diminish by late Friday evening with cool windy conditions. [26]

Aftermath[edit]

Damage from the tornadoes caused more than 272,000 customers of the National Capital Region to lose power, with some of the outages lasting for days.[27][28][29] In addition to the tornadoes, microbursts and hail from the severe thunderstorms also caused considerable damage across Ontario and Quebec.[13][30][31] [32]

Most of the severely damaged buildings that remained intact after the tornado were under repair. The Dunrobin Plaza shopping center, which was severely damaged by the tornado, was demolished in December, more than two months after the tornado. [33] [34]

In October 2018, a month after the storm, it was announced that the September 21 tornadoes caused a massive $295 million in insurance costs, making it one of 2018's costliest storms in Ontario. [35] [36] [37] [38]

The Dunrobin-Gatineau EF3 was the strongest tornado to hit eastern Ontario since 1902. [39] [40]

The last time an EF3 tornado occurred in Ontario prior to this event was the Goderich tornado in August 2011.

1 Death was reported in the township of Rideau Lakes, Ontario after a man was struck by a falling tree[41]

The National Capital Region power outages[edit]

One of the sites that was affected by the Arlington Woods EF2 tornado was the Merivale electrical substation, one of the two major stations in the city, located near the intersection of Merivale and Hunt Club Road in western Ottawa. While there is no proof confirming whether or not the tornado directly struck the station, it did rip off the roof of two nearby buildings, slamming into the infrastructure, insulators, and wires.[42] Furthermore, the effects of the storm snapped approximately 80 to 90 Hydro poles in the area, downing many others, and leaving pole and wires dangling.[43]

This was the main reason for the longest power outages in the Ottawa-Gatineau region, affecting more than 300,000 customers of the 331,777 total customers who use Hydro Ottawa, plus those served on the Quebec side by Hydro-Québec.[44] Rebuilding the power plant was especially difficult, which took Hydro One and Hydro Ottawa two days working to repair enough of the damage to restore power. Finally, on the evening of September 22, power was restored in some neighbourhoods in southwestern Ottawa.[45] Repair of the downed poles was done as fast as possible, as to restore heat and power as well in several residences.

Although electricity had been restored, the power plant had still required additional repairs, and Hydro One continued working on critical repairs to the station in order to return it to its full potential state. Planned power outages around the city affected more than 50,000 Hydro One and Hydro Ottawa customers to replace important elements.[46] Work at the Merivale station was expected to last for several months.

The Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport was forced to use backup power during the storms. No damage was reported at the airport. [47] [48]

Confirmed tornadoes[edit]

Confirmed tornadoes by Enhanced Fujita rating
EFU EF0 EF1 EF2 EF3 EF4 EF5 Total
0 10 22 4 1 0 0 37

September 20 event[edit]

