Page semi-protected

2019–20 coronavirus outbreak

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
COVID-19-outbreak-timeline.gif
Animated map of confirmed COVID-19 cases from 12 January to 25 February 2020
DiseaseCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Virus strainSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
First case1 December 2019[1][2]
OriginWuhan, Hubei, China[3]
Deaths2,706[4]
Recoveries cases27,803
Confirmed cases80,353[4]

An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, started in December 2019. It was first identified in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China.[5][6] As of 25 February 2020, around 80,298 cases have been confirmed, including in all provinces of China and more than two dozen other countries.[7] Of these, 11,569 cases were classified as serious.[8] There have been 2,706 deaths attributable to the disease, including 38 outside mainland China,[4] surpassing that of the 2003 SARS outbreak.[9] More than 27,000 people have since recovered.[4]

The virus is primarily spread between people by small droplets produced during breathing or coughing.[10][11] The time between exposure and symptom onset is typically two to fourteen days.[12] Symptoms may include fever, cough, and shortness of breath.[13] Complications may include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with efforts typically aiming at managing symptoms and supportive therapy.[14] Hand washing, maintaining distance from people who are coughing, and avoiding touching one's face is recommended to prevent the disease.[15] Anyone who is suspected of carrying the virus is advised to monitor their health for two weeks, wear a surgical mask to limit the spread of exhaled droplets, and seek medical advice by calling a doctor before visiting a clinic.[12][10]

A large response, both in China and globally, followed an increase in cases in mid-January 2020, bringing travel restrictions, quarantines, and curfews. Examples include the quarantine of the British cruise ship Diamond Princess in Japanese waters; the curfew of more than 780 million people in China; a voluntary curfew in Daegu, South Korea; and the curfew of a dozen towns with more than 50,000 people in the Lombardy and Veneto regions of Italy.[16][17][18] The outbreak has been declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO).[19][20] Airports and train stations have performed body temperature checks, issued health declarations, and posted information signs in an attempt to identify carriers of the virus.[21] A number of countries have issued warnings against travel to Wuhan, Hubei, or China generally.[22][23]

The wider consequences of the outbreak include concerns about economic instability. Political fallout has included the firing of several local leaders of the Chinese Communist Party for their poor response to the outbreak.[24] Outbreak-related incidents of xenophobia and racism against people of Chinese and East Asian descent have been reported in several countries.[25][26][27][28] The spread of misinformation and disinformation about the virus, primarily online, has been described as an "infodemic" by the WHO.[29]

Origin

In late December, a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown aetiology was reported by health authorities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. The initial cases mostly had epidemiological links to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market and consequently the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin.[6] The virus that caused the outbreak is known as SARS-CoV-2, a new virus which is closely related to bat coronaviruses, pangolin coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-1.[30]

The earliest reported symptoms occurred on 1 December 2019, in a person who had not had any exposure to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market or to the remaining 40 of the first cluster detected with the new virus.[31][32] Of this first cluster, two-thirds were found to have a link with the market, which also sold live animals.[31][33][34][35] China has since banned the trade and consumption of wild animals.[36]

The WHO declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January.[37] The WHO's director, Tedros Adhanom, has maintained praise in the public health response of China as of 24 February 2019, "to avoid a significant number of cases", despite the diseases potential to have sustained community transmission in other world regions.[38]

Transmission

2019–20 coronavirus outbreak by country and territory[39]
Country or territory[a] Confirmed Deaths Recoveries[b]
Mainland China[c] 77,660 2,663 27,624
South Korea 977 11 22
International conveyance[d] 691 4 1
Italy 322 11 2
Japan 161 1 27
Iran 95 16 3
Singapore 91 0 58
Hong Kong 85 2 18
United States 57 0 5
Thailand 37 0 22
Taiwan 31 1 5
Bahrain 23 0
Australia 22 0 11
Malaysia 22 0 18
Germany 16 0 14
Vietnam 16 0 16
France 14 1 11
United Arab Emirates 13 0 3
United Kingdom 13 0 8
Canada 11 0 8
Macau 10 0 7
Kuwait 9 0
Iraq 5 0
Spain 5 0 2
Oman 4 0
Philippines 3 1 2
India 3 0 3
Austria 2 0
Israel 2 0
Russia 2 0 2
Afghanistan 1 0
Croatia 1 0
Lebanon 1 0
Sweden 1 0
Switzerland 1 0
Belgium 1 0 1
Cambodia 1 0 1
Egypt 1 0 1
Finland 1 0 1
Nepal 1 0 1
Sri Lanka 1 0 1
40 territories 80,420 2,711 27,898
As of 25 February 2020 · History: China, others
Notes
  1. ^ Region where case was diagnosed. Nationality and location of original infection may vary.
  2. ^ "–" denotes that no data is currently available for that territory, not that the value is zero.
  3. ^ Includes clinically diagnosed cases and deaths from 12 February 2020 and onwards in the province of Hubei, based on medical imaging features of the pneumonia.
  4. ^ The cruise ship Diamond Princess is currently quarantined in Japanese territorial waters and managed by the Japanese government. However, these cases are not included in the Japanese government's official count of total confirmed cases in the country. Similarly, the World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance" instead of in Japan.

The ability of the virus to pass from one person to others is sufficient to cause sustained community transmission.[30] It is primarily passed between people via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.[40] The virus can also be spread by people who do not show symptoms, but as of 17 February 2019, the extent to which asymptomatic transmission can occur remains unclear.[41]

Coronavirus droplets only stay suspended in the air for a short time, but can stay viable and contagious on a metal, glass or plastic surface for up to nine days.[42] Disinfection of surfaces is possible with cheap substances such as 62–71% ethanol applied for one minute.[42] Chinese public health officials suggest extra caution for aerosol transmission in closed rooms and recommend regularly exchanging air.[43] Locally acquired cases have been reported in several countries. Most deaths have so far been in China.[30]

On 13 February 2020, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States confirmed asymptomatic transmission.[44]

Viral RNA was detected in stool specimens collected from the first confirmed case in the United States, though it was unclear if enough of the infectious virus was present to suggest fecal-oral transmission.[45]

There have been estimates for the basic reproduction number (the average number of people an infected person is likely to infect), ranging from 2.13[46] to 4.82.[47][48] The virus has reportedly been able to transmit down a chain of up to four people so far[when?].[49] This is similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV).[50] There are disputed reports that some of the infected may be super-spreaders.[51][52]

Prevention

A medical worker wearing a PPE suit sees a patient in a Wuhan hospital

To reduce the chances of becoming infected, health organizations recommend avoiding close contact with sick individuals; frequently washing hands with soap and water; not touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands; and practicing good respiratory hygiene.[53][54]

Those who may already be infected are advised to stay at home except to get medical care, call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider, wear a facemask (especially in public), cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, regularly wash hands with soap and water, and avoid sharing personal household items.[55]

No vaccine currently exists.[56]

A number of governments advise against all non-essential travel to Mainland China.[57] The Government of Hong Kong warned anyone travelling outside the city to not touch animals; to not eat game meat; and to avoid visiting wet markets, live poultry markets, and farms.[58] There is no evidence that pets such as dogs and cats can be infected.[59] The Government of China has banned the trading and consumption of wild animals.[36]

For health care providers taking care of someone who may be infected standard precautions, contact precautions, and airborne precautions with eye protection are recommended.[60]

Hand washing

Hand washing is recommended to prevent the spread of coronavirus. The CDC recommends that individuals:[14]

Wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom; before eating; and after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitiser with at least 60% alcohol. Always wash hands with soap and water if hands are visibly dirty.

The CDC, the National Health Service (NHS), and the WHO also advise individuals to avoid touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands.[14][61][62]

Coronaviruses can survive and remain contagious on a metal, glass or plastic surface for up to nine days.[42] Methods to remove the virus from surfaces include chlorine-based disinfectants, 75% ethanol, peracetic acid, and chloroform.[59]

Respiratory hygiene

Good respiratory hygiene means covering your mouth and nose with a tissue or sleeve when coughing or sneezing. Used tissues should then be disposed of immediately. This is recommended to stop spread of the virus.[63]

The use of masks by healthy members of the public is not recommended outside China.[64][65][66][67]

Surgical masks used by people in Guangzhou. Masks are not recommended for people at low risk of infection.

Those who suspect they are infected should wear a surgical mask (especially when in public) and call a doctor for medical advice.[58][68][69] By limiting the volume and travel distance of expiratory droplets dispersed when talking, sneezing, and coughing, masks can serve a public health benefit in reducing transmission by those unknowingly infected.[67]

If a mask is not available, anyone experiencing respiratory symptoms should cover a cough or sneeze with a tissue, promptly discard it in the trash, and wash their hands. If a tissue is unavailable, individuals can cover their mouth or nose with a flexed elbow.[61]

Masks are also recommended for those taking care of someone who may have the disease.[69] Rinsing the nose, gargling with mouthwash, and eating garlic are not effective.[59]

The WHO advises the following best practices for mask usage:[69]

  • Place mask carefully to cover mouth and nose and tie securely to minimise any gaps between the face and the mask; while in use, avoid touching the mask;
  • Remove the mask by using appropriate technique (i.e., do not touch the front but remove the lace from behind);
  • After removal or whenever you inadvertently touch a used mask, clean hands by using an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water if visibly soiled;
  • Replace masks with a new clean, dry mask as soon as they become damp/humid;
  • Do not re-use single-use masks; discard single-use masks after each use and dispose of them immediately upon removal

Healthcare professionals interacting directly with people who have the disease are advised to use respirators at least as protective as NIOSH-certified N95, EU standard FFP2, or equivalent, in addition to other personal protective equipment.[69][70]

There is no evidence to show that masks protect uninfected persons at low risk, and wearing them may create a false sense of security.[69] Surgical masks are widely used by healthy people in Hong Kong,[71] Japan,[72] Singapore,[73][74] and Malaysia.[75]

Vaccine research

Several organisations around the world are developing vaccines. In China, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) has started developing vaccines against the novel coronavirus.[76][77] Also, a team at the University of Hong Kong announced that a new vaccine is developed, but needs to be tested on animals before conducting clinical tests on humans.[78]

In Western countries, the United States' National Institutes of Health (NIH) is hoping for human trials of a vaccine by April 2020;[79][80] the Norwegian Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) is funding three vaccine projects and hopes to have a vaccine in trials by June 2020, and approved and ready in a year.[81] These projects are an mRNA vaccine developed by Cambridge, Massachusetts–based Moderna,[82][83] a "molecular clamp" vaccine platform the University of Queensland in Australia is developing after receiving AU$10.6 million in funding from CEPI,[84][85][86] and a vaccine Inovio Pharmaceuticals designed in two hours after receiving the gene sequence of the virus.[87] The latter vaccine is being manufactured so that it can be first tested on animals.[87] By February 2020, United States Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority announced partnerships with Johnson & Johnson's Janssen Pharmaceutica and Sanofi Pasteur to develop vaccines and to screen for potential drugs in collaboration with the Belgium-based Rega Institute for Medical Research.[88]

