Jump to content

2018 United States elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2018 United States elections
2016          2017          2018          2019          2020
Midterm elections
Election dayNovember 6
Incumbent presidentDonald Trump (Republican)
Next Congress116th
Senate elections
Overall controlRepublican hold
Seats contested35 of 100 seats
(33 seats of Class I + 2 special elections)
Net seat changeRepublican +2
2018 United States Senate special election in Minnesota2018 United States Senate special election in Mississippi2018 United States Senate election in Arizona2018 United States Senate election in California2018 United States Senate election in Connecticut2018 United States Senate election in Delaware2018 United States Senate election in Florida2018 United States Senate election in Hawaii2018 United States Senate election in Indiana2018 United States Senate election in Maine2018 United States Senate election in Maryland2018 United States Senate election in Massachusetts2018 United States Senate election in Michigan2018 United States Senate election in Minnesota2018 United States Senate election in Mississippi2018 United States Senate election in Missouri2018 United States Senate election in Montana2018 United States Senate election in Nebraska2018 United States Senate election in Nevada2018 United States Senate election in New Jersey2018 United States Senate election in New Mexico2018 United States Senate election in New York2018 United States Senate election in North Dakota2018 United States Senate election in Ohio2018 United States Senate election in Pennsylvania2018 United States Senate election in Rhode Island2018 United States Senate election in Tennessee2018 United States Senate election in Texas2018 United States Senate election in Utah2018 United States Senate election in Vermont2018 United States Senate election in Virginia2018 United States Senate election in Washington2018 United States Senate election in West Virginia2018 United States Senate election in Wisconsin2018 United States Senate election in Wyoming
2018 Senate results
(Minnesota and Mississippi each held two Senate elections)
     Democratic hold      Republican hold
     Democratic gain      Republican gain
     Independent hold
House elections
Overall controlDemocratic gain
Seats contestedAll 435 voting seats
+5 of 6 non-voting seats[a]
Popular vote marginDemocratic +8.6%
Net seat changeDemocratic +41
2018 House of Representatives results
(territorial delegate races not shown)
     Democratic hold      Republican hold
     Democratic gain      Republican gain
Gubernatorial elections
Seats contested39 (36 states, three territories)
Net seat changeDemocratic +7[b]
2018 Alabama gubernatorial election2018 Alaska gubernatorial election2018 Arizona gubernatorial election2018 Arkansas gubernatorial election2018 California gubernatorial election2018 Colorado gubernatorial election2018 Connecticut gubernatorial election2018 Florida gubernatorial election2018 Georgia gubernatorial election2018 Hawaii gubernatorial election2018 Idaho gubernatorial election2018 Illinois gubernatorial election2018 Iowa gubernatorial election2018 Kansas gubernatorial election2018 Maine gubernatorial election2018 Maryland gubernatorial election2018 Massachusetts gubernatorial election2018 Michigan gubernatorial election2018 Minnesota gubernatorial election2018 Nebraska gubernatorial election2018 Nevada gubernatorial election2018 New Hampshire gubernatorial election2018 New Mexico gubernatorial election2018 New York gubernatorial election2018 Ohio gubernatorial election2018 Oklahoma gubernatorial election2018 Oregon gubernatorial election2018 Pennsylvania gubernatorial election2018 Rhode Island gubernatorial election2018 South Carolina gubernatorial election2018 South Dakota gubernatorial election2018 Tennessee gubernatorial election2018 Texas gubernatorial election2018 Vermont gubernatorial election2018 Wisconsin gubernatorial election2018 Wyoming gubernatorial election2018 Guam gubernatorial election2018 Northern Mariana Islands gubernatorial election2018 United States Virgin Islands gubernatorial election
2018 gubernatorial election results
     Democratic hold      Republican hold
     Democratic gain      Republican gain

The 2018 United States elections were held on Tuesday, November 6, 2018.[c] These midterm elections occurred during Incumbent Republican President Donald Trump's term. Although the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate, unified Republican control of Congress and the White House was brought to an end when the Democratic Party won control of the House of Representatives in what was widely characterized as a "blue wave" election as Democrats also gained governorships, other statewide offices, and state legislative chambers.

Democrats made a net gain of 41 seats in the United States House of Representatives,[d] gaining a majority in the chamber and thereby ending the federal trifecta that the Republican Party had established in the 2016 elections. The Republican Party retained control of the United States Senate, making a net gain of two seats and defeating four Democratic incumbents in states that had voted for Trump in 2016. As a result of the 2018 elections, the 116th United States Congress became the first Congress since the 99th United States Congress (elected in 1984) in which the Democrats controlled the U.S. House of Representatives and the Republicans controlled the U.S. Senate. In state-level elections, Democrats picked up a net of seven governorships and several state legislative seats.

This was the first time since 1970 that one party gained Senate seats while losing House seats, which also occurred in 1914, 1962, and 2022.[1] In the state elections, Democrats gained seven state governorships, control of approximately 350 state legislative seats, and control of six state legislative chambers.

The elections marked the highest voter turnout seen in midterm elections since 1914, at 49.4%. The elections saw several electoral firsts for women, racial minorities, and LGBT candidates, including the election of the first openly gay governor and the first openly bisexual U.S. senator. In various referendums, numerous states voted to expand Medicaid coverage, require voter identification, establish independent redistricting commissions, legalize marijuana, repeal felony disenfranchisement laws and enact other proposals. During the campaign, Democrats focused on health care, frequently attacking Republicans for supporting repeal of provisions of the Affordable Care Act (also known as Obamacare), including protections for individuals with preexisting conditions. They also focused on tying many Republican incumbents and candidates to President Trump. Republican messaging focused on immigration and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. There were allegations of attempted Russian interference in these elections as well as controversies regarding potential voter suppression.

Research has linked Republican losses in the elections to the party's unsuccessful and unpopular efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act, as well as the China–United States trade war.

Issues, advertisements, and campaigning[edit]

In May 2018, President Trump began to emphasize his effort to overcome the traditional strength of the non-presidential party in midterm elections, with the "top priority for the White House [being to hold] the Republican majority in the Senate". He was already well into his own 2020 reelection campaign, having launched it on his inauguration day in January 2017.[2] By early August, the president's midterm efforts had included rallies in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Florida, Montana and elsewhere "reprising the style and rhetoric of his 2016 campaign". He focused his message on the economy, his proposed border wall, the "trade war" with China, criticism of the media, and his proposal to create the space force, a new branch of the military devoted to operations in space.[3] In late August 2018, the Huffington Post reported that Trump and his administration had been engaging in campaign activity on taxpayer-funded trips. According to the report, a top White House staffer identified 35 events by Cabinet and senior staff members "with or affecting House districts in August already". White House Deputy Press Secretary Lindsay Walters called the report "misleading".[4]

The 2018 elections featured a wider range and larger number of campaign advertisements than past midterm elections.[5] Almost a third of Republican ads focused on taxes, especially on the recently enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.[6] By mid-October 2018, at a cost of some $124 million, more than 280,000 television advertisements related to immigration had been aired in House, Senate and gubernatorial races, representing a five-fold increase compared to the 2014 cycle.[7] In October 2018, The New York Times and The Washington Post characterized Republicans' 2018 campaign messaging as being chiefly focused on fear-mongering about immigration and race.[8][9] According to The Washington Post, President Trump "settled on a strategy of fear—laced with falsehoods and racially tinged rhetoric—to help lift his party to victory in the coming midterms, part of a broader effort to energize Republican voters".[9] In November 2018, Facebook, NBC, and Fox News withdrew a controversial pro-Trump advertisement that focused on a migrant caravan; Facebook noted that the ad violated Facebook's rules concerning "sensational content".[10]

Nearly half of all advertisements by Democrats focused on health care, in particular on defending the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (also known as Obamacare or the Affordable Care Act) and keeping in place protections for individuals with preexisting conditions.[6] A number of Republican candidates claimed to support provisions of the Affordable Care Act, such as protections for preexisting conditions, even though they supported efforts that either weakened or eliminated those provisions.[11][12][13] In the final weeks of the campaign, Democrats indicated their desire to keep the focus of the campaign on Republican efforts to repeal provisions of Obamacare through the proposed American Health Care Act of 2017.[14] A Gallup poll conducted days before the election found that voters considered healthcare and the economy to be the top issues among registered voters, though many voters also considered immigration to be a top priority.[15]

Federal elections[edit]


Control of Senate seats by class after the 2018 elections
Class Democratic Republican Independent Next elections
1 21 10 2 2024
2 12 21 0 2020
3 12 22 0 2022
Total 45 53 2

In the 2018 elections, Republicans sought to defend the Senate majority they had maintained since the 2014 elections. Thirty-five of the 100 seats were up for election, including all 33 Class 1 Senate seats. Class 2 Senate seats in Minnesota and Mississippi each held special elections to fill vacancies. The Class 1 Senate elections were for terms lasting from January 2019 to January 2025 while the Class 2 special elections were for terms ending in January 2021. 24 of the seats up for election were held by Democrats, two of the seats up for election were held by independents caucusing with the Democrats and nine of the seats up for election were held by Republicans.[16] Three Republican incumbents did not seek election in 2018 while all Democratic and independent incumbents sought another term. 42 Republican senators and 23 Democratic senators were not up for election.

