2018 in paleontology

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2016
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2018
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Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2018.

Plants[edit]

Cnidarians[edit]

Research[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Astraraeatrochus[5]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Haplaraeoidea and the family Astraraeidae. The type species is A. bachi.

Astreoidogyra[6]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ricci, Lathuilière & Rusciadelli

Late Jurassic

 Italy

A member of the family Rhipidogyridae. The type species is A. giadae.

Aulocystis wendti[7]

Sp. nov

Valid

Król, Zapalski & Berkowski

Devonian (Emsian)

Amerboh Group

 Morocco

A tabulate coral belonging to the family Aulocystidae.

Bainbridgia bipartita[7]

Sp. nov

Valid

Król, Zapalski & Berkowski

Devonian (Emsian)

Kess-Kess Formation

 Morocco

A tabulate coral belonging to the family Pyrgiidae.

Cambrorhytium gracilis[8]

Sp. nov

Valid

Chang et al.

Early Cambrian

 China

Catenipora jingyangensis[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Liang, Elias & Lee

Ordovician (Katian)

Beiguoshan Formation

 China

A tabulate coral.

Catenipora tiewadianensis[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Liang, Elias & Lee

Ordovician (Katian)

Beiguoshan Formation

 China

A tabulate coral.

Catenipora tongchuanensis[9]

Sp. nov

Valid

Liang, Elias & Lee

Ordovician (Sandbian)

Jinghe Formation

 China

A tabulate coral.

Clausastrea eliasovae[6]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ricci, Lathuilière & Rusciadelli

Late Jurassic

 Italy

A member of the family Montlivaltiidae.

Crinopora ireneae[5]

Sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Heterocoenioidea and the family Carolastraeidae.

Crinopora thomasi[5]

Sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Heterocoenioidea and the family Carolastraeidae.

Fuchungopora huilongensis[10]

Sp. nov

Valid

Liang et al.

Devonian (Famennian)

Etoucun Formation

 China

A syringoporoid tabulate coral.

Geroastrea[5]

Gen. et sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria
 France
 Iran

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Cyclolitoidea and the family Synastraeidae. The type species is G. alexi; genus also includes G. audiensis (Reig Oriol, 1992), G. haueri (Reuss, 1854) and G. parvistella (Oppenheim, 1930).

Gosaviaraea aimeae[5]

Sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria

A stony coral.

Kozaniastrea[11]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Löser, Steuber & Löser

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

 Greece

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Felixaraeoidea and the family Lamellofungiidae. The type species is K. pachysepta.

Nefocoenia seewaldi[5]

Sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Phyllosmilioidea and the family Phyllosmiliidae.

Nefocoenia werneri[5]

Sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Phyllosmilioidea and the family Phyllosmiliidae.

Neopilophyllia[12]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Wang in Wang et al.

Silurian (Telychian)

Ningqiang Formation

 China

A rugose coral belonging to the new family Amplexoididae. The type species is "Ningqiangophyllum" crassothecatum Cao (1975); genus also includes "Ningqiangophyllum" tenuiseptatum irregulare Cao (1975) (raised to the rank of a separate species Neopilophyllia irregularis), "Ningqiangophyllum" ephippium Cao (1975) and "Pilophyllia" alternata Chen in Wang et al. (1986).

Opolestraea[13]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Morycowa

Middle Triassic (Anisian)

Karchowice Beds

 Poland

A stony coral belonging to the family Eckastraeidae. The type species is "Coelocoenia" exporrecta Weissermel (1925).

Pachyheterocoenia[5]

Gen. et sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria
 Spain

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Heterocoenioidea and the family Heterocoeniidae. The type species is P. leipnerae; genus also includes P. grandis (Reuss, 1854) and P. fuchsi (Felix, 1903).

Pachyphylliopsis[5]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria
 Iran
 United Arab Emirates

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Phyllosmilioidea and the family Phyllosmiliidae. The type species is P. magnum.

Paractinacis[5]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria
 Germany
 Spain

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Cyclolitoidea and the family Negoporitidae. The type species is P. uliae; genus might also include P. ? elegans (Reuss, 1854).

Plesiolites[11]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Löser, Steuber & Löser

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

 Greece

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Misistelloidea. The type species is P. winnii.

Proplesiastraea rivkae[5]

Sp. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Cladocoroidea and the family Columastraeidae.

Striatopora marsupia[7]

Sp. nov

Valid

Król, Zapalski & Berkowski

Devonian (Emsian)

Amerboh Group

 Morocco

A tabulate coral belonging to the family Pachyporidae.

Styloheterocoenia[11]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Löser, Steuber & Löser

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

 Greece

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Heterocoenioidea and the family Heterocoeniidae. The type species is S. hellenensis; genus also includes S. brunni.

Synhydnophora[5]

Gen. et sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Löser & Heinrich

Late Cretaceous

 Austria

A stony coral belonging to the superfamily Cyclolitoidea and the family Synastraeidae. The type species is S. wagreichi; genus also includes and S. multilamellosa (Reuss, 1854).

Wendticyathus[14]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Berkowski

Devonian (Emsian)

 Morocco

A rugose coral. Genus includes new species W. nudus.

Xystriphylloides distinctus[15]

Sp. nov

Valid

Yu

Early Devonian

 China

A rugose coral.

Arthropods[edit]

Brachiopods[edit]

Research[edit]

  • Studies on the ontogenetic development of early acrotretoid brachiopods based on well preserved specimens of the earliest Cambrian species Eohadrotreta zhenbaensis and Eohadrotreta? zhujiahensis from the Shuijingtuo Formation (China) are published by Zhang et al. (2018).[16][17]
  • A study on the extinction and origination of members of the order Strophomenida during the Late Ordovician mass extinction is published by Sclafani et al. (2018).[18]
  • A study on the body size of several brachiopod assemblages recorded into the extinction interval prior to the Toarcian turnover, collected from representative localities around the Iberian Massif (Spain and Portugal), is published by García Joral, Baeza-Carratalá & Goy (2018).[19]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Adygella socotrana[20]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gaetani in Gaetani et al.

Middle Triassic

 Yemen

A member of Terebratulida belonging to the family Dielasmatidae.

Ahtiella famatiniana[21]

Sp. nov

Valid

Benedetto

Ordovician

 Argentina

Ahtiella tunaensis[21]

Sp. nov

Valid

Benedetto

Ordovician

 Argentina

Alebusirhynchia vorosi[22]

Sp. nov

Valid

Baeza-Carratalá, Dulai & Sandoval

Early Jurassic

 Spain

A member of Rhynchonellida.

Alekseevathyris[23]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Baranov & Blodgett

Devonian (Givetian)

Coronados Volcanics

 United States
( Alaska)

A member of Terebratulida belonging to the family Stringocephalidae. The type species is A. coronadosensis.

Altaethyrella tarimensis[24]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sproat & Zhan

Ordovician (late Katian)

Hadabulaktag Formation

 China

Ambocoelia yidadeensis[25]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhang & Ma

Devonian (Frasnian)

Yidade Formation

 China

Biernatium sucoi[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

García-Alcalde

Devonian (Givetian)

Portilla Formation

 Spain

A member of Orthida belonging to the family Mystrophoridae.

Broggeria omaguaca[27]

Sp. nov

Valid

Benedetto, Lavie & Muñoz

Ordovician (Tremadocian)

 Argentina

Churkinella[23]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Baranov & Blodgett

Devonian (Givetian)

Coronados Volcanics

 United States
( Alaska)

A member of Terebratulida belonging to the family Stringocephalidae. The type species is C. craigensis.

Cingulodermis pustulatus[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mergl

Devonian (Emsian)

 Morocco

Coronadothyris[23]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Baranov & Blodgett

Devonian (Givetian)

Coronados Volcanics

 United States
( Alaska)

A member of Terebratulida belonging to the family Stringocephalidae. The type species is C. mica.

Costisorthis lisae[26]

Sp. nov

Valid

García-Alcalde

Devonian (Givetian)

Candás Formation

 Spain

A member of Orthida belonging to the family Dalmanellidae.

Cyrtiorina houi[29]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zong & Ma

Devonian (Famennian)

Hongguleleng Formation

 China

A brachiopod belonging to the group Spiriferida.

Dalejina aulacelliformis[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mergl

Devonian (Emsian)

 Morocco

Datnella[30]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Baranov

Early Devonian

 Russia

A member of Atrypida. The type species is D. datnensis (Baranov, 1995).

Eressella[31]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Halamski & Baliński

Middle Devonian

 Germany
 Morocco
 Poland

A member of Rhynchonellida belonging to the family Uncinulidae. The type species is "Rhynchonella" coronata Kayser (1871).

Jagtithyris[32]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Simon & Mottequin

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Netherlands

A relative of Leptothyrellopsis, assigned to the new family Jagtithyrididae. Genus includes "Terebratella (Morrisia?)" suessi Bosquet (1859).

Juxathyris subcircularis[33]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wu et al.

Permian (Changhsingian)

Changxing Formation

 China

A member of Athyridida.

Kukulkanus[34]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Torres-Martínez, Sour-Tovar & Barragán

Permian (ArtinskianKungurian)

Paso Hondo Formation

 Mexico

A brachiopod belonging to the group Productida and the family Productidae. The type species is K. spinosus.

Leurosina katasumiensis[35]

Sp. nov

Valid

Afanasjeva, Jun-Ichi & Yukio

Permian (Kungurian)

Nabeyama Formation

 Japan

A member of Chonetida belonging to the family Rugosochonetidae.

Martinezchaconia[36]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Torres-Martínez & Sour-Tovar

Carboniferous (Bashkirian-Moscovian)

Ixtaltepec Formation

 Mexico

A member of Productida belonging to the family Linoproductidae. The type species is M. luisae.

Misunithyris[37]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Baeza-Carratalá, Pérez-Valera & Pérez-Valera

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Siles Formation

 Spain

A brachiopod belonging to the group Terebratellidina and to the superfamily Zeillerioidea. The type species is M. goyi.

Musalitinispira[30]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Baranov

Early Devonian

 Russia

A member of Atrypida. The type species is M. dogdensis.

Neochonetes (Huangichonetes) matsukawensis[38]

Sp. nov

Valid

Tazawa & Araki

Permian (Wordian)

Kamiyasse Formation

 Japan

A member of the family Rugosochonetidae.

Newberria alaskensis[23]

Sp. nov

Valid

Baranov & Blodgett

Devonian (Givetian)

Coronados Volcanics

 United States
( Alaska)

A member of Terebratulida belonging to the family Stringocephalidae.

Opsiconidion bouceki[39]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mergl, Frýda & Kubajko

Silurian (Ludfordian)

Kopanina Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Acrotretoidea belonging to the family Biernatidae.

Opsiconidion parephemerus[39]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mergl, Frýda & Kubajko

Silurian (Ludfordian)

Kopanina Formation

 Czech Republic

A member of Acrotretoidea belonging to the family Biernatidae.

Pinguispirifer kesskess[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mergl

Devonian (Emsian)

 Morocco

Piridiorhynchus jafariani[40]

Sp. nov

Valid

Baranov et al.

Devonian (Famennian)

Khoshyeilagh Formation

 Iran

A member of Rhynchonellida belonging to the family Trigonirhynchiidae.

Schizambon langei[41]

Sp. nov

Valid

Freeman, Miller & Dattilo

Cambrian–Ordovician boundary

 United States
( Texas)

A linguliform brachiopod.

Septatrypa tumulorum[42]

Sp. nov

Valid

Baliński & Halamski

Devonian (Emsian)

 Morocco

Spinatrypina (Spinatrypina) krivensis[30]

Sp. nov

Valid

Baranov

Early Devonian

 Russia

A member of Atrypida.

Stenorhynchia ulrici[42]

Sp. nov

Valid

Halamski & Baliński

Devonian (Emsian)

 Morocco

Trigonatrypa drotae[28]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mergl

Devonian (Emsian)

 Morocco

Zaigunrostrum nakhichevanense[43]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pakhnevich

Devonian (Famennian)

 Azerbaijan

A brachiopod belonging to the group Rhynchonellida and the family Trigonirhynchiidae.

Zezinia[43]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pakhnevich

Devonian (Frasnian)

 Azerbaijan

A brachiopod belonging to the group Rhynchonellida and the family Uncinulidae. The type species is Z. multicostata.

Molluscs[edit]

Echinoderms[edit]

Research[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Amphilimna intersepultosetme[56]

Sp. nov

Valid

Thuy, Numberger-Thuy & Jagt

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Peedee Formation

 United States
( South Carolina)

A brittle star belonging to the order Amphilepidida, the superfamily Ophionereidoidea and the family Amphilimnidae.

Amphiope caronei[57]

Sp. nov

Valid

Stara & Marini

Miocene (late Tortonian)

 Italy

A sand dollar belonging to the family Astriclypeidae.

Amphioplus clementsi[56]

Sp. nov

Valid

Thuy, Numberger-Thuy & Jagt

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Peedee Formation

 United States
( South Carolina)

A brittle star belonging to the family Amphiuridae.

Amphiura shannoni[56]

Sp. nov

Valid

Thuy, Numberger-Thuy & Jagt

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Peedee Formation

 United States
( South Carolina)

A brittle star belonging to the family Amphiuridae, a species of Amphiura.

Anomalocrinus astrictus[58]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ausich et al.

Ordovician (Katian)

Brechin Lagerstätte

 Canada
( Ontario)

A disparid crinoid belonging to the family Anomalocrinidae.

Antiquaster apertisulcus[59]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gladwell

Silurian (Ludlow)

Leintwardine Beds

 United Kingdom

A stenurid brittle star.

Arabicodiadema romani[60]

Sp. nov

Valid

Smith & Jagt in Jagt et al.

Cretaceous

Dhalqut Formation

 Oman

A sea urchin.

Archaeocrinus maraensis[61]

Sp. nov

Valid

Cole et al.

Ordovician (Katian)

 Canada
( Ontario)

A camerate crinoid.

Archaeocrinus sundayae[61]

Sp. nov

Valid

Cole et al.

Ordovician (Katian)

 Canada
( Ontario)

A camerate crinoid.

Artichthyocrinus limani[62]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mao et al.

Permian (Asselian)

Taiyuan Formation

 China

A crinoid.

Assericrinus[63]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Late Cretaceous (early Campanian)

 United Kingdom

A crinoid. The type species is A. portusadernensis.

Bdellacoma fortispina[59]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gladwell

Silurian (Ludlow)

Leintwardine Beds

 United Kingdom

A stenurid brittle star.

Becuaster[64]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

 France

A starfish belonging to the family Korethrasteridae. The type species is B. fusiliformis

Betelgeusia brezinai[65]

Sp. nov

Valid

Blake, Halligan & Larson

Late Cretaceous

 United States
( South Dakota)

Birgenelocrinus jagti[66]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gale in Gale, Sadorf & Jagt

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Peedee Formation

 United States
( North Carolina)

A crinoid belonging to the group Roveacrinida.

Brezinacantha[67]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Thuy et al.

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Pierre Shale

 United States
( South Dakota)

A brittle star belonging to the family Ophiacanthidae. The type species is B. tolis.

Camachoaster[68]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Mooi et al.

Early Miocene

Chenque Formation

 Argentina

A sand dollar belonging to the group Scutelliformes. The type species is C. maquedensis

Cicerocrinus gracilis[69]

Sp. nov

Valid

Donovan in Bogolepova et al.

Silurian (Wenlock)

Uzyan Formation

 Russia
( Bashkortostan)

A crinoid belonging to the subclass Disparida, to the order Pisocrinida and to the family Pisocrinidae.

Cleiocrinus lepidotus[61]

Sp. nov

Valid

Cole et al.

Ordovician (Katian)

 Canada
( Ontario)

A camerate crinoid.

Clypeaster sarawakensis[70]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mihaljević & Rosenblatt

Miocene

 Malaysia

A species of Clypeaster.

Delicaster hotchkissi[71]

Sp. nov

Valid

Blake & Koniecki

Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian)

Canyon Series, Graford Group

 United States
( Texas)

A starfish belonging to the order Kermasida and to the family Permasteridae.

Diplocidaris bernasconii[72]

Sp. nov

Valid

Bischof, Hostettler & Menkveld-Gfeller

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

St-Ursanne Formation

  Switzerland
 France?

A sea urchin belonging to the group Cidaroida and the family Diplocidaridae.

Elgaecrinus[73]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Rozhnov

Devonian (Lochkovian)

Katnikov Beds

 Russia
( Sverdlovsk Oblast)

A cladid crinoid related to Crotalocrinites. The type species is E. uralicus

Eocenocrinus[74]

Gen. et 2 sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Merle & Roux

Eocene

 France
 Italy

A stalked crinoid, possibly the oldest known member of the family Phrynocrinidae. The type species is E. hessi; genus also includes new species E. bayani, as well as "Bourgueticrinus" didymus Schauroth (1855).

Euptychocrinus? atelis[75]

Sp. nov

In press

Botting

Late Ordovician

 Morocco

A camerate crinoid.

Goniopygus dhalqutensis[60]

Sp. nov

Valid

Smith & Jagt in Jagt et al.

Cretaceous

Dhalqut Formation

 Oman

A sea urchin.

Hansaster[64]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Gale

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

 France
 Germany
  Switzerland

A starfish belonging to the family Pterasteridae. Genus includes "Savignaster" trimbachensis Gale (2011).

Hessicrinus apertus[63]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Late Cretaceous (early Campanian)

 United Kingdom

A crinoid.

Hessicrinus cooperi[63]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Late Cretaceous (early Campanian)

 United Kingdom

A crinoid.

Hyattechinus anglicus[76]

Sp. nov

In press

Thompson & Ewin

Late Devonian

North Devon Basin

 United Kingdom

A sea urchin.

Hypselaster strougoi[77]

Sp. nov

Valid

Elattaar

Eocene (Lutetian)

Midawara Formation

 Egypt

A heart urchin.

Iocrinus ouzammoui[75]

Sp. nov

In press

Botting

Late Ordovician

 Morocco

A crinoid belonging to the group Disparida.

Isthloucrinus[75]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Botting

Late Ordovician

 Morocco

A crinoid belonging to the group Cladida. Genus includes new species I. praecursor.

Kroppocrinus garamdouaraensis[78]

Sp. nov

Valid

Waters & Klug

Devonian (Emsian)

 Morocco

A crinoid.

Lazarechinus[79]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Hagdorn

Middle Triassic (late Anisian)

Calcaire à entroques

 France

A stem-sea urchin belonging to the family Proterocidaridae. Genus includes new species L. mirabeti.

Lillithaster[56]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Thuy, Numberger-Thuy & Jagt

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Peedee Formation

 United States
( South Carolina)

A basket star belonging to the family Asteronychidae. The type species is L. lamentatiofelium.

Linguaserra triassica[80]

Sp. nov

Valid

Reich et al.