Epidemiology

COVID-19 cases in mainland China ()
     deaths        recoveries        tested        clinically diagnosed (C.D.)        tested or C.D.
Date
# of cases (excluding C.D.) # of cases (including C.D.)
2020-01-16
45 (n.a.)
2020-01-17
62 (+38%)
2020-01-18
121 (+95%)
2020-01-19
198 (+64%)
2020-01-20
291 (+47%)
2020-01-21
440 (+51%)
2020-01-22
571 (+30%)
2020-01-23
830 (+45%)
2020-01-24
1,287 (+55%)
2020-01-25
1,975 (+53%)
2020-01-26
2,744 (+39%)
2020-01-27
4,515 (+64%)
2020-01-28
5,974 (+32%)
2020-01-29
7,711 (+29%)
2020-01-30
9,692 (+26%)
2020-01-31
11,791 (+22%)
2020-02-01
14,380 (+22%)
2020-02-02
17,205 (+20%)
2020-02-03
20,438 (+19%)
2020-02-04
24,324 (+19%)
2020-02-05
28,018 (+15%)
2020-02-06
31,161 (+11%)
2020-02-07
34,546 (+11%)
2020-02-08
37,198 (+7.7%)
2020-02-09
40,171 (+8.0%)
2020-02-10
42,638 (+6.1%) 48,315 (n.a.)
2020-02-11
44,653 (+4.7%) 55,220 (+14%)
2020-02-12
46,472 (+4.1%) 58,761 (+6.4%)
2020-02-13
48,467 (+4.3%) 63,851 (+8.7%)
2020-02-14
49,970 (+3.1%) 66,492 (+4.1%)
2020-02-15
51,091 (+2.2%) 68,500 (+3.0%)
2020-02-16
70,548 (+3.0%)
2020-02-17
72,436 (+2.7%)
2020-02-18
74,185 (+2.4%)
2020-02-19
75,003 (+1.1%)
2020-02-20
75,891 (+1.2%)
2020-02-21
76,288 (+0.5%)
2020-02-22
76,936 (+0.8%)
2020-02-23
77,150 (+0.3%)
2020-02-24
77,658 (+0.7%)
From 10 February 2020 onwards, the data includes the cases in Hubei that were not tested for the virus but clinically diagnosed based on medical imaging showing signs of pneumonia.[89]

The lab-tested data was also separately available for 10–15 February 2020.[90]
Data from 16 February 2020 onwards did not include a separate number of lab-tested cases.
From 19 February 2020 onwards, only new lab-tested cases were counted towards the total (but clinically diagnosed cases counted earlier were not discarded).[91]

Data sourced from NHC daily reports.

As of 25 February, 80,344 cases have been confirmed worldwide, over 96.9% in mainland China.[4]

Epidemiological analysis of the outbreak has shown a probable pattern of a "mixed outbreak" – there was likely a continuous common source outbreak at the seafood market in December 2019, potentially from several zoonotic events.[5][6] Following this, the epidemiologists found that the outbreak likely became a propagated source (transmitted from person to person), potentially due to the virus' ability to mutate.[5] [6]Hence, as the number of cases has increased, the significance of the market has lessened.[31][32][92]

During the early stages, the number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days.[92] In early and mid-January 2020, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, helped by the Chinese new year migration. On 20 January, China reported nearly 140 new patients in a day, including two people in Beijing and one in Shenzhen.[93] Later official data shows that 6,174 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients had already developed symptoms by 20 January 2020.[94]

The virus was soon carried to other countries by international travellers: Thailand (13 January); Japan (15 January); Macau (19 January);[95] South Korea (20 January); Taiwan and the United States (21 January); Hong Kong (22 January); Singapore (23 January); France, Nepal, and Vietnam (24 January); Australia and Malaysia (25 January); Canada (26 January); Cambodia (27 January); Germany (28 January); Finland, Sri Lanka, and the United Arab Emirates (29 January); India, Italy, and the Philippines (30 January); the United Kingdom, Russia, Sweden, and Spain (31 January); Belgium (4 February); Egypt (14 February); Iran (19 February); Israel and Lebanon (21 February); Afghanistan, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, and Oman (24 February);Austria, Croatia, and Switzerland (25 February).[96][97]

Deaths

As of 25 February, 2,706 deaths have been attributed to COVID-19. According to China's NHC, most of those who died were older patients – about 80% of deaths recorded were from those over the age of 60, and 75% had pre-existing health conditions including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.[98] The case fatality rate has been estimated at around 2–3%.[99]

The first confirmed death was a 61-year-old man on 9 January 2020, who was first admitted to a Wuhan hospital on 27 December 2019.[100] The first death outside China occurred in the Philippines,[101][97] when a 44-year-old Chinese male citizen developed severe pneumonia and died on 1 February. His companion, a 38-year-old Chinese female citizen was also confirmed to have contracted the virus, but eventually recovered. She stayed in the same hospital in Manila as her companion until her discharge on 8 February.[102] On 8 February 2020, it was announced that a Japanese and an American died from the virus in Wuhan. They were the first non-Chinese killed by the virus.[103] The first death outside Asia was confirmed in Paris, France, on 15 February 2020, when an 80-year-old Chinese tourist from Hubei died after being in hospital since 25 January.[104] On 19 February 2020, two elderly Japanese citizens who had been on the Diamond Princess died after being hospitalised for a week after they had tested positive for the virus,[105][106] while a third elderly Japanese citizen died on 23 February 2020.[107]

As of 24 February 2020, the highest COVID-19 death counts outside of mainland China were 12 in Iran according to the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education or 50 in Qom alone according to member of the Iranian parliament Ahmad Amirabadi Farahani;[108] seven in South Korea;[109] and seven in Italy.[110]

Estimates

Based on cases reported and assuming a ten-day delay between infection and detection, researchers at Northeastern University estimated that the number of actual infections in the initial outbreak in China may have been much higher than those confirmed.[111]

There are concerns about whether adequate medical personnel and equipment are available in regions affected by the outbreak for hospitals to correctly identify coronavirus cases instead of misdiagnosing suspected cases as "severe pneumonia".[112][113][114] Many of those experiencing symptoms were told to self-quarantine at home instead of going to a hospital to avoid close contact with other patients with different levels of symptoms.[115] After two repatriation flights were conducted from Wuhan to Japan in late January, five out of approximately 400 persons repatriated were diagnosed with the virus, of whom one was symptomatic, and four were not.[116]

On 4 February 2020, the University of Southampton's WorldPop research group used mobile phone data and airline flight records to create a risk map for the likely spread of the disease.[117][118]





Case and death counts in China are influenced by changes in clinical case definition.[122][123] A paper submitted to Eurosurveillance modelling China's official death rate statistics reported that "In the popular press, there are also speculations about a large number of unreported cases, casting doubt on the usefulness of the reported numbers. Although this is justified in view of the length of the incubation period of about six days in this case, it affects all data uniformly."[124]


Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019

Most infected people will initially show clinical symptoms, often described as flu-like symptoms, such as fever, coughing, breathing difficulties, fatigue, and myalgia. Further development can lead to severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, septic shock and death. Upper respiratory symptoms, such as sneezing, a runny nose and sore throat, are less frequent.[31] Some of those infected may be asymptomatic, returning test results that confirm infection but show no clinical symptoms, so researchers have issued advice that individuals with close contact to confirmed infected patients should be closely monitored and examined to rule out infection.[125]

The incubation period is estimated at between two to 14 days.[126] One study found that the usual incubation time was three days but may be as long as 24 days.[127]

Cause

SARS-CoV-2, a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus first isolated from three people with pneumonia connected to the cluster of acute respiratory illness cases reported in Wuhan, is the cause of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).[30]

Virology

SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to SARS-CoV-1 (75% to 80% identical).[128] It is thought to have a zoonotic origin based on probable epidemiological links to the Huanan Seafood Market. Genetic analysis has revealed that the coronavirus genetically clusters with the genus Betacoronavirus, in lineage B of the subgenus Sarbecovirus together with two bat-derived strains. It is 96% identical at the whole genome level to other bat coronavirus samples.[129] In February 2020, researchers from South China Agricultural University announced that there is a 99% similarity in genome sequences between the viruses found in pangolins and those from human patients, suggesting that the animal may be an intermediary host for the virus, but did not release evidence.[130] At least five genomes of the novel coronavirus have been isolated and reported.[65][131][132]

The coronavirus enters human cells through a receptor called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2), a membrane exopeptidase.[30]

Bayesian analysis by Benvenuto et al. of the genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses, shows that the nucleocapsid and the spike glycoprotein have some sites under positive selective pressure. Homology modelling indicated certain molecular and structural differences among the viruses. The phylogenetic tree showed that SARS-CoV-2 significantly clustered with a bat SARS-like coronavirus sequence, whereas structural analysis revealed mutations in spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein. The authors conclude SARS-CoV-2 is a coronavirus distinct from SARS virus that probably was transmitted from bats or another host that provided the ability to infect humans.[133]

Tracking genetic and using mathematics it was estimated patient zero likely had been infect between 15th November and 15th December. Based on the data provided by the worldwide Nextstrain collaboration, Dr. Bedford refuted claims of its origin being from a laboratory.[134][135][136]

Diagnosis

The WHO has published several testing protocols for SARS-CoV-2.[137][138] Testing uses real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).[3] The test can be done on respiratory or blood samples.[139] Results are generally available within a few hours to days.[140][141] However, Chinese pulmonologist Wang Chen reported that this method of RT-PCR testing would give false positive in 50-70% of cases.[142]

Chinese scientists were able to isolate a strain of the coronavirus and publish the genetic sequence so that laboratories across the world could independently develop PCR tests to detect infection by the virus.[143][144][145][146]

Management

Wuhan Metro System Map before Wuhan lockdown, in which the daily ridership in January 2020 is recorded.
Infrared cameras were installed in Wuhan railway station to check passengers' body temperature before they board the trains.