Assuming the two independents won re-election and continued to caucus with them, Senate Democrats needed to win a net gain of two Senate seats to win a majority.[e] Including the two independents, Democrats held approximately 74 percent of the seats up for election, the highest proportion held by one party in a midterm election since at least 1914.[16] Prior to the 2018 elections, Nate Silver of FiveThirtyEight wrote that Democrats faced one of the most unfavorable Senate maps any party had ever faced in any Senate election. Silver noted that ten of the seats Democrats defended were in states won by Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election.[17][18] Meanwhile, the Class I Senate seat in Nevada was the lone Republican-held seat up for election in a state that had been won by Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election.[19] Silver predicted that even a nine-point victory in the nationwide popular vote for Congress would not be enough to give Democrats a majority in the Senate.[17] Some observers speculated that Republicans might be able to pick up a net of nine seats, which would give them the 60-seat super-majority necessary to break filibusters on legislation.[20]

Republicans won a net gain of two seats in the Senate. The 2018 elections were the first midterm elections since 2002 in which the party holding the presidency gained Senate seats.[16] Republicans defeated Democratic incumbents in Indiana, Missouri, North Dakota and Florida. Democrats defeated the Republican incumbent in Nevada and picked up an open seat in Arizona. All four defeated Democratic incumbents represented states won by Trump in the 2016 presidential election.[19] Democratic incumbents tallied victories in the competitive Midwestern states of Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin as well as the key Northeastern swing state of Pennsylvania.[21] Montana and West Virginia, both of which voted for Trump by a margin of at least 20 points, also re-elected Democratic incumbents.[22] After the election, Chris Cillizza of CNN noted that by limiting their Senate losses in 2018, Democrats put themselves in a position to potentially take control of the Senate in the 2020 or 2022 Senate elections.[20]

House of Representatives[edit]

Cartogram of U.S. House of Representative results:
  Democratic gain   Republican gain
  Democratic hold   Republican hold
  Independent hold
Historical mid-term seat gains in the House of Representatives for the party not holding the presidency

In the 2018 elections, Democrats sought to take control of the United States House of Representatives for the first time since the 2010 elections. All 435 voting seats in the House of Representatives were up for election to serve two-year terms. Additionally, elections were held to select five of the six non-voting delegates for the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories.[a]

The 2018 House elections saw the largest number of retirements by incumbents of any election cycle since at least 1992.[23] By June 2018, 20 House Democrats and 44 House Republicans, including Speaker of the House Paul Ryan, had announced their retirement.[24] The disproportionate number of Republican retirements may have harmed Republican prospects in the 2018 mid-term elections due to the loss of incumbency advantage.[25][26]

Democrats had 193 seats immediately prior to the November elections, and needed to net at least 25 seats to win a majority in the House of Representatives. In the November elections, Democrats won a net gain of 40 seats. As the elections also saw Democrats fill two vacant seats that had previously been controlled by the party, the Democrats won control of a total of 235 seats, while Republicans won control of at least 199 seats.[d] The net gain of 40 seats represented the Democratic Party's largest gain in the House since the 1974 elections.[27] Democrats won the nationwide popular vote for the House of Representatives by 8.6 percentage points,[28] one of the highest margins won by either party since 1992.[25] Due in part to the surge in turnout, the total number of votes won by Democratic candidates for the House of Representatives nearly equaled the number of votes Trump won in the 2016 presidential election.[29] The 2018 elections were the third midterm elections since 2006 in which the President's party lost control of the House of Representatives.

Democrats defeated 29 Republican incumbents and picked up 14 open seats. Republicans did not defeat a single Democratic incumbent, though the party did pick up two open seats in Minnesota and one in Pennsylvania. Republicans defended the vast majority of their rural seats, but several urban and suburban seats flipped to the Democrats.[30] Many of the districts picked up by Democrats had given a majority or a plurality of their vote to Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election.[31] Of the 447 individuals who served in the House during the 115th Congress, at least 104 did not win re-election in 2018—this represents the third-highest turnover rate of any election cycle since 1974.[32]

Special elections[edit]

There were a total of eight special elections to the United States House of Representatives in 2018. These elections were held to fill vacancies for the remainder of the 115th Congress. As a result of the special elections held prior to November 6, Democrats won a net gain of one seat.

Four special elections were held prior to November 6, 2018:

Four special elections were held on November 6, 2018, coinciding with the regularly-scheduled elections:

State elections[edit]

Partisan control of states in the 2018 elections
  Democrats retained trifecta
  Democrats gained trifecta
  Republicans retained trifecta
  Republicans gained trifecta
  Divided government maintained
  Divided government established
  Officially non-partisan legislature

The vast majority of states held gubernatorial or state legislative elections in 2018. The 2018 state elections will impact the redistricting that will follow the 2020 United States census as many states task governors and state legislators with drawing new boundaries for state legislative and Congressional districts.

Gubernatorial elections[edit]

Elections were held for the governorships of 36 U.S. states and three U.S. territories as well as for the Mayor of the District of Columbia. Democrats defended every seat they had controlled prior to the election and picked up seven governorships. They won open seats in Michigan, Nevada, Kansas, New Mexico and Maine and defeated Republican incumbents in Illinois and Wisconsin. They also picked up the independent-held seat in the U.S. Virgin Islands in a runoff election held November 20, 2018.[33] Most of the Democratic victories were in Democratic-leaning states or swing states. Democratic candidates ran well ahead of Hillary Clinton in South Dakota, Oklahoma, Idaho, South Carolina and other "red states" that had given large margins to Trump in the 2016 presidential. All of those candidates fell short, however, and Kansas was the lone red state to elect a Democratic governor in 2018.[34]

Republicans picked up the independent-held seat in Alaska, and Republican incumbents won election in competitive and Democratic-leaning states such as Arizona, Iowa, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maryland. The party also won competitive open seat elections held in Florida, Georgia and Ohio.[35] Democrats picked up the governorship of Guam, but the incumbent Republican governor of the Northern Marianas Islands won re-election.[f]

Legislative elections[edit]

Partisan control of congressional redistricting after the 2018 elections. Note that most states will hold elections in 2020 that could affect partisan control of the decennial redistricting which will occur prior to the 2022 elections.
  Democratic control
  Republican control
  Split or bipartisan control
  Independent redistricting commission
  No redistricting necessary[g]

Eighty-seven of the 99 state legislative chambers, in 46 states—6,069 seats out of the nation's 7,383 legislative seats (82%)—held regularly-scheduled elections.[37] Every territorial legislature except for the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico held elections for at least one chamber.[f] In some legislative chambers, all seats were up for election, but some chambers with staggered terms held elections only for a portion of the seats in the chamber.[37][h]

Democrats flipped at least 350 state legislative seats,[38] picking up most of those seats in states where President Trump's approval rating was relatively low.[39] Six chambers—the Colorado Senate, New Hampshire House, New Hampshire Senate, Minnesota House, Maine Senate and New York State Senate—flipped from Republican to Democratic control.[40] Additionally the Connecticut Senate went from being evenly divided to a Democratic majority.[40] Democrats also broke Republican legislative supermajorities in North Carolina,[41] Michigan and Pennsylvania[39] and gained a legislative supermajority in both houses of the California, Illinois and Oregon legislatures.[42][43]

Democrats gained a trifecta (control of the governor's office and both legislative chambers) in Colorado, Illinois, Connecticut, Maine, New Mexico, New York and Nevada as well as in Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands.[44][38] Republicans lost trifectas in Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin and New Hampshire.[38][45] After the election, Democrats have 14 trifectas, Republicans have 21 trifectas, and 14 states have a divided government.[38][i] Minnesota became the lone multicameral state legislature in the nation with divided control, with the Democratic Party hold a majority in its state house and the Republican Party holding a majority in its state senate. All other state legislatures were either unicameral or had unified bicameral party control.[38][46] In Alaska, Republicans won the gubernatorial election and held a majority of the seats in both chambers of the state legislature, but a coalition of independents, Democrats, and Republicans elected independent Bryce Edgmon as Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives.[47]

All parties presented candidates in more races than usual. The number of Democratic candidates increased to almost 88% of the races in 2018 from 77% in 2014.[48] Parties often do not run in races where the incumbent or other favorite candidate has a very high margin in polls, in order to focus resources on more competitive races with greater chances of success; however, increasing the number of candidates is seen as a way to drive local voter engagement and increase the number of votes for other, more competitive races at an upper level.[citation needed]

Despite these Democratic gains, the party controlled a total of just 37 state legislative chambers after the election, far fewer chambers than it had controlled prior to the 2010 elections. Tim Storey of the National Conference of State Legislatures attributed the continuing Republican dominance of state legislatures in part to Republican control of redistricting in many states following 2010.[49] In at least three states (Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Michigan), Republicans retained control of the lower house even though a majority of voters voted for a Democratic candidate for the lower house.[50] In many states, Democrats indicated their hope that 2018 would be part of a "two-cycle process", with gains in 2018 putting the party within distance of taking control of more state legislative chambers in the 2020 elections.[51]

Other state elections[edit]

Many states have statewide elected officials other than the governor. Such positions include secretary of state, attorney general, treasurer and auditor. These officials can play important roles in setting policy and overseeing state functions. In 2018, Democrats won attorneys general races in Michigan, Wisconsin, Nevada and Colorado; each position had previously been held by a Republican. After the elections, Democrats held 27 of the 50 attorneys general positions in the country.[52] Democrats also won control of the office of secretary of state in Michigan, Arizona, and Colorado, although Republicans still held a majority of the elected secretary of state positions nationwide.[53] Other offices that Democrats won control of in 2018 include the Arizona Superintendent of Public Instruction,[54] the Maine State Treasurer,[55] the Iowa State Auditor[56] and the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture.[57]

Attorney general[edit]

Results of the 2018 US Attorney General elections
  Republican hold
  Democratic hold
  Democratic gain
  No election

Attorneys General were elected in 30 states, 2 territories, and the District of Columbia. 43 states elect their attorney general, and 7 are appointed through other processes. The previous Attorney General elections for this group of states took place in 2014, except in Vermont where Attorneys General only serve two-year terms and elected their current attorney general in 2016.

