2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis
|2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis|
|Part of the Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict, the Iran–Israel proxy conflict and Cold War II|
Clockwise from top: A U.S. B-52H strategic bomber in Qatar in May 2019; A NEDSA boat patrolling near British-flagged tanker Stena Impero; Remnants of the U.S. RQ-4 Global Hawk drone shot down by Iran; U.S. troops man positions during the attack on the U.S. embassy in Baghdad; Funeral procession of Qasem Soleimani in Tehran; Damage at Al Asad Airbase following an Iranian missile attack
|Commanders and leaders|
Joe Biden (2021–present)|
Donald Trump (2019–2021)
Lloyd Austin (2021–present)
Mark Esper (2019–2020)
Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr.
Scott A. Howell
Isaac Herzog (2021–present)
Reuven Rivlin (2019–2021)
Naftali Bennett (2021–present)
Benjamin Netanyahu (2019–2021)
Benny Gantz (2021–present)
Boris Johnson (2019–present)
Theresa May (2019)
Mohammed bin Salman
Ebrahim Raisi (2021–present)
Hassan Rouhani (2019–2021)
Mohammad-Reza Gharaei Ashtiani (2021–present)
Amir Hatami (2019–2021)
Qasem Soleimani †
Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis †
|Casualties and losses|
Tankers and ships
Neutral military personnel
Total: 283 killed
The 2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis is the ongoing state of heightened military tensions between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United States of America, along with their respective allies in the Persian Gulf region. Starting in early May 2019, the U.S. began a buildup of its military presence in the region to deter an alleged planned campaign by Iran and its non-state allies to attack American forces and interests in the Persian Gulf and Iraq. This followed a rise in political tensions between the two countries during the Trump administration, which included the withdrawal of the U.S. from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the imposition of new sanctions against Iran, and the designation of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) as a terrorist organization. In response, Iran designated the United States Central Command as a terrorist organization.
Several merchant ships in the Persian Gulf were damaged in two incidents in May and June 2019. Western nations blamed Iran, while Iran denied involvement. In June 2019, Iran shot down an American RQ-4A surveillance drone flying over the Strait of Hormuz, sharply increasing tensions and nearly resulting in an armed confrontation. In July 2019, an Iranian oil tanker was seized by Britain in the Strait of Gibraltar on the grounds that it was shipping oil to Syria in violation of European Union sanctions. Iran later captured a British oil tanker and its crew members in the Persian Gulf. Both Iran and the UK later released the ships. Meanwhile, the U.S. created the International Maritime Security Construct (IMSC), which sought to increase "overall surveillance and security in key waterways in the Middle East", according to the United States Department of Defense.
The crisis escalated in late 2019 and early 2020 when alleged members of the Kata'ib Hezbollah militia, part of Iraq's Popular Mobilization Forces, killed an American contractor in an attack on an Iraqi base hosting U.S. personnel. In retaliation, the U.S. conducted airstrikes against Kata'ib Hezbollah's facilities in Iraq and Syria, killing 25 militiamen. Kata'ib Hezbollah responded with an attack on the U.S. embassy in Baghdad, which prompted the U.S. to deploy hundreds of new troops to the Middle East and announce that it would preemptively target Iran's "proxies" in Iraq. Days later, the commander of IRGC's Quds Force Qasem Soleimani and PMF commander Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis were both killed in a U.S. drone strike, resulting in Iran's Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei pledging to exact revenge on U.S. forces. The U.S. deployed nearly 4,000 troops in response to the tensions, and Israel heightened its security levels. On 5 January 2020, Iran ended its commitments to the nuclear deal, and the Iraqi parliament passed a resolution to expel all foreign troops from its territory.
The U.S. and Iran nearly entered into an open conflict on 8 January 2020 when the IRGC launched ballistic missile attacks against two military bases in Iraq housing U.S. soldiers in retaliation for the killing of Soleimani, a rare direct Iran–U.S. confrontation and the closest to the brink of war between the two nations in decades. Upon initial assessments of no U.S. casualties, the Trump administration curtailed tensions by temporarily ruling out a direct military response but announcing new sanctions. It was later revealed that more than a hundred U.S. troops sustained injuries during the attacks. During the crisis, Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 was shot down after departing from Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport, and Western officials said the plane had been brought down by an Iranian SA-15 surface-to-air missile. On 11 January 2020, the Iranian military admitted in a statement that they had mistakenly shot down the plane due to human error.
The crisis re-emerged in July 2021 after a third incident targeting merchant ships, in which two crew members were killed. An additional tanker, the MV Asphalt Princess, was captured, and subsequently released hours later. The crisis is a concern for Maritime security as the increased war-like risks present challenges for commercial shipping.
On 8 May 2018, the United States withdrew from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) nuclear deal, reinstating sanctions against Iran. Iran's oil production hit a historic low as a result of these sanctions. According to the BBC in April 2019, United States sanctions against Iran "led to a sharp downturn in Iran's economy, pushing the value of its currency to record lows, quadrupling its annual inflation rate, driving away foreign investors, and triggering protests". Iranian officials have accused the U.S. of waging hybrid warfare against the country.
Tensions between Iran and the U.S. escalated in May 2019, with the U.S. deploying more military assets to the Persian Gulf region after receiving intelligence reports of an alleged "campaign" by Iran and its "proxies" to threaten U.S. forces and Strait of Hormuz oil shipping. U.S. officials cited intelligence reports that included photographs of missiles on dhows and other small boats in the Persian Gulf, supposedly put there by Iranian paramilitary forces. The U.S. feared the missiles could be fired at its Navy.
Iran and allies
The U.S. began a buildup of its military presence in the region to deter what it regards as a planned campaign of belligerency by Iran and its non-state allies to attack American forces and interests in the gulf and Iraq. PMF and Kata'ib Hezbollah were targeted by U.S. airstrikes, claiming their proxy belligerent role on the orders of Iran.
International Maritime Security Construct
The International Maritime Security Construct (IMSC), formerly known as Operation Sentinel or the Sentinel Program, is a multinational maritime effort established by the U.S. to ensure gulf security following Iranian seizures of commercial tankers.
Following Iran's shoot-down of a U.S. surveillance drone on 20 June 2019, the U.S. bolstered its efforts to establish a coalition to deter Iranian attacks in the Persian Gulf. On 19 July, U.S. Central Command acknowledged what it called Operation Sentinel which had the stated goal of de-escalating tensions and promoting maritime stability in international waters "throughout the Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, the Bab el-Mandeb Strait (BAM) and the Gulf of Oman". Sentinel called for participating nations to provide escorts to their flagged commercial vessels in the region and for coordinating surveillance capabilities. U.S. Secretary of Defense Mark Esper later commented on the nature of the operation, stating "My view is... we would want to prevent the Iranians seizing or stopping a ship, certainly, for any arbitrary reason whatsoever". Some U.S. allies, particularly European allies, were reportedly reticent towards the Sentinel Program due to qualms associated with signing on to a U.S.-led naval effort that could potentially drag them into a confrontation with Iran; this was coupled with reports of a potential European-led naval security effort separate from the U.S. By September 2019, the U.S. had "rebranded" Operation Sentinel as the "International Maritime Security Construct", reportedly to attract more participation.
In early August 2019, the United Kingdom agreed to join the U.S. in its maritime program, abandoning the idea of a European-led naval protection force. On 21 August, Australia announced it would join the U.S.-led naval coalition, with plans to deploy a P-8A Poseidon surveillance aircraft to the Middle East for one month before the end of 2019, a frigate in January 2020 for six months, and Australian Defence Force personnel to the IMSC headquarters in Bahrain. Australia ended its participation in the IMSC on 28 December 2020 after defense minister Linda Reynolds announced a shifting of naval resources to the Indo-Pacific.
On 16 September, IMSC members held a Main Planning Conference aboard RFA Cardigan Bay along with representatives from 25 additional countries where they reaffirmed commitments to the operation and discussed their efforts to enhance maritime security throughout key waterways in the region. Saudi Arabia joined the coalition on 18 September and the United Arab Emirates joined on 20 September.
- Current members
- United Kingdom
- Bahrain (Headquarters)
- United States
- Saudi Arabia
- United Arab Emirates
- Former members
- Australia (2019–2020)
Allies and supporters
Japan announced on 18 October 2019 that it would not join the IMSC but would instead send its own separate naval assets to the region to guard merchant vessels "related to Japan" while still closely cooperating with the United States. A senior Japanese official said the contingency force would likely include warships and aircraft that will patrol the Gulf of Oman, the Northern Arabian Sea and other regional waters. In February 2020, as part of efforts by the Japanese government to protect the lanes that provide all the oil the Japanese economy depends on, a Japanese warship departed for the Gulf of Oman.
On 5 May 2019, then-U.S. National Security Advisor John Bolton announced that the U.S. was deploying the USS Abraham Lincoln carrier strike group and four B-52 bombers to the Middle East to "send a clear and unmistakable message" to Iran following Israeli intelligence reports of an alleged Iranian plot to attack U.S. forces in the region. Bolton said, "The United States is not seeking war with the Iranian regime, but we are fully prepared to respond to any attack." The USS Abraham Lincoln was deployed to the Arabian Sea, outside the Persian Gulf.
On 7 May, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo made a surprise midnight visit to Baghdad after canceling a meeting with German Chancellor Angela Merkel. Pompeo told Iraqi President Barham Salih and Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi they had a responsibility to protect Americans in Iraq. On 8 May, an advisor to Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said Iran was confident the U.S. was both unwilling and unable to start a war with Iran. On the same day, Iran announced that it would reduce its commitment to the JCPOA nuclear deal which the U.S. had withdrawn from. Iranian President Hassan Rouhani set a 60-day deadline for the EU and world powers to rescue the current deal before it resumed higher uranium enrichment. The United States Air Forces Central Command announced that F-15C Eagle fighter jets were repositioned within the region to "defend U.S. forces and interests in the region". On 10 May, the U.S. deployed the Marine transport ship USS Arlington and a Patriot surface-to-air missile (SAM) battery to the Middle East. The Pentagon said the buildup was in response to "heightened Iranian readiness to conduct offensive operations".
May 2019 Gulf of Oman ship attacks
On 12 May, four commercial ships, including two Saudi Aramco oil tankers, were damaged near the port of Fujairah in the Gulf of Oman. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) claimed the incident was a "sabotage attack", while a U.S. assessment reportedly blamed Iran or Iranian "proxy" elements for the attack.
On 13 May, the U.S. embassy in Baghdad said U.S. citizens should not travel to Iraq and for those who were already there to keep a low profile. On the same day, The New York Times reported that Acting U.S. Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan had presented a military plan to send as many as 120,000 troops to the Middle East if Iran attacked American forces or took steps toward developing nuclear weapons. U.S. president Donald Trump later discredited this, saying he would instead "send a hell of a lot more" than 120,000 troops if necessary.
On 14 May, both Iranian and U.S. officials said they were not seeking war, even as threats and counter-threats continued. Ayatollah Khamenei downplayed the escalation, saying in comments carried on state television that "no war is going to happen," while Mike Pompeo said while on a visit to Russia, "We fundamentally do not seek a war with Iran." On the same day, Houthi rebels—which have alleged ties to Iranian elements—in Yemen carried out multiple drone attacks on a Saudi oil pipeline deep in Saudi territory. The U.S. said it believed Iran sponsored the attack, though it was unclear if the attack was particularly related to the Iran–U.S. tensions or related to the Yemeni Civil War that began in 2015 and the U.S.-backed Saudi Arabian-led intervention there. On 15 May, the U.S. State Department announced that all non-emergency staff had been ordered to leave the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad.
On 19 May, President Trump warned that in the event of a conflict, it would be "the official end of Iran". Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif responded that Trump's "genocidal taunts" would not "end Iran". On the same day, a rocket exploded inside the heavily fortified Green Zone sector of Baghdad, landing less than a mile from the U.S. Embassy. On 24 May, the U.S. deployed 1,500 additional troops to the Persian Gulf region as a "protective" measure against Iran. The deployment included reconnaissance aircraft, fighter jets and engineers; 600 of the troops were given extended deployments, meaning 900 would be fresh troops. U.S. Navy vice admiral and Director of the Joint Staff Michael Gilday said the U.S. had a high degree of confidence that Iran's Revolutionary Guard was responsible for the 12 May explosions on four tankers and that it was Iranian proxies in Iraq who fired rockets into Baghdad's Green Zone.
On 20 May, Trump said: "We have no indication that anything's happened or will happen" in Iran. However, on 25 May, Trump invoked a rarely used legal loophole to approve the sale of $8 billion worth of weapons to Saudi Arabia, declaring that ongoing tensions with Iran amounted to a national emergency. Weapons would also reportedly be sold to the UAE and Jordan. On 28 May, the International Atomic Energy Agency certified that Iran was abiding by the main terms of the JCPOA, although questions were raised on how many advanced centrifuges Iran was allowed to have, as that was only loosely defined in the 2015 deal.
On 1 June, President Hassan Rouhani suggested Iran would be willing to hold talks but asserted that it would not be pressured by sanctions and American military posturing. On 2 June, Mike Pompeo said the U.S. was ready for unconditional discussions with Iran on its nuclear program, but affirmed that it would not relent on pressuring Iran until it starts behaving like a "normal country". "We are prepared to engage in a conversation with no pre-conditions. We are ready to sit down," Pompeo said, while also saying Trump had always been willing to seek dialogue with Iranian leadership. Iran's foreign ministry responded stating, "The Islamic Republic of Iran does not pay attention to word-play and expression of hidden agenda in new forms. What matters is the change of U.S. general approach and actual behavior toward the Iranian nation," which it said needed "reform". The softening dialogue came amid U.S. military exercises in the Arabian Sea, which saw various aircraft "simulating strike operations"; Yahya Rahim Safavi, top military aide to Ayatollah Khamenei, said U.S. military vessels in the Persian Gulf were within range of Iranian missiles and warned that any clash between the two countries would push oil prices above $100 a barrel.
On 6 June, the Houthis in Yemen shot down an American MQ-9 Reaper (Predator B) drone. The U.S. military claimed the attack was performed with Iranian assistance. U.S. Central Command commander Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr. warned that Iran and its "proxy" forces still posed an "imminent" threat to U.S. forces: "I think we're still in the period of what I would call tactical warning ... The threat is very real."
Also on 6 June, the UAE, supported by Norway and Saudi Arabia, told the United Nations Security Council 12 May attacks had the marks of a "sophisticated and coordinated operation", and were most likely performed by a "state actor". Video of the damage to the tankers Amjad, Al Marzoqah, A Michel and Andrea Victory was released to broadcasters.
June 2019 Gulf of Oman ship attacks
On 13 June 2019 two oil tankers caught fire after allegedly being attacked by limpet mines or flying objects in another incident in the Gulf of Oman. As in the May incident, the U.S. blamed Iranian forces for the attacks. On 17 June, the U.S. announced the deployment of 1,000 more soldiers to the Middle East.
Sanctions and Iranian shoot-down of U.S. drone
Tensions reached a new high when, on 20 June, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps shot down a U.S. RQ-4A Global Hawk surveillance drone, saying the drone had violated Iranian airspace. IRGC commander Hossein Salami called the shoot-down a "clear message" to the U.S. while also warning that, though they were not seeking war, Iran was "completely ready" for it. U.S. Central Command later confirmed that the drone was shot down by Iranian surface-to-air missiles but denied that it violated Iranian airspace, calling it an "unprovoked attack", and that it was in international airspace over the Strait of Hormuz. Iran and the U.S. provided conflicting GPS coordinates for the drone's location, making it unclear whether the drone was within Iran's 12-mile territorial boundary. The U.S. requested a 24 June closed-door United Nations Security Council meeting to address the regional tensions with Iran, according to diplomats.
Trump ordered a retaliatory military strike on Iran on 20 June, but withdrew the order minutes before the operation began. Trump said he had decided to halt the operation after being told that as many as 150 Iranians would be killed, although some administration officials said Trump had been advised of the potential casualties before he ordered the operation to be prepared. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and National Security Adviser John Bolton reportedly objected to the reversal.