Late Triassic (Carnian)

Cassian Formation

 Italy

A member of Ophiocistioidea belonging to the family Linguaserridae.

Longwyaster[64]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Middle Jurassic (Bajocian)

 France

A starfish belonging to the family Pterasteridae. Genus includes new species L. delsatei

Loriolaster fragilicalceus[59]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gladwell

Silurian (Ludlow)

Leintwardine Beds

 United Kingdom

An oegophiurid brittle star.

Lucernacrinus multispinosus[66]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gale in Gale, Sadorf & Jagt

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Peedee Formation

 United States
( North Carolina)

A crinoid belonging to the group Roveacrinida.

Luxaster[81]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Müller et al.

Early Devonian

 Germany
 Luxembourg

A brittle star belonging to the family Protasteridae. Genus includes new species L. martini, as well as L. schweitzeri.

Magnuscrinus cumberlandensis[82]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ausich, Rhenberg & Meyer

Carboniferous (Viséan)

Fort Payne Formation

 United States
( Kentucky)

A crinoid belonging to the family Batocrinidae.

Melusinaster[83]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Thuy & Stöhr

Early and Middle Jurassic (Toarcian to Bajocian)

 Germany
 Luxembourg

A basket star. The type species is M. alissawhitegluzae; genus also includes M. arcusinimicus.

Micraster woodi[84]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schlüter & Wiese

Late Cretaceous (Turonian)

 Germany

A sea urchin.

Monobrachiocrinus waipapaensis[85]

Sp. nov

Valid

Eagle, Hoskin & Hayward

Permian

 New Zealand

A cladid crinoid.

Muicrinus[86]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lin et al.

Ordovician (latest Floian-earliest Dapingian)

Dawan Formation

 China

A crinoid related to Iocrinus. The type species is M. dawanensis.

Neoprotencrinus anyangensis[62]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mao et al.

Permian (Asselian)

Taiyuan Formation

 China

A crinoid.

Ophioculina[87]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Rousseau & Thuy in Rousseau, Gale & Thuy

Late Jurassic (Tithonian)

Agardhfjellet Formation

 Norway

A brittle star belonging to the group Ophiurina and the family Ophiopyrgidae. The type species is O. hoybergia.

Ophiotreta sadorfi[56]

Sp. nov

Valid

Thuy, Numberger-Thuy & Jagt

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Peedee Formation

 United States
( South Carolina)

A brittle star belonging to the order Ophiacanthida and the family Ophiotomidae.

Pachycephalocrinus[88]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cole & Toom

Ordovician (Katian)

 Estonia

A camerate crinoid belonging to the group Monobathrida. Genus includes new species P. jaanussoni.

Pahvanticystis[89]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lefebvre & Lerosey-Aubril

Cambrian (Guzhangian)

Weeks Formation

 United States
( Utah)

A solutan echinoderm. Genus includes new species P. utahensis.

Panidiscus[90]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Sumrall & Zamora

Ordovician (Katian)

 Morocco

An isorophinid edrioasteroid. Genus includes new species P. tamiformis.

Peedeecrinus[66]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gale in Gale, Sadorf & Jagt

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Peedee Formation

 United States
( North Carolina)

A crinoid belonging to the group Roveacrinida. Genus includes new species P. sadorfi.

Petalobrissus lehugueurae[91]

Sp. nov

Valid

Alves et al.

Late Cretaceous

Jandaíra Formation

 Brazil

A sea urchin belonging to the family Faujasiidae.

Placatenella[68]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Mooi et al.

Early Miocene

Pirabas Formation

 Brazil

A sand dollar belonging to the group Scutelliformes. The type species is "Abertella" complanata Brito (1981).

Pliotoxaster andinum[92]

Sp. nov

Valid

Fouquet, Roney & Wilke

Early Cretaceous

Way Group

 Chile

A sea urchin.

Polarasterias[87]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Rousseau & Gale in Rousseau, Gale & Thuy

Late Jurassic (Tithonian)

Agardhfjellet Formation

 Norway

A starfish belonging to the family Asteriidae. The type species is P. janusensis.

Priscillacrinus[61]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cole et al.

Ordovician (Katian)

 Canada
( Ontario)

A camerate crinoid belonging to Order Diplobathrida. Genus includes new species P. elegans.

Prokopius[93]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Paul

Ordovician (Sandbian)

 Czech Republic

A member of Diploporita belonging to the family Aristocystitidae; a new genus for "Aristocystites" sculptus Barrande (1887).

Propteraster[64]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

 France

A starfish belonging to the family Pterasteridae. Genus includes new species P. amourensis

Rautangaroa[94]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Baumiller & Fordyce

Oligocene

 New Zealand

A feather star. Genus includes "Cypelometra" aotearoa Eagle (2007).

Sacariacrinus amadei[95]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hess & Thuy

Jurassic

 France

A cyrtocrinid crinoid.

Sagittacrinus alifer[63]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Late Cretaceous (early Campanian)

 United Kingdom

A crinoid.

Sagittacrinus longirostris[63]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Late Cretaceous (early Campanian)

 United Kingdom

A crinoid.

Sakucrinus[88]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Cole & Toom

Ordovician (Katian)

 Estonia

A camerate crinoid belonging to the group Diplobathrida and the family Opsiocrinidae. Genus includes new species S. krossi.

Sardospatangus[96]

Gen. et 2 sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Stara, Charbonnier & Borghi

Miocene

 Italy

A heart urchin. The type species is S. caschilii; genus also includes S. arburensis, as well as "Prospatangus" thieryi Lambert (1909).

Savignaster septemtrionalis[87]

Sp. nov

Valid

Rousseau & Gale in Rousseau, Gale & Thuy

Late Jurassic (Tithonian)

Agardhfjellet Formation

 Norway

A starfish belonging to the family Pterasteridae.

Sertulaster[71]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Blake & Koniecki

Ordovician (Katian)

Bobcaygeon Formation
Verulam Formation

 Canada
( Ontario)

A starfish belonging to the order Hadrosida and to the family Palaeasteridae. The type species is S. keslingi.

Spinadiscus[90]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Sumrall & Zamora

Ordovician (Katian)

 Morocco

A pyrgocystid edrioasteroid. Genus includes new species S. lefebvrei.

Stegophiura miyazakii[97]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ishida et al.

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Mifune Group

 Japan

A brittle star.

Superlininicrinus[75]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Botting

Late Ordovician

 Morocco

A crinoid belonging to the group Cladida. Genus includes new species S. advorsa.

Synbathocrinus chenae[62]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mao et al.

Permian (Asselian)

Taiyuan Formation

 China

A crinoid.

Tetracrinus solidus[95]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hess & Thuy

Jurassic

 France

A cyrtocrinid crinoid.

Thuyaster[64]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gale

Early Jurassic (Hettangian)

 Belgium

A starfish belonging to the family Korethrasteridae. Genus includes new species T. fontenoillensis

Trombonicrinus[98]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Donovan, Waters & Pankowski

Devonian

 Morocco

A crinoid. Genus includes new species T. (col.) hanshessi

Ulocrinus qiaoi[62]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mao et al.

Permian (Asselian)

Taiyuan Formation

 China

A crinoid.

Weitschataster[99]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Neumann & Girod

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

 Germany

A starfish belonging to the family Goniasteridae. Genus includes new species W. intermedius.

Yunnanechinus[100]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Thompson et al.

Middle Triassic (Anisian)

Guanling Formation

 China

A stem-sea urchin. The type species is Y. luopingensis.

Conodonts[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A study testing the proposed models of growth of conodont elements is published by Shirley et al. (2018).[101]
  • A study on the histological sections of Ordovician and Permian conodont dental elements from the Bell Canyon Formation (Texas, United States), Harding Sandstone (Colorado, United States), Ali Bashi Formation (Iran) and Canadian Arctic, examining those fossils for the presence and distribution of soft tissue biomarkers, is published by Terrill, Henderson & Anderson (2018).[102]
  • A study evaluating the δ18O variation within a species-rich conodont assemblage from the Ordovician (Floian) Factory Cove Member of the Shallow Bay Formation, Cow Head Group (western Newfoundland, Canada), as well as assessing the implications of these data for determining the paleothermometry of ancient oceans and conodont ecologic models, is published by Wheeley et al. (2018).[103][104][105]
  • A study on the body size and diversity of Carnian conodonts from South China and their implications for inferring the biotic and environmental changes during the Carnian Pluvial Event is published by Zhang et al. (2018).[106]
  • A study assessing the similarity of late Paleozoic to Triassic conodont faunas known from the Cache Creek Terrane (Canada) is published by Golding (2018).[107]
  • Reconstruction of the multi-element apparatus of the Middle Triassic conodont from British Columbia (Canada) belonging to the Neogondolella regalis group within the genus Neogondolella is presented by Golding (2018).[108]
  • Reconstruction of the number and arrangement of elements in the apparatus of Hindeodus parvus published by Zhang et al. (2017)[109] is criticized by Agematsu, Golding & Orchard (2018);[110] Purnell et al. (2018) defend their original conclusions.[111]
  • A cluster of icriodontid conodonts belonging to the species Caudicriodus woschmidti, providing new information on the apparatus structure of icriodontid conodonts, is described from the Lower Devonian sediments in southern Burgenland (Austria) by Suttner, Kido & Briguglio (2018).[112]
  • A study on the species belonging to the genus Neognathodus, evaluating whether previously defined morphotype groups are reliably distinct from one another, is published by Zimmerman, Johnson & Polly (2018).[113]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ancyrogondolella diakowi[114]

Sp. nov

Valid

Orchard

Late Triassic (Norian)

Pardonet Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)

A member of the family Gondolellidae.

Ancyrogondolella equalis[114]

Sp. nov

Valid

Orchard

Late Triassic (Norian)

Pardonet Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)

A member of the family Gondolellidae.

Ancyrogondolella inequalis[114]

Sp. nov

Valid

Orchard

Late Triassic (Norian)

Pardonet Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)

A member of the family Gondolellidae.

Ancyrogondolella? praespiculata[114]

Sp. nov

Valid

Orchard

Late Triassic (Norian)

Pardonet Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)

A member of the family Gondolellidae.

Ancyrogondolella transformis[114]

Sp. nov

Valid

Orchard

Late Triassic (Norian)

Pardonet Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)

A member of the family Gondolellidae.

Baltoniodus cooperi[115]

Sp. nov

Valid

Carlorosi, Sarmiento & Heredia

Ordovician (Dapingian)

Santa Gertrudis Formation

 Argentina

Declinognathodus intermedius[116]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hu, Qi & Nemyrovska

Carboniferous

 China

Declinognathodus tuberculosus[116]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hu, Qi & Nemyrovska

Carboniferous

 China

Gedikella[117]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kılıç, Plasencia & Önder

Middle Triassic (Anisian)

 Turkey

A member of the family Gondolellidae. The type species is G. quadrata.

Gnathodus mirousei[118]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sanz-López & Blanco-Ferrera

Carboniferous (Mississippian)

Alba Formation
Aspe-Brousset Formation
Black Rock Limestone

 Belgium
 China
 Ireland
 Italy
 Spain
 United Kingdom  United States
( Illinois)

Idiognathodus abdivitus[119]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hogancamp & Barrick

Carboniferous

Atrasado Formation
Eudora Shale

 United States
( New Mexico)

Idiognathodus centralis[119]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hogancamp & Barrick

Carboniferous

Atrasado Formation
Eudora Shale

 United States
( New Mexico)

Idiognathodus sweeti[119]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hogancamp & Barrick

Carboniferous

Atrasado Formation
Eudora Shale

 United States
( New Mexico)

Idiognathoides chaagulootus[120]

Sp. nov

Valid

Frederick & Barrick

Carboniferous (early Pennsylvanian)

Ladrones Limestone

 United States
( Alaska)

Kamuellerella rectangularis[117]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kılıç, Plasencia & Önder

Middle Triassic (Anisian)

 Turkey

A member of the family Gondolellidae.

Ketinella goermueshi[117]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kılıç, Plasencia & Önder

Middle Triassic (Anisian)

 Turkey

A member of the family Gondolellidae.

Magnigondolella[121]

Gen. et 5 sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Golding & Orchard

Middle Triassic (Anisian)

Favret Formation
Toad Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)
 China
 United States
( Nevada)

A member of the family Gondolellidae. The type species is M. salomae;
genus also includes new species M. alexanderi, M. cyri, M. julii and M. nebuchadnezzari,
as well as "Neogondolella" regale Mosher (1970) and "Neogondolella" dilacerata Golding & Orchard (2016).

Mesogondolella hendersoni[122]

Sp. nov

Valid

Yuan, Zhang & Shen

Permian (Changhsingian)

Selong Group

 China

Mockina? spinosa[114]

Sp. nov

Valid

Orchard

Late Triassic (Norian)

Pardonet Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)

A member of the family Gondolellidae.

Neopolygnathus fibula[123]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hartenfels & Becker

Devonian (Famennian)

 Morocco

Neospathodus arcus[124]

Sp. nov

Valid

Maekawa in Maekawa, Komatsu & Koike

Early Triassic

Taho Formation

 Japan

Novispathodus shirokawai[124]

Sp. nov

Valid

Maekawa in Maekawa, Komatsu & Koike

Early Triassic

Taho Formation

 Japan

Novispathodus tahoensis[124]

Sp. nov

Valid

Maekawa in Maekawa, Komatsu & Koike

Early Triassic

Taho Formation

 Japan

‘Ozarkodina’? chenae[125]

Sp. nov

Valid

Lu et al.

Devonian (Emsian)

Ertang Formation

 China

‘Ozarkodina’? wuxuanensis[125]

Sp. nov

Valid

Lu et al.

Devonian (Emsian)

Ertang Formation

 China

Polygnathus linguiformis saharicus[126]

Subsp. nov

Valid

Narkiewicz & Königshof

Devonian (late Eifelian–middle Givetian)

Ispena Formation
Si Phai Formation

 Morocco
 Spain
 Tajikistan
 Turkey
 Vietnam

Polygnathus linguiformis vietnamicus[126]

Subsp. nov

Valid

Narkiewicz & Königshof

Devonian (Givetian)

Plum Brook Shale
Si Phai Formation

 Germany
 Morocco
 United States
( Ohio)
 Vietnam

Polygnathus praeinversus[125]

Sp. nov

Valid

Lu et al.

Devonian (Emsian)

Ertang Formation

 China

Polygnathus rhenanus siphai[126]

Subsp. nov

Valid

Narkiewicz & Königshof

Devonian (Givetian)

Candás Formation
Si Phai Formation

 China
 Morocco
 Spain
 Vietnam

Polygnathus xylus bacbo[126]

Subsp. nov

Valid

Narkiewicz & Königshof

Devonian (Givetian)

Si Phai Formation

 Vietnam

Pseudognathodus posadachaconae[127]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sanz-López, Blanco-Ferrera & Miller

Carboniferous (Mississippian)

Prestatyn Limestone

 United Kingdom

A member of the family Gnathodontidae.

Pseudopolygnathus primus tafilensis[123]

Subsp. nov

Valid

Hartenfels & Becker

Devonian (Famennian)

 Morocco

Pustulognathus[128]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Golding & Orchard in Golding

Permian (Guadalupian to Lopingian)

Copley Limestone
Horsefeed Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)
 China?

A member of the family Sweetognathidae. The type species is P. monticola; genus also includes P. vigilans.

Quadralella (Quadralella) postica[129]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhang et al.

Late Triassic (Carnian)

 China

Quadralella robusta[129]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhang et al.

Late Triassic (Carnian)

 China

Quadralella wignalli[129]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhang et al.

Late Triassic (Carnian)

 China

Quadralella yongningensis[129]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhang et al.

Late Triassic (Carnian)

 China

Scandodus choii[130]

Sp. nov

Valid

Lee

Ordovician (Darriwilian)

 South Korea

Sweetognathus duplex[131]

Sp. nov

Valid

Read & Nestell

Permian (Sakmarian)

Riepe Spring Limestone

 United States
( Nevada)

Sweetognathus wardlawi[131]

Sp. nov

Valid

Read & Nestell

Permian (Sakmarian)

Riepe Spring Limestone

 United States
( Nevada)

"Tortodus" sparlingi[132]

Sp. nov

Valid

Aboussalam & Becker in Brett et al.

Devonian (Givetian)

 Poland
 Spain
 United States
( Kentucky
 Ohio)

Walliserognathus[133]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Corradini & Corriga

Silurian (Ludlow)

Henryhouse Formation
Roberts Mountains Formation

 Austria
 China
 Hungary
 Italy
 Spain
 Sweden
 United States
( Nevada
 Oklahoma)

A member of the family Spathognathodontidae; a new genus for Spathognathodus inclinatus posthamatus Walliser (1964), raised to the rank of the species Walliserognathus posthamatus.