Democrats gained 4 elected Attorney General offices, Republicans gained zero offices. This caused Democratic Attorney Generals to constitute a majority of elected Attorneys General in U.S. states.[58]

Ballot measures[edit]

  Medicaid expansion proposal passed
  Medicaid expansion previously implemented or passed
  No Medicaid expansion

A total of 157 ballot measures were voted on in 34 states. These include initiatives on redistricting reform, voting rights, marijuana, infrastructure, health care and taxes.[59]

As a result of successful ballot measures, Colorado, Michigan and Utah[60] established independent redistricting commissions while Nebraska, Utah and Idaho expanded access to Medicaid. Florida voters approved Florida Amendment 4, which restored voting rights to some felons who have served out their sentence[61] and banned off shore drilling, vaping in indoor work spaces, and gambling institutions related to dog racing.[62] Nevada and Michigan approved automatic voter registration, and Michigan expanded absentee voting. Also, Maryland approved same-day voter registration, allowing voters to register as late as on Election Day. In Arkansas and North Carolina, voter ID ballot measures were approved.[63] Michigan, Missouri and Utah voters approved marijuana proposals, with Michigan approving recreational marijuana and Missouri approving medical marijuana. Utah voters also approved medical marijuana, although Utah lawmakers later rolled back some of the provisions of the measure.[64] North Dakota voters voted down a proposal to legalize recreational marijuana.[65][66] In California, voters declined to repeal the 2017 Road Repair and Accountability Act, which increased fuel taxes and vehicle license fees to fund infrastructure improvements.[67] Nationwide, 96 transportation ballot measures worth about $30.68 billion passed at the state and local levels on Election Day—41 transportation-related ballot measures failed.[68]

Local elections[edit]

Mayoral elections[edit]

Incumbent candidates won in mayoral elections held in major cities, including Anchorage, Alaska (Ethan Berkowitz); Austin, Texas (Steve Adler); Oakland, California (Libby Schaaf); Providence, Rhode Island (Jorge Elorza); and Washington, D.C. (Muriel Bowser).[69] The District of Columbia and Oakland each re-elected mayors for the first time since 2002.[69][70]

Incumbent mayors were also re-elected in Chesapeake, Virginia (Richard West); Chula Vista, California (Mary Salas); Irvine, California (Donald P. Wagner); Long Beach, California (Robert Garcia); Louisville, Kentucky (Greg Fischer); Lubbock, Texas (Dan Pope); Newark, New Jersey (Ras J. Baraka); Reno, Nevada (Hillary Schieve); San Jose, California (Sam Liccardo); and Santa Ana, California (Miguel Pulido). In San Bernardino, California, John Valdivia defeated incumbent Mayor R. Carey Davis. Open seats were won in Anaheim, California (Harry Sidhu); Chandler, Arizona (Kevin Hartke); Garland, Texas (Lori Barnett-Dodson); and Trenton, New Jersey (Reed Gusciora).[71][72] In Oklahoma City, David Holt, a member of the Osage Nation, was the first Native American to be elected mayor.[73] In Fort Smith, Arkansas, George McGill won an open seat and became the city's first black mayor.[74]

Mayoral elections in November 2018 in Phoenix, Arizona, and Corpus Christi and Laredo, Texas, as well as Little Rock, Arkansas, resulted in no single candidate carrying a majority of the vote.[69][71] Frank Scott Jr. won the December 2018 runoff to become Little Rock's first elected African-American mayor.[75] In Texas, incumbents won their runoff races in Laredo (Pete Saenz)[76] and Corpus Christi (Joe McComb).[77] The Phoenix mayoral runoff was held in March 2019.[71][69]

Although most local offices are nonpartisan, when looking at party identification of the officeholders, registered Republicans gained two mayorships during 2018. Linda Gorton won a seat previously held by a Democrat in Lexington, Kentucky and Bob Dyer won a seat previously held by an independent in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Following the November elections, registered Democrats hold 60 mayorships (−1) in the 100 largest cities in the United States, registered Republicans hold 28 (+2) and independents hold 7 (−1).[78]

Special elections[edit]

Two nonpartisan mayoral special elections were held in 2018:

Other local elections and referendums[edit]

Tribal elections[edit]

Several notable Native American tribes held elections for top tribal leadership positions during 2018.

Osage Nation Principal Chief Geoffrey Standing Bear,[87] San Carlos Apache Nation Tribal Chairman Terry Rambler,[88] and Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina Tribal Chairman Harvey Godwin Jr.[89] were all re-elected to second terms. Penobscot Nation Tribal Chief Kirk Francis was re-elected to a fifth term.[90] Long-time Chairman of the Quapaw Tribe John Berrey was reelected, and voters formally changed the tribe's name to the Quapaw Nation.[91]

Navajo Nation President Jonathan Nez,[92] Oglala Sioux Tribe President Julian Bear Runner,[93] Rosebud Sioux Tribe President Rodney Bordeaux,[94] Tunica-BiloxiTribe Chairman Marshall Pierite,[95] Yurok Tribal Chief Joe James,[96] and United Houma Nation Principal Chief August "Cocoa" Creppel[97] all won open seats. White Mountain Apache Tribal Chairwoman Gwendena Lee-Gatewood won an open seat to become the first woman elected to lead the tribe.[98]

Ousted Northern Cheyenne Tribal Council President L. Jace Killsback was re-elected by two votes in a special election on January 2 after being removed from office in October 2017.[99] He resigned from the position in October 2018 due to conflicts with the Tribal Council, triggering a new special election for January 2019.[100]

Party leadership elections[edit]


Turnout of the voting eligible population in midterm elections held since 1945

A total of 50.3 percent of eligible voters voted in 2018 (more than 122 million people),[101] compared to a turnout of just 36.0 percent of eligible voters in 2014.[102] The 2018 elections had highest turnout of any mid-term election held since the 1914 elections.[103] Twenty-three states had double-digit percentage-point increases compared to average turnout in midterm elections held between 1982 and 2014. Georgia had the greatest increase over its 1982-2014 midterm average. Its 55% turnout was 21 points higher. Texas had a turnout of 46% which was 14 points higher.[104]

The United States Election Project estimated that 40 million early voters cast ballots before election day, breaking the record for the number of early votes.[105] Some states, such as Texas and Nevada, reported that officials had received more early ballots than the total number of ballots processed in the 2014 midterm election.[105]

Records and firsts[edit]

The number of women who sought and won election to Congress in each election cycle from 1974 to 2018.[106][107]

A total of $5.7 billion was spent in the 2018 elections for House and Senate races, the most expensive midterm race ever.[108] The single most expensive race was the Florida U.S. Senate campaign, in which candidates and outside groups spent $209 million to support or oppose Democratic nominee Bill Nelson and Republican nominee Rick Scott, the latter of whom spent over $63 million of his personal fortune on his candidacy.[108]

The 2018 elections saw a number of significant successes for women candidates.[109] Following the 2018 election, there was a record number of women (127) in the 116th Congress, up from 110 in the previous 115th Congress. The share of women members in the 116th is 23.7 percent, up from 20.6 percent.[110][111] The number of Democratic women in the House increased by 25, while Republican women in the House declined by 10.[110] The number of women in the Senate increased by three, with 2 Democrats and 1 Republican.[112][107]

The 2018 elections also saw a number of significant successes for LGBT candidates and religious and ethnic minorities.[109] Jared Polis, who was elected governor of Colorado, became the first openly gay man to be elected governor.[j] Ilhan Omar of Minnesota and Rashida Tlaib of Michigan became the first Muslim women elected to the House of Representatives;[113] Ayanna Pressley became the first female African-American Representative from Massachusetts;[114] Sharice Davids of Kansas and Deb Haaland of New Mexico became the first Native American women elected to Congress, and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez of New York became the youngest-ever female member of the House at age 29.[109] Other candidates failed to achieve historic firsts, including gubernatorial candidates Christine Hallquist (D-VT) and Paulette Jordan (D-ID). Hallquist was the first transgender person to be a major party's nominee for governor and would have been the first transgender governor, but lost to incumbent Republican Phil Scott in the general election,[109] and Jordan, who would have been the first Native American female governor, lost to Republican Brad Little in the general election.[115]