There are no specific medications for SARS-CoV-2, though development efforts are underway. Attempts to relieve the symptoms include taking regular (over-the-counter) flu medications,[147] drinking fluids, and resting.[14] Depending on the severity, oxygen therapy, intravenous fluids, and breathing support may be required.[148] Some countries require people to report flu-like symptoms to their doctor, especially if they have visited mainland China.[149]

On 18 February 2020, the Chinese National Medical Products Administration approved the antiviral drug favipiravir for use COVID-19. The drug, previously approved for treatment of influenza, had shown early efficacy against COVID-19 in human trials in China.[150]

Bruce Aylward, an assistant director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO), has stated "there is only one drug right now that we think may have real efficacy and that's remdesivir." Clinical trials for this drug are in progress, and results could be available within weeks of February 24.[151]

Public health responses

China

'Aerial photography of roads after motor vehicles are banned in central urban areas of Wuhan: few vehicle traces' – Video news from China News Service
Passengers wearing masks going through an extra body temperature check as part of airport security. Captured on 26 January in NE China's Changchun Longjia Airport
Hong Kong residents queueing to refund their bullet train tickets to the mainland in West Kowloon railway station

The first person known to have fallen ill due to the new virus was in Wuhan on 1 December 2019.[152] A public notice on the outbreak was released 30 days later by Wuhan health authority on 31 December 2019; the initial notice informed Wuhan residents that there was no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission of the virus, that the disease is preventable and controllable, and that people can wear masks when going out.[153] WHO was informed of the outbreak on the same day.[154]

On 7 January 2020, Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping, chaired the meeting of Party Politburo Standing Committee to discuss novel coronavirus prevention and control.[155][156]

On 20 January, Zhong Nanshan, a scientist at China's National Health Commission who played a prominent role in the SARS epidemic, declared its potential for human-to-human transmission, after two cases emerged in Guangdong of infection by family members who had visited Wuhan.[157] This was later confirmed by the Wuhan government, which announced a number of new measures such as cancelling the Chinese New Year celebrations, in addition to measures such as checking the temperature of passengers at transport terminals first introduced on 14 January.[158] A quarantine was announced on 23 January 2020 stopping travel in and out of Wuhan.[159]

On 25 January, Politburo of the Communist Party of China met to discuss novel coronavirus prevention and control. Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping stated that the country is facing a "grave situation" as the number of infected people is accelerating.[160] In the evening, the authorities banned the use of private vehicles in Wuhan. Only vehicles that are transporting critical supplies or emergency response vehicles are allowed to move within the city.[161]

On 26 January, a leading group tasked with the prevention and control of the novel coronavirus outbreak was established, led by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang. Premier Li visited Wuhan to direct the epidemic prevention work on 27 January.[162][163] The leading group has decided to extend Spring Festival holiday to contain coronavirus outbreak.[164]

China Customs started requiring that all passengers entering and exiting China fill in an extra health declaration form from 26 January. The health declaration form was mentioned in China's Frontier Health and Quarantine Law, granting the customs rights to require it if needed. The customs said it will "restart this system" as it was not a requirement before.[165][166][167]

On 27 January, the General Office of the State Council of China, one of the top governing bodies of the People's Republic, officially declared a nation-wide extension on the New Year holiday and the postponement of the coming spring semester. The Office extended the previously scheduled public holiday from 30 January, to 2 February, while it said school openings for the spring semester will be announced in the future.[168] Some universities with open campuses also banned the public from visiting.[169] On 23 January, the education department in Hunan, which neighbours the centre of the outbreak Hubei province, stated it will strictly ban off-school tutors and restrict student gatherings.[170] Education departments in Shanghai and Shenzhen also imposed bans on off-school tutoring and requested that schools track and report students who had been to Wuhan or Hubei province during the winter break.[171][172] The semi-autonomous regions of Hong Kong and Macau also announced adjustments on schooling schedules. Hong Kong's Chief Executive Carrie Lam declared an emergency at a press conference on 25 January, saying the government will close primary and secondary schools for two more weeks on top of the previously scheduled New Year holiday, pushing the date for school reopening to 17 February.[173][174] Macau closed several museums and libraries, and prolonged the New Year holiday break to 11 February for higher education institutions and 10 February for others.[175] The University of Macau said they would track the physical conditions of students who have been to Wuhan during the New Year break.[176]

After the Chinese New Year on 25 January, there would be another peak of people travelling back from their hometowns to workplaces as a part of Chunyun. Several provinces and cities encouraged people to stay in their hometowns and not travel back. Eastern China's Suzhou also encouraged remote working via the Internet and further prolonged the spring festival break.[177]

The Civil Aviation Administration of China and the China State Railway Group, which regulates China's civil aviation and operates rail services, announced on 24 January that passengers could have full refunds for their plane and train tickets without any additional surcharges, regardless of whether their flight or train will go through Wuhan or not. Some hotel chains and online travel agencies also allowed more flexibility in cancellations and changes.[178][179] China's Ministry of Culture and Tourism ordered travel agencies and online tourism firms to suspend package tours and stop offering "flight+hotel" bundles.[180][177]

Additional provinces and cities outside Hubei imposed travel restrictions. Beijing suspended all intercity bus services on 25 January,[181] with several others following suit. Shanghai, Tianjin, Shandong, Xi'an, and Sanya all announced suspension of intercity or inter-province bus services on 26 January.[177]

A screen display in Hefei showing "early detection, early report, early quarantine, early diagnosis, early treatment" during the coronavirus outbreak.

On 1 February 2020, Xinhua News reported that China's Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP) has "asked procuratorates nationwide to fully play their role to create a favourable judicial environment in the fight against the novel coronavirus outbreak." This includes severe punishments for those found guilty of dereliction of duty and the withholding of information for officials. Tougher charges were proscribed for commercial criminal activities such as "the pushing up of prices, profiteering and severely disturbing market order" along with the "production and sale of fake and shoddy protective equipment and medicines." Prosecuting actions against patients who deliberately spread the infection or refuse examination or compulsory isolation along with threats of violence against medical personnel were also urged. The statement also included urging to prosecute those found "fabricating coronavirus-related information that may lead to panic among the public, making up and spreading rumors about the virus, sabotaging the implementation of the law and endangering public security" and also stressed "harshly punishing the illegal hunting of wildlife under state protection, as well as improving inspection and quarantine measures for fresh food and meat products."[182]

Museums throughout China are temporarily closed.[183][184] To provide cultural and heritage seekers some form of service, the Chinese National Cultural Heritage Administration (NCHA) has asked museums around the country to move their exhibits and galleries temporarily online.[185] This is done via a specific program that the NCHA is launching.[183][186] Some museums are also putting the content on their own website, social media, or even social chat apps and rooms like WeChat.[187] The majority of the content will be available on a NCHA website web page, however it is only accessible inside of China.[183][186] However, there are a few excerpts from the main created exhibition website that are on the NCHA general information page that are linked too, that are accessible outside of China.[183]

Quarantines

Cities under quarantine ()

Place Province Start date City level Population Cases Deaths Recoveries
Border shutdown[188]
Wuhan Hubei 2020-01-23 Sub-provincial 11,081,000 16,902 681 1,046
Huanggang Hubei 2020-01-23 Prefectural 6,630,000 2,252 45 215
Ezhou Hubei 2020-01-23 Prefectural 1,077,700 725 24 48
Xiaogan Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 4,915,000 2,541 33 81
Suizhou Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 2,580,000 1,049 10 23
Jingzhou Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 5,590,200 1,045 15 46
Yichang Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 4,135,900 749 8 43
Jingmen Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 2,896,500 641 20 63
Huangshi Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 2,470,700 805 3 67
Xianning Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 2,543,300 507 4 44
Shiyan Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 3,340,800 481 46
Xiantao Hubei 2020-01-24 Sub-prefectural 1,140,500 416 7 41
Enshi Hubei 2020-01-24 Prefectural 777,000 187 30
Tianmen Hubei 2020-01-24 Sub-prefectural 1,731,500 217 10 10
Qianjiang Hubei 2020-01-24 Sub-prefectural 966,000 85 2 3
Xiangyang[189] Hubei 2020-01-28 Prefectural 5,164,000 1,019 9 42
Quarantine total 57,040,100 29,821 871 1,848
* Infected and death data as of 10 February 2020.[190][191] Outbreak ongoing: tolls are not definitive.

On 23 January 2020, a quarantine on travel in and out of Wuhan was imposed in an effort to stop the spread of the virus out of Wuhan. Flights, trains, public buses, the metro system, and long-distance coaches were suspended indefinitely. Large-scale gatherings and group tours were also suspended.[159] By 24 January 2020, a total of 15 cities in Hubei, including Wuhan, were placed under similar quarantine measures.[192] On 27 and 28 January 2020, Xiangyang closed its railway stations and suspended all ferry operations, after shutting down its airport and intercity bus services earlier. Thus, the entire Hubei province entered a city-by-city quarantine, save for the Shennongjia Forestry District.[citation needed]

Before the quarantine began, some in Wuhan questioned the reliability of the figures from the Chinese government as well as the government response, with some calling for quarantine,[193] and a post also showed sick people and three dead bodies covered in white sheets on the floor of a hospital on 24 January, although many such posts in Weibo about the epidemic have since been deleted.[194][195]

Due to quarantine measures, Wuhan residents rushed to stockpile essential goods, food, and fuel; prices rose significantly.[196][197] 5,000,000 people left Wuhan, with 9,000,000 left in the city.[198]

On 26 January, the city of Shantou in Guangdong declared a partial lockdown,[199] though this was reversed two hours later.[200] Residents had rushed to supermarkets to stock food as soon as the lockdown was declared, until the authorities reversed their decision. Caixin said, that the wording of Shantou's initial declaration was "unprecedentedly strict" and will severely affect residents' lives, if implemented as-is. Shantou's Department for Outbreak Control later clarified, that they will not restrict travelling, and all they would do, is to sterilise vehicles used for transportation.[201]

Local authorities in Beijing and several other major cities, including Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenzhen, announced on 26 January, that these cities will not impose a lockdown similar to those in Hubei province. Rumours of these potential lockdowns had spread widely prior to the official announcements.[202] A spokesperson of Beijing's Municipal Transportation Commission claimed, that the expressways and highways, as well as subways and buses were operating normally. To ease the residents' panic, the Hangzhou city government stressed that the city would not be locked down from the outside world, and both cities said that they would introduce precautions against potential risks.[203]

On 2 February 2020, the city of Wenzhou in Zhejiang also implemented a partial lockdown, closing 46 of the 54 highway checkpoints.[204]

On 4 February 2020, two more cities in Zhejiang province restricted the movement of residents. The city of Taizhou, three Hangzhou districts, and some in Ningbo began to only allow one person per household to go outside every two days to buy necessities, city officials said. More than 12 million people are affected by the new restrictions.[205]

By 6 February 2020, a total of four Zhejiang cities—Wenzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo, and Taizhou—were under the "passport" system, allowing only one person per household to leave their home every two days. These restrictions apply to over 30 million people.[16]

Outside Mainland China, some cruise ships were quarantined after passengers developed symptoms or tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The Costa Smeralda was quarantined on 30 January off Civitavecchia in Italy, after passengers developed flu-like symptoms – the quarantine was lifted when tests for the virus came back negative.[206] Two further ships were quarantined on 5 February: Diamond Princess in the Port of Yokohama, Japan and World Dream, which returned to Hong Kong after being refused entry to Kaohsiung, Taiwan. In both cases, passengers and crew tested positive.[207][208][209][210] On 10 February passengers were allowed to disembark the World Dream "without the need to self-quarantine after leaving."[211] The Diamond Princess remains quarantined with 136 confirmed cases as of 10 February.[212] Although the quarantine has not been completely lifted, around 500 passengers that were not diagnosed with the virus were allowed to leave on 19 February 2020.[213]In addition, although not quarantined the MS Westerdam has been refused entry by several ports after departing Hong Kong on 1 February.