Fish[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Research[edit]

  • An outline of a new interpretative scenario for the origin of tetrapods, based on data from tetrapod body fossils and from putative tetrapod trace fossils from Poland and Ireland that predate earliest tetrapod body fossils, will be presented by Ahlberg (2018).[134]
  • A historical review of the fossil record of Devonian tetrapods and basal tetrapodomorphs from East Gondwana (Australasia, Antarctica) will be published by Long, Clement & Choo (2018).[135]
  • Evidence from multi-stable isotope data indicating that some Devonian vertebrates, including early tetrapods, were euryhaline and inhabited aquatic environments subject to rapid changes in salinity is presented by Goedert et al. (2018).[136]
  • A study on the evolution of forelimb musculature from the lobe-finned fish to early tetrapods is published by Molnar et al. (2018).[137]
  • A study on the macroevolutionary dynamics of shape changes in the humeri of all major grades and clades of early tetrapods and their fish-like forerunners will be published by Ruta et al. (2018).[138]
  • A partial jaw resembling that of Crassigyrinus is described from the Tournaisian of Scotland by Clack, Porro & Bennett (2018), potentially extending the existence of the genus by approximately 20 million years towards the base of the Carboniferous.[139]
  • A study on the morphology of the postcranial skeleton of Crassigyrinus scoticus will be published by Herbst & Hutchinson (2018).[140]
  • A study on the fossil record of amphibians, aiming to identify traits that influenced the extinction risk of species, and using this data to predict the extinction risk for living amphibian species, is published by Tietje & Rödel (2018).[141]
  • Description of anamniote tetrapod fossils from the Late Permian Sundyr Tetrapod Assemblage (Mari El, Russia) is published by Golubev & Bulanov (2018).[142]
  • A study on the relationship between taxonomic and ecological diversity of temnospondyls across the PermianTriassic boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa is published by Tarailo (2018).[143]
  • A study on the morphology and phylogenetic relationships of Neldasaurus is published by Schoch (2018).[144]
  • A study on the morphological changes in the skull that have been considered related to size reduction in dissorophoids, evaluating whether these changes are consistent with the consequences of miniaturization according to the studies in extant miniature amphibians, is published by Pérez-Ben, Schoch & Báez (2018).[145]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of dissorophoid temnospondyls, and on their relationship to modern amphibians, is published by Schoch (2018), who names new taxon Amphibamiformes.[146]
  • Well-preserved postcranial skeletons of two dissorophids are described from the early Permian karst deposits near Richards Spur (Oklahoma, United States) by Gee & Reisz (2018).[147]
  • A revision of the fossil material assigned to Fayella chickashaensis is published by Gee, Scott & Reisz (2018), who consider this species to be a nomen dubium.[148]
  • Redescription of the holotype specimen of the dissorophid species Alegeinosaurus aphthitos is published by Gee (2018), who considers Alegeinosaurus to be a junior synonym of Aspidosaurus.[149]
  • New skull remains of Cacops morrisi, as well as the first known postcranial remains of the taxon, are described from the Permian of the Richards Spur locality (Oklahoma, United States) by Gee & Reisz (2018).[150]
  • Two new dissorophid specimens referred to Anakamacops petrolicus are described from the Guadalupian Dashankou Fauna of China by Liu (2018).[151]
  • A study on the morphology and phylogenetic relationships of Limnogyrinus elegans is published by Schoch & Witzmann (2018).[152]
  • A study on the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Parotosuchus nasutus is published by Schoch (2018).[153]
  • Partial mandible of a large-bodied metoposaurid is described from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation exposures at Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona, United States) by Gee & Parker (2018).[154]
  • A small metoposaurid specimen interpreted as a juvenile specimen of Apachesaurus gregorii is described from the Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona, United States) by Rinehart & Lucas (2018).[155]
  • A study on the histology of the humeri of members of the species Metoposaurus krasiejowensis, revealing the occurrence of two different growth patterns (histotypes), is published by Teschner, Sander & Konietzko-Meier (2018).[156]
  • A study on the feeding mode of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis as indicated by bone microstructure and computational biomechanics is published by Konietzko-Meier et al. (2018).[157]
  • Description of the ornamentation of clavicles and skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis is published by Antczak & Bodzioch (2018).[158]
  • Redescription of Regalerpeton weichangensis based on eight new specimens and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of the species is published by Rong (2018).[159]
  • An incomplete vertebra of a member of Caudata is described from the Algerian part of the Cretaceous Kem Kem Beds by Alloul et al. (2018).[160]
  • Description of bone anomalies in specimens of the cryptobranchid Eoscapherpeton asiaticum from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Formation (Uzbekistan) and a study on their possible origin is published by Skutschas et al. (2018).[161]
  • Description of new specimens of the fossil salamandrids Taricha oligocenica and Taricha lindoei from the Oligocene of Oregon, providing new information on the morphology of these taxa, and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of these species is published by Jacisin & Hopkins (2018).[162]
  • Cretaceous frog tracks are described from the Saok Island (South Korea) by Park et al. (2018), who name a new ichnotaxon Ranipes saokensis.[163]
  • Fossils of members of the genus Palaeobatrachus are described from the Miocene (Turolian) localities in Adygea (Russia) by Syromyatnikova (2018).[164]
  • A redescription and a study of the phylogenetic relationships of Baurubatrachus pricei is published by Báez & Gómez (2018).[165]
  • A redescription and a study of the phylogenetic relationships of Eorubeta nevadensis is published by Henrici et al. (2018).[166]
  • Description of new fossil material of Thaumastosaurus from three localities in Switzerland, and a revision of the stratigraphic records of the genus Thaumastosaurus and other ranoid fossils from the Eocene of Europe, is published by Vasilyan (2018).[167]
  • Four new, three-dimensionally preserved specimens of Discosauriscus pulcherrimus, providing new information on the anatomy of the skull of this species, will be described from the Lower Permian lacustrine sediments of the Boskovice Basin (Czech Republic) by Klembara & Mikudíková (2018).[168]
  • A study on the anatomy of regenerating tails in two specimens of the Carboniferous lepospondyl Microbrachis pelikani, comparing tail regeneration in this taxon and in extant seal salamander and Ocoee salamander, is published by van der Vos, Witzmann & Fröbisch (2018).[169]
  • A study on the skull ornamentation of a large specimen of Brachydectes newberryi from Linton (Ohio, United States) is published by Mann (2018).[170]
  • Description of the anatomy of the skeleton of the chroniosuchian species Bystrowiella schumanni and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of chroniosuchians is published by Witzmann & Schoch (2018).[171]
  • A study on the variation of digit proportions and trackway parameters in diadectomorph tracks with a relatively short pedal digit V, representing ichnogenus Ichniotherium, is published by Buchwitz & Voight (2018).[172]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Electrorana[173]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Xing et al.

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

A frog of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly a member of Alytoidea. The type species is E. limoae.

Kulgeriherpeton[174]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Skutschas et al.

Early Cretaceous (BerriasianBarremian)

Batylykh Formation

 Russia

A stem-salamander. The type species is K. ultimus.

Laosuchus[175]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Arbez, Sidor & Steyer

Permian–Triassic boundary

Luang Prabang Basin

 Laos

A chroniosuchian. Genus includes new species L. naga.

Latonia caucasica[176]

Sp. nov

Valid

Syromyatnikova & Roček

Late Miocene (early Turolian)

 Russia
( Adygea)

A species of Latonia.

Mattauschia[177]

Gen. et comb. nov

In press

Milner

Late Carboniferous (Moscovian)

Kladno Formation

 Czech Republic

A trematopid temnospondyl. Genus includes "Limnerpeton" laticeps Fritsch (1881).

Mengbatrachus[178]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Tan et al.

Early Cretaceous

Longjiang Group

 China

An early anuran. The type species is M. moqi.

Mesanerpeton[179]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Smithson & Clack

Carboniferous (Tournaisian)

Ballagan Formation

 United Kingdom

An early tetrapod. The type species is M. woodi.

Mioproteus gardneri[180]

Sp. nov

Valid

Venczel & Codrea

Early Oligocene

 Romania

A member of the family Proteidae.

Nooxobeia[148]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gee, Scott & Reisz

Permian (Guadalupian?)

 United States
( Oklahoma)

A dissorophid temnospondyl. The type species is N. gracilis.

Shirerpeton[181]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Matsumoto & Evans

Early Cretaceous (Barremian)

Kuwajima Formation

 Japan

A member of the family Albanerpetontidae. The type species is S. isajii.

Tantallognathus[182]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Chen et al.

Carboniferous (late Tournaisian or earliest Viséan)

Ballagan Formation

 United Kingdom

An early tetrapod of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is T. woodi.

Tutusius[183]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gess & Ahlberg

Devonian (late Famennian)

Witpoort Formation

 South Africa

An early tetrapod. The type species is T. umlambo.

Umzantsia[183]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gess & Ahlberg

Devonian (late Famennian)

Witpoort Formation

 South Africa

An early tetrapod. The type species is U. amazana.

Lizards and snakes[edit]

Research[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Amananulam[212]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

McCartney et al.

Paleocene

 Mali

A snake belonging to the family Nigerophiidae. The type species is A. sanogoi.

Amaru[213]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Albino

Early Eocene

Lumbrera Formation

 Argentina

A macrostomatan snake. Genus includes new species A. scagliai.

Anguis rarus[214]

Sp. nov

Valid

Klembara & Rummel

Early Miocene

 Germany

A slow worm.

Barlochersaurus[215]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Daza et al.

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

Probable member of Anguimorpha of uncertain phylogentic placement. The type species is B. winhtini.

Bicuspidon hogreli[216]

Sp. nov

Valid

Vullo & Rage

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Kem Kem Beds

 Morocco

A polyglyphanodontid lizard

Boa blanchardensis[217]

Sp. nov

Valid

Bochaton & Bailon

Late Pleistocene

 France
(Marie-Galante Island)

A species of Boa.

Callopistes rionegrensis[218]

Sp. nov

Valid

Quadros, Chafrat & Zaher

Early Miocene

Chichinales Formation

 Argentina

A teiid lizard, a species of Callopistes.

Euleptes klembarai[219]

Sp. nov

Valid

Čerňanský, Daza & Bauer

Miocene (Astaracian)

 Slovakia

A relative of the European leaf-toed gecko.

Primitivus[220]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Paparella et al.

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian–early Maastrichtian)

 Italy

A member of the family Dolichosauridae. The type species is P. manduriensis.

Tylosaurus saskatchewanensis[221]

Sp. nov

Valid

Jiménez-Huidobro et al.

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

Bearpaw Formation

 Canada
( Saskatchewan)

A mosasaur

Xiaophis[222]

Gen. et sp. nov

Xing et al.

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

A snake described on the basis of a fossilized embryo or neonate. The type species is X. myanmarensis.

Ichthyosauromorphs[edit]

Sauropterygians[edit]

Research[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Arminisaurus[259]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Sachs & Kear

Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian)

Amaltheenton Formation

 Germany

An early relative of pliosaurids. The type species is A. schuberti.

Microcleidus melusinae [260]

Sp. nov

In press

Vincent et al.

Early Jurassic (Toarcian)

 Luxembourg

A microcleidid plesiosaur.

Paludidraco[261]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

De Miguel Chaves, Ortega & Pérez‐García

Late Triassic

 Spain

A relative of Simosaurus. Genus includes new species P. multidentatus.

Parahenodus[262]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

De Miguel Chaves, Ortega & Pérez‐García

Late Triassic

 Spain

A placodont related to Henodus. Genus includes new species P. atancensis.

Pliosaurus almanzaensis [263]

Sp. nov

Valid

O’Gorman, Gasparini & Spalletti

Late Jurassic (Jurassic)

Vaca Muerta

 Argentina

Turtles[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A study on the changes in diversity of South American turtles from the Late Triassic to the present, and on major extinction events of South American turtles, will be published by Vlachos et al. (2018).[264]
  • A study on the Early and Middle Triassic turtle tracks and their implications for the origin of turtles is published by Lichtig et al. (2018).[265]
  • Fossil turtle footprints are described from the Triassic (Carnian) localities in eastern Spain by Reolid et al. (2018), who interpret the findings as indicating a freshwater semi-aquatic habit for some early turtles during the early Late Triassic.[266]
  • A revision of Late Cretaceous turtle fossils from the El Gallo Formation (Baja California, Mexico) is published by López-Conde et al. (2018).[267]
  • A clutch of 15 turtle eggs, found in close association with a partial skeleton of the dinosaur Mosaiceratops azumai, is described from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation (China) by Jackson et al. (2018), who report that the size of these eggs exceeds that of all previously reported fossil turtle eggs.[268]
  • A study on the anatomy of the brain, inner ear, nasal cavity and skull nerves of Proganochelys quenstedti, and on its implications for inferring the sensory capabilities and ecology of the species and for the evolution of turtle brains is published by Lautenschlager, Ferreira & Werneburg (2018).[269]
  • A study on the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Kallokibotion bajazidi based on well-preserved new fossil material is published by Pérez-García & Codrea (2018).[270]
  • A study on the paleoecology of Meiolania platyceps is published by Lichtig & Lucas (2018).[271]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of extant and fossil pleurodirans is published by Ferreira et al. (2018).[272]
  • New fossil material of the bothremydid Algorachelus peregrinus, providing new information on the anatomy and intraspecific variability of the species, is described from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of the Arenas de Utrillas Formation (Spain) by Pérez-García (2018), who also transfers the species "Podocnemis" parva Haas (1978) and "Paiutemys" tibert Joyce, Lyson & Kirkland (2016) to the genus Algorachelus.[273]
  • A revision of bothremydid fossils in the lower Eocene British record, assigned to the species "Platemys" bowerbankii Owen (1842), "Emys" laevis Bell in Owen & Bell (1849), "Emys" delabechii Bell in Owen & Bell (1849), and "Emys" conybearii Owen (1858), is published by Pérez-García (2018), who interprets all this fossil material as representing a single species Palemys bowerbankii.[274]
  • A restudy of the type material of the Late Cretaceous pan-chelid Linderochelys rinconensis and a description of new fossils of the species is published by Jannello et al. (2018).[275]
  • Redescription of the Eocene chelid Hydromedusa casamayorensis based on twenty‐seven new specimens recovered from lower levels of the Sarmiento Formation (Argentina) and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of this species is published by Maniel et al. (2018).[276]
  • Description of the morphology of the skull of the Eocene carettochelyid Anosteira pulchra is published by Joyce, Volpato & Rollot (2018).[277]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of the putative emydine Piramys auffenbergi is published by Ferreira, Bandyopadhyay & Joyce (2018), who reinterpret this species as a member of the family Podocnemididae.[278]
  • A study on the skull innervation and circulation of Eubaena cephalica, based on data from a new specimen, is published by Rollot, Lyson & Joyce (2018).[279]
  • Fragmentary trionychid specimen is described from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian to Maastrichtian) Nanaimo Group (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) by Vavrek & Brinkman (2018), representing the first trionychid reported from Cretaceous deposits along the Pacific Coast of North America.[280]
  • Taxonomic review of fossil testudinoids from South America is published by de la Fuente, Zacarías & Vlachos (2018).[281]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships and body size evolution of extant and extinct tortoises is published by Vlachos & Rabi (2018).[282]
  • Description of new specimens of the tortoise Manouria oyamai from the Pleistocene of the Okinawa Island (Japan) and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of this species is published by Takahashi, Hirayama & Otsuka (2018).[283]
  • A study on the sources of variation in the morphology of the carapaces of extant and fossil common box turtles (Terrapene carolina) is published by Vitek (2018).[284]
  • Redescription of the holotype of Rhinochelys amaberti from the Cretaceous (Albian) of France and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of this species is published by Scavezzoni & Fischer (2018).[285]
  • A study on the anatomy of the skull of the holotype specimen of Desmatochelys lowii is published by Raselli (2018).[286]
  • Description of newly identified fossil material of Prionochelys from the collections at McWane Science Center and the Alabama Museum of Natural History, collected from multiple sites from the Upper Cretaceous Mooreville Chalk and Eutaw Formation (Alabama, United States), and a study on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of Prionochelys is published by Gentry (2018).[287]
  • An isolated costal bone of a sea turtle is described from the Oligocene Dos Bocas Formation (Ecuador) by Cadena, Abella & Gregori (2018), representing the first record of Oligocene Pancheloniidae in South America.[288]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Allaeochelys rouzilhacensis[289]

Sp. nov

Valid

Godinot et al.

Eocene

 France

A member of the family Carettochelyidae.

Basilemys morrinensis[290]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mallon & Brinkman

Late Cretaceous (early Maastrichtian)

Horseshoe Canyon Formation

 Canada
( Alberta)

A member of Cryptodira belonging to the family Nanhsiungchelyidae.

Chelonoidis dominicensis[291]

Sp. nov

Valid

Albury et al.

Probably Late Quaternary

 Dominican Republic

A species of Chelonoidis.

Eochelone voltregana[292]

Sp. nov

Valid

Lapparent de Broin et al.

Eocene (Priabonian)

 Spain

A member of the family Cheloniidae.

Eotaphrosphys[293]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Pérez-García

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 France

A member of Bothremydidae; a new genus for "Tretosternum" ambiguum Gaudry (1890).

Eulalichelys[289]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

De Lapparent de Broin in Godinot et al.

Eocene

 France

A member of the family Carettochelyidae. Genus includes new species E. labarrerei.

Gilmoremys gettyspherensis[294]

Sp. nov

Valid

Joyce, Lyson & Sertich

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

Fruitland Formation

 United States
( New Mexico)

Jeholochelys[295]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Shao et al.

Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A member of the family Sinemydidae. The type species is J. lingyuanensis.

Mauremys aristotelica[296]

Sp. nov

Valid

Vlachos et al.

Late Miocene to Pliocene

 Greece

A species of Mauremys.

Motelomama[293]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Pérez-García

Eocene (Ypresian)

 Peru

A member of Bothremydidae; a new genus for "Podocnemis" olssoni Schmidt (1931).

Owadowia[297]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Szczygielski, Tyborowski & Błażejowski

Late Jurassic (Tithonian)

Kcynia Formation

 Poland

A member of Pancryptodira. The type species is O. borsukbialynickae.

Peritresius martini[298]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gentry et al.

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

Lower Ripley Formation

 United States
( Alabama)

A member of Pancheloniidae.

Sinemys chabuensis[299]

Sp. nov

Valid

Ji & Chen

Early Cretaceous

Jingchuan Formation

 China

Trachemys haugrudi[300]

Sp. nov

Valid

Jasinski

Late Hemphillian

Gray Fossil Site

 United States
( Tennessee)

A species of Trachemys.

Wutuchelys[301]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Tong et al.

Early Eocene

Wutu Formation

 China

A stem-testudinoid. Genus includes new species W. eocenica.

Yuraramirim[302]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ferreira et al.

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

A member of Pleurodira related to Peiropemys. Genus includes new species Y. montealtensis.

Archosauriformes[edit]

General research[edit]

Archosaurs[edit]

Other reptiles[edit]

Research[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Clevosaurus cambrica[326]

Sp. nov

Valid

Keeble, Whiteside & Benton

Late Triassic

 United Kingdom

Colobops[327]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pritchard et al.

Late Triassic (Norian)

Newark Supergroup

 United States
( Connecticut)

A reptile of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly a rhynchosaur. The type species is C. noviportensis.

Elginia wuyongae[328]

Sp. nov

Valid

Liu & Bever

Late Permian

Naobaogou Formation

 China

A pareiasaurid parareptile

Eorhynchochelys[329]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Li et al.

Late Triassic (Carnian)

Falang Formation

 China

A stem-turtle. The type species is E. sinensis.

Fraserosphenodon[330]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Herrera-Flores et al.

Late Triassic

 United Kingdom

A rhynchocephalian belonging to the group Opisthodontia; a new genus for "Clevosaurus" latidens Fraser (1993).

Fraxinisaura[331]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Schoch & Sues

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

 Germany

A member of Lepidosauromorpha, probably a relative of Marmoretta oxoniensis. Genus includes new species F. rozynekae.

Labidosauriscus[332]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Modesto, Scott & Reisz

Early Permian

Richards Spur locality

 United States
( Oklahoma)

A member of the family Captorhinidae. Genus includes new species L. richardi.

Mandaphon[333]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Tsuji

Triassic

Manda Formation

 Tanzania

A member of the family Procolophonidae. The type species is M. nadra.

Wachtlerosaurus[334]

Gen. et sp. nov

Perner

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

 Italy

A small reptile of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly an archosaur. The type species is W. ladinicus.