Following the 2018 election, Minnesota became the only state in which each party controlled one chamber of the state legislature, though in Alaska, Republicans controlled one chamber and a cross-party coalition controlled the other. This represented the fewest divided legislatures since the 1914 elections, when there only one state with a divided legislature.[38] Nevada became the first state in U.S. history to have an overall female majority in the state legislature, with women holding 23 of 42 seats in the state Assembly and nine of 21 seats in the state Senate. Women made up the majority of a single state legislative chamber, rather than the entire state legislature, on one previous occasion, in the 2009-2010 New Hampshire State Senate. The 2018 elections also saw Guam elect a female majority to their territorial legislature.[116]

Ballot controversies and recounts[edit]


In Arizona, a court settlement was reached on November 9 between Democrats and Republicans after Republicans filed a lawsuit on November 7 to attempt to prevent Maricopa and Pima counties from using procedures that permit mail-in ballot fixes to occur beyond election day. The settlement gave all counties until November 14 to address problems with the ballots for the state's Senate race.[117] Ultimately, Republican candidate Martha McSally conceded the race.[118]


Recounts of ballots were ordered for Florida's Senate, governor, and agriculture commissioner races on November 10 after the tallies from 67 counties were deemed too close to call.[119] Due to the recount ordered, Democratic candidate Andrew Gillum withdrew his earlier concession to Republican candidate Ron DeSantis.[120] In total eight lawsuits were filed in the days after November 7.[121] After recounts were held for each race, the Democratic candidates for Senate and governor and the Republican candidate for agriculture commissioner all conceded between November 17 and November 19.[122] On November 19, the Supervisor of Elections for Broward County, Florida, Brenda Snipes, announced her resignation from her post, effective January 4, 2019, after national scrutiny led to widespread condemnation by Republicans.[123]


In Georgia, a judge placed a temporary restraining order on Doughterty County results on November 9 as, among other things, some of the 14,000 absentee ballots were allegedly re-routed through Tallahassee due to Hurricane Michael, resulting in a delay to the county election office certifying its results.[124][125] On November 17, Georgia Secretary of State Robyn Crittenden certified the election result, a day after the restraining order expired.[125]

Before the election there were allegations of voter suppression raised in Georgia, as well as outcry that candidate Brian Kemp did not resign from his position as secretary of state, which oversaw the election.[126] On November 12, Democratic gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams filed a lawsuit to prevent two counties from rejecting absentee ballots with minor mistakes, such as if a voter moved and had not changed their address.[127] During her concession speech on November 16, Abrams announced her plans to file a federal lawsuit challenging the way the state elections were run. She alleged that Kemp used his position of secretary of state and its office to aggressively purge the rolls of inactive voters, enforce an "exact match" policy for checking voters' identities that left many voters in limbo and other measures to tip the election in his favor.[128]

North Carolina[edit]

The North Carolina Board of Elections voted unanimously on December 4 to not certify the congressional race in North Carolina's 9th district after allegations of potential widespread election fraud in the district.[129] The board then declared a public hearing for December 21 to ensure the election was without corruption.[130] The Washington Post reported on December 5 that the board had collected as evidence of election fraud six sworn statements from voters in Bladen County alleging that individuals called on them to pick up their absentee ballots.[129] Incoming Democratic Majority Leader Steny Hoyer announced that the House of Representatives would not seat the apparent winner, Republican Mark Harris, until the fraud investigation had been completed, leaving it vacant at the start of the 116th United States Congress.[131]

After a delay caused by a restructuring of the board, hearings resumed on February 18, 2019. On that day the regulator reported that it had found evidence of "a coordinated, unlawful and substantially resourced absentee ballot scheme" that may have involved more than a thousand ballots or ballot request forms.[132] The board then unanimously voted on February 21, 2019, to call a new election,[133] which was held on September 10, 2019.[134] Harris declined to run in the special election, and the GOP instead nominated Dan Bishop, a Republican state senator. Democratic candidate Dan McCready again sought and received the Democratic nomination. The race was regarded as being a toss-up and a potential bellwether for the 2020 presidential election; Bishop ultimately won by about two percentage points.[135][136]

Foreign interference[edit]

In early 2018, six U.S. intelligence agencies unanimously reported their conclusion[137] that Russian personnel were monitoring American electoral systems and promoting partisan causes on social media.[138] Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats stated during congressional testimony that "the United States [was] under attack" from Russian efforts to impact the results of the elections.[139] United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo warned in a committee hearing that the federal government was not adequately protected from Russian interference in the 2018 midterm elections, saying: "No responsible government official would ever state that they have done enough to forestall any attack on the United States of America".[140] At the July 2018 Russia–United States summit, President Trump downplayed the conclusions of the United States Intelligence Community, stating that he believed Russian President Vladimir Putin's repeated denials of interference in American elections.[141] Trump would later accuse China of meddling in the U.S. midterm elections, asserting that "they don't want me or us to win" because of his imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods.[142] In August 2018, Coats and FBI director Christopher Wray announced at a White House press conference that Russia was actively interfering in the 2018 elections.[143]

In July 2018, Democratic senator Claire McCaskill alleged that Russian hackers unsuccessfully attempted to break into her Senate email account.[144] The following month, NPR reported that Democratic senator Jeanne Shaheen from New Hampshire reported to the FBI several attempts to compromise her campaign[145] including both spearphishing attempts on her staff and a disturbing incident where someone called her offices "impersonating a Latvian official, trying to set up a meeting to talk [about] Russian sanctions and about Ukraine". Her opposition to Russian aggression and support of sanctions had placed her on an official Russian blacklist.[146] On August 8, 2018, U.S. Senator Bill Nelson from Florida told the Tampa Bay Times that Russian operatives had penetrated some of Florida's election systems,[147] though he was criticized by The Washington Post's Fact Checker for providing no evidence of Russian hacking.[148] In 2019, Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation on Russian interference in the 2016 election concluded "at least one Florida county" was successfully penetrated, and Governor Ron DeSantis said voter databases in two counties had been successfully penetrated.[149][150]

On December 22, 2018, Coats reported that there was no evidence of vote tampering, but that "influence operations" had persisted. "The activity we did see was consistent with what we shared in the weeks leading up to the election. Russia, and other foreign countries, including China and Iran, conducted influence activities and messaging campaigns targeted at the United States to promote their strategic interests".[151] That same month, Politico reported that the National Republican Congressional Committee had been hacked, though it was unclear which group was responsible for the data breach.[152]

The Voice of America reported in April 2020 that "U.S. intelligence agencies concluded the Chinese hackers meddled in both the 2016 and 2018 elections".[153]

In 2022, it was reported that a Federal Election Commission investigation had found that American Ethane Company, which had received investments from Russian oligarchs, had contributed Russian money to US political candidates in the 2018 midterm elections, largely in Louisiana. FEC commissioners Ellen Weintraub and Shana M. Broussard criticized the Republicans in the FEC for a "slap on the wrist" civil penalty.[154]

Aftermath and reactions[edit]

Republican President Donald Trump and Democratic House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi each declared victory for their respective parties in the 2018 elections

The Democratic takeover of the House of Representatives gave the Democratic Party the ability to block Republican legislation in the 116th United States Congress, which met from January 2019 to January 2021. The takeover also gave the Democrats control of congressional committees, along with the accompanying power to issue subpoenas and conduct investigations. Continued Republican control of the Senate gave the Republican Party the opportunity to confirm President Trump's nominees without Democratic support.[155] During the 116th Congress, the Republican-controlled Senate confirmed numerous Trump-appointed judges.[156]

After the election, despite the Democratic takeover of the House, President Trump claimed he had won a "big victory". He indicated that he looked forward to "a beautiful bipartisan-type situation" but promised to assume a "warlike posture" if House Democrats launched investigations as attacks on his administration. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi asserted that her party won gains because of voter desire to "[restore] the Constitution's checks and balances to the Trump administration".[157] Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer said Senate Democrats performed "much better than expected" in a difficult election cycle.[158] Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said election day was "a very good day" for his party.[159]

The election was widely characterized as a "blue wave" election.[160][161][162][163] At the end of election night, Democratic gains in the House appeared modest and the Democratic candidates trailed in Senate races in Arizona and Montana and looked set to make a net loss of as many as four Senate seats, leading some news outlets to characterize the election as a "split decision" whereas other outlets described it as a "blue wave".[164][165] However, late ballot counting over the next days and weeks found Democrats winning several more seats in the House and the Arizona and Montana Senate elections, leading to a re-evaluation of the initial election night analyses.[166][163] One week after the election, Nathaniel Rakich of FiveThirtyEight said the election was "by any historical standard, a blue wave".[160] Two weeks after the election, Nate Silver of FiveThirtyEight wrote: "There shouldn't be much question about whether 2018 was a wave election. Of course it was a wave".[162] It was third-largest midterm change of seats for either party in the House in the post-Watergate era,[161] and the largest Democratic House gain since 1974.[166] In Ohio and North Carolina, Democrats failed to pick up a single seat despite winning close to half the vote. While Democrats won almost half the vote in Ohio, they only won a quarter of its House elections. The New York Times asserted that gerrymandering affected the outcomes of races in those states.[167] Democrats also made among the largest gains in House seats in Pennsylvania, where the state Supreme Court had struck down a heavily gerrymandered map that favored Republicans.[168]

