2019–20 European windstorm season

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2019–20 European windstorm season
First storm formed2 October 2019
Last storm dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm1Lorenzo
966 mbar (28.5 inHg)
Strongest wind gust117 mph (189 km/h)
Cagnano, Haute-Corse, Corsica
Total storms3
Total fatalities2
1Strongest storm is determined by lowest pressure and maximum recorded non-mountainous wind gust is also included for reference.
2020–21 →

The 2019–20 European windstorm season is the fifth instance of seasonal European windstorm naming in Europe. This will be the first season in which the Netherlands will participate, joining the United Kingdom and Ireland's meteorological agencies. The new season's storm names were released on 6 September 2019. In July 2019, it was announced that storm seasons would run from 1 September 2019 to 1 September 2020.[1][2] The Portuguese, Spanish and French meteorological agencies will again collaborate too, joined by the Belgian meteorological agency.

Background and naming[edit]

In 2015, the Met Office and Met Éireann announced a pilot project to name storm warnings as part of the Name our Storms project for wind storms and asked the public for suggestions. The meteorological offices produced a full list of names for 2015–16 through to 2017–18, common to both the United Kingdom and Ireland, with the Netherlands taking part from 2019 onwards. Names in the United Kingdom will be based on the National Severe Weather Warning Service, when a storm is assessed to have the potential for an Amber ('be prepared') or Red ('take action (danger to life)') warning.

There are two main naming lists, created by the national meteorological agencies of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and France, Spain and Portugal respectively. Additionally, former Atlantic hurricanes will retain their names as assigned by the National Hurricane Center of the United States.[3]

Besides these naming systems, the Free University of Berlin also names high and low pressure areas through its "Adopt a vortex" programme. The Nordic nations of Denmark, Norway and Sweden also name storms with more limited reciprocation.[4] Other nations may also name storms either through their national meteorological institutions or popularly.

United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Netherlands[edit]

The following names have been selected for the 2019–2020 season:[5][6]

  • Atiyah (unused)
  • Brendan (unused)
  • Ciara (unused)
  • Dennis (unused)
  • Ellen (unused)
  • Francis (unused)
  • Gerda (unused)
  • Hugh (unused)
  • Iris (unused)
  • Jan (unused)
  • Kitty (unused)
  • Liam (unused)
  • Maura (unused)
  • Noah (unused)
  • Olivia (unused)
  • Piet (unused)
  • Róisín (unused)
  • Samir (unused)
  • Tara (unused)
  • Vince (unused)
  • Willow (unused)

'Liam' was chosen through a poll made by Met Éireann on Twitter.[7]

France, Spain, Portugal and Belgium[edit]

This will be the third year in which the meteorological agencies of France, Spain and Portugal will be naming storms which affect their areas. This naming scheme is partially overlapping with that used by the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands, as storms named by the other group of agencies will be used reciprocally.[8][9]

The following names have been selected for the 2019–2020 season:[10]

  • Amelie (1–4 November)
  • Bernardo (9-11 November)
  • Cecilia (unused)
  • Daniel (unused)
  • Elsa (unused)
  • Fabien (unused)
  • Gloria (unused)
  • Herve (unused)
  • Ines (unused)
  • Jorge (unused)
  • Karine (unused)
  • Leon (unused)
  • Myriam (unused)
  • Norberto (unused)
  • Odette (unused)
  • Prosper (unused)
  • Raquel (unused)
  • Simon (unused)
  • Teresa (unused)
  • Valentin (unused)
  • Wanda (unused)

Season summary[edit]

#Storm Bernardo#Storm AmelieHurricane Lorenzo (2019)

The first system of the season was Storm Lorenzo, when Met Éireann issued yellow wind warnings for Ireland and an orange warning for the western coastal counties.[11] The storm consisted out of the remnants of Hurricane Lorenzo, which had turned extratropical.[12] The next named system was Amelie, named by Météo-France on 1 November.[13][14] Storm Bernardo was named next, by the Spanish meteorological agency, AEMET. This system primarily affected the Balearic Islands.[15]