Outdoor restrictions

On 1 February, Huanggang, Hubei implemented a measure whereby only one person from each household is permitted to go outside for provisions once every two days, except for medical reasons or to work at shops or pharmacies.[214] Many cities, districts, and counties across mainland China implemented similar measures in the days following, including Wenzhou, Hangzhou, Fuzhou, Harbin, and the whole of Jiangxi.

Interprovincial medical aid

As of 16 February 2020, 217 teams of a total of 25,633 medical workers from across China went to Wuhan and other cities in Hubei to help open up more facilities and treat patients.[248]

Censorship and police responses

Document issued by the Wuhan Police ordering Li Wenliang to stop "spreading rumours" about a possible 'SARS virus' dated 3 January.

The first known infection by a new virus was reported in Wuhan on 1 December 2019. The early response by city authorities was accused of prioritising a control of information on the outbreak. A group of eight medical personnel, including Li Wenliang, an ophthalmologist from Wuhan Central Hospital, who in late December posted warnings on a new coronavirus strain akin to SARS, were warned by Wuhan police for "spreading rumours" for likening it to SARS.[273][274]

By the time China had informed the World Health Organization of the new coronavirus on 31 December 2019, The New York Times reported that the government was still keeping "its own citizens in the dark".[275][276][277] While by a number of measures, China's initial handling of the crisis was an improvement in relation to the SARS response in 2003, China has been criticised for cover-ups and downplaying the initial discovery and severity of the outbreak. This has been attributed to the censorship institutional structure of the country's press and Internet, with Nicholas Kristof of The New York Times and Jude Blanchette of the Center for Strategic and International Studies suggesting that it was exacerbated by China's paramount leader Xi Jinping's crackdown on independent oversight such as journalism and social media that left senior officials with inaccurate information on the outbreak and "contributed to a prolonged period of inaction that allowed the virus to spread".[278][277][275]

On 20 January, General Secretary Xi Jinping made his first public remark on the outbreak and spoke of "the need for the timely release of information".[160][279] Chinese premier Li Keqiang also urged efforts to prevent and control the epidemic.[280] One day later, the CPC Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission, the most powerful political organ in China overseeing legal enforcement and the police, wrote "self-deception will only make the epidemic worse and turn a natural disaster that was controllable into a man-made disaster at great cost," and "only openness can minimise panic to the greatest extent." The commission then added, "anyone who deliberately delays and hides the reporting of cases out of self-interest will be nailed on a pillar of shame for eternity."[281][282] Also on the same day, Xi Jinping instructed authorities "to strengthen the guidance of public opinions", language which some view as a call for censorship after commentators on social media became increasingly pointedly critical and angry at the government due to the epidemic. Some view this as contradictory to the calls for "openness" that the central government had already declared.[283]

A statement on General Secretary Xi Jinping on 3 February declared the need for an emphasis by state media on "telling the moving stories of how [people] on the front line are preventing and fighting the virus" as a priority of coverage, while top official Zhang Xiaoguo said that his department would "treat propaganda regarding the control and prevention measures of the virus as its top priority".[284][285] For instance state media organisations People's Daily and Global Times, along with deputy director of information Zhao Lijian from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, have been observed to be publishing effusive praise on Beijing's response to the epidemic,[286] such as extensive coverage of the accelerated construction of the new hospitals in Wuhan (which Zhao claimed was completed in 16 hours),[194][287] the lock down of Wuhan with its population of 11 million, and the "unprecedented" quarantine of Hubei province. Though such efforts had a questional effect on the epidemic, as the new hospitals were operating at under half-capacity due to shortages of beds and medical resources[288][289] while the lock down of Wuhan came too late to be effective as millions had left, the Financial Times and others noted that such widely publicised actions were a "PR coup" showing that the "overbearing, centralized government" of China was particularly suited to dealing with the outbreak[290][275][291], creating the impression as if Beijing had directly intervened at Xi Jinping's request.[292][293][294][278][292][293][294]

As part of the central government's "bifurcated approach to diffuse discontent", while the propaganda machinery was going into "overdrive...to protect [Xi Jinping's] reputation", citizens were permitted to criticise local officials so long as they did not "question the basic legitimacy of the party".[295] The Cyberspace Administration (CAC) declared its intent to foster an "good online atmosphere," with CAC notices sent to video platforms encouraging them to "not to push any negative story, and not to conduct non-official livestreaming on the virus."[296] Censorship has been observed being applied on news articles and social media posts deemed to hold negative tones about the coronavirus and the governmental response, including posts mocking Xi Jinping for not visiting areas of the epidemic,[297] an article that predicted negative effects of the epidemic on the economy, and calls to remove local government officials.[278][298][299][285] Chinese citizens have reportedly used innovative methods to avoid censorship to express anger about how government officials have handled the initial outbreak response, such as using the word 'Trump' to refer to Xi Jinping, or 'Chernobyl' to refer to the outbreak as a whole.[284] While censorship had been briefly relaxed giving a "window of about two weeks in which Chinese journalists were able to publish hard-hitting stories exposing the mishandling of the novel coronavirus by officials", since then private news outlets were reportedly required to use "planned and controlled publicity" with the authorities' consent.[300][284][285]

On 30 January, China's Supreme Court, delivered a rare rebuke against the country's police forces, calling the "unreasonably harsh crackdown on online rumours" as undermining public trust. In what has been called a "highly unusual criticism" by observers, supreme court judge Tang Xinghua said that if police had been lenient against rumours and allowed the public to have taken heed of them, an earlier adoption of "measures like wearing masks, strictly disinfecting and avoiding wildlife markets" might have been useful in countering the spread of the epidemic.[301] The Human Rights Watch reported that "there is considerable misinformation on Chinese social media and authorities have legitimate reasons to counter false information that can cause public panic," but also noted censorship by the authorities on social media posted by families of infected people who were potentially seeking help as well as by people living in cordoned cities who were documenting their daily lives amidst the lockdown.[302]

After the death of Li Wenliang, who was widely hailed as a whistleblower in China on 7 February, some of the trending hashtags on Weibo such as "Wuhan government owes Dr Li Wenliang an apology" and "We want freedom of speech" were blocked.[303][304][285] While media outlets were allowed to report his death, the nature of the doctor's censorship which produced widespread public anger in the aftermath, in what has been described as "one of the biggest outpourings of online criticism of the government in years," was not a topic that was permitted for coverage.[305] One such media outlet even sending notices to editors, and leaked to reporters, asking them to refrain from "commenting or speculating" and giving instructions to "not hashtag and let the topic gradually die out from the hot search list, and guard against harmful information."[306] After attempts to discourage the discussion on Dr. Li's death further escalated online anger, the central government has reportedly attempted to reshape the narrative by "cast[ing] Dr. Li's death as the nation's sacrifice – meaning, the Chinese Communist Party's own".[307] A group of Chinese academics including Xu Zhangrun of Tsinghua University signed an open letter calling for the central government to issue an apology to Dr. Li and to protect freedom of speech.[308] Professor Zhou Lian of Renmin University has observed that the epidemic has "allowed more people to see the institutional factors behind the outbreak and the importance of freedom of speech".[309]

International responses

Countries/regions with imposed travel restrictions in response as of 9 February 2020. These include entry bans on Chinese citizens or recent visitors to China, halted issuing of visas to Chinese citizens or reimposed visa requirements on Chinese citizens and also countries that have responded with border closures with China.
Announcement on a television screen at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, advising students not to travel to China

Since 31 December 2019, some regions and countries near China tightened their screening of selected travellers.[146] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States later issued a Level 1 travel watch.[310][311] Guidances and risk assessments were shortly posted by others including the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and Public Health England.[312] In China, airports, railway stations and coach stations installed infrared thermometers. Travellers with a measured fever are taken to medical institutions after being registered and given masks.[313] Real time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) test was used to confirm new cases of coronavirus infection.[314]

An analysis of air travel patterns was used to map out and predict patterns of spread and was published in the Journal of Travel Medicine in mid-January 2020. Based on information from the International Air Transport Association (2018), Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Taipei had the largest volume of travellers from Wuhan. Dubai, Sydney and Melbourne were also reported as popular destinations for people travelling from Wuhan. Using the validated tool, the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index (IDVI), to assess the ability to manage a disease threat, Bali was reported as least able in preparedness, while cities in Australia were considered most able.[315][316]

As a result of the outbreak many countries including most of the Schengen area,[317] Armenia,[318] Australia,[319] India,[320] Iraq,[321][322] Indonesia,[323] Kazakhstan,[324] Kuwait,[325] Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan,[326] Vietnam,[327] and the United States[328] have imposed temporary entry bans on Chinese citizens or recent visitors to China, or have ceased issuing visas and reimposed visa requirements on Chinese citizens.[329] Samoa even started refusing entry to its own citizens who had previously been to China, attracting widespread condemnation over the legality of such decision.[330][331]

In Asia, Hong Kong, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Russia, and Vietnam have also responded with border tightening/closures with mainland China.[332] On 22 January 2020, North Korea closed its borders to international tourists to prevent the spread of the virus into the country. Chinese visitors make up the bulk of foreign tourists to North Korea.[333]

Also on 22 January, the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) announced that it would be moving the matches in the third round of the 2020 AFC Women's Olympic Qualifying Tournament from Wuhan to Nanjing, affecting the women's national team squads from Australia, China PR, Chinese Taipei, and Thailand.[334] A few days later, the AFC announced that together with Football Federation Australia they would be moving the matches to Sydney.[335] The Asia-Pacific Olympic boxing qualifiers, which were originally set to be held in Wuhan from 3–14 February, were also cancelled and moved to Amman, Jordan to be held between 3–11 March.[336][337]

On 27 January 2020, the United States CDC issued updated travel guidance for China, recommending that travellers avoid all nonessential travel to all of the country. The CDC has directed US Customs and Border Protection to check individuals for symptoms of the coronavirus.[3]

On 29 January 2020, British Airways, Lufthansa, Lion Air, and Air Seoul cancelled all their flights to mainland China in reaction to the spread of the virus.[338][339][340] The same day, the Czech Republic stopped issuing Schengen visas to Chinese citizens.[341]

On 30 January 2020, Belgium, Greece and Italy closed all Schengen Visa application centres in China.[342][343][344] The same day, Egyptair announced suspension of flights between Egypt and Hangzhou starting 1 February 2020 while those to Beijing and Guangzhou will be suspended starting 4 February 2020 until further notice.[345]

On 31 January 2020, Italy suspended all passenger air traffic to Italy from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Italian Civil Aviation Authority NOTAM says that effective 31 January, all passenger flights from China, including the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, and Taiwan are suspended until further notice, on request of the Italian health authorities. Aircraft that were flying to Italy when the NOTAM was published, were cleared to land.[344][346]