Research has found that Republicans who voted for the repeal of the Affordable Care Act got lower vote shares in the 2018 election.[169] Studies also show that Trump's implementation of tariffs that adversely affected the U.S. economy adversely affected Republican outcomes in the 2018 election.[170][171][172] Racism and sexism was a stronger predictor of the vote in the House than it had been in the 2016 election, as less sexist and less racist voters switched from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party.[173]

Table of state, territorial and federal results[edit]

This table shows the partisan results of Congressional, gubernatorial and state legislative races held in each state and territories in 2018. Note that not all states and territories held gubernatorial, state legislative, and United States Senate elections in 2018—the territories and Washington, D.C., do not elect members of the United States Senate. Washington, D.C., and the five inhabited territories each elect one non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives. Nebraska's unicameral legislature and the governorship and legislature of American Samoa are officially non-partisan. Several seats in the House of Representatives were vacant at the time of the election.[174]

Subdivision and PVI Before 2018 elections[175] After 2018 elections[176][177]
Subdivision PVI[178] Governor State leg. U.S. Senate U.S. House Governor State leg. U.S. Senate U.S. House
Alabama R+14 Rep Rep Split Rep 6–1 Rep Rep Split Rep 6–1
Alaska R+9 Ind Split Rep Rep 1–0 Rep Split Rep Rep 1–0
Arizona R+5 Rep Rep Rep Rep 5–4 Rep Rep Split Dem 5–4
Arkansas R+15 Rep Rep Rep Rep 4–0 Rep Rep Rep Rep 4–0
California D+12 Dem Dem Dem Dem 39–14 Dem Dem Dem Dem 46–7
Colorado D+1 Dem Split Split Rep 4–3 Dem Dem Split Dem 4–3
Connecticut D+6 Dem Split Dem Dem 5–0 Dem Dem Dem Dem 5–0
Delaware D+6 Dem Dem Dem Dem 1–0 Dem Dem Dem Dem 1–0
Florida R+2 Rep Rep Split Rep 15–11 Rep Rep Rep Rep 14–13
Georgia R+5 Rep Rep Rep Rep 10–4 Rep Rep Rep Rep 9–5
Hawaii D+18 Dem Dem Dem Dem 2–0 Dem Dem Dem Dem 2–0
Idaho R+19 Rep Rep Rep Rep 2–0 Rep Rep Rep Rep 2–0
Illinois D+7 Rep Dem Dem Dem 11–7 Dem Dem Dem Dem 13–5
Indiana R+9 Rep Rep Split Rep 7–2 Rep Rep Rep Rep 7–2
Iowa R+3 Rep Rep Rep Rep 3–1 Rep Rep Rep Dem 3–1
Kansas R+13 Rep Rep Rep Rep 4–0 Dem Rep Rep Rep 3–1
Kentucky R+15 Rep Rep Rep Rep 5–1 Rep Rep Rep Rep 5–1
Louisiana R+11 Dem Rep Rep Rep 5–1 Dem Rep Rep Rep 5–1
Maine D+3 Rep Split Split R/I[k] Split 1–1 Dem Dem Split R/I[k] Dem 2–0
Maryland D+12 Rep Dem Dem Dem 7–1 Rep Dem Dem Dem 7–1
Massachusetts D+12 Rep Dem Dem Dem 9–0 Rep Dem Dem Dem 9–0
Michigan D+1 Rep Rep Dem Rep 9–4 Dem Rep Dem Split 7–7
Minnesota D+1 Dem Rep Dem Dem 5–3 Dem Split Dem Dem 5–3
Mississippi R+9 Rep Rep Rep Rep 3–1 Rep Rep Rep Rep 3–1
Missouri R+9 Rep Rep Split Rep 6–2 Rep Rep Rep Rep 6–2
Montana R+11 Dem Rep Split Rep 1–0 Dem Rep Split Rep 1–0
Nebraska R+14 Rep NP Rep Rep 3–0 Rep NP Rep Rep 3–0
Nevada D+1 Rep Dem Split Dem 3–1 Dem Dem Dem Dem 3–1
New Hampshire Even Rep Rep Dem Dem 2–0 Rep Dem Dem Dem 2–0
New Jersey D+7 Dem Dem Dem Dem 7–5 Dem Dem Dem Dem 11–1
New Mexico D+3 Rep Dem Dem Dem 2–1 Dem Dem Dem Dem 3–0
New York D+11 Dem Split Dem Dem 17–9 Dem Dem Dem Dem 21–6
North Carolina R+3 Dem Rep Rep Rep 10–3 Dem Rep Rep Rep 9–3[l]
North Dakota R+17 Rep Rep Split Rep 1–0 Rep Rep Rep Rep 1–0
Ohio R+3 Rep Rep Split Rep 12–4 Rep Rep Split Rep 12–4
Oklahoma R+20 Rep Rep Rep Rep 4–0 Rep Rep Rep Rep 4–1
Oregon D+5 Dem Dem Dem Dem 4–1 Dem Dem Dem Dem 4–1
Pennsylvania Even Dem Rep Split Rep 12–6 Dem Rep Split Split 9–9
Rhode Island D+10 Dem Dem Dem Dem 2–0 Dem Dem Dem Dem 2–0
South Carolina R+8 Rep Rep Rep Rep 6–1 Rep Rep Rep Rep 5–2
South Dakota R+14 Rep Rep Rep Rep 1–0 Rep Rep Rep Rep 1–0
Tennessee R+14 Rep Rep Rep Rep 7–2 Rep Rep Rep Rep 7–2
Texas R+8 Rep Rep Rep Rep 25–11 Rep Rep Rep Rep 23–13
Utah R+20 Rep Rep Rep Rep 4–0 Rep Rep Rep Rep 3–1
Vermont D+15 Rep Dem Split D/I[m] Dem 1–0 Rep Dem Split D/I[m] Dem 1–0
Virginia D+1 Dem Rep Dem Rep 7–4 Dem Rep Dem Dem 7–4
Washington D+7 Dem Dem Dem Dem 6–4 Dem Dem Dem Dem 7–3
West Virginia R+20 Rep Rep Split Rep 2–0 Rep Rep Split Rep 3–0
Wisconsin Even Rep Rep Split Rep 5–3 Dem Rep Split Rep 5–3
Wyoming R+25 Rep Rep Rep Rep 1–0 Rep Rep Rep Rep 1–0
United States Even Rep 33–16–1 Rep 31–13–5 Rep 51–49[n] Rep 235–193 Rep 27–23 Rep 29–18–2 Rep 53–47[n] Dem 235–199[l]
Washington, D.C. D+43 Dem[o] Dem[o] Dem Dem Dem Dem
American Samoa NP/D[p] NP Rep NP/D[p] NP Rep
Guam Rep Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem
N. Mariana Islands Rep Rep Ind[q] Rep Rep Ind[q]
Puerto Rico PNP/D[r] PNP PNP/R[s] PNP/D[r] PNP PNP/R[s]
U.S. Virgin Islands Ind Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem
Subdivision PVI Governor State leg. U.S. Senate U.S. House Governor State leg. U.S. Senate U.S. House
Subdivision and PVI Before 2018 elections After 2018 elections

Election night television viewership[edit]


  1. ^ a b One non-voting member of the House of Representatives, the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, serves a four-year term and was not up for election in 2018.
  2. ^ Democrats won a net gain of seven state governorships.
  3. ^ Some special elections as well as the regularly-scheduled elections in the Northern Mariana Islands were held on other dates.
  4. ^ a b Democrats won a net gain of 40 seats on election day, but gained one more seat in a special election held earlier in 2018. One House seat in North Carolina remained vacant after the elections due to allegations of election fraud; a special election filled it in 2019.
  5. ^ Democrats needed to win 51 seats to acquire a Senate majority. In a hypothetical tied Senate where each caucus had 50 senators, the vote of Republican Vice President Mike Pence would have given Senate Republicans the majority.
  6. ^ a b The 2018 general election in the Northern Marianas Islands were delayed until November 13 due to Typhoon Yutu, which struck the territory shortly before the scheduled November 6 election date.
  7. ^ States labeled as "no redistricting necessary" currently only have one congressional district, and thus do not need to redistrict. However, some projections show that, prior to the next round of redistricting, Rhode Island could lose its second district and Montana could gain a second district.[36]
  8. ^ There were no legislative elections in the four states (Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey and Virginia) which hold state elections in odd-numbered years. There were also no elections to the Kansas Senate, Minnesota Senate, New Mexico Senate and South Carolina Senate since all seats in those chambers are elected in presidential-election years.[37]
  9. ^ It is impossible for either party to achieve a trifecta in Nebraska, which has a unicameral, non-partisan legislature.
  10. ^ Oregon Governor Kate Brown, who is openly bisexual, was the first openly LGBT person to be elected governor, and Jim McGreevey came out as gay while in office as governor of New Jersey.[109]
  11. ^ a b One of Maine's senators, Susan Collins, is a Republican. The other senator from Maine, Angus King, is an independent who has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2013.
  12. ^ a b Due to fraud allegations, the results for the North Carolina's 9th congressional district election were declared void, and the seat remained vacant at the start of the 116th United States Congress. A new special election will be held in 2019 to fill the seat.
  13. ^ a b One of Vermont's senators, Patrick Leahy, is a Democrat. The other senator from Vermont, Bernie Sanders, was elected as an independent and has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2007.
  14. ^ a b The Democratic Senate caucus consisted of 47 Democrats and 2 independents prior to the 2018 elections and 45 Democrats and two independents after the elections.
  15. ^ a b Washington, D.C. does not elect a governor or state legislature, but it does elect a mayor and a city council.
  16. ^ a b Although elections for governor of American Samoa are non-partisan, Governor Lolo Matalasi Moliga has affiliated with the Democratic Party at the national level since re-election in 2016.
  17. ^ a b Delegate Gregorio Sablan was elected as an independent, but he has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2009.
  18. ^ a b Puerto Rican Governor Ricardo Rosselló was elected as a member of the New Progressive Party and affiliates with the Democratic Party at the national level.
  19. ^ a b Puerto Rico's Resident Commissioner, Jenniffer González, was elected as a member of the New Progressive Party and has caucused with the Republicans since taking office in 2017.