On 22 June, it was reported that Trump had approved cyber attacks that disabled IRGC computer systems used to control rocket and missile launches the night of the drone-downing. The cyber strikes were handled by U.S. Cyber Command in conjunction with U.S. Central Command. It represented the first offensive show of force since Cyber Command was elevated to a full combatant command in May 2018. Also on 22 June, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security issued a warning to U.S. industries that Iran was stepping up cyber attacks of critical industries—particularly oil, gas and other energy sectors—and government agencies, and has the potential to disrupt or destroy systems.
On 23 June, Iranian President Rouhani blamed the United States' "interventionist military presence" for the high tensions. Iranian Major General Gholam Ali Rashid warned the U.S. of "uncontrollable" consequences should a conflict break out. Meanwhile, during a speech in Israel, U.S. security advisor John Bolton said Iran should not "mistake U.S. prudence and discretion for weakness", emphasizing that future military options are not ruled out and that Trump had only stopped the strike from going forward "at this time". Mike Pompeo visited the Persian Gulf region for talks with Saudi Arabia and the UAE in a bid to build a coalition to combat perceived Iranian nuclear and "terror" ambitions.
On 24 June, the Trump administration announced new sanctions against Iranian government and IRGC leadership, including Supreme Leader Khamenei and his office. U.S. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said the sanctions were to block "billions" in assets. On the same day, Trump told reporters he did not need congressional consent for an initial strike on Iran. On 25 June, Iran said the new sanctions prompted a "permanent closure" of their diplomatic ties, and the regime refused to negotiate with Washington until the sanctions were lifted. On 27 June, Javad Zarif tweeted that sanctions are not an "alternative to war; they ARE war" and argued that Trump's usage of the term "obliteration" against Iran is a reference to genocide, a war crime. He also said negotiations and threats are "mutually exclusive" and called the concept of only a short war with Iran an "illusion".
In classified briefings, Pompeo and other U.S. State Department and Pentagon officials reportedly advised members of the U.S. Congress on what they described as alarming ties between Iran and al-Qaeda—including giving the terrorist organization safe haven in the country. The New York Times reported that lawmakers were leery of assertions of Iranian links to al-Qaeda, notably due to concerns that the administration may be using specious assertions to build a case for military action against Iran based on the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists—supposed links between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were used as partial justification to invade Iraq in 2003. On 27 June, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense Michael Mulroy sharply denied that Pentagon officials linked al-Qaeda to Iran during congressional meetings. "In these briefings, none of the officials mentioned al-Qa'ida or the 2001 Authorization to Use Military Force," Mulroy said, adding that he and the Defense Intelligence Agency instead "described the historical ties between Iran and the Taliban, and I explained that these ties are widely and publicly known and referenced in articles and books".
Following the drone shoot-down, the U.S. continued unabated to deploy military assets to the region. By 28 June, the U.S. had deployed nearly a dozen F-22 Raptor fighter jets to Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar—the first ever deployment of F-22s to the base—to "defend American forces and interests".
Alleged U.S. downing of Iranian drones
|Iran Releases Drone Footage of USS Boxer to Refute Trump's Claim, YouTube video|
On 18 July, according to the Pentagon, USS Boxer took defensive action against an Iranian drone that had closed in within approximately 1,000 yards (910 m) of the ship in the Persian Gulf; U.S. forces jammed the drone, causing it to crash. Iran's Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araghchi denied any of the country's drones had been brought down. U.S. General Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr., commander of the U.S. Central Command, subsequently claimed that USS Boxer may have downed a second Iranian drone.
British and Iranian tanker seizures
On 3 July, Gibraltar enacted "Sanctions Regulations 2019" after the March 2019 Sanctions Act, referring to the EU sanctions for Syria (EU No. 36/2012). It also specified the Panama-flagged Iranian tanker Grace 1 as a ship under those regulations. On 4 July, the ship was seized by British authorities while carrying out an off-port limited logistics stop near Gibraltar, on suspicion that the vessel was carrying oil to Syria in breach of the European Union sanctions. A force of 30 Royal Marines boarded the ship from a helicopter and speedboat, accompanied by Royal Gibraltar Police officers and HM Customs Gibraltar officers. Four of the ship's crew, including the captain and chief officer, were arrested but subsequently released on bail without charge. The Spanish Foreign Office lodged a complaint with its British counterpart. Iran demanded the ship's release and denied the vessel was violating sanctions, and an official of the IRGC issued a threat to seize a British ship in retaliation. Ayatollah Khamenei described the incident as a British act of "piracy" which has been given a "legal appearance". Britain offered to release the ship in exchange for an Iranian guarantee that it would not proceed to the Syrian port of Baniyas to deliver oil to the refinery there. On 11 July, the Royal Navy frigate HMS Montrose foiled an Iranian attempt to capture the BP-owned British oil tanker British Heritage as it transited through the Strait of Hormuz. Three boats believed to be from the IRGC approached the tanker and tried to halt it, after which HMS Montrose, which had been shadowing the tanker, moved between the boats and the tanker and trained guns on the boats, warning them to back off. The Iranian boats then turned away. The Royal Navy subsequently deployed the destroyer HMS Duncan to the Persian Gulf to reinforce HMS Montrose.
On 14 July, a Panamanian-flagged oil tanker, MT Riah, which was operating in the UAE, disappeared from ship tracking maps near Iran after crossing the Strait of Hormuz. Adding to the mystery, no entity claimed ownership of the tanker.
On 20 July, the British-flagged tanker Stena Impero was seized in a raid by IRGC forces. Four small boats and a helicopter stopped the ship and Iranian commandos rappelled on board from the helicopter. The ship was taken to Bandar Abbas and its crew of 23 detained on board. On 4 September, Iran decided to free only seven crew members of the detained British tanker. A second British-owned and Liberian-flagged ship was also seized but later allowed to continue its journey. In a letter to the UN, Iran said the Stena Impero had collided with and damaged an Iranian vessel, and ignored warnings by Iranian authorities.
The ship's seizure sparked a diplomatic crisis between the United Kingdom and Iran. The British government condemned the seizure of the ship and demanded its release, warning of "serious consequences". Iraqi Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi visited Iran to negotiate the release of Stena Impero at the request of the British government. Iran confirmed that it seized the ship as retaliation over the British seizure of Grace 1 in Gibraltar and hinted that it would be willing to release Stena Impero in exchange for the release of Grace 1.
August 2019: Seizure of Iraqi tanker and Grace 1 controversy
On 4 August 2019, Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps seized an Iraqi tanker for allegedly smuggling oil to other Arab countries. The seven crew members on board were detained, further heightening tensions in the Persian Gulf. Three days later, Britain joined the U.S.-led International Maritime Security Construct (IMSC)—then known as the "Sentinel Program"—to protect oil tankers in the gulf and surrounding seas.
On 15 August, Gibraltar released Grace 1 after receiving assurances the oil would not be sold to an EU-sanctioned entity, and after rejecting a request from the United States Department of Justice to allow them to seize the ship. The Iranian government later said it had issued no assurances that the oil would not be delivered to Syria and reasserted its intention to continue supplying oil to the Arab nation. On 16 August, the Department of Justice issued a warrant in Washington, D.C. to seize Grace 1, the cargo of oil, and $995,000 on the grounds that the profit from the ship's voyage was intended to enrich the IRGC, which the U.S. had previously designated a terrorist organization. On 18 August, Gibraltar announced that its Justice Ministry had rejected the U.S. warrant, as U.S. sanctions against Iran did not apply in the European Union, and the ship, renamed Adrian Darya 1 and registered under the Iranian flag, was expected to sail imminently from Gibraltar.
After releasing the ship, the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control sanctioned the tanker and its captain and inputted them in the blacklist. Some days later, Brian Hook, the U.S. Special Representative for Iran, sent emails to the Indian captain of the ship and offered some million dollars in U.S. cash to steer the Adrian Darya 1 to a country where it could be seized by U.S. forces; but he rejected these offers.
September 2019: Saudi Aramco attacks and release of Stena Impero
On 3 September, Iran announced that the oil tanker Adrian Darya 1 had delivered its cargo, defying U.S. threats. Satellite imagery had shown the tanker near Syria. On 9 September, Britain's foreign minister accused Iran of selling the oil that was carried in Adrian Darya 1 to Syria. Iran said the oil had been sold to a private company which is not an EU-sanctioned entity, so its assurance to Gibraltar had not been breached.
On 14 September, the 2019 Abqaiq–Khurais attack took place—a coordinated cruise missile and drone attack that targeted the state-owned Saudi Aramco oil processing facilities at Abqaiq and Khurais in eastern Saudi Arabia. The Houthi movement in Yemen claimed responsibility, tying it to events surrounding the Saudi Arabian intervention in the Yemeni Civil War. However, claims made by some U.S. officials that the attacks originated in Iran, despite Iran's denial, further escalated the current gulf crisis.
On 16 September, the IRGC seized another vessel near Iran's Greater Tunb island in the Persian Gulf. It was reported that the vessel was allegedly smuggling 250,000 litres of diesel fuel to the UAE.
On 23 September, the Iranian president criticized the IMSC, the new U.S.-led maritime coalition set to patrol the region's waterways, and asked the western powers to leave the security of the Persian Gulf to them.
On 27 September, the British oil tanker Stena Impero departed from Iranian waters after around two months in Iranian detention. The remainder of the ship's 23 crew members who were detained in Iran were released as well, with seven crew members already released on 4 September. On 28 September, Stena Impero, which was also able to transmit signals, docked at Port Rashid, Dubai. The same day, HMS Duncan returned to her homeport, Portsmouth naval base.
November 2019: IMSC launches operations
On 7 November 2019, International Maritime Security Construct (IMSC) launched official operations in Bahrain to protect the shipping lanes near the troubled Iranian territorial waters. The coalition opened its command center in the kingdom, to ward off the perceived threat to the global oil supply amid the crisis.
December 2019: U.S. airstrikes on Iraqi militia and attack on Baghdad embassy
In early December, the Pentagon considered sending reinforcements to the Middle East to deal with escalating tensions due to attacks against international shipping through the Persian Gulf, a missile strike against a Saudi oil facility, violent crackdown of protests in Iran, and heightened Iranian activities in the region. The number of people dead in Iranian demonstrations remained disputed, though Iran had not released any official estimates. U.S. special representative for Iran Brian Hook announced that his country was offering $15 million for information concerning the whereabouts of Abdulreza Shahlai, a senior Iranian commander accused of orchestrating numerous attacks against U.S. forces in Iraq and a foiled attempt to assassinate the Saudi Arabian ambassador to the United States.
On 27 December, Iran, Russia, and China began a four-day naval exercise in the Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Oman. The exercise was launched from Chabahar Port near Pakistan, and included the Chinese Type 051 destroyer Xining. The Russian Defense Ministry confirmed it had deployed ships from the Baltic Fleet in its official newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda. According to Iranian government and military officials over its state news channel Press TV, the exercise was a response to U.S.–Saudi regional maneuvers and was meant to demonstrate that Iran was not isolated despite U.S. sanctions. In contrast, the spokesman of the Chinese Ministry of National Defense, Senior Colonel Wu Qian, claimed the exercise was a "normal military exchange" unconnected to the international tensions.
Also on 27 December, K-1 Air Base in Iraq's Kirkuk Governorate was attacked with Katyusha rockets, injuring several Iraqi Security Forces personnel, four U.S. soldiers, and killing a U.S. civilian military contractor. U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo condemned the attacks, blaming Iranian-backed Shi'ite Muslim militias. On 29 December, U.S. airstrikes targeted Kata'ib Hizbollah facilities in Iraq and Syria killing 25 militants and injuring at least 55 others. The Department of Defense said the operation was in retaliation for repeated attacks on Iraqi military bases hosting Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) coalition forces, particularly the K-1 Air Base attack. About 5,000 U.S. troops were present in Iraq to deal with Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant remnants and to assist the Iraqi military. Kata'ib Hezbollah denied responsibility for the attacks.
On 31 December, Iran-backed militiamen under the Popular Mobilization Forces attacked the outer perimeter of the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad, prompting American diplomats to evacuate to safe rooms. The militiamen later withdrew. An additional 100 U.S. Marines were sent to reinforce the embassy.
Baghdad Airport strike and reduced Iranian nuclear commitments
A major flashpoint in the crisis occurred on 3 January 2020, when President Donald Trump approved the targeted killing of Iranian Major General Qasem Soleimani in Baghdad. Iraqi paramilitary leader Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis and other IRGC and Iraqi paramilitary personnel were also killed in the drone attack. Shortly after the attack, the U.S. deployed an additional 3,000 ground troops to the Middle East, in addition to 14,000 already stationed there since May the previous year. President Trump defended the move, claiming in an interview with The Ingraham Angle on the Fox News Channel that General Soleimani was planning further attacks against four U.S. Embassies across the Middle East. This was later challenged by U.S. Defense Secretary Mark Esper in interviews on Face the Nation on CBS and State of the Union on CNN, who claimed that President Trump was not embellishing that there was an Iranian threat but that he had seen no evidence that U.S. embassies were to be targeted. As the funeral procession for Soleimani and al-Muhandis was ongoing in Baghdad, several rockets hit near the U.S. embassy and the Balad Air Base without any casualties.
Amid international fears of a direct confrontation between the two nations, Trump warned Iran on 4 January against attacking U.S. assets or any Americans in the region. He threatened that in the event of an Iranian attack, the U.S. would target 52 Iranian sites, including cultural sites, which represented the 52 hostages taken by Iran in 1979, and would strike "very fast and very hard". The White House officially notified the U.S. Congress about the killing of Qassem Soleimani, in accordance with the 1973 War Powers Resolution, a day after the fact. Meanwhile, thousands of people in 70 cities across the U.S. participated in antiwar demonstrations against a new conflict in the Middle East. On the same day, the UK sent two warships, HMS Kent and HMS Defender, to the Persian Gulf to protect their ships and citizens. The Royal Navy was deployed to accompany British-flagged ships through the Strait of Hormuz.
On 5 January, Iran announced that it would not continue to abide by the limitations mentioned in the 2015 nuclear deal. An Iranian government statement on state television said "If the sanctions are lifted ... the Islamic Republic is ready to return to its obligations." Iran also demanded the Iraqi parliament to get rid of the American presence in their country. The Iraqi parliament passed a resolution to expel all foreign, particularly U.S., troops from Iraqi territory through a vote boycotted by Sunni and Kurdish representatives. The media initially reported that the U.S. would comply with the resolution after a draft letter from Brigadier General William H. Seely III addressed to the Iraqi Defense Ministry emerged claiming as such, but Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Mark A. Milley and Secretary of Defense Mark Esper soon clarified that the letter had been sent in error and the U.S. Armed Forces would not withdraw from Iraq. In response to the Iraqi parliament situation, Trump threatened to impose sanctions on Iraq "like they've never seen before". On 10 January, Acting Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi placed a telephone call to Secretary of State Pompeo demanding that the U.S. send a delegation "to prepare a mechanism to carry out the parliament's resolution regarding the withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq". Pompeo rejected Prime Minister Abdul-Mahdi's requests. Shortly afterwards Iraq's highest-ranking Shia cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, condemned the U.S.–Iran crisis.
In response to Iran's violations of the 2015 nuclear deal, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany threatened to activate the deal's dispute mechanism reenacting European Union and United Nations sanctions on Iran, a move supported by the U.S. State Department. In response, the Iranian Foreign Ministry threatened a "serious and strong response", and President Rouhani made a televised Cabinet address on Iranian state television directly threatening European troops while blaming U.S. escalation for the crisis. Soon afterwards, Rouhani claimed the country was enriching uranium at a higher rate per day than before the ratification of the deal, though experts questioned the logistical reality of that claim.
