2018 elections in India

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Elections in the Republic of India in 2018 included by-elections to the Lok Sabha, elections to the Rajya Sabha, elections to of eight states and numerous other by-elections to state legislative assemblies, councils and local bodies.

The elections were widely considered crucial to the ruling National Democratic Alliance and the opposition United Progressive Alliance in lieu of the upcoming general elections in 2019. In seven of the eight states that went to polls this year, the Bharatiya Janata Party was in direct contest with the Indian National Congress. Further, the election results[1] in the states of Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Mizoram and Rajasthan are considered a barometer of the pulse of the public before the general elections. Elections to the upper house where the ruling National Democratic Alliance does not command a majority are by kicking on the part of all the political leaders expected to strengthen its position.

Background[edit]

Political System[edit]

According to the Constitution of India, elections should take place to the parliament and state legislative assemblies every five years, unless an emergency is under operation. Further, any vacancy caused by death or resignation must be filled through an election within six months of occurrence of such vacancy. The elections to the lower houses (in Parliament and in the states) use first past the post system - the candidate with a plurality of the votes wins the election.

Elections to one-third of the seats of the upper house of the Parliament - the Rajya Sabha are conducted every two years. The members of the upper house are elected indirectly by the state legislative assemblies on the basis of proportional representation. Members to the state legislative councils (in states which have an upper house) are elected indirectly through local bodies.[2]

All the elections at the central and state level are conducted by the Election Commission of India while local body elections are conducted by state election commissions.[3]

Parliamentary By-election[edit]

By-elections to the Lok Sabha[edit]

January[edit]

2018 Winner 2014 Winner State Constituency
INC BJP Rajasthan Alwar
INC BJP Rajasthan Ajmer
AITC AITC West Bengal Uluberia
  • Alwar (Lok Sabha constituency): Elections were held on 29 January to elect a new member of parliament after the death of the incumbent Mahant Chandnath of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Both the Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress fielded candidates from the yadav community. 61.77% of the total 18,27,936 voters participated in the election.[4] For the first time in the country, election commission has placed candidates' photos next to their name to help voters identify the candidates. In what was seen as a body blow to the state government, the INC wrested control of the seat from the BJP, with its candidate Karan Singh Yadav winning the seat by a margin of 1,96,496 votes.[5][6]
  • Ajmer (Lok Sabha constituency): Elections were held on 29 January to elect a new member of parliament after the death of the incumbent Sanwar Lal Jat of the Bharatiya Janata Party. 65% of the total 18.43 lakh voters participated in the election.[4] For the first time in the country, the election commission has placed candidates' photos next to their name to help voters identify the candidates. In what was seen as a body blow to the state government, the INC wrested control of the seat from the BJP, its candidate Raghu Sharma won by a margin of 84,238 votes.[7]
  • Uluberia (Lok Sabha constituency): Elections were held on 29 January to elect a new member of parliament after the death of Mohammedan Sporting Club's president and All India Trinamool Congress M.P Sultan Ahmed.[8] Trinamool Congress candidate Sajda Ahmed won Uluberia Lok Sabha seat by defeating BJP candidate Anupam Mallick by 4,74,023 votes.[9]

March[edit]

2018 Winner 2014 Winner State Constituency Note
SP BJP Uttar Pradesh Gorakhpur Elections were held on March 11 to elect a new member of Parliament after the incumbent member Yogi Adityanath resigned from the post after he was appointed the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.[10][11]
SP BJP Uttar Pradesh Phulpur Elections were held on March 14 to elect a new member of Parliament after the incumbent member Keshav Prasad Maurya resigned from the post after he was appointed the Deputy Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.[10][12]
RJD RJD Bihar Araria The constituency fell vacant after the death of RJD MP Mohammed Taslimuddin.[10]

May[edit]

4 parliamentary seats were contested on 28 May 2018.[13][14] The counting of votes took place on May 31.[13][15] This election saw the ruling BJP party lose their majority in the lower house of the Indian Parliament[16]

2018 Winner 2014 Winner State Constituency Note
RLD BJP Uttar Pradesh Kairana The constituency fell vacant after the death of BJP MP Hukum Singh.
NCP BJP Maharashtra Bhandara-Gondiya Nana Patole quit as the BJP MP and resigned from the ruling party to return to the Congress earlier this year, necessitating the by-election.
BJP BJP Maharashtra Palghar Palghar seat in north Konkan fell vacant after sitting BJP MP Chintaman Vanga died on 30 January following a heart attack.
NDPP NPF Nagaland Nagaland The by-election was necessitated after NDPP's Neiphiu Rio resigned to take on the role of Nagaland chief minister.