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian synapsids[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A description of the postcranial material referable to the caseid species Ennatosaurus tecton is published by Romano, Brocklehurst & Fröbisch (2018).[335]
  • A study on the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Milosaurus mccordi is published by Brocklehurst & Fröbisch (2018).[336]
  • A skull of a juvenile specimen of Anteosaurus magnificus is described from the Permian Abrahamskraal Formation (South Africa) by Kruger, Rubidge & Abdala (2018).[337]
  • A study on the evolution of the trigeminal nerve innervation in anomodonts is published by Benoit et al. (2018).[338]
  • A study on the stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of dentine apatite in the teeth of twenty-eight specimens of Diictodon feliceps, and on their implications for inferring the potential role of climate in driving the late Capitanian mass extinction of terrestrial tetrapods, is published by Rey et al. (2018).[339]
  • Description of the anatomy of six new skulls of the dicynodont Abajudon kaayai from the Permian (Guadalupian) lower Madumabisa Mudstone Formation (Zambia) and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of the species is published by Olroyd, Sidor & Angielczyk (2018).[340]
  • A study on the anatomy of the bony labyrinth of the specimens of the dicynodont genus Endothiodon collected from the Permian K5 Formation (Mozambique), comparing it with the closely related genus Niassodon, is published by Araújo et al. (2018).[341]
  • Redescription of the dicynodont genus Sangusaurus and a study on its feeding system and phylogenetic relationships is published by Angielczyk, Hancox & Nabavizadeh (2018).[342]
  • Partial hindlimb of a dicynodont nearing the size of Stahleckeria potens is described from the Triassic Lifua Member of the Manda Beds (Tanzania) by Kammerer, Angielczyk & Nesbitt (2018), representing the largest dicynodont postcranial element from the Manda Beds reported so far.[343]
  • Description of plant remains and palynomorphs preserved in the coprolites produced by large dicynodonts from the Triassic Chañares Formation (Argentina), and a study on their implications for inferring the diet of dicynodonts, is published by Perez Loinaze et al. (2018).[344]
  • Tetrapod tracks, probably produced by dicynodonts, are described from the Upper Triassic Vera Formation of the Los Menucos Group (Argentina) by Citton et al. (2018).[345]
  • A study on the anatomy of the skull of Cynariops robustus is published by Bendel et al. (2018).[346]
  • A study on rates of enamel development in a range of non-mammalian cynodont species, inferred from incremental markings, is published by O'Meara, Dirks & Martinelli (2018).[347]
  • Description of the morphology of the skull of Cynosaurus suppostus and a study on the phylogenetic relationships of the species is published by van den Brandt & Abdala (2018).[348]
  • Fossils of Cynognathus crateronotus are described for the first time from the Triassic Ntawere Formation (Zambia) and Manda Beds (Tanzania) by Wynd et al. (2018).[349]
  • A study on the postcranial anatomy of a specimen of Diademodon tetragonus recovered from the Upper Omingonde Formation (Namibia) is published by Gaetano, Mocke & Abdala (2018).[350]
  • Partial skull and postcranial skeleton of a member of the species Cricodon metabolus is described from the Triassic Ntawere Formation (Zambia) by Sidor & Hopson (2018), who also study the phylogenetic relationships of members of the family Trirachodontidae.[351]
  • A study on the musculature, posture and range of motion of the forelimb of Massetognathus pascuali is published by Lai, Biewener & Pierce (2018).[352]
  • New specimen of Trucidocynodon riograndensis, almost 20% larger than the holotype specimen, is described from the Carnian of Candelária Sequence (southern Brazil) by Stefanello et al. (2018).[353]
  • Right dentary with teeth of Prozostrodon brasiliensis is described from the Late Triassic of Brazil by Pacheco et al. (2018), representing the second known specimen of this species.[354]
  • Description of the anatomy of the postcranial skeleton of Prozostrodon brasiliensis is published by Guignard, Martinelli & Soares (2018).[355]
  • A study on the limb bone histology and life histories of Prozostrodon brasiliensis, Irajatherium hernandezi, Brasilodon quadrangularis and Brasilitherium riograndensis is published by Botha-Brink, Bento Soares & Martinelli (2018).[356]
  • A study on the origin and relationships of ictidosaurian cynodonts, i.e. tritheledontids and therioherpetids, is published by Bonaparte & Crompton (2018).[357]
  • A large (comprising at least 38 individuals) clutch of well-preserved perinates of Kayentatherium wellesi, found with a presumed maternal skeleton, is described from the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kayenta Formation (found on lands of the Navajo Nation) by Hoffman & Rowe (2018).[358]
  • Cynodont teeth (representing a brasilodontid and a Riograndia-like form) found in the Triassic locality in Brazil which also yielded the fossils of Sacisaurus agudoensis are described by Marsola et al. (2018).[359]
  • A study on the evolution of the mammalian jaw is published by Lautenschlager et al. (2018), who find no evidence for a concurrent reduction in jaw-joint stress and increase in bite force in key non-mammaliaform taxa in the cynodont–mammaliaform transition.[360]
  • Tetrapod burrows, likely produced by small eucynodonts, are described from the Triassic Chañares Formation (Argentina) by Fiorelli et al. (2018).[361]
  • A study on the morphological diversity of vertebral regions in non-mammalian synapsids, and on its implication for elucidating the evolution of anatomically distinct regions of the mammalian spines, is published by Jones et al. (2018).[362]
  • A study on teeth ontogeny in wide range of extinct synapsid lineages is published by LeBlanc et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that the ligamentous tooth attachment system is not unique to crown mammals within Synapsida.[363]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ascendonanus[364]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Spindler et al.

Permian (Sakmarian-Artinskian transition)

Chemnitz petrified forest
(Leukersdorf Formation)

 Germany

A member of the family Varanopidae. Genus includes new species A. nestleri.

Gordodon[365]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lucas, Rinehart & Celeskey

Early Permian (early Wolfcampian)

Bursum Formation

 United States
( New Mexico)

A member of the family Edaphosauridae. The type species is G. kraineri.

Gorynychus[366]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kammerer & Masyutin

Permian

Kotelnich red beds

 Russia
( Kirov Oblast)

A therocephalian. The type species is G. masyutinae.

Leucocephalus[367]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Day et al.

Permian (early Wuchiapingian)

Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone of the Main Karoo Basin

 South Africa

A biarmosuchian belonging to the family Burnetiidae. The type species is L. wewersi.

Lisowicia[368]

Gen. et sp. nov

In press

Sulej & Niedźwiedzki

Late Triassic (late Norian-earliest Rhaetian)

 Poland

A gigantic dicynodont reaching an estimated body mass of 9 tons. The type species is L. bojani.

Microvaranops[364]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Spindler et al.

Permian (Guadalupian)

Abrahamskraal Formation

 South Africa

A member of the family Varanopidae. Genus includes new species M. parentis.

Nochnitsa[369]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kammerer & Masyutin

Permian

Kotelnich red beds

 Russia
( Kirov Oblast)

A gorgonopsian. The type species is N. geminidens.

Pentasaurus[370]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kammerer

Late Triassic

Elliot Formation

 South Africa

A dicynodont belonging to the family Stahleckeriidae. The type species is P. goggai.

Siriusgnathus[371]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pavanatto et al.

Late Triassic (probably Carnian)

Santa Maria Supersequence

 Brazil

A traversodontid cynodont. Genus includes new species S. niemeyerorum.

Mammals[edit]

Other animals[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A review and synthesis of studies on the timing and environmental context of landmark events in early animal evolution is published by Sperling & Stockey (2018).[372]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of the rangeomorphs, dickinsoniomorphs and erniettomorphs as indicated by what is known of the ontogeny of the rangeomorph Charnia masoni, dickinsoniomorph Dickinsonia costata and erniettomorph Pteridinium simplex is published by Dunn, Liu & Donoghue (2018), who consider at least the rangeomorphs and dickinsoniomorphs to be metazoans.[373]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of the rangeomorphs is published by Dececchi et al. (2018).[374]
  • A study on the size distribution and morphological features of a population of juvenile specimens of Dickinsonia costata from the Crisp Gorge fossil locality in the Flinders Ranges (Australia) is published by Reid, García-Bellido & Gehling (2018).[375]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of Dickinsonia based on data from lipid biomarkers extracted from organically preserved Ediacaran macrofossils is published by Bobrovskiy et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that Dickinsonia was an animal.[376]
  • A study on the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of Stromatoveris, based on data from new specimens from the Chengjiang Konservat‐Lagerstätte (China), is published by Hoyal Cuthill & Han (2018), who interpret Stromatoveris as a member of early animal group Petalonamae that also included Arborea, Pambikalbae, rangeomorphs, dickinsoniomorphs and erniettomorphs.[377]
  • The first reliable occurrence of abundant penetrative trace fossils, providing trace fossil evidence for Precambrian bilaterians with complex behavioural patterns, is reported from the latest Ediacaran of western Mongolia by Oji et al. (2018).[378]
  • Trace fossils produced by Ediacaran animals which burrowed within sediment are described from the shallow-marine deposits of the Urusis Formation (Nama Group, Namibia) by Buatois et al. (2018), who name a new ichnotaxon Parapsammichnites pretzeliformis.[379]
  • New trace fossils from the Ediacaran Shibantan Member of the upper Dengying Formation (China), including burrows and possible trackways which were probably made by millimeter-sized animals with bilateral appendages, are described by Chen et al. (2018).[380]
  • An aggregation of members of the genus Parvancorina, providing evidence of two size-clusters and bimodal orientation in this taxon, is described from the Ediacara Conservation Park (Australia) by Coutts et al. (2018).[381]
  • New, three-dimensional specimens of Charniodiscus arboreus (Arborea arborea), allowing for a detailed reinterpretation of its functional morphology and taxonomy, are described from the Ediacara Member, Rawnsley Quartzite of South Australia by Laflamme, Gehling & Droser (2018).[382]
  • 3D reconstructions of Cloudina aggregates are presented by Mehra & Maloof (2018).[383]
  • A study on Namacalathus and Cloudina skeletons from the Ediacaran Omkyk Member of the Nama Group (Namibia) is published by Pruss et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that both organisms originally produced aragonitic skeletons, which later underwent diagenetic conversion to calcite.[384]
  • A study on the substrate growth dynamics, mode of biomineralization and possible affinities of Namapoikia rietoogensis is published by Wood & Penny (2018).[385]
  • A review of evidence for existence of swimming animals during the Neoproterozoic is published by Gold (2018).[386]
  • A study on the age of the Cambrian Chengjiang biota (China) is published by Yang et al. (2018).[387]
  • Description of coprolites from the Cambrian (Drumian) Rockslide Formation (Mackenzie Mountains, Canada) produced by an unknown predator, and a study on their implications for reconstructing the Cambrian food web, is published by Kimmig & Pratt (2018).[388]
  • A study on the nature and biological affinity of the Cambrian taxon Archaeooides is published by Yin et al. (2018), who interpret the fossils of Archaeooides as embryonic remains of animals.[389]
  • Zumberge et al. (2018) report a new fossil sterane biomarker, possessing a rare hydrocarbon skeleton that is uniquely found within extant demosponge taxa, from late NeoproterozoicCambrian sedimentary rocks and oils, and interpret this finding as indicating that demosponges, and hence multicellular animals, were prominent in some late Neoproterozoic marine environments at least extending back to the Cryogenian period.[390]
  • Diverse, abundant sponge fossils from the Ordovician–Silurian boundary interval are reported from seven localities in South China by Botting et al. (2018), who produce a model for the distribution and preservation of the sponge fauna.[391]
  • A study on the phylogenetic relationships of extant and fossil demosponges is published by Schuster et al. (2018).[392]
  • An assemblage of animal fossils, including the oldest known pterobranchs, preserved in the form of small carbonaceous fossils is described from the Cambrian Buen Formation (Greenland) by Slater et al. (2018).[393]
  • Description of new morphological features of the Cambrian mobergellan Discinella micans is published by Skovsted & Topper (2018).[394]
  • A study on the interrelationships between the eldonioid Pararotadiscus guizhouensis and associated fossil taxa from the Kaili Biota is published by Zhao et al. (2018).[395]
  • A study on the slab with a dense aggregation of members of the species Banffia constricta recovered from the Cambrian Burgess Shale (Canada) and its implications for life habits of the animal is published by Chambers & Brandt (2018).[396]
  • A study on the morphology and phylogenetic affinities of Yuyuanozoon magnificissimi, based on new specimens, is published by Li et al. (2018).[397]
  • A study on the fossil record of early Paleozoic graptoloids and on the factors influencing rates of diversification within this group is published by Foote et al. (2018).[398]
  • A study on the impact of the long-period astronomical cycles (Milankovitch “grand cycles”) associated with Earth's orbital eccentricity and obliquity on the variance in species turnover probability (extinction probability plus speciation probability) in Early Paleozoic graptoloids is published by Crampton et al. (2018).[399]
  • A redescription of the species Malongitubus kuangshanensis from the Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte (China) is published by Hu et al. (2018), who interpret this taxon as a pterobranch.[400]
  • A study on the morphology of the palaeoscolecid worm Palaeoscolex from the Lower Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstätte (Morocco), using computed microtomography and providing new information on the internal anatomy of this animal, is published by Kouraiss et al. (2018).[401]
  • The first occurrence of the tommotiid species Paterimitra pyramidalis from the Xinji Formation (China) is reported by Pan et al. (2018).[402]
  • A study on the temporal distribution of lophotrochozoan skeletal species from the upper Ediacaran to the basal Miaolingian of the Siberian Platform, and on its implications for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of the Cambrian explosion, is published by Zhuravlev & Wood (2018).[403]
  • A study reinterpreting the putative Cambrian lobopodian Mureropodia apae as a partial isolated appendage of a member of the genus Caryosyntrips, published by Pates & Daley (2017)[404] is criticized by Gámez Vintaned & Zhuravlev (2018);[405] Pates, Daley & Ortega-Hernández (2018) defend their original conclusions.[406]
  • A study on the early evolution of stem and crown-arthropods as indicated by Ediacaran and Cambrian body and trace fossils is published by Daley et al. (2018).[407]
  • A study on the evolution of ecdysozoan vision, focusing on the evolution of arthropod multi-opsin vision, as indicated by molecular data and data from fossil record, is published by Fleming et al. (2018).[408]
  • A reassessment of radiodontan fossils known from the Cambrian Kinzers Formation (Pennsylvania, United States) will be published by Pates & Daley (2018), who argue that at least four radiodontan taxa are known from this formation, and confirm that Anomalocaris pennsylvanica is a distinct species from A. canadensis.[409]
  • A juvenile specimen of Lyrarapax unguispinus, providing new information on the frontal appendages and feeding mode in this taxon, will be described from the Cambrian Chiungchussu Formation (China) by Liu et al. (2018).[410]
  • A study evaluating likely swimming efficiency and maneuverability of Anomalocaris canadensis is published by Sheppard, Rival & Caron (2018).[411]
  • Cambrian animal Pahvantia hastata from the Wheeler Shale (Utah, United States), originally classified as a possible arthropod,[412] is reinterpreted as a suspension-feeding radiodont by Lerosey-Aubril & Pates (2018).[413]
  • The presence of metameric midgut diverticulae is reported for the first time in the stem-arthropod Fuxianhuia protensa by Ortega-Hernández et al. (2018), who interpret their finding as indicative of a predatory or scavenging ecology of fuxianhuiids.[414]
  • Liu et al. (2018) reinterpret putative remains of the nervous and cardiovascular systems in numerous articulated individuals of Fuxianhuia protensa as more likely to be microbial biofilms that developed following decomposition of the intestine, muscle and other connective tissues.[415]
  • A study on the post-embryonic development of Fuxianhuia protensa is published by Fu et al. (2018).[416]
  • Redescription of the fuxianhuiid Liangwangshania biloba is published by Chen et al. (2018).[417]
  • New specimens of the stem-arthropod species Kerygmachela kierkegaardi, providing new information on the anatomy of this species and on the ancestral condition of the panarthropod brain, are described from the Cambrian Stage 3 of the Buen Formation (Sirius Passet, Greenland) by Park et al. (2018).[418]
  • Fossils of spindle- or conotubular-shaped animals of uncertain phylogenetic placement are described from the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation (Pennsylvania, United States) by Meyer et al. (2018).[419]
  • Evidence of macrofauna living at depths of up to 8 metres below the seabed is reported from the Permian Fort Brown Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa) by Cobain et al. (2018).[420]
  • A study on the morphology of the hyolithid Paramicrocornus zhenbaensis from the lower Cambrian Shuijingtuo Formation (China) is published by Zhang, Skovsted & Zhang (2018), who report that this species lacked helens, and also report the oldest known hyolith muscle scars preserved on the opercula of this species.[421]
  • A study on the feeding strategies and locomotion of Cambrian hyolithids, based on specimens preserved in coprolites from the Chengjiang biota and associated with a Tuzoia carcass from the Balang Fauna (China), is published by Sun et al. (2018).[422]
  • Digestive tract of a specimen of the hyolith species Circotheca johnstrupi from the Cambrian Læså Formation (Bornholm, Denmark) is described by Berg-Madsen, Valent & Ebbestad (2018).[423]
  • The oldest stromatoporoidbryozoan reefs reported so far are described from the middle Ordovician Duwibong Formation (South Korea) by Hong et al. (2018).[424]
  • Small bioconstructions formed solely by microconchid tube worms, representing the stratigraphically oldest exclusively metazoan bioconstructions from the earliest Triassic (mid-Induan) strata in East Greenland, are reported by Zatoń et al. (2018).[425]
  • The oldest known evidence of trematode parasitism of bivalves in the form of igloo-shaped traces found on shells of the freshwater bivalve Sphaerium is reported from the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation (Montana, United States) by Rogers et al. (2018).[426]
  • A study on the predatory drill holes in Late Cretaceous and Paleogene molluscan and serpulid worm prey from Seymour Island (Antarctica) and their implications for inferring the effects of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event on predator-prey dynamics at this site is published by Harper, Crame & Sogot (2018).[427]
  • A study on burrows from Lower–Middle Triassic successions in South China assigned to the ichnotaxon Rhizocorallium, and on their implications for inferring the course of biotic recovery following the Permian–Triassic extinction event, is published by Feng et al. (2018).[428]
  • A study evaluating how different species of fossil and extant free-living cupuladriid bryozoans responded to the environmental changes in the Southwest Caribbean over the last 6  million years is published by O’Dea et al. (2018).[429]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acanthodesia variegata[430]

Sp. nov

Valid

Di Martino & Taylor

Holocene

 Indonesia

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cheilostomata and the family Membraniporidae.

Acoscinopleura albaruthenica[431]

Sp. nov

Valid

Koromyslova, Martha & Pakhnevich

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian)

 Belarus

A bryozoan belonging to the group Flustrina and the family Coscinopleuridae.

Acoscinopleura crassa[431]

Sp. nov

Valid

Koromyslova, Martha & Pakhnevich

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Germany

A bryozoan belonging to the group Flustrina and the family Coscinopleuridae.

Acoscinopleura dualis[431]

Sp. nov

Valid

Koromyslova, Martha & Pakhnevich

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Germany

A bryozoan belonging to the group Flustrina and the family Coscinopleuridae.