Meanwhile, the legality of the Baghdad Airport strike was brought into question in the U.S. and abroad. The U.S. Congress was not consulted before the attack and some congress members sought to restrict the president's ability to attack Iran. Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer condemned the strike, and declared that Congress needed to be consulted in advance for any such military actions. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi announced she would introduce a resolution to limit Trump's ability to take actions against Iran. On 10 January, the House ratified the resolution by a vote of 224–194. The vote was mostly conducted among party lines, with eight Democrats opposing the resolution and three Republicans favoring it. Following the killing of Soleimani, a classified intelligence briefing to the U.S. Senate by CIA Director Gina Haspel was heavily scrutinized by many congressmembers and caused many legislators to question the Trump administration's rationale for the attacks. Shortly afterwards the U.S. State Department cancelled four further briefings on the crisis to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee without rescheduling them. Representative Eliot Engel, the Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, invited Mike Pompeo to a 29 January hearing to testify on the crisis and threatened to issue a subpoena against him.
IRGC ballistic missile attack and new sanctions
On 8 January 2020, Iraq's Al Asad Airbase, which hosted U.S.-led coalition troops, was attacked with ballistic missiles as a part of Iran's "Operation Martyr Soleimani", named for general Qasem Soleimani. It was reported that the airbase in Erbil in Iraqi Kurdistan was attacked as well. During the attack, the IRGC declared that "fierce revenge by the Revolutionary Guards had begun", indicating it was the official response to the killing of Soleimani. Although among the facilities struck were troop sleeping quarters, some analysts suggested the strike was deliberately designed to avoid causing any fatalities to dissuade an American response. While the U.S. initially assessed that none of its service members were injured or killed, the U.S. Department of Defense ultimately said that 110 service members had been diagnosed and treated for traumatic brain injuries from the attack.
During his White House address hours after the attack, Trump ruled out a direct military response, urged rapprochement with Iran, demanded NATO be more involved in regional affairs, and demanded a new Iran nuclear deal be arranged. Trump, however, also announced new sanctions on Iran and affirmed his position that Iran could not be allowed to develop nuclear weapons.
On 9 January, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Kelly Craft sent a letter to the U.N. Security Council announcing that the United States was willing to negotiate with Iran to prevent further escalation. Ayatollah Khamenei rejected the possibility of talks at any level between U.S. and Iranian officials unless the United States returned to the JCPOA; Iranian Permanent Representative to the United Nations Majid Takht-Ravanchi likewise rejected the option. Both ambassadors justified their countries' military actions under Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. On 14 January, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson encouraged the negotiation of a new nuclear deal between the Trump administration and the Iranian government, which President Trump expressed agreement with.
On 10 January, the Trump administration imposed new economic sanctions targeting Iran's metals industry and eight senior officials who were involved in the prior missile attacks. According to U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin, the sanctions would affect "billions" in revenue. The U.S. also warned Iraq that it would freeze its account at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York if it continued to urge the withdrawal of American troops, which would prevent the Iraqi government from accessing oil revenues, damage the Iraqi economy, and devalue the Iraqi dinar.
Shootdown of Ukrainian passenger plane
Hours after the ballistic missile attacks, Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 crashed just after taking off from Tehran International Airport, killing all 176 passengers and crew, including 82 Iranian and 63 Canadian citizens. An investigation was launched to decipher the reason for the crash. On 9 January, U.S. officials said they believe the aircraft had been shot down in error by an Iranian Tor missile, based on evidence from reconnaissance satellite imagery and radar data. Iranian officials initially denied the allegations but, on 11 January, admitted to accidentally shooting down the plane. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau urged deescalation and claimed that the United States' escalation of the conflict was partially to blame for the accident, saying "If there was no escalation recently in the region, those Canadians would be right now home with their families. This is something that happens when you have conflict and the war. Innocents bear the brunt of it." The incident slightly worsened Canada–United States relations. The airline shoot-down also reignited anti-government protests within Iran that had previously become dormant during the massive public outcry against the death of Soleimani. Foreign ministers from the countries who lost citizens in the crash—Canada, Ukraine, Sweden, Afghanistan, and the United Kingdom—met at the Canadian High Commission in London and demanded that Iran provide compensation for families of the victims.
Further tensions and controversies
On 12 January, Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah called for Iran's allies in the Axis of Resistance—including Iran, the Syrian Arab Republic, Hezbollah, the Popular Mobilization Forces, and the Houthi movement in Yemen—to intensify its military campaigns against the U.S. to expel U.S. forces from the Middle East. During a state visit by Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani of Qatar to Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei called for regional cooperation against the U.S. However, following discussions between Sheikh Tamim and President Rouhani, Tamim concluded that de-escalation and dialogue were the only means to resolve the regional crises. In response to the increased tensions, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and many U.S. states released advisories warning of Iranian cyberattacks, while the Texas Department of Information Resources said Iranian cyberattacks had reached a rate of 10,000 per minute.
On 17 January, Ayatollah Khamenei personally led Friday prayers in Tehran for the first time since February 2012, speaking at the Imam Khomeini Grand Mosque. During his televised sermon, Khamenei lamented the shootdown of the Ukrainian airliner, sought to present the image that the country was unified despite protests and the international crisis, and lashed out at the UK, France, and Germany, referring to them as "servants" of the "villainous" United States. Khamenei denounced the Trump administration as "clowns" and insisted that the "real punishment" for General Soleimani's assassination would be forcing American forces out of the Middle East. In response Trump, who was vacationing at Mar-a-Lago resort in Palm Beach, Florida, at the time, made posts on Twitter urging Iranian leadership to stop "killing" Iranian protesters and that it "should abandon terror and Make Iran Great Again!" One of the posts was written in both English and Persian. On the same day, the Asian Football Confederation banned Iran from hosting international football matches. On 18 January, the U.S. sanctioned Brigadier General Hassan Shahvarpour, an IRGC commander in Khuzestan Province, after security personnel fired into protesters without warning during anti-government demonstrations in Mahshahr County.
On 26 January, three rockets were fired on the U.S. embassy in Baghdad, wounding at least one staff member present at the cafeteria at dinner time, with the nationality of the wounded still undisclosed, other sources reported three wounded.
February–March 2020: Camp Taji attacks and reduction of coalition forces in Iraq
On 9 February, during routine maritime patrols, U.S. forces aboard the USS Normandy (CG-60) interdicted and seized a cache of Iranian-made weapons aboard a dhow in the Arabian Sea that was purportedly en route to supply Houthi rebels in Yemen. According to the U.S., the shipment consisted of 358 weapons components, including 150 Dehlavieh anti-tank missiles, three Iranian-made SAMs, thermal imaging weapon scopes, and other components for manned and unmanned aerial and surface vessels, such as bomb boats and weaponized drones.
On 10 February, the Pentagon confirmed that more than a hundred U.S. service members were injured from the 8 January IRGC ballistic missile attacks, with 109 personnel diagnosed with traumatic brain injuries.
On 13 February, the U.S. Senate voted 55–45 to constrain Trump's ability to wage war on Iran without congressional approval. The bipartisan vote for the Iran War Powers Resolution included eight Republican senators. Trump threatened to veto the resolution. On the same day, a rocket hit an Iraqi base in Kirkuk that housed U.S. forces. No casualties were reported.
On 11 March, Qasem Soleimani's birthday, 15 Katyusha rockets struck Camp Taji, Iraq, killing two U.S. soldiers and one British soldier from the Royal Army Medical Corps. The attack left 12 other American soldiers, contractors and OIR coalition personnel (including a Polish soldier) injured, five critically. On 13 March after midnight, after a previous retaliatory operation, the U.S. launched air raids against Kata'ib Hezbollah facilities in Karbala and the Babylon area near the Karbala International Airport; the strikes reportedly killed at least three Iraqi soldiers, two policemen and one civilian. 11 Iraqi soldiers were wounded as well as five Popular Mobilization Forces fighters.
On 14 March, before 11:00 AM, another rocket attack struck Camp Taji; more than 24 107mm caliber rockets struck the coalition compound and the Iraqi Air defenses installation there, injuring three coalition soldiers and two Iraqi soldiers. Iraqi forces subsequently found seven Katyusha rocket launchers with 25 rockets armed but not launched nearby.
On 16 March, the U.S. announced it would pull out from three of its eight bases on Iraq, amid continued tensions with the Iraqi government and Iran. In the border crossing of al-Qaim, the U.S. handed over equipment to the Iraqi security forces to ensure border security with Syria, a significant move that effectively ended any significant U.S. presence along the Iraqi side of the border. The other two military bases later transferred to the Iraqis were the Qayyarah Airfield and the K-1 Air Base. CJTF-OIR said the base transfers and repositioning of forces were pre-planned in coordination with the Iraqi government in response to progress in the ongoing operation against ISIL and unrelated to the recent base attacks or the COVID-19 viral pandemic situation in the country. The coalition added it would relocate and consolidate personnel and equipment from several Iraqi bases throughout 2020.
The gradual reduction of NATO and coalition presence in Iraq continued on 24 March when the Czech Republic withdrew troops citing security threats, the global COVID-19 pandemic, and a planned mission restructuring. 30 Czech soldiers participating in Operation Inherent Resolve and the NATO Training Mission in Iraq returned to Prague.
On 25 March, France announced it would withdraw its forces from training duties in Iraq, mostly trainers to local armed forces, largely because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Iraq's military halted all training in early March to minimize the risk of the illness spreading among its forces, including from the OIR coalition.
On 3 April, the Chief of Staff of the Iranian Armed forces Mohammad Bagheri said, "Iran will respond severely if the United States does anything to undermine security of Iran".
On 7 April, in Iraq, the coalition withdrew from the Abu Ghraib operating base, the al-Sqoor base inside Nineveh Operations Command, and the Al-Taqaddum Air Base, handing control to the Iraqi security forces. However, amidst the force consolidation, by 13 April the U.S. had also installed and activated Patriot air defense systems, an Army C-RAM system, and an AN/TWQ-1 Avenger at Al Asad Airbase and the base at Erbil (the two bases attacked by Iran in January), and at Camp Taji, after gradually moving the systems piece-by-piece into Iraq since January. CENTCOM commander Gen. Frank McKenzie said the Patriots and other systems were taken from another location where they were also needed, without saying where. U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Mark Milley also added that hundreds of troops from the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, which deployed to Iraq in January as an Immediate Response Force following the embassy attack, would remain until "... the situation with the Shia militia groups and Iran ... 100 percent settled down".
Gulf tensions remained high in mid-April between Iranian and U.S. vessels. On 15 April, during U.S. Army AH-64E Apache deck landing qualifications with the Navy in the northern Persian Gulf, 11 NEDSA speed boats began circling six U.S. vessels partaking in the exercise, including coming within 10 yards of the U.S. Coast Guard's Island-class cutter Maui (WPB-1304) and within 50 yards of the USS Lewis B. Puller (ESB-3). According to the U.S. Navy, "The IRGCN vessels repeatedly crossed the bows and sterns of the U.S. vessels at extremely close range and high speeds ... the U.S. crews issued multiple warnings via bridge-to-bridge radio, five short blasts from the ships' horns and long range acoustic noise maker devices, but received no response." The incident lasted almost an hour, until the Iranian vessels departed, and occurred about two weeks after the U.S. moved a carrier strike group out of the region. The Harry S. Truman Carrier Strike Group had departed the Middle East earlier in the month after operating in the region with the Dwight D. Eisenhower Carrier Strike Group, a rare occurrence for the Navy which has not had multiple strike groups in the region for years. On 19 April, the IRGC acknowledged that an incident took place, but dismissed the U.S. version of events.
On 22 April, in response to the 15 April incident, U.S. president Trump tweeted that he instructed the U.S. Navy to "shoot down and destroy any and all Iranian gunboats" if they harassed U.S. ships. Senior Pentagon officials said the tweet reflected a lawful order that would be implemented, though it did not mark a change in the rules of engagement.
President Trump vetoed a Senate resolution on 6 May that would have required him to seek congressional authorization before taking military action against Iran.
On 7 May, the United States removed four Patriot missile batteries, two jet fighter squadrons and dozens of military personnel from Saudi Arabia while considering a reduction in the U.S. Navy presence in the Persian Gulf. The U.S. decision may have been related to the Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war as it affected the U.S. oil prices.
On 10 May, the Iranian frigate Jamaran accidentally launched a Noor anti-ship missile at its support vessel, the Konarak, while the latter was deploying practice targets for a naval exercise. It was later determined that 19 sailors were killed and 15 injured. Some observers concluded that the Iranian friendly fire incident typified the ongoing instability in the Persian Gulf. Fabian Hinz of the California-based Middlebury Institute of International Studies, an expert on Iran's military, said the incident "... really showed that the situation with Iran is still dangerous because accidents and miscalculations can happen".
Meanwhile, on 19 June, the board of the UN's atomic watchdog agency adopted a resolution calling for Iran to provide inspectors access to sites where the country is thought to have stored or used undeclared nuclear material.
On 29 June, Iran issued an arrest warrant for U.S. president Donald Trump and 35 other individuals on "murder and terrorism charges" for the January drone strike on General Qasem Soleimani and requested international assistance in detaining him. Responding to Iran's request to issue a red notice, Interpol issued a statement that it could not comply as its charter prohibits "intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character." U.S. Special Representative for Iran Brian Hook dismissed the warrant as "a propaganda stunt that no one takes seriously and makes the Iranians look foolish." Analysts and commentators identified the issuance of the warrant as symbolic rather than a genuine attempt to arrest Trump.
Also on 29 June, a report by Al Arabiya released photo evidence of a wooden dhow carrying hundreds of reportedly Iranian weapons and other material bearing Persian language that was intercepted on 17 April. The dhow was found off the coast of Mocha, Yemen.
Special representative Brian Hook visited Israel and Saudi Arabia and stated "Israel and the U.S. 'see eye to eye' on the need to extend the UN conventional arms embargo [against Iran], warning that its expiration would allow it to export more arms to its regional proxies." On 30 June, Chinese ambassador to the UN Zhang Jun said during a virtual UN Security Council meeting the Trump administration could not initiate a Security Council mechanism to nullify the 2015 Iran nuclear deal by re-invoking the arms embargo, saying "Having quit the JCPOA, the U.S. is no longer a participant and has no right to trigger the snapback" of sanctions. Notably, German ambassador Christoph Heusgen concurred with the Chinese stance, though echoed the U.S. concern about "the expiration of these limitations" on Iran's ability to purchase weapons.
July 2020: Mahan Air intercept and Great Prophet XIV
On 1 July, a fire and explosion hit a centrifuge production plant at a nuclear enrichment facility in Natanz, Iran. No deaths or injuries were reported. Israeli Defense Minister Benny Gantz denied Israeli involvement, saying "Not every incident that transpires in Iran necessarily has something to do with us." "All those systems are complex, they have very high safety constraints and I'm not sure they always know how to maintain them," Gantz told Israel Radio.
On 6 July, NEDSA commander Admiral Alireza Tangsiri claimed Iran had built offshore missile facilities and underground speedboat and "missile cities" along its southern coast. Also on 6 July, the Mossad spy agency reportedly said it recently foiled planned or attempted Iranian attacks on Israeli diplomatic missions in Europe and elsewhere.
On 7 July, the United Nations Human Rights Council, led by special rapporteur Agnès Callamard, concluded that the killing of General Qasem Soleimani in January 2020 by U.S. forces was "unlawful". Callamard said that based on U.S. evidence, the killing was "arbitrary" and "violated the UN charter." "No evidence has been provided that General Soleimani specifically was planning an imminent attack against U.S. interests, particularly in Iraq, for which immediate action was necessary and would have been justified," Callamard wrote. On 21 July, Ayatollah Khamenei threatened that Iran would eventually conduct a reciprocal strike against the U.S. as further vengeance for the killing of Soleimani.
On 8 July, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo hinted at Iranian-links in the 6 July assassination of prominent Iraqi counter-terrorism expert Hisham al-Hashimi, highlighting threats made against him by Iranian-linked groups.
On 16 July, CNN reported the U.S. had "several" intelligence indications that Iran had put portions of its air defense system on "high alert" in recent days, following unexplained explosions at key facilities tied to the country's military and nuclear programs. On 18 July, according to Iranian media, a large explosion was heard in Ahvaz; further reports linked the explosion to an oil pipeline, though this was not officially confirmed.