Storms[edit]

Ex-Hurricane Lorenzo[edit]

Storm Lorenzo
Lorenzo 2019-10-02 1226Z.jpg
Storm Lorenzo after passing the Azores.
Lorenzo 2019 track.png
Path of Hurricane Lorenzo and the likewise-named storm according to the Saffir-Simpson scale.
Area affectedAzores, Ireland, United Kingdom
Date of impact2 October-4 October
Maximum wind gust101 mph (163 km/h) Corvo Island, Azores
Lowest pressure966 mbar (28.5 inHg) (while extratropical)
Fatalities10 (7 missing) while tropical
Power outages±20,000[16]

On 26 September 2019, the Portuguese meteorological agency (IPMA) began issuing advisories for Hurricane Lorenzo.[17] The National Hurricane Center issued hurricane and tropical storm watches on 30 September 2019 for the Azores,[18] which were later upgraded to warnings.[19]

On 2 October 2019, Lorenzo passed the Azores a few hours before the NHC issued their 9:00 UTC advisory.[20] The next and final advisory stated that Lorenzo had undergone extratropical transition.[12]

The same day, Met Éireann issued a yellow warning for wind for the entirety of Ireland, as well as an orange warning for the western coastal counties.[21][11] The Met Office issued yellow wind warnings for Northern Ireland, Cornwall and parts of Devon and south-west Wales.[11] Upon issueance of the orange warning, Met Éireann named the extratropical remnants of Lorenzo "Storm Lorenzo".[11][note 1] Storm Lorenzo dissipated above the Irish Sea on 4 October.[22]

On 3 October, the M6 Buoy, located about 400 km (250 mi) west of Mace Head, Galway, recorded a pressure of 969 mbar (28.6 inHg) near Lorenzo's centre.[23] The same buoy also recorded a maximum wave height of 12.5 m (41 ft).[24] On the day of the storm passing Ireland, 4 October, new weather warnings were issued for the counties Longford, Westmeath, Galway, Mayo, Roscommon and Clare.[25] The highest recorded wind gust was 66 mph (107 km/h), with the highest 10-minute mean being 54 mph (87 km/h), both recorded at Mace Head.[26]

Power was cut to almost 20,000 homes in Ireland at the height of the storm, with floodings occurring throughout the country.[16] River Eske partially flooded Donegal as result of nearly 50 mm (2.0 in) of rain falling as high tide was approaching. The amount of damage country-wide, however, was less than anticipated for.[27]

Storm Amelie[edit]

Storm Amelie
Amelie 2019-11-02 1416Z.jpg
Storm Amelie above the Atlantic Ocean on 2 November.
Amelie 2019 track.png
Track of storm Amelie according to the Ocean Prediction Center.
Area affectedFrance, Spain, Italy
Date of impact1 November-4 November
Maximum wind gust117 mph (189 km/h), Cagnano, Haute-Corse, Corsica[28]
Lowest pressure972 mbar (28.7 inHg)[29]
Fatalities1[30]
Power outages140,000[31]

The French meteorological service, Météo-France, named Amelie (Amélie in French[14]) on 1 November.[13] The French meteorological agency expected wind gusts up to and possibly surpassing 99 mph (160 km/h) locally at the western coast.[32][33]

Storm Amelie developed as a secondary low on 2 November, undergoing explosive cyclogenesis.[34] Storm Amelie went on land at France's Atlantic coast in the morning hours of 3 November, bringing wind gusts with it up to 101 mph (163 km/h) at Cap Ferret. The storm also brought wind gusts up to 110 mph (170 km/h) at the northern coast of Spain, including a record-setting 81 mph (130 km/h) gust for Santander Airport.[28] Besides causing numerous treefalls and 140,000 power outages,[31] the storm also triggered a landslide, causing the storm's only known fatality.[30] The SNCF temporarily closed a line due to debris on the tracks, causing some 2000 passengers to be stranded.[35]