Acoscinopleura occulta[431]

Sp. nov

Valid

Koromyslova, Martha & Pakhnevich

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Germany

A bryozoan belonging to the group Flustrina and the family Coscinopleuridae.

‘Aechmella’ viskovae[432]

Sp. nov

Valid

Koromyslova, Baraboshkin & Martha

Late Cretaceous

 Kazakhstan

A bryozoan.

Aechmellina[433]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Taylor, Martha & Gordon

Cretaceous (Cenomanian) to Paleocene (Danian).

 Denmark
 France
 Germany
 United Kingdom
 United States

A bryozoan belonging to the group Flustrina and the family Onychocellidae. The type species is "Aechmella" falcifera Voigt (1949); genus also includes "Homalostega" anglica Brydone (1909), "Aechmella" bassleri Voigt (1924), "Homalostega" biconvexa Brydone (1909), "Cellepora" hippocrepis Goldfuss (1826), "Aechmella" indefessa Taylor & McKinney (2006), "Aechmella" latistoma Berthelsen (1962), "Aechmella" linearis Voigt (1924), "Aechmella" parvilabris Voigt (1924), "Aechmella" pindborgi Berthelsen (1962), "Semieschara" proteus Brydone (1912), "Monoporella" seriata Levinsen (1925), "Aechmella" stenostoma Voigt (1930), "Reptescharinella" transversa d’Orbigny (1852) and "Aechmella" ventricosa Voigt (1924).

Alacaris[434]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Yang et al.

Cambrian Stage 3

Hongjingshao Formation

 China

A stem-arthropod related to Chengjiangocaris. The type species is A. mirabilis.

Allonnia nuda[435]

Sp. nov

Valid

Cong et al.

Cambrian Stage 3

Chengjiang Lagerstätte

 China

A chancelloriid.

Allonnia tenuis[436]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhao, Li & Selden

Early Cambrian

 China

A chancelloriid.

Arnaopora[437]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Suárez Andrés & Wyse Jackson

Devonian

Moniello Formation

 Spain

A bryozoan belonging to the group Fenestrata. Genus includes new species A. sotoi.

Aspidostoma armatum[438]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pérez, López-Gappa & Griffin

Early Miocene

Monte León Formation

 Argentina

A cheilostome bryozoan belonging to the family Aspidostomatidae.

Aspidostoma roveretoi[438]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pérez, López-Gappa & Griffin

Late Miocene

Puerto Madryn Formation

 Argentina

A cheilostome bryozoan belonging to the family Aspidostomatidae.

Aspidostoma tehuelche[438]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pérez, López-Gappa & Griffin

Early to middle Miocene

Chenque Formation

 Argentina

A cheilostome bryozoan belonging to the family Aspidostomatidae.

Austroscolex sinensis[439]

Sp. nov

Valid

Liu et al.

Cambrian (Paibian)

 China

A palaeoscolecid.

Axilosoecia[440]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Taylor & Brezina

Paleocene (Danian) to early Miocene

Roca Formation

 Argentina
 New Zealand

A bryozoan belonging to the group Tubuliporina and the family Oncousoeciidae. The type species is A. giselae; genus also includes A. mediorubiensis.

Burocratina[441]

Gen. et sp. nov

Wachtler & Ghidoni

Early-Middle Triassic

 Italy

A polychaete. The type species is B. kraxentrougeri.

Catenagraptus[442]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

VandenBerg

Ordovician (late Floian)

 Australia

A graptolite belonging to the group Sinograptina and the family Sigmagraptidae. The type species is C. communalis.

Characodoma wesselinghi[430]

Sp. nov

Valid

Di Martino & Taylor

Holocene

 Indonesia

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cheilostomata and the family Cleidochasmatidae.

Cheethamia aktolagayensis[432]

Sp. nov

Valid

Koromyslova, Baraboshkin & Martha

Late Cretaceous

 Kazakhstan

A bryozoan.

Codositubulus[443]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Gámez Vintaned et al.

Cambrian

 Spain

A tubicolous animal of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is C. grioensis.

Colospongia lenis[444]

Sp. nov

Valid

Malysheva

Late Permian

 Russia
( Primorsky Krai)

A sponge.

Cornulites gondwanensis[445]

Sp. nov

Valid

Gutiérrez-Marco & Vinn

Ordovician (Hirnantian)

 Morocco

A member of Cornulitida.

Cupitheca convexa[446]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sun et al.

Cambrian

Manto Formation

 China

A member of Hyolitha.

Cystomeson[447]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ernst, Krainer & Lucas

Carboniferous (Mississippian)

Lake Valley Formation

 United States
( New Mexico)

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cystoporata. Genus includes new species C. sierraensis.

Cystostroma primordia[448]

Sp. nov

In press

Jeon et al.

Ordovician (Floian to Darriwilian)

Duwibong Formation
Hunghuayuan Formation

 China
 South Korea

A member of Stromatoporoidea.

Decoritheca? hageni[449]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peel & Willman

Cambrian Series 2

Buen Formation

 Greenland

A member of Hyolitha.

Dictyocyathus aranosensis[450]

Sp. nov

Valid

Perejón et al.

Early Cambrian

 Namibia

A member of Archaeocyatha.

Didymograptellus kremastus[451]

Sp. nov

Valid

Vandenberg

Ordovician (Floian)

 Australia
 New Zealand
 Norway
 United States

A graptolite belonging to the group Dichograptina and the family Pterograptidae.

Erismacoscinus ganigobisensis[450]

Sp. nov

Valid

Perejón et al.

Early Cambrian

 Namibia

A member of Archaeocyatha.

‘Escharoides’ charbonnieri[452]

Sp. nov

Valid

Di Martino, Martha & Taylor

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Madagascar

A bryozoan.

Fehiborypora[452]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Di Martino, Martha & Taylor

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Madagascar

A bryozoan; a new genus for "Cribilina" labiatula Canu (1922).

Gibbavasis[453]

Gen. et sp. nov

Vaziri, Majidifard & Laflamme

Ediacaran

Kushk Series

 Iran

A vase-shaped organism of uncertain phylogenetic placement, possibly a poriferan-grade animal. The type species is G. kushkii.

Homoctenus katzerii[454]

Sp. nov

Valid

Comniskey & Ghilardi

Devonian (late Pragian or late Emsian)

Ponta Grossa Formation

 Brazil

A member of Tentaculitoidea belonging to the order Homoctenida and the family Homoctenidae.

Kamilocella[433]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Taylor, Martha & Gordon

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) to Campanian).

 Czech Republic
 France
 Germany

A bryozoan belonging to the group Flustrina and the family Onychocellidae. The type species is "Eschara" latilabris Reuss (1872); genus also includes "Eschara" acis d’Orbigny (1851), "Onychocella" barbata Martha, Niebuhr & Scholz (2017), "Eschara" cenomana d’Orbigny (1851) and "Eschara" labiata Počta (1892).

Kenocharixa[455]

Gen. et sp. et comb. nov

Valid

Dick, Sakamoto & Komatsu

Cretaceous to Eocene

 Japan
 New Zealand

A cheilostome bryozoan. Genus includes new species K. kashimaensis, as well as "Charixa goshouraensis Dick, Komatsu, Takashima & Ostrovsky (2013) and "Conopeum" stamenocelloides Gordon & Taylor (2015).

Khmeria minima[456]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wendt

Late Triassic (Carnian)

 Italy

An ascidian belonging to the new order Khmeriamorpha.

Khmeria stolonifera[456]

Sp. nov

Valid

Wendt

Late Permian, possibly also Carboniferous

 Cambodia
 Thailand
 Vietnam

An ascidian belonging to the new order Khmeriamorpha.

Kimberella persii[453]

Sp. nov

Vaziri, Majidifard & Laflamme

Ediacaran

Kushk Series

 Iran

A stem-mollusc bilaterian.

Kootenayscolex[457]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Nanglu & Caron

Cambrian

Burgess Shale

 Canada
( British Columbia)

A polychaete. Genus includes new species K. barbarensis.

Laminacaris[458]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Guo et al.

Cambrian Stage 3

 China
 United States?[409]

A member of Radiodonta. Genus includes new species L. chimera.

Lenisambulatrix[459]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Ou & Mayer

Cambrian Stage 3

Heilinpu Formation

 China

A lobopodian. The type species is L. humboldti.

Lunulites marambionis[460]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hara et al.

Eocene

La Meseta Formation

Antarctica
(Seymour Island)

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cheilostomata and the family Lunulitidae.

Marginaria prolixa[455]

Sp. nov

Valid

Dick, Sakamoto & Komatsu

Late Cretaceous (Campanian)

Himenoura Group

 Japan

A cheilostome bryozoan.

Matteolaspongia[461]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Botting, Zhang & Muir

Ordovician (Hirnantian)

Wenchang Formation

 China

A sponge, possibly a stem-rossellid. The type species is M. hemiglobosa.

Melychocella biperforata[438]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pérez, López-Gappa & Griffin

Early Miocene

Chenque Formation
Monte León Formation

 Argentina

A cheilostome bryozoan belonging to the family Aspidostomatidae.

Micrascidites gothicus[462]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sagular, Yümün & Meriç

Quaternary

 Turkey

A didemnid ascidian.

Micropora nordenskjoeldi[460]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hara et al.

Eocene

La Meseta Formation

Antarctica
(Seymour Island)

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cheilostomata and the family Microporidae.

Minitaspongia[463]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Carrera et al.

Carboniferous (Tournaisian)

Agua de Lucho Formation

 Argentina

A hexactinellid sponge belonging to the family Dictyospongiidae. The type species is M. parvis.

Monniotia minutula[462]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sagular, Yümün & Meriç

Quaternary

 Turkey

A didemnid ascidian.

Nasaaraqia[449]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Peel & Willman

Cambrian Series 2

Buen Formation

 Greenland

Genus includes new species N. hyptiotheciformis.

Neotrematopora lyaoilensis[464]

Sp. nov

Valid

Tolokonnikova & Ponomarenko

Devonian (Frasnian)

Lyaiol Formation

 Russia

A bryozoan.

Nevadotheca boerglumensis[449]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peel & Willman

Cambrian Series 2

Buen Formation

 Greenland

A member of Hyolitha.

Nidelric gaoloufangensis[436]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhao, Li & Selden

Early Cambrian

 China

An animal with single-element spines.

Nogrobs moroccensis[465]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schlögl et al.

Middle Jurassic (Bajocian)

 Morocco

A serpulid polychaete.

Normalograptus baridaensis[466]

Sp. nov

In press

Štorch, Roqué Bernal & Gutiérrez-Marco

Ordovician (Hirnantian)

 Spain

A graptolite.

Normalograptus ednae[466]

Sp. nov

In press

Štorch, Roqué Bernal & Gutiérrez-Marco

Silurian (Rhuddanian)

 Spain

A graptolite.

Onuphionella corusca[467]

Sp. nov

In press

Muir et al.

Ordovician (Sandbian)

First Bani Group

 Morocco

Otionellina antarctica[460]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hara et al.

Eocene

La Meseta Formation

Antarctica
(Seymour Island)

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cheilostomata and the family Otionellidae.

Otionellina eocenica[460]

Sp. nov

Valid

Hara et al.

Eocene

La Meseta Formation

Antarctica
(Seymour Island)

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cheilostomata and the family Otionellidae.

Pedunculotheca[468]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Sun, Zhao & Zhu in Sun et al.

Cambrian Stage 3

Yu'anshan Formation

 China

A member of Hyolitha belonging to the group Orthothecida. Genus includes new species P. diania.

‘Plagioecia’ antanihodiensis[452]

Sp. nov

Valid

Di Martino, Martha & Taylor

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Madagascar

A bryozoan.

Pleurocodonellina javanensis[430]

Sp. nov

Valid

Di Martino & Taylor

Early Pleistocene

Pucangan Formation

 Indonesia

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cheilostomata and the family Smittinidae.

Protohertzina compressa[469]

Sp. nov

Valid

Slater, Harvey & Butterfield

Cambrian (Terreneuvian)

Lontova Formation
Voosi Formation

 Estonia

A member of the total group of Chaetognatha.

Qinscolex[470]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Liu et al.

Cambrian (Fortunian)

 China

A cycloneuralian tentatively assigned to total‐group Scalidophora. Genus includes new species Q. spinosus.

Ramskoeldia[471]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Cong et al.

Cambrian

Maotianshan Shales

 China

A member of Radiodonta related to Amplectobelua. Genus includes new species R. platyacantha and R. consimilis.

Reptomultisparsa stratosa[472]

Sp. nov

Valid

Viskova & Pakhnevich

Middle Jurassic (Callovian)

 Russia

A bryozoan.

Schistodictyon webbyi[473]

Sp. nov

Valid

Zhen

Late Silurian

 Australia

A sponge belonging to the class Stromatoporoidea, order Clathrodictyida and the family Anostylostromatidae.

Seqineqia[474]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Peel

Cambrian (Guzhangian)

Holm Dal Formation

 Greenland

A sponge. The type species is S. bottingi.

“Serpula” calannai[475]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sanfilippo et al.

Permian

 Italy.

A serpulid polychaete.

“Serpula” prisca[475]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sanfilippo et al.

Permian

 Italy.

A serpulid polychaete.

Shaanxiscolex[476]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Yang et al.

Cambrian Stage 4

 China

A palaeoscolecid. The type species is S. xixiangensis.

Shanscolex[470]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Liu et al.

Cambrian (Fortunian)

 China

A cycloneuralian tentatively assigned to total‐group Scalidophora. Genus includes new species S. decorus.

Sisamatispongia[474]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Peel

Cambrian (Guzhangian)

Holm Dal Formation

 Greenland

A sponge. The type species is S. erecta.

Sonarina[477]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Taylor & Di Martino

Late Cretaceous (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian)

Kallankurichchi Formation

 India

A cheilostome bryozoan belonging to the family Onychocellidae. Genus includes new species S. tamilensis.

Stanleycaris[406]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Pates, Daley & Ortega-Hernández

Cambrian

Stephen Formation
Wheeler Formation

 Canada
( British Columbia)
 United States
( Utah)

A member of Radiodonta belonging to the group Hurdiidae. The type species is S. hirpex. The original description of the taxon appeared in an online supplement to the article published by Caron et al. (2010),[478] making in invalid until it was validated by Pates, Daley & Ortega-Hernández (2018).[405][406]

Styliolina langenii[454]

Sp. nov

Valid

Comniskey & Ghilardi

Devonian (middle to late Emsian)

Ponta Grossa Formation

 Brazil

A member of Tentaculitoidea belonging to the order Dacryoconarida and the family Styliolinidae.

Sullulika[449]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Peel & Willman

Cambrian Series 2

Buen Formation

 Greenland

A selkirkiid stem-priapulid. Genus includes new species S. broenlundi.

Tallitaniqa[474]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Peel

Cambrian (Guzhangian)

Holm Dal Formation

 Greenland

A sponge. The type species is T. petalliformis.

Tarimspira artemi[479]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peel

Cambrian Stage 4

Henson Gletscher Formation

 Greenland

An animal of uncertain phylogenetic placement described on the basis of fossil sclerites, possibly representing a stage in paraconodont evolution prior to the development of a basal cavity.

Tentaculites kozlowskii[454]

Sp. nov

Valid

Comniskey & Ghilardi

Devonian (late Pragian or late Emsian)

Ponta Grossa Formation

 Brazil

A member of Tentaculitoidea belonging to the order Tentaculitida and the family Tentaculitidae.

Tentaculites paranaensis[454]

Sp. nov

Valid

Comniskey & Ghilardi

Devonian (late Pragian or late Emsian)

Ponta Grossa Formation

 Brazil

A member of Tentaculitoidea belonging to the order Tentaculitida and the family Tentaculitidae.

Thanahita[480]

Gen. et sp. nov

Siveter et al.

Silurian (Wenlock

Herefordshire Lagerstätte

 United Kingdom.

A relative of Hallucigenia. The type species is T. distos.

Trapezovitus malinkyi[449]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peel & Willman

Cambrian Series 2

Buen Formation

 Greenland

A member of Hyolitha.

Turbicellepora yasuharai[430]

Sp. nov

Valid

Di Martino & Taylor

Holocene

 Indonesia

A bryozoan belonging to the group Cheilostomata and the family Celleporidae.

Uniconus ciguelii[454]

Sp. nov

Valid

Comniskey & Ghilardi

Devonian (late Pragian or late Emsian)

Ponta Grossa Formation

 Brazil

A member of Tentaculitoidea belonging to the order Tentaculitida and the family Uniconidae.

Zardinisoma[456]

Gen. et 5 sp. nov

Valid

Wendt

Permian (Wordian) to Triassic (Carnian)

San Cassiano Formation

 Italy
 Japan

An ascidian belonging to the new order Khmeriamorpha. The type species is Z. cassianum; genus also includes Z. japonicum, Z. pauciplacophorum, Z. pyriforme and Z. polyplacophorum.

Zhijinites tumourifomis[481]

Sp. nov

Valid

Pan, Feng & Chang

Cambrian (Terreneuvian)

Yanjiahe Formation

 China

A small shelly fossil.

Foraminifera[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A study on the effects of differential ocean acidification at the Cretaceous-Paleocene transition on the planktonic foraminiferal assemblages from the Farafra Oasis (Egypt) is published by Orabi et al. (2018).[482]
  • A wide variety of morphological abnormalities in planktic foraminiferal tests from the earliest Danian, mainly from Tunisian sections, is described by Arenillas, Arz & Gilabert (2018).[483]
  • A study on the impact of the climatic and environmental perturbation on the morphology of foraminifera living during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum is published by Schmidt et al. (2018).[484]
  • Taxonomic compilation and partial revision of early Eocene deep-sea benthic Foraminifera is presented by Arreguín-Rodríguez et al. (2018).[485]
  • A study on the responses of two species of foraminifera (extant Truncorotalia crassaformis and extinct Globoconella puncticulata) to climate change during the late Pliocene to earliest Pleistocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (3.6–2.4 million years ago) is published by Brombacher et al. (2018).[486]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Alabamina heyae[487]

Sp. nov

Valid

Fox et al.

Oligocene

 Germany

A member of Rotaliida belonging to the family Alabaminidae.

Alicantina[488]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Soldan, Petrizzo & Silva

Eocene

Dunghan Formation
Langley Formation
Lizard Springs Formation
Navet Formation
Richmond Formation
Shaheed Ghat Formation
Thebes Formation
Universidad Formation

 Cuba
 Egypt
 Italy
 Jamaica
 Pakistan
 Spain
 Syria
 Trinidad and Tobago
 Tunisia
Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean
(Kerguelen Plateau)
Pacific Ocean
(Caroline Abyssal Plain
Shatsky Rise)

A member of the family Globigerinidae. The type species is "Globigerina" lozanoi Colom (1954); genus also includes "Globigerina" prolata Bolli (1957).