On 24 July, two U.S. F-15 fighter jets briefly intercepted a Mahan Air passenger aircraft flying near a U.S. coalition garrison in Syria while en route from Tehran to Beirut. According to Iranian media and government officials, the intercepting F-15 made "provocative" and "dangerous" maneuvers, causing the airliner's pilot to abruptly lower altitude to avoid collision, injuring several passengers on board, with at least two taken to the hospital upon emergency landing. According to the U.S., however, the F-15s followed proper international procedure and were conducting a standard visual inspection of the airliner after it appeared "to have deviated from" an established commercial air corridor. The intercepting F-15 flew within 1,000-1,500 meters of the aircraft and then departed after identification, a U.S. official added. Iran demanded an international investigation in response to the incident and foreign minister Javad Zarif condemned the intercept and the American "occupation" in Syria as "lawlessness upon lawlessness".
On 26 July, satellite imagery revealed the IRGC Navy (IRGCN) had towed a replica U.S. Nimitz-class aircraft carrier, first revealed in 2014, from a naval base in Bandar Abbas to the Strait of Hormuz a day prior in preparation for annual live-fire drills similar to the 2015 Great Prophet IX exercise. Iranian officials and state media had yet to publicly acknowledge the development. The actual USS Nimitz entered the region the week prior to replace the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower in the Arabian Sea after the latter's seven-month deployment. A spokeswoman for the United States Fifth Fleet, headquartered in Bahrain, commented that the fleet remained vigilant and questioned the "... tactical value they would hope to gain by using such a mock-up in a training or exercise scenario." U.S. special representative Brian Hook demanded Iran "spend more time on diplomacy and less time on military stunts". On 28 July, the IRGCN released footage of the drills, dubbed Great Prophet 14 (Great Prophet XIV), which included the mock carrier being assailed by commandos and a range of weaponry including limpet mines, anti-ship cruise missiles, truck-launched ballistic missiles, fast-attack speedboats, glide bombs, and, notably, Shahed 181 and 191 drones reportedly reverse engineered from the American RQ-170 drone captured by Iran in 2011. Iranian media also claimed the exercise was observed by its Nour military satellite launched in April 2020.
On 31 July, Pléiades commercial satellite imagery revealed Iran's mock carrier had inadvertently capsized while being towed on its way back to port in Bandar Abbas, listing at about 90 degrees with the starboard side facing upwards and "nearly half of the flight deck submerged" in shallow water just outside the harbor entrance, posing a navigation hazard near the main approach channel. Though regional U.S. forces detected the launch of ballistic missiles during Great Prophet XIV, according to Forbes, the satellite imagery did not appear to show extensive ballistic missile damage and, in fact, revealed less overall damage to the vessel than in Great Prophet IX, leaving "the impression that the IRGCN wanted to keep the mock carrier in better condition so it could be reused more easily in future exercises."
August 2020: MT Wila incident and UN arms embargo expiration
On 2 August, the Iranian foreign ministry announced they would put a sanction on Richard Goldberg. citing Law of "confrontation with human-rights violations and USA adventuresome and terrorist measures in the region".
On 6 August, China confirmed its support for United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231 and affirmed it would veto any council proposal to extend the international Iran nuclear arms embargo, stopping a U.S.-led effort to do so. On 9 August, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) asked the UN to extend the arms embargo on Iran while, on 13 August, Saudi ambassador to the UN Abdul Aziz al-Wasel called for an embargo extension, arguing that Iran "smuggles weapons to militias to disturb the peace in the Middle East". On 15 August, the UNSC voted to deny extending the international arms embargo on Iran. Of the 15-member body, 11 members abstained while Russia and China opposed extension.
Late on 12 August, the U.S. accused Iran of briefly seizing Liberian-flagged oil tanker MT Wila in the Gulf of Oman, with U.S. Central Command releasing video of apparent armed Iranian naval forces fast-roping from a Sea King helicopter and boarding the vessel. According to Coalition Task Force Sentinel, the operational arm of the IMSC maritime coalition, along with statements from an unidentified U.S. official, the seizure took place in international waters off the coast of the UAE's Khor Fakkan and the tanker was held for five hours before being released. The Wila did not make any distress calls before, during, or after the seizure and it was not immediately clear what cargo it carried or why it was seized. By 13 August, Iranian officials and state media had not publicly acknowledged the incident.
On 14 August, Khamenei again threatened retaliation against the U.S. for the assassination of General Qasem Soleimani. Trump told reporters on 14 August, "We'll be doing a snapback (trigger for sanctions)" On 17 August, CNN reported US intelligence agencies assessed that Iran offered bounties to Taliban fighters for targeting American and coalition troops in Afghanistan, identifying payments linked to at least six attacks carried out by the militant group during 2019. On 20 August, Iran summoned UAE chargé d'affaires in Tehran and seized one UAE ship in their territorial waters after UAE coastguard killed two Iranian fishermen crossing into their territory northwest of Sir Bu Nu'Ayr island. On 21 August, U.S. imposed sanctions on two UAE-based companies for aiding Iran's Mahan Air stating they assist Syrian and Venezuelan regimes. On 22 August, US State Department spokesman Morgan Ortagus called Iran's nuclear deal "just a failed political document" that has not been approved by any member state in parliament. On 26 August The UNSC blocked a bid by the US to trigger the snapback of all sanctions on Iran lifted by JCPOA.Indonesian representative said many of the 15 member states contested the move because the US withdrew from the accord two years ago.
On 1 September Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said during a speech that the United Arab Emirates had betrayed the Muslim world and the Palestinians in reaching a deal toward normalizing relations with Israel. On 14 September top advisor to supreme leader Ali Akbar Velayati threatened Bahrain and Israel for making peace. On 6 September the vice president for Iran's Supreme National Defense University, General Alireza Afshar, stated that the United States, via Oman, had confidentially threatened missile strikes after Iran attacked Al Asad Airbase in Iraq.
On 9 September Bahrain established full diplomatic ties with Israel.
On 11 September the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman responded to Microsoft's allegation that Iranians were trying to influence the US elections through spreading disinformation, stating "It does not matter who goes into the White House."
On 12 September the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps released a statement that "strongly condemned" the normalization of relations between Bahrain and Israel, referring to it as a "conspiracy organized by the White House" and threatened Bahrain with "harsh revenge."
On 14 September Politico cited US intelligence community report "The Iranian government is considering an assassination attempt against the American ambassador to South Africa Lana Marks." At around 11:00 PM on 14 September, Trump threatened Iran on Twitter, saying "Any attack by Iran, in any form, against the United States will be met with an attack on Iran that will be 1,000 times greater in magnitude!" Following the threat, Iran reportedly warned against making a "strategic mistake", saying "the U.S. will witness Iran's decisive response". On 16 September Elliott Abrams said "virtually all UN sanctions on Iran will come back into place this weekend at 8:00 PM EDT on Saturday, 19 September. The arms embargo will now be re-imposed indefinitely and other restrictions will return, including the ban on Iran engaging in enrichment and reprocessing-related activities, the prohibition on ballistic missile testing and development, and sanctions on the transfer of nuclear and missile-related technologies to Iran."
The Times of Israel cited US intelligence and government officials in New York Times that It said Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei is hoping for a less antagonistic US administration come January, but believes a significant conflict between the countries will bolster Trump's odds of holding on to the presidency.
Bahraini authorities announced in September that in early 2020 they uncovered a militant attack plot after finding an explosive on the street believed to have been planted to target a "foreign delegation," the pro-government Bahraini newspaper Akhbar Al-Khaleej reported, citing the Interior Ministry accusing IRGC. and making 9 arrests.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) projects Iran's real GDP will collapse 12% while adding that the authorities’ belated response "will also fuel popular anger and a humanitarian crisis."
On 30 October The Federal Bureau of Investigations and Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency released an advisory warning of an Iranian Advanced Persistent Threat that targeted US voter registration data.
On 14 November it was reported Israeli agents in Tehran killed Al-Qaeda's second-in-command, Muhammad al-Masri, because of US intelligence on the anniversary of bombings of two US embassies in Africa.
On 16 November, The New York Times reported that President Trump inquired about military options to strike the primary Iranian nuclear enrichment facility at Natanz, but was dissuaded from pursuing the matter further by senior officials, including Vice President Mike Pence and Mike Pompeo, who warned it could trigger a regional conflict.
On 23 November, Israeli media reported that Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Mossad director Yossi Cohen, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and Mike Pompeo held a secret meeting in Neom on 22 November to discuss the normalization of ties and Iran, but failed to reach an agreement on the former. On the same day, Houthis claimed they attacked a big oil facility north of Jeddah and southeast of Jeddah's King Abdulaziz International Airport with a Quds 2 cruise missile and damaged a distribution station. After a days, Aramco oil company confirmed the attack and added the hit took place at 3:50 a.m. and there is no injuries or casualties. The facility is less crucial to the kingdom's oil infrastructure than the oil-processing hub of Abqaiq, which was damaged by a drone attack in 2019. Brig. Gen. Turki Al-Maliki condemned involvement of Iran in the attack.
On 25 November, Axios reported that the IDF had been ordered to prepare for possible US military action against Iran before the end of President Trump's term as a precautionary measure, although no intelligence suggested this was imminent.
On 27 November, Mohsen Fakhrizadeh-Mahabadi, Iran's top nuclear scientist supposedly leading Iran's nuclear program, was assassinated in Tehran. An Iranian government official and state newspaper Kayhan wrote that Iran should launch a military strike on Haifa in retaliation.
In the meantime, Iranian MPs proposed repealing Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and passed a law for 20% nuclear enrichment.
On 30 November, Reuters reported that Iraqi and local officials said that a senior IRGC commander, Muslim Shahdan, and three others had been killed in a drone strike near Al-Qa'im border crossing, but was unable to independently verify the claims. Iran has denied these reports. "We have not received any report in this regard, and it seems more like media propaganda," Saeed Khatibzadeh, the spokesman for Iran's Foreign Ministry, said being quoted by Iran's semi-official Mehr news agency.
On 20 December, just two weeks to the one-year anniversary of the killing of Iranian general Qassem Soleimani, reports have shown that the US Embassy in Baghdad's heavily fortified Green Zone has been under a rocket attack. At least eight Katyusha rockets were said to have been fired at the Green Zone on Sunday, which led to a few damages on the compound, the US embassy and Iraqi military disclosed. According to CNN, at least one Iraqi soldier was wounded when one of the rockets landed close to a security checkpoint. Although, the U.S. Embassy's C-RAM defense system was said to have been activated during the attack in order to intercept the rockets, the ABC News added.
On 4 January 2021, Iran seized the Hankuk Chemi, a South Korean oil tanker, citing "environmental reasons" and demanding money for its damage to environment. In response, South Korea dispatched anti-piracy troops.
On January 22, a Twitter user claiming to be the Supreme Leader of Iran threatened former president Donald Trump (who had left office two days earlier) with "revenge". Twitter suspended the account the same day.
On 15 February, rocket fire targeted Erbil Airbase in Iraqi Kurdistan; one US-led coalition civilian contractor was killed and eight others, including a US soldier, were wounded in the attack. According to CJTF-OIR spokesman, at 21:30, fourteen 107mm rockets were launched with 3 of them impacting on the Erbil Airbase. An Iraqi civilian injured in the attack died from the wounds six days later.
On 20 February, another rocket attack targeted Balad Airbase in Iraq's Saladin Governorate, wounding one South African civilian contractor working for the US coalition.
On 26 February, U.S. President Joe Biden ordered airstrikes against Kata'ib Hezbollah facilities in the town of Abu Kamal, Syria in retaliation for a recent rocket strike in Erbil. The attack left casualties among Kata’ib Hezbollah and Kata’ib Sayyid al-Shuhada, with the dead ranging from 1 to 17 or as high as 22 militants. Later that day, an Israeli-owned Bahamas-flagged vehicle carrier, the MV Helios Ray, was hit by an explosion in the Gulf of Oman resulting in holes in both sides of the ship's hull. No injuries were reported and the ship was forced to turn back.
On 3 March, Al Asad Airbase housing US and Coalition forces was target of rocket attacks from the east of the base. One US civilian contractor died by a heart attack suffered as result of the attack, no group claimed responsibility.
On 25 March, Channel 12 reported that the Liberian-flagged cargo ship Lori, which is owned by the Haifa-based company XT Management Ltd., was allegedly targeted by Iranian forces on its way between Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Mundra, India.
On 6 April, Iran and US established two working groups to comply JCPOA rules. On the same day, IRGC Navy reconnaissance vessel Saviz was struck with several limpet mines off the coast of Eritrea in the Red Sea. However, a Pentagon spokesperson denied any U.S. involvement in the attack on the Iranian ship. Israel later notified the US that it had carried out the attack.
On 11 April, an explosion caused a power outage at Iran's Natanz nuclear facility in what Iranian authorities said was an act of "nuclear terrorism" by Israel.
On 13 April, a suspected Iranian missile hit the Israel-owned Hyperion Ray cargo ship docked off Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. No injuries were reported, and the ship sustained minor damage.
On 14 April a drone dropped explosives on a base housing US troops hear Erbil Airport, with no injuries resulting. While an Iranian aligned group praised the attack, no one claimed responsibility.
On 18 April, three Iraqi soldiers and two foreign contractors were wounded when Balad Airbase's canteen and dormitory were struck by rockets.
On 2 May, one rocket was shot down by a CRAM anti-aircraft system near Baghdad International Airport while a second rocket struck near a US base in the area without causing casualties. Also on 2 May, Iran released a video depicting an attack on the United States Capitol. The video was denounced by U.S. Senator Pat Toomey who urged the Biden administration to ensure that Iran doesn't carry out any attacks, and to not remove sanctions.
On 3 May, four rockets hit Balad airbase with no casualties.
On 4 May, two rockets hit Ain al Assad airbase with no casualties.
On 10 May, in the Strait of Hormuz, the USCGC Maui fired 30 warning shots at a squadron of 13 Iranian Revolutionary Guard fast attack craft that were harassing a flotilla of six US Navy warships escorting the guided missile submarine USS Georgia.
On 6 June, the U.S. Army C-RAM air defense system at Ain al-Assaad airbase shot down two drones which had flown over the base. Several hours earlier a rocket had been shot down at Baghdad International Airport.
On 18 June, the Biden administration started to remove eight Patriot anti-missile batteries from Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, and Iraq, in addition to the THAAD anti-missile defense system from Saudi Arabia, and announced that most jet squadrons and hundreds of American troops would be withdrawn from the region. The changes came in light of both de-escalating tensions with Iran and the administration changing its focus on countering China.
On 27 June, President Biden directed airstrikes against Iranian backed militia forces in Iraq and Syria, leaving at least 4 pro-Iranian militia killed. Those groups mounted rocket and drone attacks against US bases in retaliation.
Iran denied IAEA access to Natanz nuclear facility. On 3 July, an Israeli cargo vessel, CSAV Tyndall, which docked in Jeddah and was heading towards Jebel Ali, UAE, was struck by an "unknown weapon" and damaged while traveling in the northern Indian Ocean. No one has claimed responsibility for the attack, but Iran was blamed.
On 8 July, 14 rockets struck in Al Asad Airbase and its perimeter, leaving two US servicemen with minor injuries. On 14 July, United States created a sanctions exemption on Iranian seized capital in South Korea and Japan. US DOJ charged 10 people over foiled attempted kidnapping of Brooklyn resident journalist and Iranian government critic Masih Alinejad and others by the Iranian agents in US and Canada. The 2021 Khuzestan protests began on 15 July. On 29 July Iranian Supreme leader said that they can't trust the West and the US.