After the storm went on land, it gradually tracked north and then east.[28] It passed over Belgium and the Netherlands on 3 November and over Germany on 4 November, splitting up into two systems.[36][37] Thereafter the two systems tracked generally eastwards, across north-eastern Europe.[38]

Storm Bernardo[edit]

Storm Bernardo
Bernardo 2019-11-11 1316Z.jpg
Storm Bernardo displaying an eye-like feature on 11 November 2019 at Algeria's coast.
Bernardo 2019 track.png
Track of storm Bernardo according to Met Office.
Area affectedSpain, Algeria
Date of impact9 November-11 November
Maximum wind gust68 mph (110 km/h), Mallorca, Balearic Islands[39]
Lowest pressure996 mbar (29.4 inHg)[40]
Fatalities1[41]

Storm Bernardo was named by AEMET on 9 November.[15] The agency expected wave heights up to 6 m (20 ft) at the Balearic Islands and several Spanish provinces bordering the Bay of Biscay. It further expected precipitation up to 20 cm (7.9 in) in the form of snow on the Cantabrian Mountains from 1,000 m (3,300 ft) and rainfall up to 50 l (11 imp gal) within 12 hours in the provinces of Cantabria, Navarra, Basque Country and Asturias. The Asturias' regional meteorological agency warned for avalanches due to snow accumulation.[42] Gusts were expected to be up to 68 mph (110 km/h).[43]

The storm affected the Balearic Islands on November 10, with gusts up to 68 mph (110 km/h) at Mallorca's north-western coast.[39] On 11 November, Bernardo formed an eye-like feature, leading several outlets to report that the storm had medicane-like characteristics.[44] Which AEMET, the Spanish meteorological agency did not subsequently confirm.[45] The storm went on land the same day at Algeria's coast and dissipated subsequently. A treefall on Mallorca caused the only known fatility.[41]

Other systems[edit]

In late October 2019, a medicane formed far east in the Mediterranean sea. It affected Cyprus, Israel and Egypt. The storm formed in the far east of the sea, something which is not seen often.[46]

Season effects[edit]

Storm Dates active Highest wind gust Lowest pressure Fatalities Damage Affected areas
Lorenzo 2–4 October 2019 101 mph (163 km/h) 966 mbar (28.5 inHg) ) Azores, Eastern United States (while a hurricane), Ireland, United Kingdom
Amelie 1–7 November 117 mph (189 km/h) 972 mbar (28.7 inHg) 1 France, Spain, Italy
Bernardo 9–11 November 68 mph (110 km/h) 996 mbar (29.4 inHg) 1 Spain, Algeria
3 windstorms 2 October-ongoing 117 mph (189 km/h) 966 mbar (28.5 inHg) 2

Co-ordination of storms named by European meteorological services[edit]