Ammobaculoides dhrumaensis[489]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kaminski, Malik & Setoyama

Middle Jurassic (Bajocian)

Dhruma Formation

 Saudi Arabia

A member of Lituolida belonging to the family Spiroplectamminidae.

Asterigerinella jonesi[490]

Sp. nov

Valid

Rögl & Briguglio

Miocene (Burdigalian)

Quilon Formation

 India

Brizalina keralensis[490]

Sp. nov

Valid

Rögl & Briguglio

Miocene (Burdigalian)

Quilon Formation

 India

Colominella piriniae[491]

Sp. nov

Valid

Mancin & Kaminski

Pliocene

 Italy

A member of Textulariida.

Douglassites[492]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Read & Nestell

Carboniferous (late Pennsylvanian)

Riepe Spring Limestone

 United States
( Nevada)

A member of Fusulinida belonging to the family Schubertellidae. Genus includes new species D. sprucensis.

Elazigina siderea[493]

Sp. nov

Valid

Consorti & Rashidi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Tarbur Formation

 Iran
 Oman
 Turkey

A member of the group Rotaliida belonging to the family Rotaliidae.

Globoconella pseudospinosa[494]

Sp. nov

Valid

Crundwell

Early Pliocene

Southwest Pacific Ocean

Hemisphaerammina apta[495]

Sp. nov

Valid

McNeil & Neville

Early Eocene

Beaufort Sea

A member of the order Astrorhizida and the suborder Hemisphaeramminineae.

Ichnusella senerae[496]

Sp. nov

Valid

Rigaud, Schlagintweit & Bucur

Early Cretaceous (Barremian–early Aptian)

 Austria
 France
 Italy
 Romania
 Turkey
 Croatia?
 Serbia?
 Ukraine?

A member of the group Spirillinida belonging to the family Spirillinidae.

Lenticulina stewarti[487]

Sp. nov

Valid

Fox et al.

Oligocene (Rupelian)

 Germany

A member of the group Nodosariacea belonging to the family Vaginulinidae.

Neotrocholina theodori[496]

Sp. nov

Valid

Rigaud, Schlagintweit & Bucur

Early Cretaceous (Barremian–early Aptian)

 Austria
 France
 Iran
 Poland
 Romania
 Turkey

A member of the group Spirillinida belonging to the family Spirillinidae.

Nonion cepa[487]

Sp. nov

Valid

Fox et al.

Late Oligocene to early Miocene

Central North Sea basin
 Netherlands

A member of the group Rotaliida belonging to the family Nonionidae.

Nummulites fayumensis[497]

Sp. nov

Valid

Al Menoufy & Boukhary

Eocene (Lutetian)

 Egypt

A nummulite.

Nummulites tenuissimus[497]

Sp. nov

Valid

Al Menoufy & Boukhary

Eocene (Lutetian)

 Egypt

A nummulite.

Omphalocyclus macroporus ellipsoides[498]

Subsp. nov

Valid

Al Nuaimy

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Aqra Formation

 Iraq

Omphalocyclus macroporus maukabensis[498]

Subsp. nov

Valid

Al Nuaimy

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Aqra Formation

 Iraq

Palaeoelphidium[499]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Consorti, Schlagintweit & Rashidi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Iran
 Iraq
 Qatar

A member of the family Elphidiellidae; a new genus for "Elphidiella" multiscissurata Smout (1955).

Paralachlanella[490]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Rögl & Briguglio

Miocene (Burdigalian)

Quilon Formation

 India

Genus includes new species P. pilleri.

Pseudomassilina quilonensis[490]

Sp. nov

Valid

Rögl & Briguglio

Miocene (Burdigalian)

Quilon Formation

 India

Pseudopeneroplis[500]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Consorti in Consorti et al.

Late Cretaceous (late Cenomanian)

 Peru

A member of the superfamily Soritoidea and the family Praerhapydioninidae. Genus includes new species P. oyonensis.

Ranikothalia daviesi[501]

Sp. nov

Valid

Sirel & Deveciler

Early Eocene

 Turkey

A member of the group Rotaliida belonging to the family Nummulitidae.

Schubertella luisorum[502]

Sp. nov

Valid

Villa in Villa, Merino-Tomé & Martín Llaneza

Carboniferous (Moscovian)

La Nueva Limestone
Meruxalín Limestone
Sutu Limestone

 Spain

A member of Fusulinida.

Uvigerina kingi[487]

Sp. nov

Valid

Fox et al.

Middle Miocene

 Netherlands
Southern and central North Sea

A member of the group Rotaliida belonging to the family Uvigerinidae.

Other organisms[edit]

Research[edit]

  • A study on putative stromatolites described from the 3,700-Myr-old rocks from the Isua supracrustal belt (Greenland) by Nutman et al. (2016)[503] is published by Allwood et al. (2018), who interpret these putative stromatolites as more likely to be structures of non-biological origin.[504]
  • Carbon isotope analyses of 11 microbial fossils from the ∼3,465-million-year-old Apex chert (Australia) are published by Schopf et al. (2018), who interpret two of the five studied species as primitive photosynthesizers, one as an Archaeal methane producer, and two as methane consumers.[505]
  • Carbonaceous microstructures interpreted as evidence of early life are described from the ~3,472-million-year-old Middle Marker horizon, Barberton Greenstone Belt (South Africa) by Hickman-Lewis et al. (2018).[506]
  • Direct fossil evidence for life on land 3,220 million years ago in the form of terrestrial microbial mats is reported from the Moodies Group (South Africa) by Homann et al. (2018).[507]
  • Microfossils representing 18 morphotypes are reported from the c. 2.4 billion years old Turee Creek Group (Western Australia) by Barlow & Van Kranendonk (2018).[508]
  • A study on the chemical, isotopic and molecular structural characteristics of the putative multicellular eukaryote fossils from carbonaceous compressions in the 1.63 billion years old Tuanshanzi Formation (China) is published by Qu et al. (2018).[509]
  • Intact porphyrins, the molecular fossils of chlorophylls, are described from 1,100-million-year-old marine black shales of the Taoudeni Basin (Mauritania) by Gueneli et al. (2018), who also study the nitrogen isotopic values of the fossil pigments, and interpret their findings as indicating that the oceans of that time were dominated by cyanobacteria, while larger planktonic algae were scarce.[510]
  • A study on the evolutionary history of bacteria is published by Louca et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that most bacterial lineages ever to have inhabited Earth are extinct.[511]
  • Bobrovskiy et al. (2018) report molecular fossils from organically preserved specimens of Beltanelliformis, and interpret the fossils as representing large spherical colonies of cyanobacteria.[512]
  • Discoid imprints sampled from the Precambrian terranes of central Dobruja (Romania) are described and assigned to the species Beltanelliformis brunsae by Saint Martin & Saint Martin (2018).[513]
  • A study on the age of the fossil red alga Bangiomorpha pubescens is published by Gibson et al. (2018).[514]
  • A reassessment of the anatomy and taxonomy of Orbisiana, based on a restudy of the rediscovered original type material of O. simplex, is published by Kolesnikov et al. (2018).[515]
  • A study on the positions of fossil specimens in the assemblages of Ediacaran fossils from Mistaken Point (Canada), as well as on their implications for inferring the interactions and associations between the Ediacaran organisms, is published by Mitchell & Butterfield (2018).[516]
  • A study on the height of Ediacaran organisms from Mistaken Point, evaluating the link between the increase of height and resource competition or greater offspring dispersal, is published by Mitchell & Kenchington (2018).[517]
  • Evidence of a radiation of the Ediacaran biota that witnessed the emergence and widespread implementation of novel, animal-style ecologies is presented by Tarhan et al. (2018), who argue that this transition was linked to the expansion of Ediacaran taxa into dynamic, shallow marine environments characterized by episodic disturbance and complex and diverse organically-bound substrates, and propose that younger, second-wave Ediacaran communities resulting from said radiation were part of an ecological and evolutionary continuum with Phanerozoic ecosystems.[518]
  • Elliptical body fossils are described from the Ediacaran–Fortunian deposits of central Brittany (France) by Néraudeau et al. (2018), representing the first body fossils described from these deposits.[519]
  • A study on the sandstone- and limestone-hosted occurrences of Palaeopascichnus linearis (including material from a new locality in Arctic Siberia), indicative of a greater range of taxonomic and taphonomic variation, is published by Kolesnikov et al. (2018).[520]
  • A study on the organic‐walled microfossils from the Cambrian strata in the stratotype section of the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in the Burin Peninsula (Canada) is published by Palacios et al. (2018).[521]
  • Fossils interpreted as threads of filamentous cyanobacteria are described from the Cambrian (Guzhangian) Alum Shale Formation (Sweden) by Castellani et al. (2018).[522]
  • Enigmatic Devonian taxon Protonympha is interpreted as a possible post-Ediacaran vendobiont by Retallack (2018).[523]
  • Description of fossils of nonmarine diatoms belonging to the genus Actinocyclus from the Lower to Middle Miocene lacustrine deposits in Japan and a study on the possible causal links between the evolution of nonmarine planktonic diatoms and the climatic and environmental changes that occurred during the Miocene is published by Hayashi et al. (2018).[524]
  • A study on the cell-size frequency distributions across calcareous nanoplankton communities through the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, on their population biomass and on the impact of climate change on their cellular characteristics is published by Gibbs et al. (2018).[525]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Alievium mangalensiense[526]

Sp. nov

Valid

Bragina & Bragin

Late Cretaceous

 Cyprus

A radiolarian belonging to the family Pseudoaulophacidae.

Amsassia yushanensis[527]

Sp. nov

In press

Lee et al.

Late Ordovician

Xiazhen Formation

 China

A coral-like organism.

Angochitina plicata[528]

Sp. nov

Valid

Noetinger, di Pasquo & Starck

Devonian

 Argentina

A chitinozoan.

Anhuithrix[529]

Gen. et comb. nov

Pang et al.

Tonian

Liulaobei Formation

 China

A member of Cyanobacteria; a new genus for "Omalophyma" magna Steiner (1994).

Chaenotheca succina[530]

Sp. nov

Valid

Rikkinen & Schmidt in Rikkinen et al.

Eocene (Priabonian)

Baltic amber

 Russia
( Kaliningrad Oblast)

A fungus, a species of Chaenotheca.

Cyclotella cassandrae[531]

Sp. nov

Valid

Paillès et al.

Pleistocene

 Guatemala

A diatom.

Cyclotella petenensis[531]

Sp. nov

Valid

Paillès et al.

Pleistocene

 Guatemala

A diatom.

Doulia[532]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lian et al.

Cambrian Stage 3

Hongjingshao Formation

 China

A possible planktonic alga of uncertain phylogenetic placement. Genus includes new species D. rara.

Eolaminaria simigladiola[532]

Sp. nov

Valid

Lian et al.

Cambrian Stage 3

Hongjingshao Formation

 China

A macroalga of uncertain phylogenetic placement.

Epistacheoides bozorgniai[533]

Sp. nov

Valid

Falahatgar, Vachard & Sarfi

Carboniferous (Viséan)

 Iran

An alga of uncertain phylogenetic placement.

Girvanella lianiformis[534]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peel

Cambrian (Drumian)

Ekspedition Bræ Formation

 Greenland

A member of Cyanobacteria belonging to the family Cyanophyceae.

Girvanella pituutaq[534]

Sp. nov

Valid

Peel

Cambrian (Drumian)

Ekspedition Bræ Formation

 Greenland

A member of Cyanobacteria belonging to the family Cyanophyceae.

Gorgonisphaeridium impexus[528]

Sp. nov

Valid

Noetinger, di Pasquo & Starck

Devonian

 Argentina

An acritarch.

Hylaecullulus[535]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kenchington, Dunn & Wilby

Ediacaran

 United Kingdom

A rangeomorph. The type species is H. fordi.

Leiosphaeridia gorda[536]

Sp. nov

Valid

Loron & Moczydłowska

Tonian

Visingsö Group
Wynniatt Formation

 Canada
 Sweden

An unicellular microorganism of algal affinities.

Lontohystrichosphaera[469]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Slater, Harvey & Butterfield

Cambrian (Terreneuvian)

Lontova Formation

 Estonia

A large ornamented acritarch of unresolved biological affinity, probably an ontogenetically and metabolically active eukaryotic organism rather than a dormant protistan cyst. Genus includes new species L. grandis.

Mallomonas aperturae[537]

Sp. nov

Valid

Siver

Middle Eocene

Giraffe Pipe locality

 Canada

A synurid, a species of Mallomonas.

Mallomonas bakeri[538]

Sp. nov

Valid

Siver

Middle Eocene

Giraffe Pipe locality

 Canada

A synurid, a species of Mallomonas.

Mallomonas skogstadii[538]

Sp. nov

Valid

Siver

Middle Eocene

Giraffe Pipe locality

 Canada

A synurid, a species of Mallomonas.

Mispertonia[539]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

McLean et al.

Carboniferous (Mississippian) to Late Permian or Early Triassic

 India
 United Kingdom

An organic-walled microfossil of uncertain phylogenetic placement. Genus includes new species M. desiccata.

Orpikania[534]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Peel

Cambrian (Drumian)

Ekspedition Bræ Formation

 Greenland

A member of the family Epiphytaceae (a group of organisms of uncertain phylogenetic placement). Genus includes new species O. freucheni.

Pakupaku[540]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Riedman, Porter & Calver

Tonian

Black River Dolomite

 Australia

A vase-shaped microfossil. Genus includes new species P. kabin.

Paleoambrosia[541]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Poinar & Vega

Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

An ambrosia fungus. Genus includes new species P. entomophila.

Perexiflasca[542]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Krings, Harper & Taylor

Devonian (Pragian)

Rhynie chert

 United Kingdom

A small, chytrid-like organism. Genus includes new species P. tayloriana.

Phomites neogenicus[543]

Sp. nov

In press

Vishnu, Khan & Bera in Vishnu et al.

Neogene

 India

A fungus similar to members of the genus Phoma.

Phomites siwalicus[543]

Sp. nov

In press

Vishnu, Khan & Bera in Vishnu et al.

Neogene

 India

A fungus similar to members of the genus Phoma.

Phyllopsora magna[544]

Sp. nov

Valid

Kaasalainen, Rikkinen & Schmidt in Kaasalainen et al.

Miocene

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A lichenized fungus, a species of Phyllopsora.

Pierceites deccanensis[545]

Sp. nov

Valid

Prasad et al.

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 India

A dinoflagellate belonging to the family Peridiniaceae.

Pseudoalievium[526]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Bragina & Bragin

Late Cretaceous

 Cyprus

A radiolarian belonging to the family Pseudoaulophacidae. Genus includes new species P. parekklisiense and P. inflatum.

Pseudoaulophacus decoratus[526]

Sp. nov

Valid

Bragina & Bragin

Late Cretaceous

 Cyprus

A radiolarian belonging to the family Pseudoaulophacidae.

Retesporangicus[546]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Strullu-Derrien in Strullu-Derrien et al.

Early Devonian

Rhynie chert

 United Kingdom

A fungus belonging to the group Blastocladiomycota, of uncertain phylogenetic placement within the latter group. Genus includes new species R. lyonii.

Retiranus[469]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Slater, Harvey & Butterfield

Cambrian (Terreneuvian)

Lontova Formation
Voosi Formation

 Estonia
 Lithuania

A sheet-like or funnel-shaped organism of unresolved biological affinity. Genus includes new species R. balticus.

Rugophyca[532]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lian et al.

Cambrian Stage 3

Hongjingshao Formation

 China

A macroalga of uncertain phylogenetic placement. Genus includes new species R. longa.

Saarinomorpha[547]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Kolosov & Sofroneeva

Vendian

 Russia

A tubiform organic-walled segmented microfossil, resembling Saarina juliae but smaller by one–two orders of magnitude. Genus includes new species S. infundibularis.

Singulariphyca[532]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lian et al.

Cambrian Stage 3

Hongjingshao Formation

 China

A macroalga of uncertain phylogenetic placement. Genus includes new species S. ramosa.

Stellarossica[548]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

Vorob'eva & Sergeev

Precambrian

Ura Formation

 Russia

A large acanthomorph acritarch. Genus includes new species S. ampla.

Synsphaeridium parahioense[549]

Sp. nov

Valid

Yin et al.

Cambrian Series 3

 India

An acritarch.

Tristratothallus[550]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Edwards et al.

Silurian (Ludfordian)

Downton Castle Sandstone Formation

 United Kingdom

A nematophyte belonging to the family Nematothallaceae. Genus includes new species T. ludfordensis.

Vendotaenia pavimentpes[551]

Sp. nov

Valid

Yang & Qin in Yang et al.

Ediacaran

Dengying Formation

 China

An alga.

Vendotaenia sixiense[551]

Sp. nov

Valid

Yang & Qin in Yang et al.

Ediacaran

Dengying Formation

 China

An alga.

Vizellopsidites[552]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Khan, Bera & Bera

Late Pliocene to early Pleistocene

Kimin Formation

 India

A fossil fungus found on the surface of fossilized leaf fragments. Genus includes new species V. siwalika.

Windipila pumila[553]

Sp. nov

Valid

Krings & Harper

Early Devonian

Rhynie chert

 United Kingdom

A fungal reproductive unit.

General paleontology[edit]

Research related to paleontology that either does not concern any of the groups of the organisms listed above, or concerns multiple groups.