July 2021 Gulf of Oman ship attack
On July 30, the Liberian-flagged oil tanker Mercer Street, reportedly came under attack off the coast of Oman in the Arabian Sea. The ship was operated by the London-based Zodiac Maritime, part of Israeli billionaire Eyal Ofer’s Zodiac Group. Two crew members, a UK and a Romanian nationals, were killed in the attack. The British military’s United Kingdom Maritime Trade Operations said that the attack took place on Thursday night and happened at a location just northeast of the Omani island of Masirah, nearly 300 kilometers (185 miles) southeast of Oman’s capital, Muscat. Israeli officials did not immediately acknowledge the attack, but Israel's Channel 13 quoted a senior Israeli official saying that the attack was "carried out by Iran with the help of a UAV." Later, the U.S. Navy 5th fleet said explosive experts believed a "drone strike" targeted the tanker. U.S., European, and Israeli officials blamed the attack on Iran, and the Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett said that Israel will respond to it. Iran's Arabic-speaking Al-Alam News Network quoted unnamed sources who said the attack was a response for the "latest Israeli airstrikes on Dabaa airport in Syria," which the Network said resulted in 2 unspecified fatalities, but the Iranian government formally denied involvement in the attack and said it will respond to any retaliation.
August 2021 Gulf of Oman hijacking incident
On August 3, four oil tankers called Queen Ematha, Golden Brilliant, Jag Pooja, and Abyss, which were sailing in the Gulf of Oman, announced around the same time that they were “not under command." Around the same time, the UK Maritime Trade Operations reported an incident off the coast of the United Arab Emirates which it described as a "potential hijack" of a tanker named Asphalt Princess, where a group of eight or nine armed individuals were believed to have boarded the vessel without authorisation and ordered the ship to sail to Iran. On August 4, the UK Maritime Trade Operations said that boarders have left the vessel and the incident was "complete".
On August 10, an oil tanker, Wisdom, which had been used to transfer oil from Iran to Syria, was hit by a mysterious explosion while being moored at the port of Latakia which left two people injured. The attack raised suspicion that it might be a retaliatory strike for Iranian attacks on shipping.
- China: Foreign Minister Wang Yi said regarding the ongoing situation between the U.S. and Iran, "China resolutely opposes the U.S. implementation of unilateral sanctions and so-called 'long arm jurisdiction', understands the current situation and concerns of the Iranian side, and supports the Iranian side to safeguard its legitimate rights and interests."
- France: Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said, regarding the nation's stance on tensions between the U.S. and Iran, that France does not need American approval to negotiate with Iran, and he criticized Trump's approach on the tensions alongside other French diplomats calling it "Twitter Diplomacy".
- India: On 26 September 2019, Prime Minister Narendra Modi met with Iranian President Rouhani at the UN General Assembly in New York City, the Indian government said about the meeting that Modi had "reiterated India's support for giving priority to diplomacy, dialogue and confidence-building in the interest of maintaining peace, security and stability in the Gulf region".
- Oman: The Omani Foreign Ministry released a statement calling upon Iran to release the British oil tanker Stena Impero, which was captured by Iran in response to the British capture of an Iranian tanker in Gibraltar. The ministry also called upon Iran and the United Kingdom to resolve the dispute with diplomacy.
- Pakistan: The Foreign Office strongly condemned the drone attacks on Saudi oil facilities, reiterating its full support and solidarity to Saudi Arabia against any threat to its security and territorial integrity. "Such acts to sabotage and disrupt commercial activities causing fear and terror cannot be condoned we hope that such attacks will not be repeated given the potential damage they can cause to the existing peaceful environment in the region." On 17 September, Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan phoned Saudi crown prince, Mohammad Bin Salman condemns attack on oil facilities, during the conversation with MBS vowed to full support and solidarity with the brotherly country Kingdom of Saudi Arabia against any terrorist attack and reiterated that Pakistan will stand with Saudi Arabia in case of any threat to sanctity or security of Harmain Shareefain. Following the targeted killing of Qasem Soleimani Pakistan, Pakistani Army spokesman announced that "Pakistan will not allow their soil to be used against any of the conflicting parties". Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Medmood also indicated that "Pakistan will not take sides in the escalating confrontation between neighboring Iran and the United States".
- Russia: Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov questioned American claims about the shootdown of an Iranian drone, saying the evidence was vague, and saying the U.S. had no "intelligent data" to prove the drone was Iranian.
- Saudi Arabia: Saudi crown prince Mohammad bin Salman said: "We do not want a war in the region ... But we won't hesitate to deal with any threat to our people, our sovereignty, our territorial integrity, and our vital interests."
- United Arab Emirates: UAE officials met with their Iranian counter-parts including Iran's border police force and its head General Qasem Rezaee to discuss naval traffic in the Strait of Hormuz. According to Iranian state-run media, after the meeting the head of the UAE's coast guard was quoted as saying "the intervention of some governments on the front lines of navigations is causing problems in a region that has good relations," while adding "we need to establish security in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman."
- United States: In response to Gibraltar, the U.K. released the Iranian oil tanker Grace 1, which was suspected to be headed towards Syria with Iranian oil. The U.S. has threatened to sanction anyone who has dealings with Grace 1 and also expressed disappointment with the United Kingdom for allowing the ship to be released.
- Mullah Krekar, the former leader of the Iraq-based insurgent group Ansar al-Islam, said that in a war between the U.S. and Iran, should the crisis evolve into one, he would support Iran—it would be similar to supporting Hezbollah in a war against Israel.
- Muqtada al-Sadr, a Shia cleric and leader of Peace Companies, in response to the ongoing tensions posted on Twitter, "War between Iran and the U.S. will be an end of Iraq," and in another instance said, "Any party that would drag Iraq into the war and turn it into a scene for conflict will be an enemy to the Iraqi people," and further stated his view of excluding Iraq from a potential war between the U.S. and Iran saying, "I'm against dragging Iraq into this war and making it a scene for the Iranian-U.S. conflict"
- In ISIL's weekly online newspaper al-Naba the group's stance on the tensions between the U.S. and Iran was published, the group said it equally opposes both sides and criticized al-Qaeda for its alleged reliance on Iran and stated had it not been for al-Qaeda's past orders not to attack Iran while ISIL was part of al-Qaeda it would have attacked Iran earlier, and that ISIL would carry out attacks against the U.S. and Iran equally, the article ended with a supplication asking God to incite a war between Iran and the U.S. so it could bring victory for ISIL.
- Gibraltar refused U.S. requests to hold an Iranian oil tanker stating it would contradict the law of the European Union. In a statement the government said, "The EU sanctions regime against Iran—which is applicable in Gibraltar—is much narrower than that applicable in the U.S.," adding "The Gibraltar Central Authority is unable seek an Order of the Supreme Court of Gibraltar to provide the restraining assistance required by the United States of America."
- On 21 September 2019, the Syrian National Coalition which represents the Syrian Opposition and Syrian Interim Government released a statement after the Abqaiq–Khurais attack saying: "The Syrian National Coalition once again warns of the dangers of the inaction towards Iran's actions in Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen and the wars it manages in the region directly or indirectly as well as its latest aggression against the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia." Adding "The coalition reaffirms it will continue to stand by the leadership and people of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in its fight against terrorism as it extends its thanks and appreciation for the Kingdom's efforts and positions in support of the rights of the Syrian people and their legitimate demands."
- On the 18th anniversary of the 11 September attacks, al-Qaeda's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri in a video commemorating the attacks claimed America had empowered Iran and that the two work together, saying, "It is ironic that Shi'a militias were fighting in Iraq against the self-proclaimed Caliph, [Islamic State leader] Ibrahim al-Badri, with American air and artillery cover, and under the leadership and planning of American advisors. From the battlefield ..." adding "The point is that Iran has an understanding with the Americans in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen. It only differs with them on the returns of this arrangement. At times it signs accords with them; when it is unsuitable for them, it continues its policy of blackmail."
- Reza Pahlavi, heir to the defunct Empire of Iran, who is exiled in the U.S. said that he supported pressure on Iran and supported the killing of Soleimani "as a breakthrough that is positive for the region". He also said that the Iranian government would collapse "within months" due to the protests.
- Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)
- Syrian Civil War
- Yemeni Civil War (2014–present)
- Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988)
- Gulf War (1990–1991)
- Iraq War (2003)
- List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
- Second Cold War
- Iran's Rouhani criticises US military build-up in Gulf Archived 13 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine "Iranian president also lambastes Israel's reported support of the US-led naval mission in the Strait of Hormuz."
- "Israel to participate in US 'Operation Sentinel' in Strait of Hormuz". JNS.org. 7 August 2019. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- Hitchens, Theresa (16 August 2019). "Israel Meets With UAE, Declares It's Joining Persian Gulf Coalition". Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- "Janes | Latest defence and security news". Janes.com. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
- "UAE joins international maritime security alliance". Al Arabiya. 19 September 2019. Archived from the original on 12 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- "Bahrain becomes first Arab nation to support US maritime mission in Gulf". The Week. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- "Lithuania Joins the International Maritime Security Construct". U.S. Naval Forces Central Command.
- "The Republic of Estonia Joins the International Maritime Security Construct". DVIDS. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
- "U.S. Central Command welcomes Albania's participation in the International Maritime Security Construct (IMSC)". U.S. Central Command. 1 November 2019. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- Martin, Sarah; Doherty, Ben (21 August 2019). "Australia to join US military effort to protect shipping in the Strait of Hormuz". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Australia concludes its contribution to the International Maritime Security Construct". Department of Defence (Australia). 29 December 2020.
- "NCRI Claims to Have Intelligence Detailing Iran's Attack on Saudi Arabia". 30 September 2019.
- "Japan won't join U.S. coalition to protect Middle East shipping, will send own force". Reuters. 18 October 2019. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- Tarigan | AP, Edna. "Indonesia says it has seized Iranian and Panamanian tankers". Archived from the original on 17 February 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021 – via www.washingtonpost.com.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Egypt detains Iran oil tanker, arrests 6 for espionage". Middle East Monitor. 9 July 2019. Archived from the original on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Saudi-Emirati-Egyptian Alliance Steering US Middle East Policy". Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- Mamouri, Ali (2 July 2019). "Iraq orders militias to fully integrate into state security forces". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 1 December 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Mamouri, Ali (8 July 2019). "Shiite militias react angrily to decree integrating them into Iraqi forces". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- "Yemeni Houthi rebels call for striking U.S. bases in retaliation for killing of Iranian commander—Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com.
- "We must stand against US bullying behavior excessive demands". en.mehrnews.com.
- EDT, Tom O'Connor On 6/25/19 at 1:47 PM (25 June 2019). "Russia warns the U.S. and Israel that Iran is its "ally" and was right about drone shoot down". Newsweek.
- "Iran seeking joint naval drills in Caspian Sea with regional states: Khanzadi". 30 December 2019.
- Reuters Staff (17 May 2019). "China backs Iran during U.S. tensions". Reuters.
- Israel, Behold (19 November 2019). "Iranian Military Base in Syria Believed to Soon be Operational". Retrieved 5 January 2021.
- "Japan Orders Deployment of Navy Destroyer to Middle East". Bloomberg.com. 10 January 2020. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- "At Least 2 U.S. Troops Killed in Iraq Attack: Officials". Time. 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- Seldin, Jeff (3 March 2021). "US Civilian Contractor Killed in Iraq Rocket Attack".
- "U.S. contractor whose killing in Iraq was cited by Trump was linguist with 2 young sons". NBC News. 8 January 2020.
- "Erbil rocket attack kills contractor, wounds others". Aljazeera. 15 February 2021.
- "Navy Confirms Death of Sailor Overboard on San Diego-Bound USS Lincoln". timesofsandiego.com. 31 July 2019. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- Garland, Chad (28 December 2019). "American defense contractor killed, troops wounded in rocket attack on base in Kirkuk". Stripes.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Number of US troops wounded in Iran attack now at 110: Pentagon ABS News, 22 February 2020
- "Rockets fired at US embassy in Iraq after series of attacks". Aljazeera. 8 July 2021.
- Abdul-Zahra, Qassim (15 February 2021). "Rockets strike near US base in Iraq, killing 1, wounding 8". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
- LaPorta, James (8 January 2020). "Military aircraft, runway among damage at Iraqi base struck by Iran missiles". Newsweek. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- Victor, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, David D. (20 June 2019). "Iran Shoots Down a U.S. Drone, Escalating Tensions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "U.S. blames Iran for helping Houthi rebels shoot down drone in Yemen". Reuters. 16 June 2019. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- Ensor, Josie (11 March 2020). "British and American soldiers killed in militia rocket attack on base in Iraq". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- "Iran navy 'friendly fire' incident kills 19 sailors in Gulf of Oman". BBC News. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- "Here's All That's Left Of Iranian Navy Ship Struck By Missile In Friendly Fire Tragedy". The Drive. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- "US attacks 'Iranian-backed military infrastructure' in Syria". Aljazeera. 26 February 2021.
- "Air strikes targeting Iraqi militia kill six: army source". Reuters. 4 January 2020.
- "Iraq Condemns US Air Strikes as Unacceptable and Dangerous". Asharq AL-awsat.
- Rothwell, James; Cheeseman, Abbie (13 March 2020). "Iraqi civilian among six dead in US airstrikes". The Telegraph – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- "Iraqi forces raid Iran-backed Kataib Hezbollah base, 14 arrested". Aljazeera.
- "Iran seizes South Korean oil tanker in Gulf; Seoul dispatches forces". Haaretz.com.
- "Iran seizes Iraqi oil tanker smuggling fuel in Gulf: TV". Reuters. 4 August 2019. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019.
- "Two Europeans killed in incident on board oil tanker off Oman coast". euronews. 30 July 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- Chulov, Martin (4 August 2019). "Iran claims it has seized third oil tanker in Gulf as tensions with US rise". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019.; "US releases new images from suspected attacks on Gulf tankers". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.; "Iranian Revolutionary Guard seizes foreign oil tanker in Persian Gulf: State media". ABC News. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "UK-flagged tanker Stena Impero leaves Iranian port". Al Jazeera. 27 September 2019. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- Marcus, Jonathan (27 September 2019). "Stena Impero: Seized British tanker leaves Iran's waters". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- Doubek, James (27 September 2019). "British-Flagged Tanker Leaves Iranian Waters After 2 Months Of Detention". NPR. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- "British Tanker Seized in July Leaves Iranian Port". Voice of America, Reuters. 27 September 2019. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- "British-Flagged Tanker Leaves Iran, Two Months After It Was Seized". The New York Times. 27 September 2019. Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- "Iran to free seven out of 23 crew members from detained British-flagged ship Stena Impero". www.standard.co.uk. 4 September 2019.
- Review, Week in (16 August 2019). "Putin's Gulf security plan depends on Trump". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 18 September 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "Israel defends U.S. killing of Iranian commander, puts military on alert". Reuters. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- Sisk, Richard (3 January 2020). "Thousands More US Troops Deploying to Middle East in Response to Iranian Threats". Military.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- Jamieson, Alastair (5 January 2020). "Iran abandons nuclear deal over Soleimani killing". euronews. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- "Iraqi Parliament Passes Resolution to End Foreign Troop Presence". Reuters. 5 January 2020.
- "U.S. officials knew Iranian missiles were coming hours in advance". Washington Post. 8 January 2020. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "At Least 2 U.S. Troops Killed in Iraq Attack: Officials". Time. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- "Flight 752: Analysts say optics match Iran missile theory". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- "Iran plane crash: Ukrainian jet was 'unintentionally' shot down". BBC News. 11 January 2020. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- Kingsley, Patrick; Bergman, Ronen (30 July 2021). "Israeli Officials Say Iran Is Behind Deadly Attack on Oil Tanker". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 July 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- Maritime Security - A comprehensive Guide for Shipowners, Seafarers and Administrations. Livingston: Witherby Publishing Group and the International Chamber of Shipping. 2021. p. 13. ISBN 9781913997014.
- "Trump Withdraws U.S. From 'One-Sided' Iran Nuclear Deal". The New York Times. 8 May 2018. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Iran's Oil Production Has Hit Historic Lows As Saudis Take Market Share". Radio Farda. 4 June 2019. Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Iran oil: US to end sanctions exemptions for major importers". BBC News. 22 April 2019. Archived from the original on 1 December 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Iran's Shift to a More Offensive Posture Could Be a Sign of Weakness". The Washington Institute. 7 February 2019. Archived from the original on 8 February 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "The necessity of 'effective reaction' against U.S. hybrid war". Tehran Times. 22 June 2019.