November

3 parliamentary seats had been contested on 3 November 2018 in Karnataka. Results were declared on 6 November 2018.

2018 Winner 2014 Winner State Constituency Note
INC BJP Karnataka Bellary Bellary Lok Sabha constituency was vacated due to Sriramulu being elected to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly in May 2018.
JDS JDS Karnataka Mandya This seat was vacated after sitting MP had joined Karnataka Government as Minister for minor irrigation
BJP BJP Karnataka Shivamogga Shivamogga constituency was vacated B. S. Yeddyurappa has quit after being elected to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly in May 2018

Legislative assembly elections[edit]

Date State Government before Chief Minister before Government after Elected Chief Minister
18 February 2018 Tripura Communist Party of India (Marxist) Manik Sarkar Bharatiya Janata Party Biplab Kumar Deb
27 February 2018 Meghalaya Indian National Congress Mukul Sangma National People's Party Conrad Sangma
United Democratic Party
People's Democratic Front
Bharatiya Janata Party
27 February 2018 Nagaland Naga People's Front T. R. Zeliang Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party Neiphiu Rio
Bharatiya Janata Party
12 May 2018 Karnataka Indian National Congress Siddaramaiah Indian National Congress H. D. Kumaraswamy
Janata Dal (Secular)
12 & 20 November 2018 Chhattisgarh Bharatiya Janata Party Raman Singh Indian National Congress Bhupesh Baghel
28 November 2018 Madhya Pradesh Bharatiya Janata Party Shivraj Singh Chouhan Indian National Congress Kamal Nath[17]
28 November 2018 Mizoram Indian National Congress Lal Thanhawla Mizo National Front Zoramthanga
7 December 2018 Rajasthan Bharatiya Janata Party Vasundhra Raje Indian National Congress Ashok Gehlot
7 December 2018 Telangana Telangana Rashtra Samithi K. Chandrasekhar Rao Telangana Rashtra Samithi K. Chandrashekar Rao

Tripura[edit]

Elections were held in Tripura on 18 February 2018 in 59 out of 60 constituencies of the Legislative Assembly.[18] The Left Front led by Manik Sarkar sought re-election, having governed Tripura since the 1998 election. The region in general had been under the political control of the Communist Party for 25 years prior to the election, leading to the region being dubbed a "red holdout".[19] The incumbent Left Front government was defeated after 25 years of office, with the Bharatiya Janata Party and Indigenous Peoples Front of Tripura winning a large majority of seats. The Indian National Congress, which was the second largest party in the 2013 election, lost all its seats and most of its vote share.

Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Won +/−
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 999,093 43.0 36 Increase36
Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM) 992,575 42.7 16 Decrease33
Indigenous Peoples Front of Tripura (IPFT) 173,603 7.5 8 Increase8
Indian National Congress (INC) 41,325 1.8 0 Decrease10
Communist Party of India (CPI) 19,352 0.8 0 Decrease1
Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP) 17,568 0.8 0 Steady
Indigenous Nationalist Party of Twipra (INPT) 16,255 0.7 0 Steady
All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) 13,115 0.6 0 Steady
All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) 6,989 0.3 0 Steady
Independents (IND) 0 Steady
Other parties and coalitions 0 Steady
None of the Above (NOTA)
Vacant seat 1 Increase1
Total 100.00 60 ±0

Meghalaya[edit]

Elections were held in Meghalaya on 27 February 2018 to elect 59 of 60 members to the Legislative Assembly. The incumbent Indian National Congress government controlled the state in a coalition with smaller parties prior to the election, and sought to retain office. The elections resulted in a hung assembly with no single party or alliance getting the requisite majority of 31 seats in the Vidhan Sabha.[20] Conrad Sangma, leader of the National People's Party, announced that he would form a government with the support of the United Democratic Party and other regional parties.[21][22] He was sworn in as the Chief Minister, along with eleven other ministers.[23]

Party Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Contested Won +/−
Indian National Congress (INC) 447,472 28.5 59 21 Decrease8
National People's Party (NPP) 323,500 20.6 52 19 Increase17
United Democratic Party (UDP) 182,491 11.6 27 6 Decrease2
Independents (IND) 170,249 10.8 3 Decrease10
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 151,217 9.6 47 2 Increase2
People's Democratic Front (PDF) 128,413 8.2 8 4 Increase4
Hill State People's Democratic Party (HSPDP) 84,011 5.3 15 2 Increase1
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) 25,247 1.6 6 1 Decrease1
Garo National Council (GNC) 21,679 1.4 7 0 Decrease1
Khun Hynniewtrep National Awakening Movement (KHNAM) 14,164 0.9 6 1 Increase1
All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) 5,544 0.4 0 Steady
None of the Above (NOTA) 14,631 0.9
Vacant seat 1 Increase1
Total 100.00 297 60 ±0