List of tornadoes reported on September 20, 2018 in the Midwest
List of confirmed tornadoes – Thursday, September 20, 2018[note 1]
EF# Location County / Parish State Start Coord. Time (UTC) Path length Max width Summary Refs
EF1 NE of Middlefield Geauga OH 41°30′06″N 81°04′05″W / 41.5017°N 81.068°W / 41.5017; -81.068 (Middlefield (Sep. 20, EF1)) 18:23 3.2 mi (5.1 km) 25 yd (23 m) A building under construction suffered significant damage and tree limbs were snapped. Outbuildings and a house sustained minor damage as well. [49]
EF1 NE of Middlefield Geauga, Trumbull OH 41°28′53″N 81°01′14″W / 41.4814°N 81.0206°W / 41.4814; -81.0206 (Middlefield (Sep. 20, EF1)) 18:31 4.1 mi (6.6 km) 25 yd (23 m) Two single-wide mobile homes were significantly damaged. Otherwise, damage was confined to trees. [49]
EF1 Superior Dickinson IA N/A 22:21–22:26 3.9 mi (6.3 km) 25 yd (23 m) Trees were damaged in town, and a garage was destroyed. A two-story office building at the Superior Ethanol plant sustained major roof damage, broken windows, and partial exterior wall failure on the second floor. A weather station at the plant measured a 99 mph (159 km/h) wind gust. Crops were damaged as well. [50]
EF1 Northern Granada to S of Huntley Martin MN 43°41′53″N 94°21′11″W / 43.6981°N 94.3531°W / 43.6981; -94.3531 (Granada (Sep. 20, EF1)) 22:52–22:59 6.5 mi (10.5 km) 220 yd (200 m) This tornado touched down in Granada, where a house had its roof blown off, a small and unanchored home was shifted off its foundation and leveled, trees were downed, garages were destroyed, and other homes sustained roof damage. East of town, trees were snapped and sheet metal was strewn through fields. [51]
EF0 Garden City Blue Earth MN N/A N/A 1.2 mi (1.9 km) 70 yd (64 m) A weak tornado struck Garden City, downing trees at the fairgrounds. Outside of town, soybean fields were damaged and additional trees were downed. [51]
EF0 SW of Skyline Blue Earth MN N/A N/A 0.8 mi (1.3 km) 70 yd (64 m) A weak tornado caused minor tree damage. A house sustained roof damage from a falling tree. [51]
EF1 Lake Elysian Waseca MN 44°08′34″N 93°45′22″W / 44.1428°N 93.7562°W / 44.1428; -93.7562 (Janesville (Sep. 20, EF1)) 23:19–23:24 6.8 mi (10.9 km) 200 yd (180 m) A house sustained roof loss and total destruction of its garage. The home owner was thrown from the garage into his yard, and sustained minor injuries. Outbuildings were damaged, a grain bin was thrown into a field. Other homes sustained minor damage, and trees were damaged as well. [51]
EF0 E of Janesville Waseca MN 44°07′07″N 93°36′10″W / 44.1186°N 93.6027°W / 44.1186; -93.6027 (Janesville (Sep. 20, EF0)) 23:22–23:23 0.8 mi (1.3 km) 20 yd (18 m) A weak, brief tornado bent over wooden power poles, damaged trees, and left a convergent path in a corn field. [51]
EF1 NE of Waldorf to E of Owatonna Waseca, Steele MN 43°57′39″N 93°41′50″W / 43.9609°N 93.6973°W / 43.9609; -93.6973 (Waldorf (Sep. 20, EF1)) 23:23–23:42 27 mi (43 km) 200 yd (180 m) Crops, trees, and outbuildings were damaged along the path. [51]
EF1 SE of Elysian to NE of Waterville Waseca MN 44°12′38″N 93°35′34″W / 44.2106°N 93.5927°W / 44.2106; -93.5927 (Waterville (Sep. 20, EF1)) 23:26–23:32 7.7 mi (12.4 km) 500 yd (460 m) This tornado struck Waterville, where numerous trees were downed, many of which landed on homes. A one-story home had a large section of its roof torn off as well. Outside of town, tree limbs were snapped. [51]
EF1 Eastern Waseca to SW of Medford Waseca, Rice, Steele, Goodhue MN 44°04′49″N 93°28′27″W / 44.0804°N 93.4741°W / 44.0804; -93.4741 (Waseca (Sep. 20, EF1)) 23:30–23:52 27.8 mi (44.7 km) 500 yd (460 m) This long-tracked tornado touched down at the east edge of Waseca, where trees were uprooted. Further along the path, trees were snapped, crops were damaged, and a tree limb was speared into the side of a house. A large silo was dented, and a grain bin was destroyed as well. [51]
EF2 Southeastern Morristown to N of Dennison Rice, Goodhue MN 44°13′13″N 93°26′24″W / 44.2202°N 93.4400°W / 44.2202; -93.4400 (Morristown (Sep. 20, EF2)) 23:32–23:54 25.8 mi (41.5 km) 1,000 yd (910 m) This large, strong tornado touched down in the southeastern part of Morristown, and caused high-end EF2 damage as it impacted residential areas. Many trees were snapped and numerous homes were badly damaged, some of which lost roofs and exterior walls. One home was left with only a few walls standing. The tornado continued to the northeast outside of town, where a turkey barn and outbuildings were destroyed. Crops were damaged as well. [51]