- "The Tension Between America and Iran, Explained". The New York Times. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- "A timeline of the recent US-Iran standoff". TRT World. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- "How the Trump administration got into a showdown with Iran that could lead to war". Business Insider. 25 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Pompeo seeks support from allies to monitor Persian Gulf region amid tensions with Iran". The Washington Post. 24 June 2019. Archived from the original on 6 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "U.S. Central Command Statement on Operation Sentinel". 19 July 2019. Archived from the original on 4 October 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Esper: Operation Sentinel Prevents Escalation of Middle East Waterways Conflict". U.S. Department of Defense. 24 July 2019. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "U.S.-led Gulf maritime coalition 'rebranded' to attract more countries". Politico. 5 August 2019. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- Sabbagh, Dan (15 August 2019). "UK caught in middle of US power play with Iran". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "Australia Joins International Maritime Security Construct in the Gulf". 22 August 2019. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Australia concludes its contribution to the International Maritime Security Construct". Australian Department of Defense. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- "International Maritime Security Construct Main Planning Conference Concludes Aboard RFA Cardigan Bay". 19 September 2019. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia joins maritime security mission". 18 September 2019. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- Dortch, Jaleah (20 September 2019). "UAE joins naval security coalition in the Gulf". Defense News. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- "Lithuania Joins the International Maritime Security Construct". U.S. Naval Forces Central Command. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
- "Sailing Freedom, Albania Joins IMSC". Albanian Daily News. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- "The Republic of Estonia Joins the International Maritime Security Construct". DVIDS. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
- "Israel to participate in US 'Operation Sentinel' in Strait of Hormuz". 7 August 2019. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
- "Japanese warship departs for Gulf to patrol oil lifeline". Reuters. 2 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "Qatar and Kuwait Join New Naval Task Force in Gulf". Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "Bolton: U.S. sending Navy strike group to Iran to send "clear message"". Axios. 6 May 2019. Archived from the original on 13 May 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Israel passed White House intelligence on possible Iran plot". Axios. 6 May 2019. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Pickrell, Ryan (5 June 2019). "Here's why the US aircraft carrier sent to confront Iran isn't sailing up to its doorstep". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 4 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- "Eagles move as part of dynamic force deployment". U.S. Air Forces Central Command. 8 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- "Pentagon bolsters force in Middle East with Marines and missiles to confront Iran". USA Today. 10 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Oil tankers 'sabotaged' amid tensions". 13 May 2019. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- "U.S. Government Claims Iran Is Behind Attacks On Oil Tankers, But Has Yet To Show Evidence". The Drive. 14 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Trump says he'd send 'a hell of a lot more' than 120,000 troops to fight Iran if it came to that". Business Insider. 14 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- "Yemen's Houthi Rebels Attack Saudi Oil Facilities, Escalating Tensions in Gulf". The New York Times. 14 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Fredericks, Bob (15 May 2019). "US orders non-essential embassy staff to leave Iraq". Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Trump warns Iran not to fight the US: 'That will be the official end of Iran'". CNBC. 19 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
- "Tehran says Trump's 'genocidal taunts won't end Iran'". 20 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Abdul-Zahra, Qassim; Mroue, Bassem (19 May 2019). "Rocket attack hits near US Embassy in Baghdad's Green Zone". AP NEWS. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "US orders new troops to Middle East to counter Iran 'threat'". Yahoo! News. 25 May 2019. Archived from the original on 1 June 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "U.S. Blames Iran For Attack On Tankers, Iraq Rockets". Radio Farda. 24 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- Sonmez, Felicia. "Trump says there's 'no indication' of threatening actions by Iran". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- "Trump approves $8bn Saudi weapons sale over Iran tensions". BBC. 25 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Murphy, Francois (31 May 2019). "Iran Stays Within Nuclear Deal's Main Limits While Testing Another". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- "More U.S. Navy Personnel Deployed to Middle East Than Anywhere Else". USNI News. 24 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "U.S. prepared to talk to Iran without 'pre-conditions', Iran sees 'word-play'". Reuters. 2 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "US flexes military muscle in Arabian Sea but open to 'no preconditions' Iran talks". Arab News. 2 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "U.S. commander says American forces face 'imminent' threat from Iran". NBC News. 6 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "U.A.E. says 'sophisticated' tanker attacks likely the work of 'state actor'". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 6 June 2019. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
- "UAE tells U.N. 'state actor' was behind oil tanker attacks". Reuters. 7 June 2019.
- "Gulf crisis: US sends more troops amid tanker tension with Iran". BBC. 18 June 2019. Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "Iran says it's 'completely ready for war' after US military confirms it shot down American drone". ABC News. 20 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Cooper, Helene (20 June 2019). "What We Know About Iran Shooting Down a U.S. Drone". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "U.S. requests UN Security Council meeting on Iran—diplomats". 22 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "'We were cocked & loaded': Trump's account of Iran attack plan facing scrutiny". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Shear, Michael; Schmitt, Eric; Crowley, Michael; Haberman, Maggie (20 June 2019). "Trump Approves Strikes on Iran, but Then Abruptly Pulls Back". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
- Margolin, Josh; Santucci, John; Faulders, Katherine. "President Trump ordered military strike on Iran, but reversed at last second: Sources". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
- "Trump approved cyber-strikes against Iran's missile systems". The Washington Post. 22 June 2019. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "The Latest: Bolton says US 'prudence' on Iran isn't weakness". Associated Press. 23 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "US security adviser Bolton in Israel tells Iran 'prudence' is not 'weakness'". DW News. 23 June 2019. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "US secretary of state seeks global coalition in the Middle East against Iran amid rising tensions". CNBC. 23 June 2019. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
- "Trump issues "hard-hitting" Iran sanctions". CBS News. 24 June 2019. Archived from the original on 27 June 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Executive Order on Imposing Sanctions with Respect to Iran". whitehouse.gov. 24 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2019 – via National Archives.
- "Latest sanctions on Iran will block 'billions' in assets: US". France 24. 24 June 2019. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Zilbermints, Regina (24 June 2019). "EXCLUSIVE: Trump: I do not need congressional approval to strike Iran". TheHill. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Iran's refusal to negotiate under new sanctions could push Trump closer to his hawkish advisors, and nudge the US towards full-on war". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- "Iranian FM: Sanctions aren't alternative to war, they are war". The Jerusalem Post. 27 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Wong, Edward; Edmondson, Catie (19 June 2019). "Iran Has Ties to Al Qaeda, Trump Officials Tell Skeptical Congress". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Hirsh, Michael. "U.S. Intelligence Undercuts Trump's Case on Iran-al Qaeda Links". Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "Pentagon Official: We Didn't Link Iran to al-Qaeda In Hill Briefings". Defense One. 27 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- "F-22s Deploy to Qatar for the First Time Amid Iran Tensions". Military.com. 28 June 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "U.S. Marines jam an Iranian drone in the Gulf, destroying it". NBC News. 18 July 2019. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- "US may have downed more than one Iranian drone last week, top general says". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Sanctions Regulations 2019 (LN.2019/131)" (PDF). Gibraltar. 3 July 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2019.
- "Grace 1—Gibraltar passes new law to seize ship and exposes "British" tankers to reciprocal action by Iran". Tatham Law. 9 July 2019. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Gibraltar sanctions laws & Grace 1 designation". EU Sanctions. 8 July 2019. Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Financial Sanctions Guidance Notes" (PDF). e Gibraltar Financial Intelligence Unit (GFIU). 11 April 2019. p. 41. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "Council Regulation (EU) No 36/2012". EU Council. 18 January 2012.
- "Specified Ship Notice 2019 (LN.2019/132)" (PDF). 3 July 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Oil tanker bound for Syria detained in Gibraltar". BBC News. 4 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
- "Gibraltar police release all crew members of detained Iranian tanker". Reuters. 12 July 2019. Archived from the original on 15 July 2019.
- "El día que EE UU ninguneó a España en el Estrecho". 15 August 2019.
- "Iran threatens to seize UK ship over Gibraltar incident | 05.07.2019". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Gibraltar extends detention of Iranian tanker for a month". Reuters. 19 July 2019. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019.
- Wintour, Patrick (16 July 2019). "Concern grows over oil tanker last seen off Iran". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Iranian boats 'tried to intercept British tanker'". BBC News. 11 July 2019. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019.
- McKernan, Bethan; correspondent, Middle East; agencies, and (11 July 2019). "Iranian boats 'attempted to impede' British oil tanker in strait of Hormuz". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019.
- "UK deploys destroyer to Arabian Gulf as Iran tensions heighten". The National. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Oil tanker last seen near Iranian territory missing as Tehran vows "response" to seizure of its own ship". CBS News. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Maritime Update - Strait of Hormuz Seizure". Solace Global. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
- "Iran to release seven crew members of detained British tanker". Reuters. 4 September 2019. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- "Iran seizes British tanker in Strait of Hormuz". BBC News. 20 July 2019. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019.
- "Iran releases footage of commando raid on seized British-flagged tanker". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- Ma, Alexandra (23 July 2019). "Iran releases awkward video purporting to show seized British tanker crew cooking on board 3 days after they were captured". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Iran pens letter to UN to clarify on seizure of UK oil tanker". Mehr News Agency. 24 July 2019. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Letter dated 23 July 2019 from the Chargé d' affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council". United Nations Security Council. 23 July 2019. S/2019/593. Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
- "U.K. warns Iran of "serious consequences" if tanker isn't released". CBS News. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- Wintour, Patrick (24 July 2019). "Iran hints at ship swap with UK amid de-escalation efforts". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019.
- Haltiwanger, John (31 July 2019). "Trump is sanctioning Iran's top diplomat and it will likely make it harder to avoid military conflict". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- Ensor, Josie (13 September 2019). "'Difficult to see' if Iran breached Syria oil sale agreement, Gibraltar chief minister says". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Picardo, Fabian (13 September 2019). Today 13/09/2019. Today. BBC Radio 4. Event occurs at 1h:52m:57s. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
Chief Minister of Gibraltar Fabian Picardo: We did not have an undertaking that the oil would not end up in Syria. We had an undertaking from the Iranian government that they would not sell the oil to any EU sanctioned entity, that means not just Syria, it means even entities, some of them in Iran and subject to EU sanctions. Now what we have heard from the Iranian ambassador is that the National Iranian Oil Company, who are the ones who asserted ownership of the vessel and the oil, did not in fact sell the oil or indeed the vessel to any sanctioned EU entity ... [the oil] has ended up in Syria, but that is not to say that there has been a breach of the undertaking. Those too we need to look at in terms of substance but we need to look at in terms of form also ... It wasn't the court that made the decision, it was the Government of Gibraltar ... because I was required under the regulations to despecify the vessel and therefore the court injunction fell away, and the reason I was required to despecify the vessel ... was that the only reason we had to continue the detention of the vessel was whilst we had the suspicion that it was going to be sold to an EU sanctioned entity. Once we had a written undertaking from a state recognised by the United Nations, in a note verbale provided to us directly, that the oil was not going to be provided to an EU sanctioned entity we actually had no jurisdiction to keep it.
- "Gibraltar Releases Iranian Tanker Despite U.S. Intervention". The Wall Street Journal. 15 August 2019. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Iran denies giving guarantees to divert seized tanker's destination". Middle East Monitor. 17 August 2019. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- Kurdistan24. "Iran says it will continue to send oil to Syria as supertanker's release nears". Kurdistan24. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- "Iran Dismisses Rumors about Giving Commitments to UK". en.farsnews.com. 16 August 2019. Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- Farda, Radio. "Iran's Ambassador To UK Says Tehran Has Given No Guarantees To Free Tanker". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- "U.S. Issues Warrant to Seize Iranian Oil Tanker in Gibraltar". The Wall Street Journal. 17 August 2019. Archived from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Gibraltar Rejects U.S. Attempt to Detain Iranian Tanker". The Wall Street Journal. 18 August 2019. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Iran tanker row: Gibraltar rejects US request to detain ship". BBC News. 18 August 2019. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- US blacklists Iranian-operated Adrian Darya 1, sanctions captain Archived 5 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine Young Hournalists Club
- US offered millions in cash to captain of Iranian tanker Archived 5 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine Al Jazeera
- "Iranian tanker row: Oil 'sold' in defiance of US threats". BBC News. 8 September 2019. Archived from the original on 11 September 2019.
- "Britain accuses Iran of selling Adrian Darya 1 tanker oil to Syria". Reuters. 10 September 2019. Archived from the original on 11 September 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "Gibraltar Chief Minister says Iran has not breached law". Tehran Times. 14 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Saudi oil attack drones launched in Iran—US officials". BBC News. 17 September 2019. Archived from the original on 17 September 2019.
- "Iran seizes vessel 'smuggling diesel fuel' to UAE". Hola Buzz. Retrieved 16 September 2019.[permanent dead link]
- "Iran asks West to leave Persian Gulf as tensions heightened". Village News. Archived from the original on 1 October 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- "British tanker docks in Dubai after detention by Iran". Reuters. 28 September 2019. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- "Royal Navy destroyer returns from defending British shipping in Hormuz Strait". BT Group. 28 September 2019. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- "US-led coalition launches procedure to secure Gulf waters". GO Tech Daily. Archived from the original on 11 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
- Lee, Matthew (5 December 2019). "US considers sending several thousand more troops to Mideast". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- Westcott, Ben; Alkhshali, Hamdi. "China, Russia and Iran hold joint naval drills in Gulf of Oman". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- "Russia, China, Iran start joint naval drills in Indian Ocean". Reuters. 27 December 2019. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "Report: Iran kicks off joint naval drills with Russia, China". AP NEWS. 27 December 2019. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- Barnes, Julian E. (27 December 2019). "American Contractor Killed in Rocket Attack in Iraq". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "US civilian contractor killed, several troops injured in rocket attack on Iraqi military base". ABC News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "Statement From Assistant to the Secretary of Defense Jonathan Hoffman". U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- Salim, Mustafa; Ryan, Missy; Sly, Liz; Hudson, John (3 January 2020). "In major escalation, American strike kills top Iranian commander in Baghdad". National Security. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- Rubin, Alissa J.; Hubbard, Ben (30 December 2019). "American Airstrikes Rally Iraqis Against U.S." The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- Politi, Daniel (5 January 2020). "Pentagon Officials Reportedly "Stunned" by Trump's Decision to Kill Soleimani". Slate Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Cooper, Helene; Schmitt, Eric; Haberman, Maggie; Callimachi, Mukmini (4 January 2020). "As tensions with Iran escalated, Trump opted for an extreme measure. Pentagon officials were stunned". The New York Times via The Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "Pompeo and Pence reportedly pushed Trump to kill Soleimani. Pentagon leaders were 'stunned' Trump agreed". The Week. 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Ryan, Missy; Dawsey, Josh; Lamothe, Dan; Hudson, John (3 January 2020). "How Trump decided to kill a top Iranian general". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
Why Trump chose this moment to explore an operation against the leader of Iran's Quds Force, after tolerating Iranian aggression in the Persian Gulf for months, was a matter of debate within his own administration. Officials gave differing and incomplete accounts of the intelligence they said prompted Trump to act. Some said they were stunned by his decision, which could lead to war with one of America's oldest adversaries in the Middle East. "It was tremendously bold and even surprised many of us," said a senior administration official with knowledge of high-level discussions among Trump and his advisers, who like others spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss internal deliberations.
- Crowley, Michael; Hassan, Falih; Schmitt, Eric (3 January 2020). "U.S. Strike in Iraq Kills Qassim Suleimani, Commander of Iranian Forces". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020.
Suleimani was planning attacks on Americans across the region, leading to an airstrike in Baghdad, the Pentagon statement said. Iran's supreme leader called for vengeance.