  • A study on the geologic record of Milankovitch climate cycles, extending their analysis into the Proterozoic and aiming to reconstruct the history of solar system characteristics, is published by Meyers & Malinverno (2018).[554]
  • A study testing the hypothesis that chemodenitrification, the rapid reduction of nitric oxide by ferrous iron, would have enhanced the flux of nitrous oxide from Proterozoic seas, leading to nitrous oxide becoming an important constituent of Earth's atmosphere during Proterozoic and possibly life's primary terminal electron acceptor during the transition from an anoxic to oxic surface Earth, is published by Stanton et al. (2018).[555]
  • A study on the effect of different forms of primitive photosynthesis on Earth's early atmospheric chemistry and climate is published by Ozaki et al. (2018).[556]
  • A study on the history of life on Earth is published by McMahon & Parnell (2018), who argue that the subsurface “deep biosphere” outweighed the surface biosphere by about one order of magnitude for at least half of the history of life.[557]
  • A timescale of life on Earth, based on a reappraisal of the fossil material and new molecular clock analyses, is presented by Betts et al. (2018).[558]
  • A study on the nitrogen isotope ratios, selenium abundances, and selenium isotope ratios from the ∼2.66 billion years old Jeerinah Formation (Australia), providing evidence of transient surface ocean oxygenation ∼260 million years before the Great Oxygenation Event, is published by Koehler et al. (2018).[559]
  • A study on functional shifts in modern phototrophic microbial mats across redox gradients, and on its implications for inferring the metabolic transitions experienced during the Great Oxygenation Event, is published by Gutiérrez-Preciado et al. (2018).[560]
  • A study on living cyanobacteria, testing the hypothesis that planktonic single-celled cyanobacteria could drive the export of organic carbon from the surface to deep ocean in the Paleoproterozoic, is published by Kamennaya et al. (2018).[561]
  • A quantitative estimate of Paleoproterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels is presented by Bellefroid et al. (2018).[562]
  • A study on the iron mineralogy of the 1.1-billion-year-old Paleolake Nonesuch (Nonesuch Formation), and on its implications for inferring whether the waters of this lake were oxygenated, will be published by Slotznick, Swanson-Hysell & Sperling (2018).[563]
  • A study on the abundance of bio-essential trace elements during the period in Earth's history known as the "Boring Billion" is published by Mukherjee et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as incidacting that key biological innovations in eukaryote evolution (the appearance of first eukaryotes, the acquisition of certain cell organelles, the origin of multicellularity and the origin of sexual reproduction) probably occurred during the period of a scarcity of trace elements, followed by a broad-scale diversification of eukaryotes during the period of a relative abundance of trace elements.[564]
  • A study on the ocean chemistry at the start of the Mesoproterozoic as indicated by rare earth element, iron-speciation and inorganic carbon isotope data from the 1,600–1,550 million years old Yanliao Basin, North China Craton is published by Zhang et al. (2018), who report evidence of a progressive oxygenation event starting at ~1,570 million years ago, immediately prior to the occurrence of complex multicellular eukaryotes in shelf areas of the Yanliao Basin.[565]
  • Evidence of euxinia occurring in the photic zone of the ocean in the Mesoproterozoic, based on measurements of mercury isotope compositions in late Mesoproterozoic (∼1.1 billion years old) shales from the Atar Group and the El Mreiti Group (Tauodeni Basin, Mauritania), is presented by Zheng et al. (2018).[566]
  • A study on the Earth's atmosphere and the productivity of global biosphere 1.4 billion years ago, based on triple oxygen isotope measurements sedimentary sulfates from the Sibley basin (Ontario, Canada), is published by Crockford et al. (2018).[567]
  • A study on the isotopically enriched chromium in Mesoproterozoic-aged shales from the Shennongjia Group (China) dating back to 1.35  billion years ago is published by Canfield et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as document elevated atmospheric oxygen levels through most of Mesoproterozoic Era, likely sufficient for early crown group animal respiration, but attained over 400 million years before they evolved.[568]
  • A study on the timing of the onset of the Sturtian glaciation, based on new stratigraphic and geochronological data from the upper Tambien Group (Ethiopia), is published by Scott MacLennan et al. (2018).[569]
  • A study on abundant pyrite concretions from the topmost Nantuo Formation (China), deposited during the terminal Cryogenian Marinoan glaciation, is published by Lang et al. (2018), who interpret these concretions as evidence of a transient but widespread presence of marine euxinia in the aftermath of the Marinoan glaciation.[570]
  • A study on wave ripples and tidal laminae in the Elatina Formation (Australia), interpreted as evidence of rapid sea level rise in the aftermath of the Marinoan glaciation, is published by Myrow, Lamb & Ewing (2018).[571]
  • A study on the eukaryotic species richness during Tonian and Cryogenian is published by Riedman & Sadler (2018).[572]
  • A study on the environments and food sources that sustained the Ediacaran biota is published by Pehr et al. (2018), who present the lipid biomarker and nitrogen and carbon isotopic data obtained from late Ediacaran (<560  million years old) strata from seven drill cores and three outcrops spanning Baltica.[573]
  • A study on the Ediacaran ecosystem complexity is published by Darroch, Laflamme & Wagner (2018), who report evidence of the Ediacara biota forming complex-type communities throughout much of their stratigraphic range, and thus likely comprising species that competed for different resources and/or created niche for others.[574]
  • A study on the global ocean redox conditions at a time when the Ediacaran biota began to decline, based on analysis of uranium isotopes in carbonates from the Dengying Formation (China), is published by Zhang et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicative of an episode of extensive oceanic anoxia at the end of the Ediacaran.[575]
  • A study evaluating how temperature can govern oxygen supply to animals at oceanographic scales, as well as how temperature dynamically affects the absolute tolerance of partial pressure of oxygen in marine ectotherms, and re-examining bathymetric patterns within the Ediacaran fossil record in an ecophysiological context, is published by Boag et al. (2018).[576]
  • New uranium isotope data from upper Ediacaran to lower Cambrian marine carbonate successions, indicative of short-lived episodes of widespread marine anoxia near the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition and during Cambrian Stage 2, is presented by Wei et al. (2018), who argue that the Cambrian explosion might have been triggered by marine redox fluctuations rather than progressive oxygenation.[577]
  • A study on the evolution of the diversity of animal body plans, based on data from extant and Cambrian animals, is published by Deline et al. (2018).[578]
  • A review of the evidence for shell crushing (durophagy), drilling and puncturing predation in the Cambrian (and possibly the Ediacaran) is published by Bicknell & Paterson (2018).[579]
  • A study on the timing and process of ocean oxygenation in the early Cambrian and its impact on the diversification of early Cambrian animals, based on data from the Cambrian Niutitang Formation (China), is published by Zhao et al. (2018).[580]
  • A study on the isotopic composition and surface temperatures of early Cambrian seas, based on stable oxygen isotope data from the small shelly fossils from the Comley limestones (United Kingdom), is published by Hearing et al. (2018).[581]
  • Gougeon et al. (2018) report evidence from the Lower Cambrian Chapel Island Formation (Canada) indicating that a mixed layer of sediment, of similar structure to that of modern marine sediments (which results from bioturbation by epifaunal and shallow infaunal organisms), was well established in shallow marine settings by the early Cambrian.[582]
  • A study on the effects of the rise of bioturbation on global elemental cycles during the Cambrian is published by van de Velde et al. (2018).[583]
  • A study on the timing of the Sauk transgression in the Grand Canyon region is published by Karlstrom et al. (2018).[584]
  • A study on the oxygen isotope composition of seawater throughout the Phanerozoic is published by Ryb & Eiler (2018).[585]
  • A study on changes in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide throughout the Phanerozoic, as indicated by data from a product of chlorophyllphytane from marine sediments and oils, is published by Witkowski et al. (2018).[586]
  • A study on the evolution of marine animal communities over the Phanerozoic, evaluating the ecological changes caused by major radiations and mass extinctions, is published by Muscente et al. (2018).[587]
  • A study on the impact of mass extinctions on the global biogeographical structure, as indicated by data on time-traceable bioregions for benthic marine species across the Phanerozoic, is published by Kocsis, Reddin & Kiessling (2018).[588]
  • A study on the nektic and eunektic diversity and occurrences throughout the Paleozoic is published by Whalen & Briggs (2018).[589]
  • A study analyzing the link between net latitudinal range shifts of marine invertebrates and seawater temperature over the (post-Cambrian) Phanerozoic Eon is published by Reddin, Kocsis & Kiessling (2018).[590]
  • A study evaluating the link between macroevolutionary success (evolving many species) and macroecological success (the occupation of an unusually high number of areas by a species or clade) in fossil echinoid, cephalopod, bivalve, gastropod, brachiopod and trilobite species is published by Wagner, Plotnick & Lyons (2018).[591]
  • A revised model and a new high-resolution reconstruction of the oxygenation of the Paleozoic atmosphere is presented by Krause et al. (2018).[592]
  • A study on the Early Ordovician climate, as indicated by new high-resolution phosphate oxygen isotope record of conodont assemblages from the Lange Ranch section of central Texas, is published by Quinton et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as consistent with very warm temperatures during the Early Ordovician.[593]
  • Jin, Zhan & Wu (2018) present paleontological, sedimentological, and geochemical data to test a hypothesis that a cold surface current became established by the late Middle Ordovician in the equatorial peri-Gondwana oceans, similar to the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue today.[594]
  • A review of the history of the definition of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, aiming to clarify its concept and duration, is published by Servais & Harper (2018).[595]
  • A study comparing the extinction events which occurred at the end of the Ordovician and at the end of the Capitanian (middle Permian) is published by Isozaki & Servais (2018).[596]
  • Evidence from uranium isotopes from Upper Ordovician–lower Silurian marine limestones of Anticosti Island (Canada), indicative of an abrupt global-ocean anoxic event coincident with the Late Ordovician mass extinction, is presented by Bartlett et al. (2018).[597]
  • A study on the ocean redox conditions and climate change across a Late Ordovician to Early Silurian on the Yangtze Shelf Sea (China) and their implications for inferring the causes of the Late Ordovician mass extinction is published by Zou et al. (2018).[598]
  • A study on the phytoplankton community structure and export production at the end of the Ordovician, as indicated by data from the Vinini Formation (Nevada, United States), and on their impact on the global carbon cycle and possible relation to the onset of the Late Ordovician glaciation, is published by Shen et al. (2018).[599]
  • Filamentous microorganisms associated with annelid tubeworms are described from the Ordovician to early Silurian Yaman Kasy volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit (Ural Mountains, Russia) by Georgieva et al. (2018).[600]
  • A study on the Devonian strata in the Zachełmie Quarry (Poland) preserving tracks of early tetrapods is published by Qvarnström et al. (2018), who reinterpret the tracks as produced in non-marine environment.[601]
  • Evidence of multiple mercury enrichments in the two-step late Frasnian crisis interval from paleogeographically distant successions in Morocco, Germany and northern Russia is presented by Racki et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that the Late Devonian extinction was caused by rapid climatic perturbations promoted in turn by volcanic cataclysm.[602]
  • A study on the climate changes during the period of the Late Devonian extinction (and possibly causing it), inferred from a high-resolution oxygen isotope record based on conodont apatite from the FrasnianFamennian transition in South China, is published by Huang, Joachimski & Gong (2018).[603]
  • A study on the age of a bentonite layer from Bed 36 in the Frasnian–Famennian succession at the abandoned Steinbruch Schmidt Quarry (Germany), aiming to determine the precise age of the Frasnian–Famennian boundary and the precise timing of the Late Devonian extinction, is published by Percival et al. (2018).[604]
  • A study on the atmospheric oxygen levels through the Phanerozoic, evaluating whether Romer's gap and the concurrent gap in the fossil record of insects were caused by low oxygen levels, is published by Schachat et al. (2018).[605]
  • A study on the early tetrapod diversity and biogeography in the Carboniferous and early Permian, evaluating the impact of the Carboniferous rainforest collapse on early tetrapod communities, is published by Dunne et al. (2018).[606]
  • A study on the patterns of dispersal and vicariance of tetrapods across Pangaea during the Carboniferous and Permian is published by Brocklehurst et al. (2018).[607]
  • O’Connor et al. (2018) reconstruct the most likely karyotype of the diapsid common ancestor based on data from extant reptiles and birds, and argue that most features of a typical ‘avian-like’ karyotype were in place before the divergence of birds and turtles ~255 million years ago.[608]
  • A study evaluating whether the fossil record supports the reality of the Permian Olson's Extinction, based on an analysis of the tetrapod species richness in the tetrapod-bearing formations of Texas preserving fossils from the time of the extinction, is published by Brocklehurst (2018).[609]
  • A study on the patterns of species richness, origination rates and extinction rates of the mid-Permian tetrapods from South Africa is published by Day et al. (2018).[610]
  • A study on the environmental changes and faunal turnover in the Karoo Basin (South Africa) during the late Permian is published by Viglietti, Smith & Rubidge (2018).[611]
  • A study on the changes of distribution of terrestrial tetrapods from the Permian (Guadalupian) to the Middle Triassic and on the impact of the Permian–Triassic extinction event on the palaeobiogeography of terrestrial tetrapods is published by Bernardi, Petti & Benton (2018).[612]
  • First tetrapod tracks from the Upper Permian–Lower Triassic (LopingianInduan) eolian strata of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil, assigned to the ichnotaxa Dicynodontipus isp. and Chelichnus bucklandi, are described by Francischini et al. (2018).[613]
  • A study on the halogen compositions of Siberian rocks emplaced before and after the eruption of the Siberian flood basalts during the Permian–Triassic extinction event, and on its implications for inferring the source and nature of volatiles in the Siberian large igneous province, is published by Broadley et al. (2018).[614]
  • A study on the impact of sulfur and carbon outgassing from the Siberian Traps flood basalt magmatism on the climate changes at the end of the Permian is published by Black et al. (2018).[615]
  • Evidence of enhanced continental chemical weathering at the Permian–Triassic boundary is reported from bulk rock samples from the Meishan section in South China by Sun et al. (2018), who also evaluate the potential impact of this enhanced weathering on global climate changes when the end-Permian extinction occurred.[616]
  • A study on the biogeographic patterns and severity of extinction of marine taxa during the Permian–Triassic extinction event, evaluating whether global warming and ocean oxygen loss can mechanistically account for the marine mass extinction, is published by Penn et al. (2018).[617]
  • A study on the recovery of benthic invertebrates following the Permian–Triassic extinction event, based on analysis of changes in the species richness, functional richness, evenness, composition, and ecological complexity of benthic marine communities from the Lower Triassic Servino Formation (Italy), is published by Foster et al. (2018).[618]
  • A study on microbial mounds from the Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation (China), and their implications for inferring the course of biotic recovery after the Permian–Triassic extinction event, is published by Duan et al. (2018).[619]
  • A study on the timing and pattern of ecosystem succession during and after the Permian–Triassic extinction event for the duration of the entire Triassic, as indicated by the changing diversity among non-motile, motile and nektonic animals, is published by Song, Wignall & Dunhill (2018).[620]
  • Evidence of multiple episodes of oceanic anoxia in the Early Triassic, based on U-isotope data from carbonates of the uppermost Permian to lowermost Middle Triassic Zal section (Iran), is presented by Zhang et al. (2018).[621]
  • Marine faunas characterized by unusually high levels of both benthic and nektonic taxonomic richness are described from two Early Triassic sections from South China by Dai et al. (2018).[622]
  • A study on the historical shifts in geographical ranges and climatic niches of terrestrial vertebrates (both endotherms and ectotherms) based on data from extant and fossil vertebrates is published by Rolland et al. (2018).[623]
  • A study on the stratigraphic distribution of the marine vertebrate fossils of the Xingyi Fauna from the Middle Triassic Falang Formation (China) is published by Lu et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that the Xingyi Fauna comprises two distinct vertebrate assemblages, resulting from a major faunal change, which was probably caused by a turnover of their ecological setting from nearshore to offshore.[624]
  • A study on the age of the dinosaur-bearing Triassic Santa Maria Formation and Caturrita Formation (Brazil) is published by Langer, Ramezani & Da Rosa (2018).[625]
  • Paleomagnetic and geochronologic study on the Chinle Formation (Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, United States) is published by Kent et al. (2018), who report evidence indicating that a 405,000-year orbital eccentricity cycle linked to gravitational interactions with Jupiter and Venus was already influencing Earth's climate in the Late Triassic.[626]
  • A study on the patterns of diversity change and extinction selectivity in marine ecosystems during the TriassicJurassic interval, especially in relation to the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, is published by Dunhill et al. (2018).[627]
  • Evidence of sill intrusions which were likely cause of the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event is reported from the Amazonas and Solimões Basins (Brazil) by Heimdal et al. (2018).[628]
  • A study on changes in global bottom water oxygen contents over the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event, based on thallium isotope records from two ocean basins, is published by Them et al. (2018), who report evidence of global marine deoxygenation of ocean water some 600,000 years before the classically defined Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event.[629]
  • A study on the extinction selectivity of marine organisms through the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, evaluating whether there are any substantial differences between the hyperthermal events during the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event and Toarcian turnover and the periods of normal background extinction, is published by Dunhill et al. (2018).[630]
  • A study on the impact of changes in ocean chemistry beginning in the Mesozoic on the nutritional quality of planktonic algal biomass compared to earlier phytoplankton is published by Giordano et al. (2018).[631]
  • A study on the morphological, ecological and behavioural traits linked to the evolution of tail weaponization in extant and fossil amniotes is published by Arbour & Zanno (2018).[632]
  • A study on the factors which led to the colonization of marine environments in the evolution of amniotes is published by Vermeij & Motani (2018).[633]
  • A review of marine reptile (plesiosaur, ichthyosaur and thalattosuchian) fossils from the Oxfordian sedimentary rocks in Great Britain (United Kingdom), focusing on the Corallian Group, is published by Foffa, Young & Brusatte (2018), who report evidence of a severe reduction in observed marine reptile diversity during the Oxfordian.[634]
  • A study evaluating how the structure of marine reptile ecosystems and their ecologies changed over the roughly 18-million-year history of the Jurassic Sub-Boreal Seaway of the United Kingdom, as indicated by data from fossil teeth, is published by Foffa et al. (2018).[635]
  • A diverse footprint assemblage dominated by small mammal tracks is described from the Lower Cretaceous Patuxent Formation (Maryland, United States) by Stanford et al. (2018), who name a new mammal ichnotaxon Sederipes goddardensis.[636]
  • A diverse and ecologically informative faunal assemblage is described from the Lower Cretaceous Arundel Clay facies (Maryland, United States) by Frederickson, Lipka & Cifelli (2018).[637]
  • Description of an assemblage of Early Cretaceous (Barremian) coprolites from the Las Hoyas Konservat-Lagerstätte (Spain) and a study on their biological and environmental affinities is published by Barrios-de Pedro et al. (2018).[638]
  • A study on the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration levels in the Early Cretaceous based on data from specimens of the fossil conifer species Pseudofrenelopsis papillosa is published by Jing & Bainian (2018).[639]
  • A study on the palaeoenvironmental conditions that existed during the time the Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation (Australia) was deposited is published by Fletcher, Moss & Salisbury (2018).[640]
  • A study on the age of the Namba Member of the Galula Formation (Tanzania), yielding fossils of Pakasuchus, Rukwasuchus, Rukwatitan and Shingopana, is published by Widlansky et al. (2018).[641]
  • A study on the taxonomic composition of the early Late Cretaceous fauna from the Cliffs of Insanity microvertebrate locality (Mussentuchit Member, Cedar Mountain Formation; Utah, United States) is published by Avrahami et al. (2018).[642]