  1. ^ Kane, Paul (October 13, 2018). "Stark political divide points to a split decision in midterm elections". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  2. ^ Zeleny, Jeff, Sarah Westwood and Pamela Brown, "Unprecedented? Trump aims to defy midterm campaign history", CNN, May 31, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  3. ^ Fritze, John, "Trump's midterm message: Five things the president is telling voters", USA Today, August 11, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  4. ^ Date, S.V., "White House Admits Trump Is Using Official Events For Midterm Campaigning", Huffington Post, August 22, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  5. ^ Pogkas, Demetrios; Ingold, David (November 2, 2018). "What the 2018 Campaign Looks Like in Your Hometown". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  6. ^ a b McGill, Brian; Bykowicz, Julie (October 9, 2018). "Health Care Crowds Out Jobs, Taxes in Midterm Ads". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  7. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E. (October 14, 2018). "No, you're not crazy. There are way more campaign ads about immigration this year". CNN.
  8. ^ Burns, Alexander; Herndon, Astead W. (October 22, 2018). "Trump and G.O.P. Candidates Escalate Race and Fear as Election Ploys". The New York Times. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Trump and Republicans settle on fear—and falsehoods—as a midterm strategy". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  10. ^ "Fox News, NBC and Facebook Pull Trump-Backed Anti-Migrant Ad". Bloomberg. November 5, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  11. ^ "Republicans Fought Obamacare. Now They're Campaigning to Save It". Bloomberg. October 9, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  12. ^ Bryan, Bob. "A fight over the most popular piece of Obamacare could define the 2018 midterm elections". Business Insider. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  13. ^ Scott, Dylan (October 11, 2018). "Republicans are misleading voters about preexisting conditions". Vox. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  14. ^ "Democrats close campaign by hammering GOP on health care". The Hill. November 1, 2018.
  15. ^ Geiger, A. W. (November 1, 2018). "A look at voters' views ahead of the 2018 midterms". Gallup.
  16. ^ a b c Skelley, Geoffrey (November 16, 2018). "Why Did The House Get Bluer And The Senate Get Redder?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  17. ^ a b "Republicans Are Favorites In The Senate, But Democrats Have Two Paths To An Upset". FiveThirtyEight. September 12, 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  18. ^ Wasserman, David (August 7, 2017). "The Congressional Map Has A Record-Setting Bias Against Democrats". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  19. ^ a b Smith, Allan (November 6, 2018). "In Senate midterm elections, Democrats fall short as Republicans retain control". NBC News. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  20. ^ a b Cillizza, Chris (November 13, 2018). "How Senate Democrats lost the battle but won the war in the 2018 election". CNN. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  21. ^ Wolf, Richard; Groppe, Maureen (November 7, 2018). "Republicans' Senate wins will help President Trump, his judicial and Cabinet nominees, and GOP chances in 2020". USA Today. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  22. ^ Brown, Matthew (November 7, 2018). "Montana Sen. Jon Tester prevails despite battering by Trump". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  23. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (April 11, 2018). "Retiring Republicans are practically handing House seats to Democrats". NBC News. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  24. ^ Petulla, Sam; Hansler, Jennifer (June 5, 2018). "There is a wave of Republicans leaving Congress, updated again". CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  25. ^ a b Rakich, Nathaniel (September 12, 2017). "The Recent Rush Of GOP Retirements Is Good For Democrats". FiveThirtyEight. FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
  26. ^ Cohn, Nate (September 29, 2017). "Why Retirements May Hold the Key in Whether Republicans Can Keep the House". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  27. ^ Speel, Robert (November 9, 2018). "Democrats won in 2018, but will they win in 2020?". The Globe Post. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  28. ^ "Statistics of the Congressional Election from Official Sources for the Election of November 6, 2018". Washington: United States House of Representatives. 2019. p. 58.
  29. ^ Silver, Nate (November 20, 2018). "Trump's Base Isn't Enough". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  30. ^ Skelley, Geoffrey (November 8, 2018). "The Suburbs—All Kinds Of Suburbs—Delivered The House To Democrats". FiveThirtyEightt. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  31. ^ "A Poor Night for Republicans in Clinton Districts". Roll Call. November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  32. ^ Skelley, Geoffrey (November 13, 2018). "There Was A Lot Of Turnover In The House In The 2018 Cycle". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  33. ^ "Albert Bryan Becomes Ninth Elected Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands". The Virgin Islands Consortium. Christiansted, St. Croix, USVI. November 20, 2018. Archived from the original on November 21, 2018. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  34. ^ Bacon, Perry Jr.; Skelley, Geoffrey (November 15, 2018). "What Does It Mean That Abrams And Gillum Are Both Likely To Lose?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  35. ^ Catanese, David (November 7, 2018). "Election 2018: Democrats Add 7 Governorships". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  36. ^ Tanzi, Alexandre (January 5, 2018). "These States Are Projected to Gain House Seats After 2020 Census". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  37. ^ a b c 2018 State Legislative Races By State and Legislative Chamber, National Conference of State Legislatures, February 23, 2018.
  38. ^ a b c d e f Quinton, Sophie; Povich, Elaine S. (November 9, 2018). "So Much Changed in Statehouses This Week. Here's What It All Means". Stateline. The Pew Charitable Trusts.
  39. ^ a b Rogers, Steven (November 12, 2018). "The blue wave was big—and significant—in state legislatures". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  40. ^ a b NCSL State Vote, National Conference of State Legislatures.
  41. ^ Jim Morrill & Paul A. Specht, Blue waves in urban North Carolina help Democrats break GOP 'supermajorities', Charlotte Observer (November 7, 2018).
  42. ^ Connor Radnovich, Oregon Democrats secure supermajorities in both chambers of Oregon Legislature, Salem Statesman Journal (November 7, 2018).
  43. ^ Wildermuth, John (November 13, 2018). "Nearly a Week After Election Day, California Democrats Regain Supermajority in Legislature". Governing. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  44. ^ Scott, Dylan (November 9, 2018). "Democratic wins in these 9 states will have seismic policy consequences". Vox. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  45. ^ Quinn, Steve (November 7, 2018). "ELECTION RESULTS: Republicans set to control executive, legislative branches". KTVA. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  46. ^ "Democrats Defy the Odds to Score Gains in Legislatures". Governing. November 9, 2022. Retrieved November 12, 2022.
  47. ^ Brooks, James (February 16, 2019). "Alaska House, with new-look coalition, expects to open budget discussions Monday". Anchorage Daily News.
  48. ^ Winger, Richard (October 7, 2018). "Big Increase in Number of Democratic Legislative Candidates".
  49. ^ Badger, Emily; Bui, Quoctrong; Pearce, Adam (November 10, 2018). "Republicans Dominate State Politics. But Democrats Made a Dent This Year". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  50. ^ Ingraham, Christopher (November 13, 2018). "In at least three states, Republicans lost the popular vote but won the House". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  51. ^ Greenblatt, Alan (November 7, 2018). "'Not Exactly a Blowout': Democrats Score Modest Gains in State Legislatures". Governing.
  52. ^ Mehrota, Kartikay (November 7, 2018). "Democrats Win Majority of AG Seats, 'Last Line of Resistance' Against Trump". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  53. ^ Jacobson, Louis (November 7, 2018). "Democrats Make Gains in Secretary of State Races". Governing Magazine. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  54. ^ Jacobson, Louis (November 8, 2018). "2018's Education Upheaval Doesn't Translate to Superintendent Elections". Governing. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  55. ^ Acquisto, Alex (December 5, 2018). "Democrats elected as Maine attorney general, secretary of state and treasurer". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  56. ^ Rodriguez, Barbara (December 3, 2018). "Will Rob Sand, Iowa's new state auditor, be the taxpayers' watchdog or a Democratic attack dog?". Des Moines Register. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  57. ^ Gross, Samantha J. (November 18, 2018). "How Nikki Fried won the only statewide office for Democrats". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  58. ^ "Attorney General elections, 2018". Ballotpedia. March 30, 2021.
  59. ^ "2018 ballot measures—Ballotpedia". Ballotpedia. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  60. ^ Hoyt, James Utah anti-gerrymandering proposition's passage may mean changes for Summit County, Parkrecord.com, November 24, 2018
  61. ^ Grinberg, Emanuella (November 7, 2018). "Voters approve abortion restrictions and recreational marijuana in state ballot initiatives". CNN. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  62. ^ Florida 2018 ballot measures – Ballotpedia