EF1 N of Morristown to NE of Roberds Lake Rice MN N/A N/A 8.6 mi (13.8 km) 440 yd (400 m) Many outbuildings were destroyed, and numerous trees were snapped or uprooted along the path. A shed was crushed by a large tree. [51]
EF1 Owatonna Steele MN N/A N/A 8.1 mi (13.0 km) 300 yd (270 m) Southwest of town, crops and trees were damaged and a barn was destroyed. In Owatonna, power poles and power lines were snapped, a large factory building sustained minor exterior damage, homes had shingles ripped off, and many trees were snapped or uprooted, some of which landed on homes. [51]
EF2 Northwestern Faribault Rice MN N/A N/A 3.0 mi (4.8 km) 600 yd (550 m) Significant damage occurred at the Faribault Airport, where several hangars were destroyed and roughly 80 airplanes were damaged or destroyed. The footings of one hangar were ripped from its frame. Hundreds of trees were downed, and outbuildings were damaged as well. [51]
EF1 N of Medford to E of Faribault Rice MN 44°18′24″N 93°24′12″W / 44.3067°N 93.4033°W / 44.3067; -93.4033 (Faribault (Sep. 20, EF1)) 23:38–23:44 9.1 mi (14.6 km) 500 yd (460 m) Outbuildings, grain bins, machine sheds, and silos were damaged or destroyed along the path. Homes had portions of their roofs torn off, and many trees were snapped or uprooted. [51]
EF1 Roberds Lake Rice MN 44°18′52″N 93°23′01″W / 44.3145°N 93.3835°W / 44.3145; -93.3835 (Faribault (Sep. 20, EF1)) 23:39–23:44 1.6 mi (2.6 km) 150 yd (140 m) Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted, some of which landed on homes and cabins. Outbuildings were destroyed, and one home sustained broken windows and considerable roof damage. [52]
EF1 N of Faribault Rice MN N/A N/A 4.7 mi (7.6 km) 440 yd (400 m) Numerous large trees were damaged along the path. [51]
EF1 W of Kenyon Rice MN N/A N/A 7.2 mi (11.6 km) 300 yd (270 m) Sheds, silos, and outbuildings were damaged or destroyed. [51]
EF1 S of Dundas Rice MN N/A N/A 5.8 mi (9.3 km) 440 yd (400 m) This tornado damaged power poles and trees, twisted road signs, and left a convergent pattern in a corn field. [51]
EF0 Dundas Rice MN 44°24′32″N 93°15′37″W / 44.4088°N 93.2603°W / 44.4088; -93.2603 (Dundas (Sep. 20, EF0)) 23:48–23:50 5.5 mi (8.9 km) 75 yd (69 m) Pine trees were uprooted and billboards were destroyed to the southwest of town. In Dundas, multiple trees were downed. [51]
EF1 SE of Northfield Rice MN 44°27′30″N 93°07′45″W / 44.4583°N 93.1291°W / 44.4583; -93.1291 (Northfield (Sep. 20, EF1)) 23:53–00:01 8.9 mi (14.3 km) 400 yd (370 m) A pizza restaurant housed in a large barn was leveled by this high-end EF1 tornado. Other outbuildings were damaged or destroyed, and trees were damaged. [51]
EF0 S of Wanamingo Goodhue MN 44°16′02″N 92°54′02″W / 44.2672°N 92.9006°W / 44.2672; -92.9006 (Wanamingo (Sep. 20, EF0)) 23:56–00:15 8.7 mi (14.0 km) 250 yd (230 m) Corn crop was damaged, and tree limbs were snapped, some of which pierced the roof of a machine shed. [51]
EF1 Southern Cannon Falls Goodhue MN 44°28′40″N 92°55′11″W / 44.4777°N 92.9197°W / 44.4777; -92.9197 (Cannon Falls (Sep. 20, EF1)) 00:01–00:03 1.9 mi (3.1 km) 440 yd (400 m) Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted, with many falling on homes and vehicles. [51]
EF0 N of Cannon Falls Goodhue MN 44°32′31″N 92°58′08″W / 44.5419°N 92.9688°W / 44.5419; -92.9688 (Cannon Falls (Sep. 20, EF0)) 00:02–00:05 3.2 mi (5.1 km) 100 yd (91 m) Roofing material was removed from a commercial facility, and a convergent pattern was noted in crops. [51]
EF0 S of New Trier Dakota MN N/A N/A 4.6 mi (7.4 km) 220 yd (200 m) Outbuildings were damaged at several farms. [51]
EF0 NE of Zumbrota Goodhue, Wabasha MN N/A N/A 6.3 mi (10.1 km) 150 yd (140 m) This tornado struck several farms, destroying grain bins and outbuildings. [51]
EF0 Prairie Island to SE of Diamond Bluff Goodhue, Pierce MN, WI 44°38′01″N 92°40′39″W / 44.6337°N 92.6776°W / 44.6337; -92.6776 (Prairie Island (Sep. 20, EF0)) 00:17–00:20 3.9 mi (6.3 km) 200 yd (180 m) This weak tornado caused minor damage. [51]
EF0 E of Ellsworth Pierce WI 44°43′58″N 92°28′19″W / 44.7328°N 92.4720°W / 44.7328; -92.4720 (Ellsworth (Sep. 20, EF0)) 00:26–00:28 1.7 mi (2.7 km) 140 yd (130 m) A barn, sheds, trees and outbuildings were damaged. [51]