Nagaland[edit]

Elections were held in Nagaland on 27 February 2018 in 59 out of 60 constituencies of the Legislative Assembly. The scheduled election in Northern Angami II constituency did not take place as only incumbent MLA Neiphiu Rio was nominated and was therefore declared elected unopposed.[24][25] The ruling Naga People's Front was challenged by the newly established Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party (NDPP), an ally of the Bharatiya Janata Party. The NDPP and its allies won a majority, with former Chief Minister Neiphiu Rio returning to government.

Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Candidates Won +/−
Nagaland People's Front (NPF) 389,912 38.8 58 26 Decrease12
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party (NDPP) 253,090 25.2 40 18 Increase18
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 153,864 15.3 20 12 Increase11
National People's Party (NPP) 69,506 6.9 25 2 Increase2
Janata Dal (United) (JD(U)) 45,089 4.5 13 1 Steady
Independents (IND) 43,008 4.3 11 1 Decrease7
Indian National Congress (INC) 20,752 2.1 18 0 Decrease8
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) 10,693 1.1 6 0 Decrease4
Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) 7,491 0.7 3 0 Steady
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) 2,765 0.3 2 0 Steady
None of the Above (NOTA)
Total 100.00 196 60 ±0

Karnataka[edit]

Elections were held in Karnataka on 12 May 2018 in 222 out of 224 constituencies of the Legislative Assembly. The incumbent Indian National Congress (INC) was seeking re-election, having governed the state since elections in 2013.[26] The opposition Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Janata Dal (Secular) (JD(S)) sought to regain office. The election led to a hung assembly, with the Bharatiya Janata Party emerging as the single largest party, with 104 seats, but failing to win a majority of seats and popular votes. The Indian National Congress (INC) won the popular vote.[27] Following the election, B. S. Yeddyurappa was appointed Chief Minister and tasked with forming a minority BJP government, but resigned two days later on being unable to prove majority in the assembly. Thereafter the INC and JD(S) which had entered into a post-poll agreement formed a majority coalition government. H.D. Kumaraswamy of Janata Dal (Secular) was subsequently appointed Chief Minister.

Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Won +/−
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 1,31,85,384 36.2 Increase16.3 104 Increase64
Indian National Congress (INC) 1,39,32,069 38.0 Increase1.4 80 Decrease44
Janata Dal (Secular) (JDS) 66,66,307 18.3 Decrease1.9 37 Decrease3
Independents (IND) 14,37,045 3.9 Decrease 3.5 1 Decrease8
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 1,08,592 0.3 1 Increase1
Karnataka Pragnyavantha Janatha Party (KPJP) 74,229 0.2 1 Increase1
Other parties and candidates 6,83,632 2.2 0 Decrease13
None of the Above (NOTA) 3,22,841 0.9
Total 100.00 224 ±0

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Won +/−
INC + 15,595,153 40.9% Increase4.59% 114 Increase56
BJP 15,642,980 41% Decrease3.88% 109 Decrease56
BSP 1,911,642 5% Decrease1.29% 2 Decrease2
SP 496,025 1.3% Increase0.1% 1 Increase1
Independents 2,218,230 5.8% Increase0.42% 4 Increase1
None of the Above 542,295 1.4%
Total 100.00 230 ±0

Chhatishgarh[edit]

Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Won +/−
Indian National Congress (INC) 61,36,429 43.0% Increase2.71% 68 Increase29
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 47,01,530 33.0% Decrease8.04% 15 Decrease34
Janta Congress Chhattisgarh (JCC) 10,81,760 7.6% Increase 7.6% 5 Increase 5
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 5,51,687 3.9% Decrease0.37% 2 Increase1
None of the Above (NOTA) 2,82,588 2.0%
Total 90 ±0

Mizoram[edit]

Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Won +/−
Mizo National Front 237,305 37.6% Increase8.9pp 26 Increase21
Indian National Congress 190,412 30.1% Decrease14.5pp 5 Decrease29
Zoram People's Movement 144,925 22.9% Decrease1.5pp 8 Increase5
Bharatiya Janata Party 50,744 8% Increase7.6pp 1 Increase1
Others 8,211 1.3% Decrease0.7pp 0 Steady0
Total 631,597 100.00 40 ±0