  63. ^ Greenblatt, Alan (November 7, 2018). "Where Voters Made It Easier, and Harder, to Vote in the Future". Governing. Folsom, California. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  64. ^ Rodgers, Bethany (December 4, 2018). "Utah has a new medical marijuana law—but not the one approved by voters in the recent election". The Salt Lake Tribune. Salt Lake City, Utah. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  65. ^ Angell, Tom (November 7, 2018). "Marijuana won the midterm elections". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  66. ^ Lopez, German (November 7, 2018). "Marijuana legalization had a pretty good election night". Vox. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  67. ^ McGreevy, Patrick (November 7, 2018). "California voters reject repeal of state gas tax and vehicle fee increase". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  68. ^ Laska, Alexander (November 9, 2018). "Voters Approved $30.68 Billion for Transportation on Election Day: Eno's Initial Findings". Eno Transportation Weekly. Washington, D.C. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  69. ^ a b c d Greenblatt, Alan (November 7, 2018). "In Major Cities, Most Incumbent Mayors Glide to Reelection". Governing.
  70. ^ Jamison, Peter; Nirappil, Fenit; Blint-Welsh, Tyler (November 6, 2018). "D.C. elections: Bowser becomes the first D.C. mayor to win reelection since 2002". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.
  71. ^ a b c "United States municipal elections, 2018". ballotpedia.org. Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  72. ^ Rizzo, Olivia (June 13, 2018). "2 elections later, Trenton has finally picked a new mayor". NJ Advance Media. Iselin, New Jersey. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  73. ^ "Osage Nation citizen wins election as mayor in Oklahoma's largest city". Indianz.com. February 20, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  74. ^ "Fort Smith swears in its first black mayor; leader intent on progress for city, he says". arkansasonline.com. January 5, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  75. ^ "Little Rock Elects Frank Scott Jr. as Next Mayor". KARK. Little Rock, Arkansas. December 4, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  76. ^ "Final voting results released for runoff races in Laredo, Rio Bravo". Laredo Morning Times. Laredo, Texas. December 13, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  77. ^ Garcia, Julie (December 18, 2018). "Joe McComb defeats Michael Hall to keep post as Corpus Christi mayor". Caller Times. Corpus Christi, Texas. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  78. ^ "Partisanship in United States municipal elections (2018)". ballotpedia.org. Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  79. ^ "District of Columbia Election Results". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.
  80. ^ Hayes, Laura; Giambrone, Andrew; Cohen, Matt (June 19, 2018). "Voters Pass Initiative 77, Eliminating Tipped Minimum Wage in D.C." Washington City Paper. Washington, D.C. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  81. ^ Nirappil, Fenit (October 16, 2018). "It's official: D.C. Council has repealed Initiative 77, which would have raised pay for tipped workers". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  82. ^ "Election Summary Report 2018 Regular Municipal Election Official Results", Municipality of Anchorage, November 3, 2018, archived from the original on June 12, 2020, retrieved December 5, 2018
  83. ^ "Fargo to become first city in U.S. to use approval voting". KFGO. Fargo, North Dakota. November 7, 2018. Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  84. ^ Foden-Vencil, Kristian (November 7, 2018). "Lane County Effort To Change Voting System Fails". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Portland, Oregon. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  85. ^ Lavin, Nancy (November 7, 2018). "Memphis voters reaffirm ranked choice voting". FairVote. Takoma Park, Maryland. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  86. ^ Hicks, Nancy (November 7, 2018). "Voters approve term limits; Mayor Beutler cannot run for re-election". Lincoln Journal Star. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  87. ^ Lynch, Bill. "Osage Nation Election Results Announced". Bartlesville Radio. Bartlesville, Oklahoma. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  88. ^ "Nez-Lizer Congratulate Tribal Leaders at San Carlos Apache Tribal Inauguration". Native News Online. December 9, 2018. Archived from the original on April 18, 2020. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  89. ^ Pollard, David (November 14, 2018). "Godwin easily wins re-election as tribal chairman". The Laurinburg Exchange. Lauinburg, North Carolina. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  90. ^ Burnham, Emily (September 11, 2018). "Kirk Francis re-elected as Penobscot Nation chief". Bangor Daily News. Bangor, Maine. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  91. ^ "Welcome to the Quapaw Nation: Tribal voters approve name change". Indianz.com. August 12, 2018. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  92. ^ Becenti, Arlyssa (November 7, 2018). "Nez wins by 19,000 votes". Navajo Times. Window Rock, Arizona. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  93. ^ Zionts, Arielle (November 7, 2018). "Bear Runner wins OST presidency, Black remains VP". Rapid City Journal. Rapid City, South Dakota. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  94. ^ Vondracek, Christopher (August 31, 2018). "Bordeaux elected president of Rosebud". Rapid City Journal. Rapid City, South Dakota. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  95. ^ Daye, Raymond L. (April 3, 2018). "Marshall Pierite Elected Tunica-Biloxi Chairman". Avoyelles Today. Marksville, Louisiana. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  96. ^ "Yurok Tribe brings on new chairman and vice chairman". Indianz.com. Winnebago, Nebraska. November 8, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
  97. ^ Billiot, Bette; Chaisson, Richard "Bosco". "RE: Principal Chief Inauguration" (PDF) (Press release). Golden Meadow, Louisiana: United Houma Nation. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  98. ^ Johnson, Michael (April 6, 2018). "WMAT makes history, elects first chairwoman". White Mountain Independent. Show Low, Arizona. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  99. ^ Wilson, Sam (January 3, 2018). "Ousted Northern Cheyenne President Re-elected by 2-Vote Margin". Billings Gazette. Billings, Montana. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  100. ^ Wilson, Sam (October 10, 2018). "Northern Cheyenne Tribe's president to resign, citing obstruction from tribal council". Billings Gazette. Billings, Montana. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  101. ^ "Historic highs in 2018 voter turnout extended across racial and ethnic groups".
  102. ^ Sharma, Manas; Mellnik, Ted; Fischer-Baum, Reuben (December 31, 2018). "How did voter turnout in your county compare to the 2016 presidential election?". The Washington Post.
  103. ^ Aytaç, S. Erdem; Stokes, Susan (November 20, 2018). "Americans just set a turnout record for the midterms, voting at the highest rate since 1914. This explains why". The Washington Post.
  104. ^ Dottle, Rachael; Koeze, Ella; Wolfe, Julie (November 13, 2018). "The 2018 Midterms, In 4 Charts". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  105. ^ a b Timmons, Heather (November 6, 2018). "Early voting breaks all previous records in the US's 2018 midterm elections—Quartz". qz.com. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  106. ^ The 2018 Midterms, In 4 Charts. FiveThirtyEight. By Rachael Dottle, Ella Koeze and Julia Wolfe. November 13, 2018.
  107. ^ a b Women candidates for Congress 1974–2018. Center for American Women and Politics. There are separate columns for House and Senate numbers by election. Party and seat summary for major party nominees.
  108. ^ a b Schouten, Fredreka (February 7, 2018). "A record $5.7 billion was spent on the 2018 elections for Congress". CNN.
  109. ^ a b c d e "Women and LGBT candidates make history in 2018 midterms". CNN. November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  110. ^ a b Danielle Kurtzleben, Sean McMinn & Renee Klahr, What It Looks Like to Have a Record Number of Women in the House of Representatives, NPR (January 4, 2019).
  111. ^ Women in the U.S. Congress 2019. Center for American Women and Politics.
  112. ^ Republican victory sets record for female senators. By Adam Levy, November 28, 2018. CNN.
  113. ^ "First Muslim women in Congress: Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar". CNN. November 6, 2018.
  114. ^ "Meet Ayanna Pressley, who is on track to become Massachusetts' first black Congresswoman". CNBC. November 6, 2018.
  115. ^ Petersen, Anne (April 26, 2018). "Could Paulette Jordan Be The First Native American Governor? In Idaho, any Democrat running is a long shot. But Paulette Jordan—who, if elected, would become the first Native American to serve as a governor—doesn't mind the odds, and isn't heeding calls to let an older, white, established candidate take her place". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  116. ^ Riley Snyder, "Nevada becomes first state with majority female Legislature Nevada becomes first state with majority female Legislature, Nevada Independent (December 18, 2018).
  117. ^ Zwirz, Elizabeth (November 9, 2018). "Arizona Senate vote count settlement reached; counties given extension to cure ballots". Fox News. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  118. ^ "Martha McSally to fill McCain Senate seat after losing race". Arizona Daily Star. December 19, 2018.
  119. ^ Robles, Frances (November 10, 2018). "Florida Begins Vote Recounts in Senate and Governor's Races". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  120. ^ Boddiger, David. "Andrew Gillum Withdraws Concession After FL Vote Recount Confirmed". Splinter. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  121. ^ Skambis, Chip (November 13, 2018). "Here's a running list of the lawsuits filed in the Florida midterm election". WFTV. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  122. ^ Smiley, David (November 20, 2018). "How Florida's clear-cut 2018 midterms devolved into a recount sequel". Miami Herald.