  • Fossil assemblage including plant and vertebrate remains is described from the Turonian Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale Formation (Utah, United States) by Jud et al. (2018), who report turtle and crocodilian remains and an ornithopod sacrum, as well as a large silicified log assigned to the genus Paraphyllanthoxylon, representing the largest known pre-Campanian flowering plant reported so far and the earliest documented occurrence of an angiosperm tree more than 1.0 m in diameter.[643]
  • A study on the rainfall seasonality and freshwater discharge on the Indian subcontinent in the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian), based on data from specimens of the mollusc species Phygraea (Phygraea) vesicularis from the Kallankuruchchi Formation (India), is published by Ghosh et al. (2018).[644]
  • Evidence of increased crustal production at mid-ocean ridges at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, indicative of magmatism triggered by Chicxulub impact, is presented by Byrnes & Karlstrom (2018).[645]
  • A study on the terrestrial climate in northern China at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, indicating the occurrence of a warming caused by the onset of Deccan Traps volcanism and the occurrence of extinctions prior to the Chicxulub impact, is published by Zhang et al. (2018).[646]
  • A study on the oxygen isotopic composition of fish debris from the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary at El Kef (Tunisia), indicative of a greenhouse warming in the aftermath of the Chicxulub impact, is published by MacLeod et al. (2018).[647]
  • A study on the environmental changes during the global warming following the brief impact winter at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, based on geochemical, micropaleontological and palynological data from Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sections in Texas, Denmark and Spain, is published by Vellekoop et al. (2018).[648]
  • A record of foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, trace fossils and elemental abundance data from within the Chicxulub crater, dated to approximately the first 200,000 years of the Paleocene, is presented by Lowery et al. (2018), who report evidence indicating that life reappeared in the basin just years after the Chicxulub impact and a high-productivity ecosystem was established within 30,000 years.[649]
  • A study evaluating the utility of oxygen-isotope compositions of fossilised foraminifera tests as proxies for surface- and deep-ocean paleotemperatures, and its implications for inferring Late Cretaceous and Paleogene deep-ocean and high-latitude surface-ocean temperatures, published by Bernard et al. (2017)[650] is criticized by Evans et al. (2018).[651][652]
  • A study on the Paleocene intermediate- and deep-water neodymium-isotope records from the North and South Atlantic Ocean, and on their implications for inferring the impact of changes in overturning circulation caused by the opening of the Atlantic Ocean on climate changes culminating in the greenhouse conditions of the Eocene, is published by Batenburg et al. (2018).[653]
  • Evidence from sulfur-isotope data indicative of a large-scale ocean deoxygenation during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum is presented by Yao, Paytan & Wortmann (2018).[654]
  • Nitrogen isotope data from deposits from the northeast margin of the Tethys Ocean, spanning the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, is presented by Junium, Dickson & Uveges (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that dramatic change in the nitrogen cycle occurred during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum.[655]
  • A study on the magnetofossil concentrations preserved within sediments corresponding to the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, as well as on the implications of magnetofossil abundance and morphology signatures for tracing palaeo-environmental conditions during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, is published by Chang et al. (2018).[656]
  • A study aiming to evaluate the global extent of surface ocean acidification during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum is published by Babila et al. (2018).[657]
  • A study on the impact of greenhouse gas forcing and orbital forcing on changes in the seasonal hydrological cycle during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (for regions where proxy data is available) is published by Kiehl et al. (2018).[658]
  • Estimates of mean annual terrestrial temperatures in the mid-latitudes during the early Paleogene are presented by Naafs et al. (2018).[659]
  • A study on the tropical sea-surface temperatures in the Eocene is published by Evans et al. (2018).[660]
  • A continuous Eocene equatorial sea surface temperature record is presented by Cramwinckel et al. (2018), who also construct a 26-million-year multi-proxy, multi-site stack of Eocene tropical climate evolution.[661]
  • A 25-million-year-long alkenone-based record of surface temperature change in the Paleogene from the North Atlantic Ocean is presented by Liu et al. (2018).[662]
  • A study on the continental silicate weathering response to the inferred CO2 rise and warming during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum is published by van der Ploeg et al. (2018).[663]
  • A study on the early stages of development of Asian inland aridity and its underlying mechanisms, based on data from red clay sequence from the Cenozoic Xorkol Basin (Altyn-Tagh, northeastern Tibetan Plateau), is published by Li et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that enhanced Eocene Asian inland aridity was mainly driven by global palaeoclimatic changes rather than being a direct response to the plateau uplift.[664]
  • Su et al. (2018) use radiometrically dated plant fossil assemblages to quantify when southeastern Tibet achieved its present elevation, and what kind of floras existed there at that time.[665]
  • A study on the relationship between the Rovno and Baltic amber deposits, based on stable carbon and hydrogen isotope analyses, is published by Mänd et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicative of distinct origin of Rovno and Baltic amber deposits.[666]
  • Grimaldi et al. (2018) report biological inclusions (fungi, plants, arachnids and insects) in amber from the Paleogene Chickaloon Formation of Alaska, representing the northernmost deposit of fossiliferous amber from the Cenozoic.[667]
  • A review of NeogeneQuaternary terrestrial vertebrate sites from the Middle Kura Basin (eastern Georgia and western Azerbaijan) is published by Bukhsianidze & Koiava (2018).[668]
  • A study on CO2 concentrations during the early Miocene, as indicated by stomatal characteristics of fossil leaves from a late early Miocene assemblage from Panama and a leaf gas‐exchange model, is published by Londoño et al. (2018).[669]
  • A study aiming to establish an accurate and precise age model for the eruption of the Columbia River Basalt Group, and to use it to test the hypothesis that there is a temporal relationship between the eruption of the Columbia River Basalt Group and the mid-Miocene climate optimum, is published by Kasbohm & Schoene (2018).[670]
  • A study on the age of the Ashfall Fossil Beds fossil site (Nebraska, United States) is published by Smith et al. (2018).[671]
  • A study on plant fossils spanning 14–4 million years ago from sites in Europe, Asia and East Africa, aiming to test the hypothesis of a single cohesive biome in the Miocene that extended from Mongolia to East Africa and at its peak covered much of the Old World, is published by Denk et al. (2018), who interpret data from plant fossil record as disproving the existence of a cohesive savannah biome from eastern Asia to northeast Africa, formerly inferred from mammal fossil record.[672]
  • Faith (2018) evaluates the aridity index, a widely used technique for reconstructing local paleoclimate and water deficits from oxygen isotope composition of fossil mammal teeth, arguing that in some taxa altered drinking behavior (influencing oxygen isotope composition of teeth) might have been caused by dietary change rather than water deficits.[673][674][675]
  • A study on the likely magnitude of the sea-level drawdown during the Messinian salinity crisis, based on the analysis of the late Neogene faunas of the Balearic Islands, is published by Mas et al. (2018).[676]
  • An extensive, buried sedimentary body deposited by the passage of a megaflood from the western to the eastern Mediterranean Sea in the Pliocene (Zanclean), at the end of the Messinian salinity crisis, is identified in the western Ionian Basin by Micallef et al. (2018).[677]
  • A study evaluating when the island of Sulawesi (Indonesia) gained its modern shape and size, and determining the timings of diversification of the three largest endemic mammals on the island (the babirusa, the Celebes warty pig and the anoa) is published by Frantz et al. (2018).[678]
  • A study on the hydrological changes in the Limpopo River catchment and in sea surface temperature in the southwestern Indian Ocean for the past 2.14 million years, and on their implications for inferring the palaeoclimatic changes in southeastern Africa in this time period and their possible impact on the evolution of early hominins, is published by Caley et al. (2018).[679]
  • A study on the reptile and amphibian fossils from the early Pleistocene site of the Russel-Tiglia-Egypte pit near Tegelen (Netherlands) is published by Villa et al. (2018).[680]
  • Domínguez-Rodrigo & Baquedano (2018) evaluate the ability of successful machine learning methods to compare and distinguish various types of bone surface modifications (trampling marks, crocodile bite marks and cut marks made with stone tools) in archaeofaunal assemblages.[681]
  • Description of new mammal and fish remains from the Olduvai Gorge site (Tanzania), comparing the mammal assemblage from this site to the present mammal community of Serengeti, and a study on their implications for reconstructing the paleoecology of this site at ∼1.7–1.4 million years ago, is published by Bibi et al. (2018).[682]
  • A study evaluating whether changes of vegetation and diet of East African herbivorous mammals were linked to climatic fluctuations 1.7 million years ago, based on data from mammal teeth from the Olduvai Gorge site, as well as evaluating whether crocodile teeth from this site may be used as paleoclimatic indicators, is published by Ascari et al. (2018).[683]
  • A study on the structure of the animal community known from the Okote Member of the Koobi Fora Formation at East Turkana (Kenya) as indicated by tracks and skeletal assemblages, and on the interactions of Homo erectus with environment and associated faunas from this site, is published by Roach et al. (2018).[684]
  • Evidence for progressive aridification in East Africa since about 575,000 years before present, based on data from sediments from Lake Magadi (Kenya), is presented by Owen et al. (2018), who also evaluate the influence of the increasing Middle- to Late-Pleistocene aridification and environmental variability on the physical and cultural evolution of Homo sapiens in East Africa.[685]
  • A study on the environment in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula in the Pleistocene, as indicated by data from stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of fossil mammal tooth enamel from the middle Pleistocene locality of Ti's al Ghadah (Saudi Arabia), is published by Roberts et al. (2018).[686]
  • A study on the environmental dynamics before and after the onset of the early Middle Stone Age in the Olorgesailie Basin (Kenya) is published by Potts et al. (2018).[687]
  • A study on the chronology of the Acheulean and early Middle Stone Age sedimentary deposits in the Olorgesailie Basin (Kenya) is published by Deino et al. (2018).[688]
  • A study on the climatic changes in the Lake Tana area in the last 150,000 years and their implications for early modern human dispersal out of Africa is published by Lamb et al. (2018).[689]
  • A study on the proxy evidence for environmental changes during past 116,000 years in lake sediment cores from the Chew Bahir basin, south Ethiopia (close to the key hominin site of Omo Kibish), and on its implications for inferring the environmental context for dispersal of anatomically modern humans from northeastern Africa, is published by Viehberg et al. (2018).[690]
  • A study on the effects of the Toba supereruption in East Africa is published by Yost et al. (2018), who find no evidence of the erupton causing a volcanic winter in East Africa or a population bottleneck among African populations of anatomically modern humans.[691]
  • A high-resolution palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Eemian from northern Finland, based on pollen and plant macrofossil record, is presented by Salonen et al. (2018).[692]
  • A study on the extent and nature of millennial/centennial-scale climate instability during the Last Interglacial (129–116 thousand years ago), as indicated by data from joint pollen and ocean proxy analyses in a deep-sea core on the Portuguese Margin (Atlantic Ocean) and speleothem record from Antro del Corchia cave system (Italy), is published by Tzedakis et al. (2018).[693]
  • A study on the environmental conditions in the area of present-day Basque Country (Spain) across the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition, based on stable isotope data from red deer and horse bones, is published by Jones et al. (2018).[694]
  • A study on the timing and duration of periods of climate deterioration in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula in the late Pleistocene, evaluating the impact of climate on the abandonment of inner Iberian territories by Neanderthals 42,000 years ago, is published by Wolf et al. (2018).[695]
  • Evidence of bird and carnivore exploitation by Neanderthals (cut-marks in golden eagle, raven, wolf and lynx remains) is reported from the Axlor site (Spain) by Gómez-Olivencia et al. (2018).[696]
  • A study on the climate changes in Europe during the Middle–Upper Paleolithic transition (based on speleothem records from the Ascunsă Cave and from the Tăușoare Cave, Romania), and on their implications for the replacement of Neanderthals by modern humans in Europe, is published by Fernández et al. (2018).[697]
  • The first reconstructions of terrestrial temperature and hydrologic changes in the south-central margin of the Bering land bridge from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present are presented by Wooller et al. (2018).[698]
  • A study on the timing of the latest Pleistocene glaciation in southeastern Alaska and its implication for inferring the route and timing of early human migration to the Americas is published by Lesnek et al. (2018).[699]
  • A study on the compositions of the faunal and stone artifact assemblages at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia), aiming to determine the last appearance dates of Stegodon, giant marabou stork, Old World vulture belonging to the genus Trigonoceps, and Komodo dragon at the Liang Bua site, and to determine what raw materials were preferred by hominins from this site ∼50,000–13,000 years ago and whether these are preferences were similar to those seen in the stone artifact assemblages attributed to Homo floresiensis or to those attributed to modern humans, is published by Sutikna et al. (2018).[700]
  • A study on the fossil Sporormiella, pollen and microscopic particles of charcoal recovered from sediments of Lake Mares and Lake Olhos d’Agua (Brazil) which spanned the time of megafaunal extinction and human arrival in southeastern Brazil, and on their implications for inferring the timing of the decline of local megafauna and its ecological implications, is published by Raczka, Bush & De Oliveira (2018).[701]
  • A study evaluating how mega‐herbivore animal species controlled plant community composition and nutrient cycling, relative to other factors during and after the Late Quaternary extinction event in Great Britain and Ireland, is published by Jeffers et al. (2018).[702]
  • A study on the impact of the late Quaternary extinction of megafauna on the megafauna-deprived ecosystems is published by Galetti et al. (2018).[703]
  • A study on the impact of major, abrupt environmental changes over the past 30,000 years on the Great Barrier Reef is published by Webster et al. (2018).[704]
  • Evidence of sea level drop relative to the modern level at the shelf edge of the Great Barrier Reef between 21,900 and 20,500 years ago, followed by period of sea level rise lasting around 4,000 years, is presented by Yokoyama et al. (2018).[705]
  • A study on the fossil-bound nitrogen isotope records from the Southern Ocean is published by Studer et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicative of an acceleration of nitrate supply to the Southern Ocean surface from underlying deep water during the Holocene, possibly contributing to the Holocene atmospheric CO2 rise.[706]
  • A study on the past biodiversity, population dynamics, extinction processes, and the impact of subsistence practices on the vertebrate fauna of New Zealand, based on analysis of bone fragments from archaeological and paleontological sites covering the last 20,000 years of New Zealand's past, is published by Seersholm et al. (2018).[707]
  • A study on the causes of replacement of mature rainforests by a forest–savannah mosaic in Western Central Africa between 3,000 y ago and 2,000 years ago, based on a continuous record of 10,500 years of vegetation and hydrological changes from Lake Barombi Mbo (Cameroon) inferred from changes in carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes, is published by Garcin et al. (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that humans triggered the rainforest fragmentation 2,600 years ago.[708][709][710][711][712]
  • A study on the vegetational and climatic changes since the last glacial period, based on data from 594 sites worldwide, and aiming to estimate the extent of future ecosystem changes under alternative scenarios of global warming, is published by Nolan et al. (2018).[713]
  • A study on the changing ecology of woodland vegetation of southern mainland Greece during the late Pleistocene and the early-mid Holocene, and on the ecological context of the first introduction of crop domesticates in the southern Greek mainland, as indicated by data from carbonized fuel wood waste from the Franchthi Cave, is published by Asouti, Ntinou & Kabukcu (2018).[714]
  • A study on changes in plant pathogen communities (fungi and oomycetes) in response to changing climate during late Quaternary, as indicated by data from solidified deposits of rodent coprolites and nesting material from the central Atacama Desert spanning the last ca. 49,000 years, is published by Wood et al. (2018).[715]
  • A study on the parsimony and Bayesian-derived phylogenies of fossil tetrapods, evaluating which of them are in closer agreement with stratigraphic range data, is published by Sansom et al. (2018).[716]
  • A study aiming to infer the causes of differences between estimates of speciation and extinction rates based on molecular phylogenies and those based on fossil record is published by Silvestro et al. (2018), who provide simple mathematical formulae linking the diversification rates inferred from fossils and phylogenies.[717]
  • A review of extinction theory and the fossil record of terrestrial diversity crises, comparing past diversity crises of terrestrial vertebrate faunas with the ongoing Holocene extinction, is published by Padian (2018).[718]
  • A new metric, which can be used to quantify the term "living fossil" and determine which organisms can be reasonably referred to as such, is proposed by Bennett, Sutton & Turvey (2018).[719]
  • A novel non-invasive and label-free tomographic approach to reconstruct the three-dimensional architecture of microfossils based on stimulated Raman scattering is presented by Golreihan et al. (2018).[720]
  • Mürer et al. (2018) report on the results of the use of a combination of X-ray diffraction and computed tomography to gain insight into the microstructure of fossil bones of Eusthenopteron foordi and Discosauriscus austriacus.[721]
  • A study on melanosomes preserved in the integument and internal organs of extant and fossil frog specimens, evaluating their implications for inferring colours of extinct animals on the basis of melanosomes preserved in fossil specimens, is published by McNamara et al. (2018).[722]
  • A study on fossil vertebrate tissues and experimentally matured modern samples, aiming to the mechanism of soft tissue preservation and the environments that favor it, is published by Wiemann et al. (2018).[723]
  • A mechanistic model that simulates the history of life on the South American continent, driven by modeled climates of the past 800,000 years, is presented by Rangel et al. (2018).[724]
  • A study on temporal trends in biogeography and body size evolution of Australian vertebrates is published by Brennan & Keogh (2018), who interpret their findings as indicating that gradual Miocene cooling and aridification of Australia correlated with the restricted phenotypic diversification of multiple ecologically diverse vertebrate groups.[725]
  • A study evaluating how faithfully stratigraphic ranges of extant Adriatic molluscs are recorded in a series of cores drilled through alluvial, coastal and shallow-marine strata of the Po Plain (Italy) is published by Nawrot et al. (2018), who also evaluate the implications of their study for interpretations of the timing, duration and ecological selectivity of mass extinction events in general.[726]
  • A study on the evolution of morphological disparity (i.e. diversity of anatomical types), as indicated by data from 257 published character matrices of fossil taxa, is published by Wagner (2018).[727]
  • A study on the evolution of functional and ecological innovations in temperate marine multicellular organisms inhabiting North Pacific during and after the Late Eocene is published by Vermeij (2018).[728]
  • A method for dividing a paleontological dataset into bioregions is proposed by Brocklehurst & Fröbisch (2018), who apply the proposed method to a study of beta diversity of Paleozoic tetrapods.[729]
  • A study aiming to estimate the magnitude and potential significance of palaeontological data from specimens housed in museum collections but not described in published literature is published by Marshall et al. (2018).[730]
  • A large impact crater found beneath Hiawatha Glacier (Greenland), most likely formed during the Pleistocene, is reported by Kjær et al. (2018).[731]
  • A study assessing the similarity of future projected climate states to the climate during the Early Eocene, the Mid-Pliocene, the Last Interglacial (129–116 ka), the Mid-Holocene (6 ka), preindustrial (ca. 1850 CE), and the 20th century will be published by Burke et al. (2018).[732]
  • Sallan et al. (2018) traced the cradle of evolutionary origins and diversification of fish from the mid-Paleozoic era in nearshore environments.[733]
  • Gómez-Olivencia et al. (2018) studied Kebara 2 Neanderthal thorax, aiming to understand how this ancient human species moved and breathed, based on a 3-D virtual reconstruction.[734]
  • Smith et al. (2018) examined the teeth of Neanderthal children who lived 250,000 years ago in France, in order to comprehend their nursing duration, and the effect of lead exposure and severe winters on them.[735]
  • Wiemann et al. (2018) studied dinosaur's egg colour evolution, in order to unravel whether modern birds inherited egg colour from their non-avian dinosaur ancestors.[736]

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