As of 1 February 2020, France was the only remaining Schengen country still issuing visas to Chinese citizens.[317]

Qatar Airways took the decision to suspend flights to mainland China from 3 February until further notice, due to significant operational challenges caused by entry restrictions imposed by several countries.[347] Qatar Airways is the first carrier in the Middle East to do so. An ongoing review of operations will be conducted weekly with the intention to reinstate flights as soon as the restrictions are lifted.[347]

Though some of the airlines cancelled flights to Hong Kong as well, British Airways, Finnair and Lufthansa have not, and American Airlines continues operating a limited service to the area. Hong Kong's four airlines halved the flights to mainland China.[348] A large number of airlines have reduced or cancelled flights to and from China.[349] On 31 January 2020, the United States declared the virus a public health emergency. Starting 2 February, all inbound passengers who have been to Hubei in the previous 14 days will be put under quarantine for up to 14 days. Any US citizen who has travelled to the rest of mainland China will be allowed to continue their travel home if they are asymptomatic, but will be monitored by local health departments.[350]

On 2 February 2020, India issued a travel advisory that warned all people residing in India to not travel to China, suspended E-visas from China, and further stated anyone who has travelled to China starting 15 January (to an indefinite point in the future) could be quarantined.[351] New Zealand announced that it will deny entry to all travellers from China and that it will order its citizens to self-isolate for 14 days if they are returning from China.[352] Indonesia and Iraq followed by also banning all travellers that visited China within the past 14 days.[352]

On 3 February 2020, Indonesia announced it would ban passenger flights and also sea freight from and to China starting on 5 February and until further notice. Live animal imports and other products were banned as well. Minister of Trade Agus Suparmanto "We will obviously stop live animals imports from China and are still considering banning other products"[353][354][355] Turkey announced it would suspend all flights from China till the end of February and begin scanning passengers coming from South Asian countries at airports.[356][357]

Australia released its Australian Health Sector Emergency Response Plan for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in 7 February 2020. It states that, although much is yet to be known about COVID-19, "Australia has taken a precautionary approach in line with preparedness and response guidance for a pandemic, working collaboratively with state and territory and whole of government partners to implement strategies to minimise disease transmission through strong border measures and widespread communication activities."[358]

Evacuation of foreign citizens

Owing to the effective lockdown of public transport in Wuhan and Hubei, several countries have planned to evacuate their citizens and diplomatic staff from the area, primarily through chartered flights of the home nation that have been provided clearance by Chinese authorities. Canada, the United States, Japan, India, France, Australia, Sri Lanka, Germany and Thailand were among the first to plan the evacuation of their citizens.[359] Pakistan has said that it will not be evacuating any citizens from China.[360] On 7 February, Brazil evacuated 34 Brazilians or family members in addition to four Poles, a Chinese and an Indian citizen. The citizens of Poland, China and India got off the plane in Poland, where the Brazilian plane made a stopover before following its route to Brazil. Brazilian citizens who went to Brazil were quarantined at a military base near Brasilia.[361][362][363] On 7 February 215 Canadians (176 from the first plane, and 39 from a second plane chartered by the U.S. government) were evacuated from Wuhan, China, to CFB Trenton to be quarantined for two weeks. On 11 February, another plane of Canadians (185) from Wuhan landed at CFB Trenton. Australian authorities evacuated 277 citizens on 3 and 4 February to the Christmas Island Detention Centre which had been "repurposed" as a quarantine facility, where they remained for 14 days.[364][365][366] United States announced that it will evacuate Americans currently aboard the cruise ship Diamond Princess.[367] On 21 February, a plane carrying 129 Canadian passengers evacuated from the Diamond Princess landed in Trenton, Ontario.[368]

International aid

On 5 February, the Chinese foreign ministry stated that 21 countries (including Belarus, Pakistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Egypt, and Iran) had sent aid to China.[369]

Digital billboard conveying support with the words "Be Strong China" in various languages at Shibuya in Tokyo, Japan on 10 February.

The United States city of Pittsburgh announced plans to promptly send aid to Wuhan, with mayor Bill Peduto stating that "Our office has reached out to the mayor of Wuhan, which is our sister city" and promising that "over the next two days we should be able to have a care package that has been put together." He speculated that the contents of such a package will be coordinated with the consultation of medical experts, but that it will likely consist of "face masks, rubber gloves and other material that could be hard to find in the future".[370] Additionally, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) announced plans to provide help, with UPMC spokesman Paul Wood stating that "UPMC has a significant presence in China and has been in contact with our partners there", also declaring that "we stand ready to assist them and others in China with their unmet humanitarian needs."[371] Some Chinese students at other American universities have also joined together to help send aid to virus-stricken parts of China, with a joint group in the Greater Chicago Area reportedly managing to send 50,000 N95 masks and 1,500 protection suits to hospitals in the Hubei province on 30 January.[372]

The humanitarian aid organisation Direct Relief, in co-ordination with FedEx transportation and logistics support, sent 200,000 face masks along with other personal protective equipment, including gloves and gowns, by emergency airlift to arrive in Wuhan Union Hospital, who requested the supplies by 30 January.[373] The Gates Foundation stated on 26 January that it would donate US$5 million in aid to support the response in China that will be aimed at assisting "emergency funds and corresponding technical support to help front-line responders".[374] On 5 February, Bill and Melinda further announced a $100 million donation to the World Health Organization, who made an appeal for funding contributions to the international community the same day. The donation will be used to fund vaccine research and treatment efforts along with protecting "at-risk populations in Africa and South Asia."[375]

Japan, in the process of co-ordinating a plane flight to Wuhan to pick up Japanese nationals in the city, has promised that the plane will first carry into Wuhan aid supplies that Japanese foreign minister Toshimitsu Motegi stated will consist of "masks and protective suits for Chinese people as well as for Japanese nationals".[376] On 26 January, the plane arrived in Wuhan, donating its supply of one million face masks to the city.[377] Also among the aid supplies were 20,000 protective suits for medical staff across Hubei donated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.[378]

Support efforts have sprung across Japan to help aid residents in Wuhan. On 27 January, the city of Ōita, a sister city to Wuhan for 40 years, sent 30,000 masks from its own disaster relief stockpile to its sister city through the Red Cross network with boxes labelled "Wuhan Jiayou!", meaning "Hang in there, Wuhan!" in Chinese. Its International Affairs Office division head, Soichiro Hayashi, said that "The people of Wuhan are like family" and expressed hopes that "people can return to their ordinary lives as quickly as possible".

Tehran's Azadi Tower lights in colours of China flag in support of them against coronavirus.

On 28 January, the city of Mito donated 50,000 masks to its sister-city of Chongqing, and on 6 February, the city of Okayama sent 22,000 masks to Luoyang, its own sister-city. The ruling Liberal Democratic Party on 10 February made a symbolic deduction of 5,000 yen from the March salary of every LDP parliamentarian, a total of 2 million yen, to donate to China, with the party's secretary-general, Toshihiro Nikai, stating that "For Japan, when it sees a virus outbreak in China, it is like seeing a relative or neighbour suffering. Japanese people are willing to help China and hope the outbreak will pass as soon as possible."[379]

Peace Winds Japan has declared it will send a staff member to China to help distribute the face masks and other goods that the NGO will send to the country.[378]

A number of other countries have also announced aid efforts. Malaysia announced a donation of 18 million medical gloves to China,[380] The Philippine Red Cross also donated $1.4 million worth of Philippine-made face masks, which were shipped to Wuhan.[381] Turkey dispatched medical equipment,[382] and Germany delivered various medical supplies including 10,000 Hazmat suits.[383] On 19 February, Singapore Red Cross announced that they will send $2.26 million worth of aid to China, which they declared would consist of "purchasing and distributing protective equipment like surgical masks for hospital staff and other healthcare workers." It will also be used to "buy and distribute hygiene items and conduct health education in seven welfare homes in Tianjin and Nanning."[384]

Speciality hospitals

Jinyintan Hospital had initially been tasked with treating those with the coronavirus.
Construction site of Huoshenshan Hospital as it appeared on 24 January.

A speciality hospital named Huoshenshan Hospital has been constructed as a countermeasure against the outbreak and to better quarantine the patients. Wuhan City government had demanded that a state-owned enterprise construct such a hospital "at the fastest speed" comparable to that of the SARS outbreak in 2003.[385] On 24 January, Wuhan authorities specified its planning, saying they planned to have Huoshenshan Hospital built within six days of the announcement and it will be ready to use on 3 February. Upon opening, the speciality hospital has 1,000 beds[386] and takes up 30,000 square metres. The hospital is modelled after the Xiaotangshan Hospital [zh], which was fabricated for the SARS outbreak of 2003, itself built in only seven days.[387][388] State media reported that there were 7,000 workers and nearly 300 units of construction machinery on the site at peak.[389]

On 25 January authorities announced plans for Leishenshan Hospital, a second speciality hospital, with a capacity of 1,600 beds;[390] operations are scheduled to start by 6 February.[391][392] Some people voiced their concerns through social media services, saying the authorities' decision to build yet another hospital in such little time showed the severity of the outbreak could be a lot worse than expected.[393]

On 24 January 2020, the authority announced that they would convert an empty building in Huangzhou District, Huanggang to a 1,000-bed hospital named Dabie Mountain Regional Medical Centre. Works began the next day by 500 personnel and the building began accepting patients on 28 January 2020 at 10:30 pm.[394]

In Wuhan, authorities have seized dormitories, offices and hospitals to create more beds for patients.[395]

Reactions to public health responses

WHO response measures

The World Health Organization (WHO) has commended the efforts of Chinese authorities in managing and containing the epidemic, with Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus expressing "confidence in China's approach to controlling the epidemic" and calling for the public to "remain calm".[396] The WHO noted the contrast between the 2003 epidemic, where Chinese authorities were accused of secrecy that impeded prevention and containment efforts, and the current crisis where the central government "has provided regular updates to avoid panic ahead of Lunar New Year holidays".[397]

The WHO and Chinese authorities have also received criticism for their delayed reporting and handling of the epidemic, leading to scrutiny of the relationship between the two entities amid allegations of a cover-up. The WHO relies upon data provided and filtered by member states, with China have a "historical aversion to transparency and sensitivity to international criticism".[398] John Mackenzie of the WHO's emergency committee and Anne Schuchat of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the Unites States suggested that China's official tally of cases and deaths was an underestimation. Others noted that China lumped Taiwan with the semi-autonomous regions of Hong Kong and Macao when reporting outbreak data, resulting in Taiwan receiving the same WHO "very high" risk rating as the mainland despite only a small number of cases on the self-governing island.[399] Insiders at the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention complained that China would not agree to on-site visits, while it took two weeks for Chinese authorities to approve an international mission team led by Dr. Bruce Aylward but the team composition and scope of work was still yet to be determined.[400] Taiwan, which has long been excluded from the WHO for refusing to adhere to the "One China" policy, was only granted participation for this outbreak after "lobbying by countries including the U.S."[401] A United Nations diplomat who spoke on the condition of anonymity said that the "World Health Organization is so much in thrall to China's influence, they have felt compelled to stay close to China's line on this crisis...to downplay this virus...until its position became untenable".[275][5][398]