2019–20 named storms table (dates of impact)
Amelie (FrEsPtBe), Arne (FUB) 2–3 November 2019.[47][48]
Bernardo (FrEsPtBe), Detlef[note 2] (FUB) 9-11 November 2019.[50]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ By naming the extratropical remnants of Hurricane Lorenzo "Storm Lorenzo",[11] it contradicts what the agencies would name remnants of hurricanes which cause issueance of amber, orange or red warnings (Ex-Hurricane Name).[3]
  2. ^ On the 10 November 2019 analysis, this system was known as Detlef II[49]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gleeson, Colin. "Met Éireann appealing for names for next season's storms". The Irish Times.
  2. ^ "#NameOurStorms: Met Office asks UK weather fans to help name storms". ITV News.
  3. ^ a b "UK Storm Centre". metoffice.gov.uk. Met Office. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Las listas de los nombres de borrascas para 2018–2019" (in Spanish). Revista del Aficionado a la Meteorología. 13 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  5. ^ "Storm Names". www.met.ie. Met Éireann. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  6. ^ "Storm names for 2019–20 announced". metoffice.gov.uk. Met Office. 5 September 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  7. ^ Met Éireann [@MetEireann] (3 September 2019). "We will be announcing the Storm Names for 2019–20 this Friday morning Sept 6th. Thanks for all your suggestions 👍 We have the names selected, apart from the letter L. So can you please help us decide by voting for your favourite below. #StormNames2019 @metoffice" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  8. ^ "Les listes des noms de tempêtes 2018–2019 rendues publiques" (in French). Météo-France. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  9. ^ "Nueva temporada de nombramiento de borrascas con gran impacto". aemet.es (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. 1 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  10. ^ "Borrascas con gran impacto de la temporada 2019–2020". aemet.es (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e Press Office (2 October 2019). "How will Storm Lorenzo affect the UK?". metoffice.gov.uk. Met Office. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  12. ^ a b Daniel Brown (2 October 2019). "Post-Tropical Cyclone Lorenzo Discussion Number 41". nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  13. ^ a b "Borrascas con gran impacto de la temporada 2019–2020". aemet.es (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  14. ^ a b VigiMétéoFrance [@VigiMeteoFrance] (1 November 2019). "La première #tempête de l'automne a été nommée #Amélie et abordera la côte atlantique en deuxième partie de nuit de samedi à dimanche : vents tempétueux dimanche matin sur le sud-ouest du pays. #TempeteAmelie 👉www.meteofrance.com" (Tweet) (in French). Retrieved 1 November 2019 – via Twitter.
  15. ^ a b AEMET [@AEMET_Esp] (9 November 2019). "Segunda borrasca con nombre de la temporada. La #borrascaBernardo afectará especialmente al E de las islas #Baleares www.aemet.es/es/eltiempo/prediccion/mapa_frentes" (Tweet) (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 November 2019 – via Twitter.
  16. ^ a b "Storm Lorenzo: Power outages and flooding in Donegal". bbc.com. British Broadcasting Corporation. 4 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  17. ^ IPMA [@ipma_pt] (26 September 2019). "2019 1210FURACÃO LORENZO – AÇORES – COMUNICADO Nº1 www.ipma.pt/pt/otempo/comunicados/" (Tweet) (in Portuguese) – via Twitter.
  18. ^ Eric Blake (30 September 2019). "Hurricane Lorenzo Discussion Number 31". nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  19. ^ Andrew Latto (30 September 2019). "Hurricane Lorenzo Discussion Number 33". nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  20. ^ Richard Pasch (2 October 2019). "Hurricane Lorenzo Discussion Number 40". nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  21. ^ "National Warnings – Met Éireann". met.ie. Met Éireann. 2 October 2019. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  22. ^ Christensen (4 October 2019). East Atlantic Surface Analysis 12:00 UTC 04 Oct 2019. ocean.noaa.gov. Ocean Prediction Center. Archived from the original (GIF) on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  23. ^ "Tracking Hurricane Lorenzo". met.ie. Met Éireann. 3 October 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  24. ^ Graham Fahy (3 October 2019). Peter Graff (ed.). "Ireland braces for damage and flooding as storm Lorenzo nears". reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  25. ^ Digital Desk Staff (4 October 2019). "Storm Lorenzo: ESB work to restore power to thousands of homes and businesses". breakingnews.ie. BreakingNews. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  26. ^ Met Éireann [@MetEireann] (4 October 2019). "The map below shows the highest 10-min mean wind speeds and the maximum gust recorded at each station during the last two days. The figures are colour coded in line with our warning criteria" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  27. ^ Ronan McGreevy; Rachel McLaughlin (4 October 2019). "Power restored to all electricity customers following Storm Lorenzo, says ESB". irishtimes.com. The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  28. ^ a b c "Tempête Amélie du 3 novembre 2019". meteofrance.fr (in French). Météo-France. 4 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  29. ^ Marshall Huffman (3 November 2019). East Atlantic Surface Analysis 3 November 2019 00:00 UTC. ocean.weather.gov. Ocean Prediction Center. Archived from the original (GIF) on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  30. ^ a b "Pensioner dies in Nice after storm Amélie triggers landslides". thelocal.fr. The Local. 4 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  31. ^ a b "Tempête Amélie. Deux blessés en Bretagne, 140 000 foyers privés d'électricité dans le Sud-Ouest". Ouest-France.fr (in French). 3 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  32. ^ "METEO FRANCE par Météo-France – Prévisions météo gratuites à 15 jours sur la France, les régions et les départements". meteofrance.com (in French). Météo-France. 1 November 2019. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  33. ^ "Week-end de Toussaint de plus en plus agité". meteofrance.fr (in French). Météo-France. 30 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  34. ^ "Borrasca Amelie – AEMET". www.aemet.es (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. 8 November 2019.
  35. ^ "Train passengers in France stranded for up to 15 hours after storms close line between Paris and south west". thelocal.fr. The Local. 4 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  36. ^ Analyse 2019-11-04 (GIF). met.fu-berlin.de (in German). Free University of Berlin. 4 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  37. ^ Analyse 2019-11-05 (GIF). met.fu-berlin.de (in German). Free University of Berlin. 5 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  38. ^ Analyse 2019-11-06 (GIF). met.fu-berlin.de (in German). Free University of Berlin. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  39. ^ a b AEMET Baleares [@AEMET_Baleares] (10 November 2019). "La #BorrascaBernardo deja hasta el momento rachas de 60 a 70 km/h en general y de 100 a 110 km/h en cabos y cumbres. Durante esta noche y, especialmente mañana, esperamos que en Menorca y quizás en el NE de Mallorca las rachas superen los 100 km/h" (Tweet) (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 November 2019 – via Twitter.
  40. ^ MetOffice Analysis chart 11 November 2019 06:00 UTC (GIF). wetter3.de. MetOffice. 11 November 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  41. ^ a b Georginia Laud (13 November 2019). "Europe weather: Tourists warned as Storm Bernardo to smash Spain as snow and sleet hits". express.co.uk. Daily Express. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  42. ^ Georginia Laud (13 November 2019). "Europe weather: THREE storms to hit Spain as large mass of cold air blasts Europe". express.co.uk. Daily Express. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  43. ^ "La gran borrasca Bernardo pone en alerta a Baleares". cronicabalear.es (in Spanish). Crónica Balear. 10 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  44. ^ "Huracán mediterráneo (medicán) «Bernardo» en la costa de Argelia". cazatormentas.com (in Spanish). Cazatormentas. 12 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  45. ^ "Borrasca Bernardo - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología - AEMET. Gobierno de España". www.aemet.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  46. ^ Tonks, Sara; Miller, Brandon (25 October 2019). "A rare hurricane-like storm in the Mediterranean threatens Egypt and Israel". edition.cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  47. ^ @Meteocentrale.ch (2 November 2019). "Randtief Arne(D) oder Amélie(F) über Nordfrankreich bringt Sonntagnachmittag und -abend auch der Alpennordseite vorübergehend stürmischen Westwind! Kühles Tiefdruckwetter auch die nächsten 10 Tage in der Schweiz: kein #Schönwettertag in Sicht" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  48. ^ "Thema des Tages – Eine Tiefdruckserie, die es in sich hat". www.dwd.de (in German). 4 November 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  49. ^ Analyse 2019-11-10 (GIF). met.fu-berlin.de (in German). Free University of Berlin. 10 November 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  50. ^ Analyse 2019-11-11 (GIF). met.fu-berlin.de (in German). Free University of Berlin. 11 November 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.

External links[edit]