September 21 event[edit]

List of tornadoes reported on September 21, 2018 in Ontario/Quebec
List of confirmed tornadoes – Friday, September 21, 2018[note 1]
EF# Location County/Census division State/Province Start Coord. Time (UTC) Path length Max width Summary Refs
EF1 NNE of Springbrook Jackson IA 42°12′15″N 90°28′04″W / 42.2042°N 90.4678°W / 42.2042; -90.4678 (Springbrook (Sep. 21, EF1)) 06:27–06:28 0.3 mi (0.48 km) 20 yd (18 m) Trees were snapped and uprooted, a power pole was broken, and a roof was damaged. [53]
EF3 W of Kinburn to Gatineau Ottawa, Gatineau ON, QC 45°23′31″N 76°11′20″W / 45.392°N 76.189°W / 45.392; -76.189 (Kinburn, ON) 20:55 N/A N/A This destructive tornado touched down in Ontario near Kinburn, heavily damaging multiple homes, destroying barns and outbuildings, and mangling farm machinery. The tornado then struck Dunrobin at high-end EF3 strength, damaging or destroying numerous homes, a couple of which were leveled or swept from their foundations. Vehicles were thrown and destroyed, debris was scattered through fields, and a shopping plaza was severely damaged. The tornado maintained EF3 strength as it crossed into Quebec and moved through densely populated areas of Gatineau. Many apartment buildings sustained major structural damage in this area, many of which had their roofs torn off, with some sustaining collapse of their top floor exterior walls. Trees were snapped and debarked, several car dealerships were damaged, power poles were snapped, and cars were tossed and damaged as well. At least 200 buildings were damaged or destroyed, and 25 people were injured, five critically. [14][11]
EF2 Nepean Ottawa ON 45°19′38″N 75°47′04″W / 45.327147°N 75.784360°W / 45.327147; -75.784360 (Arlington Park) 22:30 13 km (8.1 mi) N/A A rain-wrapped, high-end EF2 tornado touched down in western Nepean and struck the Arlington Woods and Craig Henry neighbourhoods of Nepean, where many homes and apartment buildings were damaged. Some homes sustained roof loss, and a few sustained partial exterior wall failure as well. A church had much of its roof ripped off, and numerous large trees were snapped or uprooted, many of which landed on homes and vehicles. A metal truss tower was toppled over and mangled as well. Further east, a power substation was severely damaged, businesses had their roofs blown off, power poles were snapped, and a box truck was overturned. The Colonnade Road Business Park also sustained considerable damage. Additional trees and tree limbs were downed in the Greenboro neighbourhood before the tornado dissipated. [18][54]
EF1 Calabogie to White Lake Renfrew ON N/A N/A N/A N/A This tornado touched down in Calabogie, snapping and uprooting many trees, causing roof damage to homes, and destroying a garage. Injuries were reported in this tornado.[55] [56][57]
EF1 SE of Val-des-Bois Papineau QC N/A N/A N/A N/A Many trees were snapped and several buildings were damaged along the path. Homes sustained roof damage, and boats and docks were damaged as well. [58]
EF1 E of Mont-Laurier La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau QC N/A N/A N/A N/A This tornado tracked through densely forested areas near the Baskatong Reservoir, snapping trees and damaging power lines. [58]
EF1 N of Otter Lake Pontiac QC N/A N/A N/A N/A A tornado tracked through densely forested areas, downing numerous trees along its path. [58]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b All dates are based on the local time zone where the tornado touched down; however, all times are in Coordinated Universal Time for consistency.