In response to the criticisms, Tedros stated that China "doesn't need to be asked to be praised. China has done many good things to slow down the virus. The whole world can judge. There is no spinning here." Some attacked Tedros for his apparent appeasement to avoid "antagoniz[ing] the notoriously touchy Chinese government even though it is clear the country has been less than fully transparent about the outbreak's early stages, and perhaps still is". Others including Dr. David Nabarro have defended this strategy in order "to ensure Beijing's co-operation in mounting an effective global response to the outbreak".[402]

In reaction to the central authorities' decision to implement a transportation ban in Wuhan, WHO representative Gauden Galea remarked that while it was "certainly not a recommendation the WHO has made", it was also "a very important indication of the commitment to contain the epidemic in the place where it is most concentrated" and called it "unprecedented in public health history".[397] Unlike the recommendations of other agencies,[148] Tedros stated that "there is no reason for measures that unnecessarily interfere with international travel and trade" and that "WHO doesn't recommend limiting trade and movement".[403]

On 30 January 2020, following confirmation of human-to-human transmission outside China and the increase in number of cases in other countries, the WHO declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), the sixth PHEIC since the measure was first invoked during the 2009 swine flu pandemic. Tedros clarified that the PHEIC, in this case, was "not a vote of no confidence in China", but because of the risk of global spread, especially to low- and middle-income countries without robust health systems.[404][405]

On 5 February, the WHO appealed to the global community for a $675 million contribution to fund strategic preparedness in low-income countries, citing the urgency to develop those countries which "do not have the systems in place to detect people who have contracted the virus, even if it were to emerge." Tedros further made statements declaring that "We are only as strong as our weakest link" and urged the international community to "invest today or pay more later."[406][407]

On 11 February, the WHO in a press conference established COVID-19 as the name of the disease. In a further statement on the same day, Tedros stated that he had briefed with UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres who agreed to provide the "power of the entire UN system in the response." A UN Crisis Management Team was activated as a result, allowing co-ordination of the entire United Nations response, which the WHO states will allow them to "focus on the health response while the other agencies can bring their expertise to bear on the wider social, economic and developmental implications of the outbreak"[408]

On 14 February, a WHO-led Joint Mission Team with China was activated to provide international and WHO experts to touch ground in China to assist in the domestic management and evaluate "the severity and the transmissibility of the disease" by hosting workshops and meetings with key national-level institutions to conduct field visits to assess the "impact of response activities at provincial and county levels, including urban and rural settings."[409]

On 25 February, the WHO declared that "the world should do more to prepare for a possible coronavirus pandemic," stating that while it was still too early to call it a pandemic, countries should nonetheless be "in a phase of preparedness."[410]

International reactions

On 29 January, US president Donald Trump received a briefing on the coronavirus in China.

China's response to the virus, in comparison to the 2003 SARS outbreak, has been praised by some foreign leaders.[411] US president Donald Trump thanked Chinese President Xi Jinping "on behalf of the American People" on 24 January 2020 on Twitter, stating that "China has been working very hard to contain the Coronavirus. The United States greatly appreciates their efforts and transparency" and declaring that "It will all work out well."[412] Germany's health minister Jens Spahn, in an interview on Bloomberg TV, said with comparison to the Chinese response to SARS in 2003: "There's a big difference to SARS. We have a much more transparent China. The action of China is much more effective in the first days already." He also praised the international co-operation and communication in dealing with the virus.[413][414] In a letter to Xi, Singapore President Halimah Yacob applauded China's "swift, decisive and comprehensive measures" in safeguarding the health of the Chinese people, while Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong remarked of "China's firm and decisive response" in communities affected by the virus.[415] Similar sentiments were expressed by Russian President Vladimir Putin.[416]

At a Sunday mass at St. Peter's Square in Vatican City on 26 January 2020, Pope Francis praised "the great commitment by the Chinese community that has already been put in place to combat the epidemic" and commenced a closing prayer for "the people who are sick because of the virus that has spread through China".[417]

Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte and the Italian task force to face the coronavirus outbreak

On 22 February, the Italian Council of Ministers announced a new decree law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people from 11 different municipalities in Northern Italy.[418] Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said "In the outbreak areas, entry and exit will not be provided. Suspension of work activities and sport events has already been ordered in those areas."[419][420] Punishments for violating of the lockdown range from a fine of 206 euros to 3 months imprisonment.[421] Italian military and law enforcement agencies were instructed to secure and implement the lockdown.[422]

Criticism of responses

Hubei and Wuhan government

Local officials in Wuhan and the province of Hubei have faced criticism, both domestically and internationally, for mishandling the initial outbreak.[423] Allegations included insufficient medical supplies, lack of transparency to the press and censorship of social media during the initial weeks of the outbreak.[424][425] On 1 January 2020, the Wuhan police interviewed eight residents for "spreading false information" (characterising the new infection as SARS-like).[426][195] The Wuhan police had originally stated through a post on its official Weibo account that "eight people had been dealt with according to the law",[427][428] later clarifying through Weibo that they had only given out "education and criticism" and refrained from harsher punishments such as "warnings, fines, or detention".[278] One of the eight, a doctor named Li Wenliang who informed his former medical school classmates of the coronavirus in a WeChat group after examining a patient's medical report with symptoms of the illness, was warned by the police on 3 January for "making untrue comments" that had "severely disturbed the social order" and made to sign a statement of acknowledgment.[429][430][431] It was reported on 7 February 2020 Li had died after contracting the disease from a patient in January 2020.[432] His death triggered grief and anger on the social media, which became extended to demands for freedom of speech in China.[433][434] China's anti-corruption body, the National Supervisory Commission, has initiated an investigation into the issues involving Li.[435]

Local officials were criticised for hiding evidence of human-to-human transmission in early January, and suppressing reports about the disease during People's Congress meetings for political reasons.[436] Criticism was directed at Hubei Governor Wang Xiaodong after he twice claimed at a press conference that 10.8 billion face masks were produced each year in the province, rather than the accurate number of 1.8 million.[437]

Wuhan Police detained several Hong Kong media correspondents for over an hour when they were conducting interviews at Wuhan's Jinyintan Hospital on 14 January. Reports said the police brought the correspondents to a police station, where the police checked their travel documents and belongings, then asked them to delete video footage taken in the hospital before releasing them.[438][439]

Authorities in Wuhan and Hubei provinces have been criticised for downplaying the severity of the outbreak and responding more slowly than they could have. The Beijing-based media journal, Caixin noted that Hubei did not roll out the first level of "public health emergency response mechanism" until 24 January, while several other provinces and cities outside the centre of the outbreak have already done so the day before.[440] John Mackenzie, a senior expert at WHO, accused them of keeping "the figures quiet for a while because of some major meeting they had in Wuhan", alleging that there was a "period of very poor reporting, or very poor communication" in early January.[441]

On 19 January, four days before the city's lockdown, a wan jia yan (Chinese: 万家宴; literally: 'ten-thousand family banquet') was held in Wuhan, with over 40,000 families turning out; this attracted retrospective criticism. The domestic The Beijing News argued that the local authorities should not have held such a public assembly while attempting to control the outbreak. The paper also stated that when their journalists visited the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market where the coronavirus likely originated, most residents and merchants there were not wearing face masks.[442] Zhou Xianwang, the mayor of Wuhan, later spoke to China Central Television, explaining that the banquet was held annually, that it is a "sample of the people's self-autonomy", and that the decision was made based on the fact that scientists then wrongly believed that the virus's ability to spread between humans was limited.[443][444] Meanwhile, on 20 January, Wuhan's municipal department for culture and tourism gave out 200,000 tickets valid for visiting all tourist attractions in Wuhan to its citizens for free. The department was later criticised for disregarding the outbreak.[442]

Tang Zhihong, the chief of the health department in Huanggang, was fired hours after she was unable to answer questions on how many people in her city were being treated.[301]

Central government of China

In contrast to the widespread criticism of the local response, the central government has been praised by international experts and state media for its handling of the crisis.[445][446] This has led to suggestions, in particular by the international media, that it is an attempt by the official press to shift public anger away from the central government and towards local authorities.[447] It has been noted historically that the tendency of provincial governments to minimise reporting local incidents have been because of the central government directing a large proportion of the blame onto them.[448] Critics, such as Wu Qiang, a former professor at Tsinghua University, and Steve Tsang, director of the China Institute at the University of London, have further argued the same point, with the latter suggesting that it was also exacerbated through local officials being "apprehensive about taking sensible preventive measures without knowing what Xi and other top leaders wanted as they feared that any missteps would have serious political consequences", a sentiment that Tsang argued was difficult to avoid when "power is concentrated in the hands of one top leader who is punitive to those who make mistakes".[449][450][447]

Wuhan mayor Zhou Xianwang defended himself, referring to those suggestions by publicly blaming regulatory requirements that require local governments to first seek Beijing's approval, which delayed disclosure of the epidemic. He stated in an interview that "as a local government, we may disclose information only after we are given permission to do so. That is something that many people do not understand."[451][452] The Chinese government has also been accused of rejecting help from the CDC and the WHO.[453]

Japanese government

The Japanese government has been criticised for its quarantine measures on the cruise Diamond Princess after the ship proved a fertile breeding ground for the virus.[454][455] Kentaro Iwata, a infectious disease professor at Kobe University Hospital, said that the condition aboard was "completely chaotic" and "violating all infection control principles".[456] A preliminary report by Japan's National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) estimated that most of the transmission on the ship had occurred before the quarantine, although it was based on the first 184 cases.[457]

On 22 February, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare admitted that 23 passengers were disembarked without being properly tested for the virus.[458] On 23 February, a Japanese woman who tested negative before disembarking from the cruise ship later tested positive after returning to her home in Tochigi Prefecture.[459] However, she was not among the 23 passengers.[460]

South Korean government

The Ministry of Health and Welfare has been critized for unilaterally implementing telephone consultation and prescription without discussing with the Korea Medical Association, and for not restricting traffic from China despite several warnings from the association and a petition proposed by the society.[461][462]

On 22 February, the South Korean government apologised for calling the virus "Daegu Corona 19" in an offical report. The term has been widespread on social medias and rises concerns about discrimination.[463]

Iranian Government

Despite an announcement by Iran's vice president on 31 January of the Iran's willingness to stop flights from China, reports on the 24th of February indicated that Mahan Airline, a company related to the IRGC, has kept operating its flights between China, Iran and Turkey.[464]

Iranians have criticized the regime for proceeding with elections while the disease was spreading and closing secular spaces while keeping shrines open, especially in the Shia holy city of Qom.[465] Others, including Qom MP Ahmad Amirabadi Farahani, have claimed the number of infections and deaths have been understated.[465]