- Wu, Nicholas; Brook, Tom Vanden (3 January 2020). "US to send 3,000 more soldiers to the Middle East in the wake of Qasem Soleimani killing". World. USA Today. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- "Trump says four U.S. embassies were targeted in attack planned by Qassem Soleimani". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Pappas, Alex (10 January 2020). "Trump tells Fox News' Laura Ingraham 'four embassies' were targeted in imminent threat from Iran". Fox News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- "Esper has seen no hard evidence for embassies' threat claim". AP NEWS. 12 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "Qasem Soleimani: Blasts hit Baghdad area as Iraqis mourn Iranian general". BBC. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- "Trump Says U.S. Would Hit 52 Iranian Sites if American Targets Attacked". Hamodia. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- Frazin, Rachel (4 January 2020). "White House sends Congress formal notification of Soleimani strike". The Hill. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Activists across the US and the world protest a possible war with Iran Archived 5 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine By Ryan Prior and Alisha Ebrahimji, CNN, 4 January 2020 Outraged Americans condemn US actions in Iraq and Iran: 'Enough with this nonsense' Archived 5 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine Grace Hauck & Chris Woodyard, USA Today, 4 January 2020
- "Britain sends warships to Persian Gulf to 'protect citizens' amid Iran crisis". metro.co.uk. 4 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- "Iran abandons nuclear limits after US killing". The Lima News. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- "Iraqis Push for U.S. Troop Withdrawal in Symbolic Vote". Time. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Sorace, Stephen (5 January 2020). "Iraq's Parliament calls for expulsion of US troops from the country following drone attack". Fox News. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Zilbermints, Regina; Coleman, Justine (5 January 2020). "Iraq's parliament votes to expel US military". The Hill. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "Qasem Soleimani: Iraqi MPs back call to expel US troops". BBC News. 5 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- Morgan, Wesley. "Defense secretary insists U.S. isn't withdrawing from Iraq after PM calls for timetable". POLITICO. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "Geopolitical Cost of Soleimani's Assassination". bukararman.com. 7 January 2020.
- "Iraqi PM tells US to start working on troop withdrawal". CNBC. 10 January 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "Washington turns down Iraqi call to remove troops". Reuters. 10 January 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "EU pressures Iran on atom deal in last-ditch bid to save it". AP NEWS. 14 January 2020. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- "Iran threatens European troops for 1st time as it admits it "lied" about jet". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- Mazloumsaki, Sara; Frater, James; Guy, Jack. "Iran is enriching more uranium now than before the nuclear deal, Rouhani says". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- "Iran says it's now enriching uranium at levels higher than before nuclear deal". Vox. 16 January 2020. Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- Schumer, House Foreign Affairs Condemn Trump Over Iran Tweets: He Seems 'Hell Bent' On Starting War, 'You're Not A Dictator' Archived 6 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, BY Christina Zhao 1/5/20, Newsweek.
- LeBlanc, Paul (6 January 2020). "Pelosi says House will introduce 'War Power Resolution' aimed to limit Trump's Iran military action". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
- "House approves war powers resolution to restrict Trump on Iran". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Ward, Alex (8 January 2020). ""Probably the worst briefing I've seen": Inside the disastrous congressional Iran meeting". Vox. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Toosi, Nahal. "State Department abruptly cancels briefings on Iran, embassy security". POLITICO. Archived from the original on 19 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Hansler, Jennifer. "House chairman threatens to subpoena Pompeo over Iran policy hearing". CNN. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Coles, Gordon Lubold, Nancy A. Youssef and Isabel (8 January 2020). "Iran Fires Missiles at U.S. Forces in Iraq". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "Iran warns US not retaliate over missile attack in Iraq". AP NEWS. 7 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "US troops were injured in Iran missile attack despite Pentagon initially saying there were no casualties". CNN. 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- "Number of US troops wounded in Iran attack now at 110: Pentagon". France 24. 22 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
- "Trump: New sanctions on Iran but U.S. "ready to embrace peace"". www.cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "US 'ready for serious negotiations' with Iran". 9 January 2020. Archived from the original on 19 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "Iran's Khamenei rejects talks with United States". Reuters. 17 September 2019. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Conradis, Brandon (14 January 2020). "Trump says he agrees with idea of replacing Obama-era Iran deal with his own". TheHill. Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "US imposes new sanctions on Iran". CNN. 10 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- "Treasury Targets Iran's Billion Dollar Metals Industry and Senior Regime Officials". Treasury.gov. 10 January 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- Beirut, Ian Talley in Washington and Isabel Coles in (11 January 2020). "WSJ News Exclusive | U.S. Warns Iraq It Risks Losing Access to Key Bank Account if Troops Told to Leave". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- Rubin, Alissa J.; Schmitt, Eric (15 January 2020). "U.S. Military Resumes Joint Operations With Iraq". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Moshtaghian, Artemis; Berlinger, Joshua; Guy, Jack (8 January 2020). "Ukrainian Boeing plane crashes in Iran after takeoff, killing 176 on board". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- Jamali, Naveed; LaPorta, James; Silva, Chantal Da; EST, Tom O'Connor On 1/9/20 at 11:00 AM (9 January 2020). "Iranian missile system shot down Ukraine flight, probably by mistake, sources say". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- John, Tara; Wagner, Meg; Hayes, Mike; Fernando Alfonso III; Rocha, Veronica (9 January 2020). "Plane crash in Iran: Live updates on the investigation". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Karimi, Nasser; Krauss, Joseph (11 January 2020). "Under pressure, Iran admits it shot down jetliner by mistake". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
- France-Presse, Agence (14 January 2020). "Justin Trudeau: US escalation partly to blame for Iran plane deaths". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- "Iran plane crash poses a challenge for Canada-US relations". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- "Nations of Iran crash victims seek compensation for families". AP NEWS. 16 January 2020. Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Kirby, Jen (16 January 2020). "How thousands of Iranians went from mourning a general to protesting the regime, in a week". Vox. Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- "Hezbollah: It's time for Iran's allies to start working to avenge Soleimani". Reuters. 12 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "Iran's Khamenei calls for better regional cooperation, criticizes U.S." Reuters. 12 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "Qatar emir in Iran, calls for regional de-escalation at 'sensitive' time". Reuters. 12 January 2020. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- Leins, Casey (12 January 2019). "State Officials Address Heightened Iranian Cybersecurity Threats". U.S. News and World Report. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Iran's top leader strikes defiant tone amid month of turmoil". AP NEWS. 17 January 2020. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "Iran's supreme leader blasts U.S. "clowns" in rare personal message amid a crisis". CBS News. 17 January 2020. Archived from the original on 17 January 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- "Trump fires back after Iranian leader condemns him on Twitter: 'Make Iran Great Again!'". Fox News. 17 January 2020. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- Moreno, J. Edward (17 January 2020). "Iran banned from hosting international soccer matches: report". TheHill. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "U.S. sanctions Iranian commander over Mahshahr killings". Reuters. 18 January 2020. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "US embassy in Iraq hit by rocket attack, wounding at least one". The Guardian. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "VIDEO: USS Normandy Seizes Cache Of Iranian-Made Weapons in Arabian Sea". USNI News. 13 February 2020.
- Foran, Clare; Barrett, Ted (13 February 2020). "Senate passes Iran War Powers resolution despite Trump's opposition". CNN. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
- "Rocket hits Iraqi base hosting US troops". english.alarabiya.net. 13 February 2020.
- "Barrage of Rockets Target Iraqi Base, Killing 2 Americans, 1 Brit | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com.
- "Iraq: British Army medic and two US soldiers killed in 'deplorable' rocket attack on base". Sky News. 12 March 2020.
- "2 Americans and 1 British citizen killed in rocket attack on base in Iraq". CNN. 11 March 2020.
- "Two Americans, British personnel killed in Iraq rocket attack: US Officials". Al Arabiya. 12 March 2020.
- "Polish soldier injured in Iraq rocket attack". www.thefirstnews.com.
- "U.S. and coalition troops killed in rocket attack in Iraq, potentially spiking tensions with Iran". The Washington Post. 11 March 2020.
- "US launches air raids in Iraq after deadly rocket attack". Al Jazeera. 13 March 2020.
- Rothwell, James; Cheeseman, Abbie (13 March 2020). "Iraqi civilian among six dead in US airstrikes". The Telegraph.
- Abdul-Zahra, Qassim; Kullab, Samya (14 March 2020). "Rocket Attack Near Baghdad Hits Base Housing U.S. Troops: Iraq Officials". Associated Press. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Kohnavard, Nafiseh (16 March 2020). "US pulling out of key Iraq bases". BBC News.
- "Coalition departs K1 Air Base, transfers equipment to ISF". Inherent Resolve. 29 March 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- "Rockets target Iraqi base hosting foreign troops". www.aljazeera.com.
- Morning, Prague (25 March 2020). "Czech Army Temporarily Withdraws From Iraq".
- "Iraq: France withdraws forces in anti-ISIS coalition". www.aa.com.tr.
- "France to withdraw all troops from Iraq due to coronavirus outbreak". Arab News. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- "US-led coalition withdraws from sixth Iraqi military base". Rudaw Media Network. 7 April 2020.
- "US hands over another air base to Iraqi forces". MilitaryTimes. 5 April 2020.
- "Marines, Coalition Forces Pull out of Iraq's Taqaddum Air Base | Military.com". Military.com. 5 April 2020.
- "Patriot missile defense systems now active in Iraq, say US officials". Defense News. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
- "Armed men seize, release tanker off Iran by Strait of Hormuz". AP. 14 April 2020.
- "Swarm of Iranian Boats Harassed US Ships in Persian Gulf, Navy Says". Military.com. 15 April 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- "Trump on Twitter tells US Navy to 'shoot down and destroy' Iranian boats that harass US ships". CNN. 23 April 2020.
- Crowley, Michael (6 May 2020). "Trump Vetoes Measure Demanding Congressional Approval for Iran Conflict". The New York Times.
- "U.S. to Remove Patriot Missile Batteries From Saudi Arabia". The Wall Street Journal. 7 May 2020.
- "Trump gave Saudi Arabia an ultimatum to cut oil supply or lose US military support". Business Insider. 1 May 2020.
- "Friendly Fire Incident Kills 19 In Iranian Navy Drill". Radio Leberty. 11 May 2020.
- "Missiles in 2019 Saudi Oil Attacks Came From Iran, UN Says". Bloomberg.com. 12 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
- "Germany, France, UK press Iran to provide atomic site access". ABC News.
- "Iran Nuclear Row Escalates as China Warns of Dire Consequences". Bloomberg.com. 18 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
- "U.S. Blacklists Iranian Tanker Captains Accused of Delivering Gasoline to Venezuela". Wall Street Journal. 24 June 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- Specia, Megan (29 June 2020). "Iran Issues Arrest Warrants for Trump and 35 Others in Suleimani Killing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- "Iran issues arrest warrant for Trump, asks Interpol to help". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- "Iran Issues Arrest Warrant for President Trump". Time. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
- "Iran seeks Trump's arrest over Soleimani killing". BBC News. 29 June 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
- "Watch: Shipment of Iranian weapons, Farsi material intercepted en route to Yemen". Al Arabiya English. 29 June 2020.
- "i24NEWS". www.i24news.tv.
- "Germany sides with China in fight over Trump Iran threat". Washington Examiner. 30 June 2020.
- "Israel Says 'Not Necessarily' Behind All Iran Nuclear Site Incidents". RFE/RL.
- "Analysts: Fire at Iran nuclear site hit centrifuge facility". AP NEWS. 2 July 2020.
- T. O. I. staff. "Iran claims to have built underground 'missile cities' on Gulf coast". Times of Israel.
- T. O. I. staff. "Mossad said to foil Iranian attacks on Israeli embassies in Europe, elsewhere". Times of Israel.
- "The US violated international law by assassinating Iranian general Qassem Soleimani, top UN human rights investigator says". Business Insider. 7 July 2020.
- "Iran will strike reciprocal blow against US for killing of top commander Qassem Soleimani: Ayatollah Ali Khamenei". Zee News. 22 July 2020.
- "Top US diplomat Pompeo hints at Iran links in killing of Iraq expert". The Straits Times. 8 July 2020.
- Correspondent, Barbara Starr, CNN Pentagon. "US has 'several' indications Iran has put portions of air defense on high alert". CNN.
- "Oil pipeline explodes in west Iran - report". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com.
- Browne, Ryan; Starr, Barbara; Hauser, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Paul. "US confirms fighter jet flew close to Iranian passenger plane for inspection". CNN. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- "Iran moves mock aircraft carrier to sea amid US tensions". Associated Press. 26 July 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- "Iran showcases Shahed 181 and 191 drones during "Great Prophet 14" Exercise". The Aviationist. 2 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- "Iran's Giant Mock Aircraft Carrier Capsizes Returning To Port". Forbes. 31 July 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- "Iran Accidentally Sinks Fake Aircraft Carrier In Wrong Place". Forbes. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- "ایران "ریچارد گلدبرگ" را تحت تحریم قرار میدهد". ایرنا. 2 August 2020.
- "ایران یک عضو بنیاد آمریکایی دفاع از دموکراسیها را تحریم کرد". رادیو فردا (in Persian). Retrieved 18 August 2020.
- "China confirms they will vote against extending Iran Nuclear arms embargo, effectively ending Pompeo's efforts". Fox News. 6 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- "Six GCC Arab Countries See UN Extension Of Iran Arms Embargo". en.radiofarda.com.
- "Saudi Arabian ambassador to UN calls for extension of Iran arms embargo". Al Arabiya English. 13 August 2020.
- "UN Security Council rejects US bid to extend Iran arms embargo". www.aljazeera.com.
- "U.S. says Iran briefly seizes oil tanker near Strait of Hormuz". Politico. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
- "Iranian Forces Board Tanker in the Strait of Hormuz". U.S. News. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
- "IMSC Statement on the incident with Motor Tanker Wila". United States Central Command. 12 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
- Viswanatha, Benoit Faucon and Aruna (14 August 2020). "WSJ News Exclusive | U.S. Seizes Iranian Fuel Cargo for First Time". Wall Street Journal – via www.wsj.com.
- Singman, Brooke (13 August 2020). "Trump announces 'Historic Peace Agreement' between Israel, UAE". Fox News.
- "ببینید | بیانات رهبر انقلاب درباره وعده انتقام شهید سلیمانی که توئیتر آن را حذف کرد". خبرآنلاین. 14 August 2020.
- "Iran, EU Reject U.S. Plan To Trigger 'Snapback' Of Sanctions". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- Cohen, Zachary (17 August 2020). "US intelligence indicates Iran paid bounties to Taliban for targeting American troops in Afghanistan". CNN.
- "Iran claims its coastguard seized UAE ship and crew | DW | 20.08.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
- Macias, Amanda (19 August 2020). "U.S. imposes sanctions on two UAE-based companies for aiding Iran's biggest airline". CNBC.
- "اورتگاس در گفتوگوی اختصاصی با ایراناینترنشنال: توافق هستهای ایران یک سند سیاسی شکستخورده است". ایران اینترنشنال (in Persian). 22 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- "Iran nuclear deal: UN rejects US bid to 'snapback' Iran sanctions". BBC News. 26 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- "Iran's Khamenei: UAE 'disgraced forever' by Israel deal". Reuters. 1 September 2020.
- "هشدار جدی و صریح مشاور رهبر انقلاب به اسرائیل". خبرآنلاین (in Persian). 14 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- "پیام محرمانه آمریکا به ایران بعد از حمله به عینالاسد: به نقطه غیرمسکونی موشک میزنیم، اما شما جواب ندهید". alef.ir (in Persian). 5 September 2020.
- "Bahrain agrees to normalize relations with Israel, Trump announces". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
- "واکنش سخنگوی وزارت خارجه به ادعای مایکروسافت؛ برای ایران مهم نیست چه کسی در کاخ سفید باشد- اخبار دیپلماسی ایران - اخبار بین الملل تسنیم - Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم - Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- "New cyberattacks targeting U.S. elections". Microsoft on the Issues. 10 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- "هشدار تند سپاه؛ حاکم جلاد بحرین در انتطار انتقام سخت باشد". همشهری آنلاین. 12 September 2020.
- "IRGC blasts Bahrain over establishing diplomatic ties with Zionist regime". IRNA English. 12 September 2020.