References[edit]

  1. ^ CONFIRMED: Two tornadoes, one downburst hit Ottawa region, The Weather Network, September 22, 2018
  2. ^ Dave Phillips of the Meteorological Service of Canada (December 2, 2018). "Ottawa-Gatineau tornadoes on summer's last day". Canada’s top 10 weather stories of 2018. ECCC. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  3. ^ Storm Prediction Center (September 20, 2018). "Sep 20, 2018 0600 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook". National Weather Service. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  4. ^ US Weather Forecast Office in Twin Cities, MN (November 15, 2018). "September 20, 2018 Tornado Outbreak and Widespread Damaging Wind (updated 11/15)". National Weather Service. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  5. ^ US Weather Forecast Office in Cleveland, OH (November 15, 2018). "Two Tornadoes near Middlefield, OH Sept. 20, 2018". National Weather Service. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  6. ^ Storm Prediction Center (September 20, 2018). "Sep 20, 2018 0600 UTC Day 2 Convective Outlook". National Weather Service. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  7. ^ "Elevated Severe Thunderstorm Risk With Damaging Winds, Lightning, Hail and Possibly an Isolated Tornado Risk (Fri, Sept 21st, 2018)". InstantWeather. September 21, 2018. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  8. ^ Wind gusted to 83 km/h in the Sault, yesterday: Environment Canada. Also confirms tornado in Ottawa area and high temperature records broken in areas of southern Ontario, sootoday.com, September 22, 2018
  9. ^ Ottawa International Airport, ON weather historical data for September 21, 2018, Wunderground, September 21, 2018
  10. ^ Tornado warning issued for Ottawa-Gatineau area, CBC News, September 21, 2018
  11. ^ a b "Tornado aftermath: The science behind the twisters". The Ottawa Citizen. 2018-09-23. Retrieved 2018-09-24.
  12. ^ "Tornado hits Ottawa-Gatineau area, damaging buildings and flipping cars | CTV News". Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  13. ^ a b "Updated: 'It's devastating': Tornado levels houses, leaves trail of destruction". 22 September 2018.
  14. ^ a b "Tornado tears through Ottawa and Gatineau area, causing injuries | The Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  15. ^ "Dash cam of tornado and the damage in Dunrobin. The Dunrobin businesses was devastated, but the driver was unharmed". CBC News. September 2018.
  16. ^ The sky does not look good, Twitter, September 21, 2018
  17. ^ Live shot of Parliament Hill downtown Ottawa right now. Tornado warned storm cell tracking north of downtown towards Gatineau, Kelly Sonnenburg TWN/trendsmap.com, September 21, 2018
  18. ^ a b "Tornado destroys homes, hydro poles in Hunt Club and Greenbank area". CBC News. September 21, 2018.
  19. ^ Inc., Pelmorex Weather Networks. "'Dynamic fall storm' slams Quebec with severe weather". The Weather Network. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  20. ^ "At least 2 tornadoes touch down near Ottawa; about 272,000 without power in Ontario and Quebec". Global News. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  21. ^ Here's how the Ottawa-Gatineau tornadoes formed so quickly, Global News, September 24, 2018
  22. ^ Tornado strikes were 'luck of the draw,' says meteorologist, CBC News, September 23, 2018
  23. ^ "6 tornadoes hit Ottawa-Gatineau region, Environment Canada says". CBC News. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  24. ^ Map of where the six tornadoes touched down in Ottawa-Gatineau areas on September 21, 2018, CBC News, September 25, 2018