  123. ^ Merica, Dan; Grayer, Annie. "Brenda Snipes resigns as Broward County supervisor of elections". CNN. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  124. ^ Bridges, Ashley (November 10, 2018). "The ballot count continues in the Georgia Governors race". WJBF. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  125. ^ a b Niesse, Mark (November 17, 2018). "Georgia certifies election results after nearly two weeks of drama". Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  126. ^ Shah, Khushbu (November 10, 2018). "'Textbook voter suppression': Georgia's bitter election a battle years in the making". The Guardian. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  127. ^ Anapol, Avery (November 12, 2018). "Stacey Abrams files new lawsuit in Georgia election". The Hill. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  128. ^ Brumback, Bill Barrow and Kate. "Stacey Abrams ends bid for Georgia governor, plans to file lawsuit over 'gross mismanagement' of elections". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  129. ^ a b Rosenberg, Eli (December 5, 2018). "The Shoe-Leather Reporting Boosting North Carolina's Explosive Election Fraud Investigation". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  130. ^ Ingber, Sasha (December 1, 2018). "Amid Fraud Allegations, North Carolina Election Board Won't Certify House Race". NPR. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  131. ^ Bowden, John (December 28, 2018). "Hoyer: Democrats won't seat NC Republican amid election fraud investigation". The Hill. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  132. ^ Blinder, Alan (February 18, 2019). "In North Carolina, Investigators Find Ballot 'Scheme' in House Race". The New York Times. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  133. ^ Caldwell, Leigh Ann (February 21, 2019). "New election ordered in North Carolina House district after possible illegal activities". NBC News. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  134. ^ Blinder, Alan (May 14, 2019). "Dan Bishop Wins North Carolina's Republican Primary for New Congressional Vote". The New York Times.
  135. ^ Fausset, Richard; Martin, Jonathan (September 10, 2019). "Dan Bishop, North Carolina Republican, Wins Special Election". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  136. ^ Krieg, Gregory; Sullivan, Kate (September 10, 2019). "Republican Dan Bishop narrowly wins closely watched North Carolina special congressional election". CNN. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  137. ^ Herb, Jeremy (February 13, 2018). "US intel chiefs unanimous that Russia is targeting 2018 elections". CNN. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  138. ^ Rosenberg, Matthew; Fandos, Nicholas (February 13, 2018). "Russia Sees Midterm Elections as Chance to Sow Fresh Discord, Intelligence Chiefs Warn". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  139. ^ Schlesinger, Robert (February 13, 2018). "'Frankly, the United States Is Under Attack': U.S. intelligence chiefs warn of Russian 2018 election interference about which Trump remains unmoved". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  140. ^ Cohen, Zachary; Koran, Laura (May 23, 2018). "Pompeo says the US has not done enough to protect 2018 elections". CNN.
  141. ^ Diamond, Jeremy (July 24, 2018). "Trump suddenly says he's 'very concerned' about 2018 Russian interference". CNN.
  142. ^ Landler, Mark (September 26, 2018). "Trump Accuses China of Interfering in Midterm Elections". The New York Times.
  143. ^ Kirby, Jen (August 2, 2018). "The US intel chief just said Russian interference is "continuing"". Vox.
  144. ^ Eli, Watkins (July 26, 2018). "Claire McCaskill says attempted Russia hacking on her office 'not successful'". CNN.
  145. ^ Mak, Tim (August 2, 2018). "This Is 'Not Fine': New Evidence Of Russian Interference Meets Inaction, Frustration". NPR.
  146. ^ Desiderio, Andrew; Poulsen, Kevin (July 30, 2018). "Mystery Sting Targets U.S. Senator for Dirt on Russia Sanctions". The Daily Beast – via www.thedailybeast.com.
  147. ^ Leary, Alex; Bousquet, Steve; Wilson, Kirby (August 8, 2018). "Bill Nelson: The Russians have penetrated some Florida voter registration systems". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
  148. ^ "Analysis—Has Russia hacked into Florida's election system? There is no evidence". The Washington Post.
  149. ^ Farrington, Brendan (May 14, 2019). "DeSantis: Russians accessed 2 Florida voting databases". Associated Press. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  150. ^ Lemongello, Steven (May 6, 2019). "Rubio knew about election hacking but was restricted in what he could say in Nelson's defense". orlandosentinel.com. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  151. ^ "No evidence of midterm vote tampering, but influence operations persisted: US intelligence". ABC News. December 22, 2018.
  152. ^ Isenstadt, Alex; Bresnahan, John (December 4, 2018). "Exclusive: Emails of top NRCC officials stolen in major 2018 hack". Politico.
  153. ^ "China, Caught Meddling in Past Two US Elections, Claims 'Not Interested' in 2020 Vote". Voice of America. April 30, 2020.
  154. ^ Friedman, Dan. "Russians used a US firm to funnel funds to GOP in 2018. Dems say the FEC let them get away with it". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 1, 2022.
  155. ^ Prokop, Andrew (November 5, 2018). "The midterm elections are about whether Republican power will be checked". Vox. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  156. ^ Ewing, Philip (September 18, 2020). "Trump's Nominee To Succeed Ginsburg Would Cap A GOP Judicial Wave". NPR.
  157. ^ Rucker, Philip; Dawsey, Josh (November 7, 2018). "Trump vows 'beautiful' deals with Democrats but threatens 'warlike' retaliation to probes". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  158. ^ Schor, Elena; Everett, Burgess (November 10, 2018). "Schumer's Dems see silver lining in midterm losses". Politico. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  159. ^ Tucker, Eric (November 7, 2018). "President Trump Was 'Very Helpful' With Republican Senate Gains, McConnell Says". Time. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  160. ^ a b "Yes, It Was A Blue Wave". FiveThirtyEight. November 14, 2018. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  161. ^ a b "Democratic 'blue wave' in US midterms finally crests". Financial Times. 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  162. ^ a b Silver, Nate (November 20, 2018). "Trump's Base Isn't Enough". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  163. ^ a b Burns, Alexander (November 13, 2018). "A Week After the Election, Democratic Gains Grow Stronger". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  164. ^ Graham, Chris (November 7, 2018). "'Split decision': How US newspapers reacted to the midterm elections". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  165. ^ Cohn, Nate (November 7, 2018). "Why Democrats' Gain Was More Impressive Than It Appears". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  166. ^ a b Zurcher, Anthony (November 21, 2018). "How US mid-terms just got worse for Trump". BBC News. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  167. ^ Astor, Maggie; Lai, K. K. Rebecca (November 29, 2018). "What's Stronger Than a Blue Wave? Gerrymandered Districts". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  168. ^ Pogkas, Demetrios; Gu, Jackie; Ingold, David; Rojanasakul, Mira (November 10, 2018). "How Democrats Broke the House Map Republicans Drew". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  169. ^ Bussing, Austin; Patton, Will; Roberts, Jason M.; Treul, Sarah A. (May 8, 2020). "The Electoral Consequences of Roll Call Voting: Health Care and the 2018 Election". Political Behavior. 44: 157–177. doi:10.1007/s11109-020-09615-4. ISSN 1573-6687. S2CID 218963597.
  170. ^ Blanchard, Emily J.; Bown, Chad P.; Chor, Davin (2024). "Did Trump's trade war impact the 2018 election?". Journal of International Economics. doi:10.1016/j.jinteco.2024.103891. hdl:10419/226289. ISSN 0022-1996.
  171. ^ Fetzer, Thiemo; Schwarz, Carlo (2021). "Tariffs and Politics: Evidence from Trump's Trade Wars". The Economic Journal. 131 (636): 1717–1741. doi:10.1093/ej/ueaa122. hdl:10419/198913. ISSN 0013-0133.
  172. ^ Chyzh, Olga V.; Urbatsch, Robert (2021). "Bean Counters: The Effect of Soy Tariffs on Change in Republican Vote Share between the 2016 and 2018 Elections". The Journal of Politics. 83 (1): 415–419. doi:10.1086/709434. ISSN 0022-3816. S2CID 148566009.
  173. ^ Schaffner, Brian F. (2020). "The Heightened Importance of Racism and Sexism in the 2018 US Midterm Elections". British Journal of Political Science. 52: 492–500. doi:10.1017/S0007123420000319. ISSN 0007-1234. S2CID 241872338.
  174. ^ "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 2018". U.S. House of Reps, Office of the Clerk. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  175. ^ "2017 State & Legislative Partisan Composition" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislatures. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2020. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  176. ^ "2018 State & Legislative Partisan Composition" (PDF). NCSL. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  177. ^ "2018 Midterm Election Results: Live". The New York Times. November 6, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  178. ^ Coleman, Miles. "2016 State PVI Changes". Decision Desk HQ. Archived from the original on October 14, 2017. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  179. ^ "Fox News, CNN Split the 2018 Midterm Election Ratings Battle". Adweek. November 7, 2018.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]