Misinformation

After the initial outbreak, conspiracy theories and misinformation spread online regarding the origin and scale of the Wuhan coronavirus.[466] Various social media posts claimed the virus was a bio-weapon, a population control scheme, or the result of a spy operation.[467][468][469] Google, Facebook, and Twitter announced they will crack down on possible misinformation.[470] In a blogpost, Facebook stated they would remove content flagged by leading global health organisations and local authorities that violate its content policy on misinformation leading to "physical harm".[471]

On 2 February, the WHO declared there was a "massive infodemic" accompanying the outbreak and response, citing an over-abundance of reported information, accurate and false, about the virus that "makes it hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it." The WHO stated that the high demand for timely and trustworthy information has incentivised the creation of a direct WHO 24/7 myth-busting hotline where its communication and social media teams have been monitoring and responding to misinformation through its website and social media pages.[19][472] A group of scientists from outside China have released a statement to "strongly condemn" rumours and conspiracy theories about the origin of outbreak.[473]

On 22 February, US officials said that Russia is behind disinformation campaign, using thousands of social media accounts to deliberately promote unfounded conspiracy theories, claiming that "the virus is a biological weapon manufactured by the CIA" and US is "waging economic war on China" using the virus.[474] The acting assistant secretary of state for Europe and Eurasia, Philip Reeker, said that "Russia’s intent is to sow discord and undermine US institutions and alliances from within" and "by spreading disinformation about coronavirus, Russian malign actors are once again choosing to threaten public safety by distracting from the global health response".[474] Russia denies the allegation, "this is a deliberately false story".[475]

Xenophobia and racism

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, heightened prejudice, xenophobia and racism against peoples of Chinese and East Asian descent has arisen as a result, with incidents of fear, suspicion and hostility being noted across various countries.[476][477][20][478] Although there has been support from Chinese both on and offline towards those in virus-stricken areas,[479][480][481][482] many residents of Wuhan and Hubei have reported experiencing discrimination based on their regional origin.[483][484][485]

On 30 January, WHO's Emergency Committee issued a statement advising all countries to be mindful of the "principles of Article 3 of the IHR," which cautions against "actions that promote stigma or discrimination," when conducting national response measures to the outbreak.[404]

Open access science

Due to the urgency of the epidemic, many scientific publishers have made scientific papers related to the outbreak open access.[486] Some scientists have chosen to share their results quickly on preprint servers such as BioRxiv,[487] while archivists have created an illegal open access database of over 5,000 papers.[488]

Socio-economic impact

The epidemic coincided with the Chunyun, a major travel season associated with the Chinese New Year holiday. A number of events involving large crowds were cancelled by national and regional governments, including annual New Year festivals, with private companies also independently closing their shops and tourist attractions such as Hong Kong Disneyland and Shanghai Disneyland.[489][490] Many Lunar New Year events and tourist attractions have been closed to prevent mass gatherings, including the Forbidden City in Beijing and traditional temple fairs.[491] In 24 of China's 31 provinces, municipalities and regions, authorities extended the New Year's holiday to 10 February, instructing most workplaces not to re-open until that date.[492][493] These regions represented 80% of the country's GDP and 90% of exports.[493] Hong Kong raised its infectious disease response level to the highest and declared an emergency, closing schools until March and cancelling its New Year celebrations.[494][495]

As Mainland China is a major economy and a manufacturing hub, the viral outbreak has been seen to pose a major destabilising threat to the global economy. Agathe Demarais of the Economist Intelligence Unit has forecast that markets will remain volatile until a clearer image emerges on potential outcomes. Some analysts have estimated that the economic fallout of the epidemic on global growth could surpass that of the SARS outbreak.[496] Dr. Panos Kouvelis, director of "The Boeing Center" at Washington University in St. Louis, estimates a $300+ billion impact on world's supply chain that could last up to two years.[497] Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries reportedly "scrambled" after a steep decline in oil prices due to lower demand from China.[498] Global stock markets fell on 24 February 2020 due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside Mainland China.[499][500]

The demand for personal protection equipment has risen 100-fold, according to WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom. This demand has lead to the increase in prices of up to twenty times the normal price and also induced delays on the supply of medical items for four to six months.[501][502]

Asia

East Asia

Mainland China

Morgan Stanley expects the economy of China to grow by between 5.6% (worst case scenario) to 5.9% for 2020.[503] Though cautioning that the economic impact would be short-term, NDRC Party Secretary Cong Liang views small and medium businesses encountering more difficulties in their operations. Human Resources and Social Security Assistant Minister You Jun specified that agricultural workers and college graduates would have difficulties.[504]

Animated map showing confirmed 2019-nCoV cases spreading from 22 January. (high resolution)

Tourism in China has been hit hard by travel restrictions and fears of contagion, including a ban on both domestic and international tour groups.[505] Many airlines have either cancelled or greatly reduced flights to China and several travel advisories now warn against travel to China. Many countries, including France, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, have evacuated their nationals from the Wuhan and Hubei provinces.[506]

The majority of schools and universities have extended their annual holidays to mid-February.[507] Overseas students enrolled at Chinese universities have been returning home over fears of being infected—the first cases to be reported by Nepal and Kerala, a southern state of India, were both of students who had returned home.[508][508][509]

The Finance Ministry of China announced it would fully subsidise personal medical cost incurred by patients.[510]

CNN reported that some people from Wuhan "have become outcasts in their own country, shunned by hotels, neighbors and – in some areas – placed under controversial quarantine measures."[511]

The sale of new cars in China has been impacted due to the outbreak. There was a 92% reduction on the volume of cars sold during the first two weeks of February 2020.[512]

On 24 February, China's Standing Committee declared an "immediate and "comprehensive" ban on its $74 billion USD wildlife trade industry, citing the "prominent problem of excessive consumption of wild animals, and the huge hidden dangers to public health and safety" that has been revealed by the outbreak. This permanently extends the temporary ban already in place since the end of January.[513][514]

Japan
Shelves in a pharmacy in Japan sold out of masks on 3 February 2020

Prime Minister Shinzō Abe has said that "the new coronavirus is having a major impact on tourism, the economy and our society as a whole".[515][516] Face masks have sold out across the nation and stocks of face masks are depleted within a day of new arrivals.[517] There has been pressure placed on the healthcare system as demands for medical checkups increase.[518] Chinese people have reported increasing discrimination.[519] The health minister has pointed out that the situation has not reached a point where mass gatherings must be called off.[520]

Aviation, retail and tourism sectors have reported decreased sales and some manufactures have complained about disruption to Chinese factories, logistics and supply chains.[521] Prime Minister Abe has considered using emergency funds to mitigate the outbreak's impact on tourism, of which Chinese nationals account for 40%.[522] S&P Global noted that the worst hit shares were from companies spanning travel, cosmetics and retail sectors which are most exposed to Chinese tourism.[523] Nintendo announced that they would delay shipment of the Nintendo Switch, which is manufactured in China, to Japan.[524]

The outbreak itself has been a concern for the 2020 Summer Olympics which is scheduled to take place in Tokyo starting at the end of July. The national government has thus been taking extra precautions to help minimise the outbreak's impact.[525][526] The Tokyo organising committee and the International Olympic Committee have been monitoring the outbreak's impact in Japan.[525]

Hong Kong

Hong Kong has seen high-profile protests that saw tourist arrivals from Mainland China plummet over an eight-month period. The viral epidemic put additional pressure on the travel sector to withstand a prolonged period of downturn.[527] A drop in arrivals from third countries more resilient during the previous months has also been cited as a concern.[506] The city is already in recession[527] and Moody has lowered the city's credit rating.[528][529] The worst economic effects from the outbreak are expected for Australia, Hong Kong and China.[530]

There has also been a renewed increase in protest activity as hostile sentiment against Mainland Chinese strengthened over fears of viral transmission from Mainland China, with many calling for the border ports to be closed and for all Mainland Chinese travellers to be refused entry. Incidents have included a number of petrol bombs being thrown at police stations,[531] a homemade bomb exploding in a toilet,[532] and foreign objects being thrown onto transit rail tracks between Hong Kong and the Mainland Chinese border.[533] Political issues raised have included concerns that Mainland Chinese may prefer to travel to Hong Kong to seek free medical help (which has since been addressed by the Hong Kong government).[534][535]

Since the outbreak of the virus, a significant number of products have been sold out across the city, including face masks and disinfectant products (such as alcohol and bleach).[536] An ongoing period of panic buying has also caused many stores to be cleared of non-medical products such as bottled water, vegetables and rice.[537] The Government of Hong Kong had its imports of face masks cancelled as global face mask stockpiles decline.[538]

In view of the coronavirus outbreak, the Education Bureau closed all kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools until 17 February.[539] This was later extended to 1 March due to further development of the epidemic.[540] The disruption has raised concerns over the situation of students who are due to take examinations at the end of the year, especially in light of the protest-related disruption that happened in 2019.[541]

On 5 February, flag carrier Cathay Pacific requested its 27,000 employees to voluntarily take three weeks of unpaid leave by the end of June. The airline had previously reduced flights to mainland China by 90% and to overall flights by 30%.[542]

Macau

On 4 February 2020, all casinos in Macau were ordered to shut down for 15 days.[543][544] All casinos reopened on 20 February 2020.[545]

South Korea

South Korea has been reporting increasing human-to-human community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 since 19 February 2020, traced to a church of Shincheonji, located near the city of Daegu. Apart from the city of Daegu and the church community involved, most of South Korea is operating close to normality, although nine planned festivals have been closed and tax-free retailers are closing.[546] South Korean military manpower agency made an announcement that conscription from the Daegu will temporarily be suspended.[547] The Daegu Office of Education decided to postpone the start of every school in the region by one week.[548]

Numerous educational institutes have temporarily shut down, including dozens of kindergartens in Daegu and several elementary schools in Seoul.[549] As of 18 February, most universities in South Korea had announced plans to postpone the start of the spring semester. This included 155 universities planning to delay the semester start by 2 weeks to 16 and 22 March universities planning to delay the semester start by 1 week to 9 March.[550] Also, on 23 February 2020, all kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools were announced to delay the semester start from 2 to 9 March.[551]

The economy of South Korea is forecast to grow 1.9%, which is down from 2.1%. The government has provided 136.7 billion won for local governments as support.[546] The government has also organised the procurement of masks and other hygiene equipment.[546]

Taiwan
Surgical masks used by people in Taiwan
Surgical masks and other medical equipments sold out in Taiwan