- "Officials: Iran weighs plot to kill U.S. ambassador to South Africa". POLITICO. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
- "Donald J. Trump on Twitter: "...caused over so many years. Any attack by Iran, in any form, against the United States will be met with an attack on Iran that will be 1,000 times greater in magnitude!" / Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- Garger, Kenneth (15 September 2020). "Trump warns Iran of counterattack after reports of plot against US ambassador". New York Post. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- AFP. "Iran warns US against 'strategic mistake' after Trump threat". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
- "Briefing With Special Representative for Iran and Venezuela Elliott Abrams On Developments in Iran and Venezuela". U.S. Embassy in Georgia. 16 September 2020.
- Barnes, Julian E.; Sanger, David E.; Bergman, Ronen; Jakes, Lara (19 September 2020). "As U.S. Increases Pressure, Iran Adheres to Toned-Down Approach". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- T. O. I. staff; Agencies. "Iran said refraining from attack on US, fearing it could help Trump's reelection". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
- "Bahrain foils huge terrorist plot backed by Iran: Report". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "Bahrain says it broke up militant attack plot in early 2020". Egypt Independent. 21 September 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "پایگاه نیروی دریایی شهید راهبر سیریک با حضور فرمانده کل سپاه افتتاح شد". ایرنا. 23 September 2020.
- "آمریکا قاضی دادگاه نوید افکاری را تحریم کرد". رادیو فردا.
- "عقوبات أميركية جديدة على إيران تشمل قاضياً حكم على مصارع بالإعدام". العربية. 24 September 2020.
- "U.S. Sanctions Iranian Judges, Prisons Following Execution Of Wrestler". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- "US sanctions Iranian judges, prisons over wrestler's execution". Vanguard News. 24 September 2020.
- Ziabari, Kourosh (26 September 2020). "Iran in turmoil as rial goes into free fall". Asia Times.
- Karimi, Nasser (18 October 2020), "UN arms embargoes on Iran expire despite US objections", The Associated Press
- Nakashima, Ellen; Gardner, Amy; Stanley-Becker, Isaac; Timberg, Craig. "U.S. government concludes Iran was behind threatening emails sent to Democrats". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- نت, العربية (27 October 2020). "شرکت اتریشی "روتاکس" فروش موتورهای پهپاد به سپاه را متوقف کرد". العربية نت.
- "CISA and FBI Release Joint Advisory on Iranian APT Actor Targeting Voter Registration Data | CISA". us-cert.cisa.gov.
- Bhardwaj, Naina. "Israeli hit squad in Iran killed Al-Qaeda's second in command on the anniversary of bombings of two US embassies in Africa". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "Al-Qaeda number two 'secretly killed in Iran'". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
- Schmitt, Eric; Haberman, Maggie; Sanger, David E.; Cooper, Helene; Jakes, Lara (16 November 2020). "Trump Sought Options for Attacking Iran to Stop Its Growing Nuclear Program". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- Caspit, Ben (24 November 2020). "Netanyahu, MBS concur on Iran, but normalization no closer". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "Netanyahu met MBS, Pompeo in Saudi Arabia: Israeli media". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "Yemen's Houthis hit Saudi Aramco site in Jeddah". Al Jazeera. 23 November 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
- Yemen Houthi rebels claim missile attack on Saudi oil facility Financial Times
- Saudi Arabia says Jeddah fuel tank blast caused by ‘Houthi terrorist missile’ Arab News
- Ravid, Barak. "Israeli military prepares for possibility Trump will strike Iran". Axios. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "محسن فخری زاده از دانشمندان حوزه هسته ای ترور شد- اخبار سیاسی تسنیم - Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم - Tasnim (in Persian). Retrieved 27 November 2020.
- Sanger, David E.; Schmitt, Eric; Fassihi, Farnaz; Bergman, Ronen (28 November 2020). "Gunmen Assassinate Iran's Top Nuclear Scientist in Ambush, Provoking New Crisis". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
- Forgey, Quint. "Iran newspaper: Strike Haifa if Israel killed scientist". POLITICO. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- "Iran official says Israeli cities can be revenge targets". POLITICO. Associated Press. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- "کیهان: وقت آن رسیده که به بندر حیفا حمله کنیم". همشهری آنلاین (in Persian). 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- Gambrell | AP, Amir Vahdat and Jon. "Iran newspaper: Strike Haifa if Israel killed scientist". Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020 – via www.washingtonpost.com.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "روزنامه وابسته به دفتر خامنهای خواستار حمله به بندر حیفا در اسرائیل شد". رادیو فردا (in Persian). Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- "Hardline Iranian newspaper promotes retaliatory strike against Haifa for Fakhrizadeh killing". www.i24news.tv.
- "MP proposes Iran's withdrawal from NPT". Mehr News Agency. 29 November 2020.
- Reuters Staff (30 November 2020). "Air strike kills IRGC commander at Iraq-Syria border - Iraqi officials". Reuters.
- "ضربة موجعة اُخرى.. اغتيال "مسلم شهدان" القيادي في "الحرس الثوري الإيراني"". 30 November 2020.
- "Iran denies senior Revolutionary Guards commander killed in drone strike". Times of Israel. 1 December 2020.
- "Rockets hit near US Embassy in Iraq ahead of Soleimani anniversary | DW | 20.12.2020". DW.COM.
- Khalek, Ahmed Rasheed, Hesham Abdul (21 December 2020). "Rockets fired at U.S. embassy land inside Baghdad's Green Zone, damaging compound". Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
- Aqeel Najim, Hamdi Alkhshali and Nicky Robertson. "Rockets fired at Baghdad Green Zone in 'terrorist act,' Iraq says". CNN.
- "Iraqi army: 8 rockets target US Embassy in Baghdad". ABC News.
- "کشتی کرهای باید خسارت وارده به محیط زیست را بپردازد". ایسنا (in Persian). 4 January 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- Dixon (58aee4e3adb2c), Gary; Lin (m_lin), Max Tingyao (4 January 2021). "South Korea asks Iran to release seized tanker, mobilises anti-piracy troops | TradeWinds". TradeWinds | Latest shipping and maritime news. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- "سپاه پاسداران یک نفتکش کره جنوبی را توقیف کرد". ایران اینترنشنال (in Persian). 4 January 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- "Iran seizes South Korean oil tanker in Gulf; Seoul dispatches forces". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
- Reuters Staff (22 January 2021). "Top Iran leader posts Trump-like golfer image, vows revenge". Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
- Bowden, John (21 January 2021). "Account purporting to be Iran's leader vows 'revenge,' posting an image resembling Trump". TheHill.
- Taylor, Adam. "Twitter suspends account apparently linked to Iranian supreme leader, citing rules about 'fake' accounts" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- Gladstone, Rick; Fassihi, Farnaz; Bergman, Ronen (9 February 2021). "Iran Suggests It May Seek Nuclear Weapons, in New Escalation of Threats". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- "Iran may pursue nuclear weapon, intel minister warns West". AP NEWS. 9 February 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
- Plane catches fire after Houthis attack Abha airport: Saudi TV Aljazeera.com
- Norman, Laurence (11 February 2021). "WSJ News Exclusive | Iran Has Started Producing Uranium Metal, in Violation of 2015 Accords, IAEA Says". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
- Norman, Laurence (16 February 2021). "Iran to Tightly Restrict Inspectors' Access if U.S. Sanctions Not Lifted" – via www.wsj.com.
- Budryk, Zack (16 February 2021). "Contractor killed in Iraqi rocket attack on US forces". The Hill.
- "Iraqi dies of wounds sustained in Arbil rocket attack". ahramonline. 22 February 2021.
- "Iraqi officials: Rockets strike north air base, one injured". Associated Press. 20 February 2021.
- "US carries out airstrike against Iranian-backed militia in Syria". ABC News. 26 February 2021.
- "Israeli-owned ship hit by explosion in Gulf". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- "Multiple rockets land at Iraq's Ain al-Asad airbase: Officials". Aljazeera. 3 March 2021.
- Kingsley, Patrick; Bergman, Ronen; Fassihi, Farnaz; Schmitt, Eric (26 March 2021). "Israel's Shadow War With Iran Moves Out to Sea". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
- "'Israel has attacked Iranian ships dozens of times in recent years'". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
- "חשיפה: ישראל ביצעה עשרות רבות של פעולות נגד איראן בלב ים". www.maariv.co.il. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
- "דיווח: מ-2019 ישראל פגעה בלפחות 12 ספינות נשק איראניות שהיו בדרכן לסוריה". www.maariv.co.il. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
- "AP sources: Iran threatens US Army post and top general". AP News. 21 March 2021.
- "Iran blamed as Israeli-owned ship said hit by missile near Oman". The Times of Israel. 25 March 2021.
- Steven Erlanger (6 April 2021). "Iran and U.S. Agree on Path Back to Nuclear Deal". The New York Times.
- "Iranian vessel attacked in the Red Sea: Reports". Aljazeera. 6 April 2021.
- "Israel notifies US it attacked Iranian ship in Red Sea - report". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
- Bergman, Ronen; Gladstone, Rick; Fassihi, Farnaz (11 April 2021). "Blackout Hits Iran Nuclear Site in What Appears to Be Israeli Sabotage". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Iran fires missile at Israeli-owned ship near UAE - report". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "آژانس اتمی: اطمینان یافتیم که غنیسازی 60درصدی در ایران آغاز شده است- اخبار دیپلماسی ایران - اخبار بین الملل تسنیم | Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم | Tasnim.
- "Drone attack targets Iraqi base in Erbil that houses US troops: reports". news.yahoo.com.
- "Five wounded in rocket attack on Iraq base hosting Americans". www.msn.com.
- "Oil tanker off Syrian coast hit in suspected drone attack". www.aljazeera.com. 24 April 2021.
- "U.S. Navy fires warning shots in 2nd tense encounter with Iran this month". Los Angeles Times. 28 April 2021.
- "Rocket lands near Iraqi military base housing US troops". www.kurdistan24.net.
- "Iran Teases Attack on US Capitol Building as Biden Admin Prepares To Lift Sanctions". 3 May 2021.
- "Iranian forces blow up "U.S. Capitol" in new video clip as nuclear deal negotiations continue". Newsweek. 4 May 2021.
- "Iraq military: 4 rockets hit Iraqi air base, no casualties". news.yahoo.com.
- "'Rocket attack, 3rd in 3 days, targets US in Iraq'". Jordan Times. 5 May 2021.
- Brown, Lee (9 May 2021). "US Navy seizes thousands of assault weapons from ship allegedly sent by Iran".
- "USS Monterey Seizes Illicit Weapons in the North Arabian Sea". United States Navy.
- "A US Coast Guard ship fired 30 warning shots from a machine gun during an 'unsafe' encounter with Iranian fast-attack boats". www.msn.com.
- "2 Drones Shot Down Above Iraq Base Housing US Troops, Army Says". Voice of America. 6 June 2021.
- "U.S. Military to Withdraw Hundreds of Troops, Aircraft, Antimissile Batteries From Middle East". The Wall Street Journal. 18 June 2021.
- "Biden orders U.S. airstrikes on Iran-backed militias in Iraq and Syria". Axios. 28 June 2021.
- "Analysis | The U.S. and Iran near a breaking point". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- "U.S. forces come under fire in Syria hours after airstrikes target Iran-backed militias". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- "EXCLUSIVE Iran restricts IAEA access to main enrichment plant after attack -diplomats". Reuters. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
- "Israeli cargo ship damaged after being hit in Indian Ocean". The Jerusalem Post. 3 July 2021.
- "Cargo Ship, Recently Israeli-Led, Is Struck in High Seas Encounter". The New York Times. 3 July 2021.
- "Rockets hit Iraqi base housing U.S. forces, no casualties - U.S. coalition". SWI swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- "Explosive-laden drone hit Erbil airport in Iraq, aimed at U.S. base -security sources". Reuters. 7 July 2021.
- "US lets Iran use frozen funds to pay back Japan, S.Korea". France 24. 14 July 2021.
- "Iran Hatched a Plan to Kidnap a Journalist in Brooklyn Over Regime Criticism: DOJ". news.yahoo.com.
- "Iran's supreme leader says 'cowardly' US cannot be trusted - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East". www.al-monitor.com.
- "Ship tied to Israeli billionaire attacked off Oman, 2 killed". AP NEWS. 30 July 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- "אונייה בבעלות ישראלית הותקפה אמש בעומאן: "פעולה איראנית"". חדשות 13 (in Hebrew). Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- "US Navy says drone strike hit oil tanker off Oman, killing 2". AP NEWS. 31 July 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
- "Israel blames Iran for attack on tanker off Oman that killed two". Reuters. 30 July 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- "هجوم اليوم على السفينة الإسرائيلية جاء ردا على هجوم الاحتلال على مطار الضبعة - قناة العالم الاخبارية". www.alalam.ir (in Arabic). Retrieved 30 July 2021.
- Reuters Staff (2 August 2021). "Iran says will respond firmly to any threat amid tension over attack on Israeli-managed tanker". Reuters. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
- "British navy group: 'Potential hijack' of ship off UAE coast". AP NEWS. 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
- "'Potential hijack' as armed attackers believed to have seized tanker off UAE coast". Sky News. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
- "'Potential hijack' of oil tanker by suspected Iran-backed army is over". Sky News. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
- "Explosion on oil tanker in Syrian port after 'Israeli revenge attack'". The Times. 10 August 2021.
- "China backs Iran during U.S. tensions". Reuters. 17 May 2019. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019.
- Momtaz, Rym (9 August 2019). "France doesn't need US approval to act on Iran, says foreign minister". Politico. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "PM Modi reaffirms India's support to diplomacy, dialogue for maintaining peace in Persian Gulf". The Economic Times. 27 September 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
- "Oman's top diplomat in Iran for talks amid mounting Gulf tensions". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Pakistan condemns drone attack on Saudi oil facilities". The Express Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- "PM Imran phones Saudi Crown Prince, condemns attack on oil facilities". TheNews. 17 September 2019.
- "After Afghanistan, Pakistan says it will not allow its soil to be used against anyone". The Economic Times. 7 January 2020.
- Shahzad, Asif (6 January 2020). "Pakistan won't take sides in Iran–U.S. confrontation: foreign minister". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- EDT, Tom O'Connor On 6/25/19 at 1:47 PM (25 June 2019). "Russia warns the U.S. and Israel that Iran is its "ally" and was right about drone shoot down". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Saudi crown prince tells Iran: 'We won't hesitate to deal with any threat'". The Guardian. 16 June 2019. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- EDT, Tom O'Connor On 7/30/19 at 5:37 PM (30 July 2019). "As U.S. troops head to Saudi Arabia, their ally the UAE talks with Iran". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "U.S. Unveils Warrant to Seize Iran Ship Stuck at Gibraltar". Bloomberg. 15 August 2019. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Kurdish Islamist cleric says he would support Iran if war breaks out with US". Kurdistan24. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "US-Iran war will be 'end of Iraq': Al-Sadr". aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "The Stance of the Mujahidin on the American-Iranian Conflict". 18 August 2019. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019.
- "Gibraltar refuses U.S. request to seize Iranian tanker". thepeninsulaqatar.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Gibraltar rejects U.S. request to seize Iranian oil tanker, ship leaves for Greece". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "Iranian Regime's Malicious Activities in the Region Requires Radical Solution" (Press release). Syrian Coalition. 21 September 2019. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019.
- "Al-Qaeda Leader Says America Empowered Iran, Encourages Jihadi Attacks". 12 September 2019. Archived from the original on 30 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- "Reza Pahlavi, son of Iran's last shah, says regime is cracking from within". Arab News. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "Iranian ex-crown prince predicts Tehran regime will collapse within months". The Japan Times. Associated Press. 16 January 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Gulf crisis. BBC
- Mathias Hartwig, Tanker Games—The Law Behind the Action, EJIL:Talk (Blog of the European Journal of International Law), 20 August 2019
- Pirate Party Germany: Der Iran und die Straße von Hormuz—Analysis by Foreign Policy Group of German Pirate Party about the incident
- Timeline of tanker events
- A nasty, brutal fight; what a U.S.–Iran war would look like. The bottom line: It'd be hell on earth. By Alex Ward. 3 January 2020