  25. ^ UPDATE: Officials increase Friday's tornado count to SIX, The Weather Network, September 26, 2018
  26. ^ Ontario: Cool down follows damaging wind storm, The Weather Network, September 21, 2018
  27. ^ "Here's where power is out across the region - CBC News".
  28. ^ Kalvapalle, Rahul. "Ottawa residents could be without power for days after tornado devastates Hydro One station". Global News. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  29. ^ Chianello, Joanne. "When is the power coming on? Not for days". CBC News. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  30. ^ Third tornado at Calabogie and White Lake is confirmed by Environment Canada, Ottawa Citizen, September 24, 2018
  31. ^ Environment Canada confirms 3rd tornado hit Calabogie, White Lake, insideottawavalley.com/Renfrew Mercury, September 25, 2018
  32. ^ The Destructive Dunrobin - Gatineau Tornado. Includes images and videos of the tornadoes and damage
  33. ^ Dunrobin Plaza demolition underway, CTV Ottawa, December 6, 2018
  34. ^ Demolition begins at Dunrobin Plaza, but future still unclear, CBC Ottawa, December 9, 2018
  35. ^ Tornado damage costs insurers $295M, Ottawa Citizen, October 23, 2018
  36. ^ Ottawa-Gatineau tornadoes cause nearly $300 million in insured damage, insurancebusinessmag.com, October 23, 2018
  37. ^ Were the Ottawa-Gatineau tornadoes the costliest in Canadian history?, canadianunderwriter.ca, October 17, 2018
  38. ^ Cellphone video of Ottawa-Gatineau tornado, CBC News, September 2018
  39. ^ Dunrobin tornado strongest to hit eastern Ontario since 1902, 580 CFRA, October 5, 2018
  40. ^ Ottawa newsmakers 2018: Sept. 21 tornadoes left us battered, the biggest blow since 1903, Ottawa Citizen, Originally published December 27, 2018; Updated January 1, 2019
  41. ^ https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/man-killed-by-falling-tree-during-ontario-storm-that-spawned-six-tornadoes-1.4109772
  42. ^ "Inside Hydro One's tricky problem: How to turn on the lights with a major power station down". Ottawa Citizen. 2018-09-24. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
  43. ^ "Tornado aftermath: 'The roof fell on us' — Twisters leave residents awestruck and in the dark". Ottawa Citizen. 2018-09-23. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
  44. ^ Limited, Hydro Ottawa. "About Us - Governance - Overview - Hydro Ottawa". hydroottawa.com. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
  45. ^ "Inside Hydro One's tricky problem: How to turn on the lights with a major power station down". Ottawa Citizen. 2018-09-24. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
  46. ^ Limited, Hydro Ottawa. "Media - News Releases - Hydro Ottawa". hydroottawa.com. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
  47. ^ Ottawa airport forced to use backup power as storm sweeps through region, Global News, September 21, 2018
  48. ^ Clean-up begins after storm hits Ottawa-Gatineau, CTV Ottawa/CTV Morning Live, September 22, 2018
  49. ^ a b NWS Damage Survey for September 20th 2018 Multiple Tornadoes Near Middlefield Ohio (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Cleveland, Ohio. September 21, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  50. ^ NWS Damage Survey for Superior Iowa Tornado - Update 2 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. September 24, 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y NWS Damage Survey for 09/20/2018 Tornado Event - Update 2 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office Twin Cities, Minnesota. September 28, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
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