Rajasthan[edit]

The seat and vote share was as follows:[28][29]

Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Won +/−
Indian National Congress 1,39,35,201 39.3% Increase6.23 100 Increase79
Bharatiya Janata Party 1,37,57,502 38.8% Decrease6.37 73 Decrease92
Bahujan Samaj Party 14,10,995 4.0% Increase0.63 6 Increase3
Independents 33,72,206 9.5% Increase1.29 13 Increase6
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party 8,56,038 2.4% New 3 New
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 4,34,210 1.2% Increase0.33 2 Increase2
Bharatiya Tribal Party 2,55,100 0.7% New 2 New
Rashtriya Lok Dal 1,16,320 0.3% Increase0.29 1 Increase1
Other parties and candidates (OTH) 8,87,317 2.5% Increase0.00 0 Increase0
None of the Above 4,67,781 1.3%
Total 3,54,92,670 100.00 199 ±0

Telangana[edit]

Parties and coalitions 2018 Votes & Seats
Votes % Won +/-
Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) 9,700,749 46.9% 88 Increase25
Indian National Congress (INC) 5,883,111 28.4% 19 Decrease2
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (AIMIM) 561,089 2.7% 7 Steady
Telugu Desam Party (TDP) 725,845 3.5% 2 Decrease13
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 1,450,456 7.1% 1 Decrease4
All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) 159,141 1.8% 1 Increase1
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 428,430 2.1% 0 Decrease2
Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM) 91,099 0.4% 0 Decrease1
Communist Party of India (CPI) 83,215 0.4% 0 Decrease1
Independents (IND) 673,694 3.3% 1 Steady
None of the above (India) (NOTA) 224,709 1.1%
Total 119

Assembly By-elections[edit]

Bihar[edit]

S.No Date Constituency MLA before election Party before election Elected MLA Party after election
1 11 March 2018 Bhabua Anand Bhushan Pandey Bharatiya Janata Party Rinki Rani Pandey Bharatiya Janata Party
2 Jehanabad Mudrika Singh Yadav Rashtriya Janata Dal Suday Yadav Rashtriya Janata Dal

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

S.No Date Constituency MLA before election Party before election Elected MLA Party after election
1 24 February 2018 Kolaras Ram Singh Yadav Indian National Congress Mahendra Singh Yadav Indian National Congress
2 Mungaoli Mahendra Singh Kalukheda Indian National Congress Brajendra Singh Yadav Indian National Congress

Meghalaya[edit]

S.No Date Constituency MLA before election Party before election Elected MLA Party after election
1 27 April 2018 Williamnagar Election Cancelled in 2018 Assembly Election Marcuise Marak National People's Party

Odisha[edit]

S.No Date Constituency MLA before election Party before election Elected MLA Party after election
1 24 February 2018 Bijepur Subal Sahu Indian National Congress Rita Sahu Biju Janata Dal

Punjab[edit]

S.No Date Constituency MLA before election Party before election Elected MLA Party after election
1 28 May 2018 Shahkot Ajit Singh Kohar Shiromani Akali Dal Hardev Singh Ladi Indian National Congress

Rajasthan[edit]

S.No Date Constituency MLA before election Party before election Elected MLA Party after election
1 29 January 2018 Mandalgarh Kirti Kumari Bharatiya Janata Party Vivek Dhakar Indian National Congress

Uttarakhand[edit]

S.No Date Constituency MLA before election Party before election Elected MLA Party after election
1 28 May 2018 Tharali Maganlal Shah Bharatiya Janata Party Munni Devi Shah Bharatiya Janata Party

West Bengal[edit]

S.No Date Constituency MLA before election Party before election Elected MLA Party after election
1 29 January 2018 Noapara Madhusudan Ghose Indian National Congress Sunil Singh All India Trinamool Congress
2 28 May 2018 Maheshtala Kasturi Das All India Trinamool Congress Dulal Chandra Da All India Trinamool Congress

Local body elections[edit]

Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

Panchayat elections and municipal elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir in 2018 from October 8 till December 11.[30] The last time Panchayat elections were held in the state were in 2011 and the last time municipal elections were held were in 2005.[31][32]

Uttarakhand[edit]

On 18 November, elections to the local bodies were held in Uttarakhand.

Rural elections[edit]

Assam[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  33. ^ 2018 Assam State Panchayat election pdf Election Commission of Assam official website

External links[edit]