On 24 January, the Taiwanese government announced a temporary ban on the export of face masks for a month, to secure a supply of masks for its own citizens.[552][553] On 2 February 2020, Taiwan's Central Epidemic Command Center postponed the opening of primary and secondary schools until 25 February.[554][555] Taiwan has also announced a ban of cruise ships from entering all Taiwanese ports.[556] In January, Italy has banned flights from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. On 10 February, the Philippines announced it will ban the entry of Taiwanese citizens due to the One-China Policy.[557] Later on 14 February, Presidential Spokesperson of Philippines, Salvador Panelo, announced the lifting of the temporary ban on Taiwan.[558] In early February 2020 Taiwan's Central Epidemic Command Center requested the mobilisation of the Taiwanese Armed Forces to contain the spread of the virus and to build up the defences against it. Soldiers were dispatched to the factory floors of major mask manufacturers to help staff the 62 additional mask production lines being set up at the time.[559]

In the aviation industry, Taiwanese carrier China Airlines's direct flights to Rome have been rejected and cancelled since Italy has announced the ban on Taiwanese flights.[560] On the other hand, the second-largest Taiwanese carrier, Eva Air, has also postponed the launch of Milan and Phuket flights.[561] Both Taiwanese airlines have cut numerous cross-strait destinations, leaving just three Chinese cities still served.[562]

South Asia

In India, economists expect the near-term impact of the outbreak to be limited to the supply chains of major conglomerates, especially pharmaceuticals, fertilisers, automobiles, textiles and electronics. A severe impact on global trade logistics is also expected due to disruption of logistics in Mainland China, but due to the combined risk with regional geopolitical tensions, wider trade wars and Brexit.[563]

In Sri Lanka, research houses expect the economic impact to be limited to a short term impact on the tourism and transport sectors.[564]

Southeast Asia

Among Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries, the city-state of Singapore was forecast to be one of the worst hit countries by Maybank.[565] The tourism sector was considered to be an "immediate concern" along with the effects on production lines due to disruption to factories and logistics in mainland China.[566] Singapore has witnessed panic buying of essential groceries,[567] and of masks, thermometers and sanitation products despite being advised against doing so by the government.[568][569] Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong said that a recession in the country is a possibility, and that the country's economy "would definitely take a hit".[570]

Maybank economists rated Thailand as being most at risk, with the threat of the viral outbreak's impact on tourism causing the Thai baht to fall to a seven-month low.[571]

In Malaysia, economists predicted that the outbreak would affect the country's GDP, trade and investment flows, commodity prices and tourist arrivals.[572] Initially, the cycling race event Le Tour de Langkawi was rumoured to be cancelled, but the organiser stated that it would continue to be held as usual. Despite this, two cycling teams, the Hengxiang Cycling Team and the Giant Cycling Team, both from China, were pulled from participating in this race due to fear of the coronavirus outbreak.[573] As the outbreak situation has worsened, some of the upcoming concerts held in Kuala Lumpur, such as Kenny G, Jay Chou, The Wynners, Super Junior, Rockaway Festival and Miriam Yeung, were postponed to a future date, and the upcoming Seventeen concert was cancelled.[574]

In Indonesia, over 10,000 Chinese tourists cancelled trips and flights to major destinations such as Bali, Jakarta, Bandung, etc., over coronavirus fears. Many existing Chinese visitors are queuing up with the Indonesian authority appealing for extended stay.[575]

Prime Minister Hun Sen of Cambodia made a special visit to China with an aim to showcase Cambodia's support to China in fighting the outbreak of the epidemic.[576]

Europe

Civil Protection volunteers carrying out health checks at the Guglielmo Marconi Airport in Bologna

In the United Kingdom, digger manufacturer JCB announced that it plans to reduce working hours and production due to shortages in their supply chain caused by the outbreak.[577]

In Spain, a large number of exhibitors (including Chinese firms Huawei and Vivo) announced plans to pull out of or reduce their presence at Mobile World Congress, a wireless industry trade show in Barcelona, Spain, due to concerns over coronavirus.[578][579][580] On 12 February 2020, GSMA CEO John Hoffman announced that the event had been cancelled, as the concerns had made it "impossible" to host.[581]

In Germany, according to the Deutsche Bank the outbreak of the novel coronavirus may contribute to a recession in Germany.[582]

Owing to an increase in the demand for masks,[583] on 1 February most masks were sold out in Portuguese pharmacies.[584] On 4 February, President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa admitted that the epidemic of the new coronavirus in China "affects the economic activity of a very powerful economy and thus affects the world's economic activity or could affect". He also admitted the possibility of economic upheavals due to the break in production."[585]

Italy

On 21 February, at least ten towns in the Lombardy and Veneto regions of Italy, with a total population of 50,000, were locked down in quarantine procedure following an outbreak in the town of Codogno in Lombardy, with Italian police mandating a curfew closing all public buildings and controlling access through police checkpoints to the so-called 'red zone' which is enforced under penalty by fines against trespassers who are not health or supply workers.[586] Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte vowing that sending in the armed forces to enforce the lockdown was within possibility.[587] Schools and universities have been closed throughout Northern Italy along with museums, and various festivities, concerts, sporting events and church masses have been cancelled as of February 23.[588]

Sustained panic buying of groceries has reportedly cleared out supermarkets and several major events were cancelled such as the annual Carnival of Venice along with the cancellation of Serie A soccer matches on 23 February by the Sports Ministry.[589] Concerns about the Milan Fashion Week has led to several fashion houses declaring that they will only hold broadcast, closed door, shows with no spectators. As of 25 February 2020, there have been 288 confirmed coronavirus cases in Italy, with the country currently holding the third highest infection count in the world.[590][591]

Austria temporarily reintroduced border control for 4 hours to inspect an outgoing Italian train with two suspected cases of coronavirus, that ultimately turned out to be false alarms. The threat of Italy becoming another hotspot for the epidemic has led to discussions on a suspension of Schengen, although has rebuked those suggestions saying "There's no ground for an initiative of this kind, at the moment," who added that "a temporary reintroduction of border control will have a devastating impact on the country's economy." The EU Health Commission has also reiterated those sentiments, saying that "Right now, our advice does not include border controls."[592] Austria has issued a travel advisory for its citizens on visiting the affected regions in northern Italy on 24 February, which Greece's Education Ministry has cancelled all educational excursions the country.[593]

On 25 February, Austria and Croatia confirmed the first cases of coronavirus, all patients came from Italy.[594]

North America

United States

The viral outbreak was cited by many companies in their briefings to shareholders, but several maintained confidence that they would not be too adversely affected by short-term disruption due to "limited" exposure to the Chinese consumer market. Those with manufacturing lines in mainland China warned about possible exposure to supply shortages.[595]

Silicon Valley representatives expressed worries about serious disruption to production lines, as much of the technology sector relies on factories in Mainland China. Since there had been a scheduled holiday over Lunar New Year, the full effects of the outbreak on the tech sector were considered to be unknown as of 31 January 2020, according to The Wall Street Journal.[596]

Cities with high populations of Chinese residents have seen an increase in demand for face masks to protect against the virus;[597] many are purchasing masks to mail to relatives in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau, where there is a shortage of masks.[598]

As of February 2020, many stores in the United States had sold out of masks.[598] This mask shortage has caused an increase in prices.[599]

Universities in the United States have warned about a significant impact to their income due to the large number of Chinese international students potentially unable to attend classes.[600]

Oceania

Australia

Australia is expected to be one of three economies worst affected by the epidemic, along with Mainland China, and Hong Kong.[530] Early estimations have GDP contracting by 0.2% to 0.5%[601][602] and more than 20,000 Australian jobs being lost.[603] The Australian Treasurer, Josh Frydenberg said that the country would no longer be able to promise a budget surplus due to the outbreak.[604] The Australian dollar dropped to its lowest value since the Great Recession.[605]

The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine called for a calm and a fact-based response to the epidemic, asking people to avoid racism, "panic and division" and the spread of misinformation.[606] A large amount of protective face masks were purchased by foreign and domestic buyers, which has sparked a nationwide face masks shortage.[607] In response to price increases of nearly 2000%, the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia has called on these "unethical suppliers" to keep supplies affordable.[607]

Tourism bodies have suggested that the total economic cost to the sector, as of 11 February 2020, would be A$4.5bn. Casino earnings are expected to fall.[608] At least two localities in Australia, Cairns and the Gold Coast, have reported already lost earnings of more that $600 million.[609] The Australian Tourism Industry Council (ATIC) called on the Government of Australia for financial support especially in light of the large number of small businesses affected.[610]

Mining companies are thought to be highly exposed to the outbreak, since sales to China constitute 93% of the sales of Fortescue Metals, 55% of the sales of BHP, and 45% of the sales of Rio Tinto.[608] The iron ore shipping gauge dropped 99.9% as a result of the outbreak,[611] and the virus has made shipping and logistic operations of mining companies more complicated.[612]

Agriculture is also experiencing negative effects from the outbreak,[613] including the Australian dairy industry,[614] fishing industry,[615] wine producers,[616] and meat producers.[602] On 13 February 2020 Rabobank, which specialises in agricultural banking, warned that the agricultural sector had eight weeks for the coronavirus to be contained before facing major losses.[617]

The education sector is expected to suffer a US$5 billion loss according to an early government estimate,[618][619] including costs due to "tuition fee refunds, free deferral of study, realignment of teaching calendars and student accommodation costs."[620] The taxpayer is likely to be required to cover the shortfall in education budgets.[621] An estimated 100,000 students were not able to enroll at the start of the semester.[622] Nearly two-thirds of Chinese students were forced to remain overseas due to visa restrictions on travellers from Mainland China.[623] Salvatore Babones, associate professor at the University of Sydney, stated that "Australia will remain an attractive study destination for Chinese students, but it may take several years for Chinese student numbers to recover".[620]

South America

Brazil

Two Brazilian banks predicted the deceleration of economic growth in China. UBS has reviewed its estimations from 6% to 5.4%, while Itaú stated a reduction to 5.8%.[624]

A representative of some of the bigger Brazilian companies of the electronics sector, Eletros, stated that the current stock for the supply of components is enough for around 10 to 15 days.[624]

The prices of soy-beans, oil and iron ore have been falling. These three goods represent 30%, 24%, and 21% of the Brazilian exports to China, respectively.[624][625][626]

See also

References

  1. ^ 柳叶刀披露首例新冠肺炎患者发病日期,较官方通报早7天. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  2. ^ 《柳叶刀》刊文详解武汉肺炎 最初41案例即有人传人迹象. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Summary". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Tracking coronavirus: Map, data and timeline". BNO News. 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d "The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) - China, 2020" (PDF). China CDC Weekly. 2. 20 February 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2020 – via unpublished master.
  6. ^ a b c d Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team (17 February 2020). "[The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) in China]". Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi = Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi. 41 (2): 145–151. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.003. PMID 32064853.
  7. ^ "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases". gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com. Johns Hopkins CSSE. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  8. ^ "Coronavirus Update (Live):69,268 Cases and 1,665 Deaths from the Wuhan China Virus Outbreak – Worldometer". worldometers.info. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Deaths in China Surpass Toll From SARS". The New York Times. 9 February 2020. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization (WHO). 11 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  11. ^ "How COVID-19 Spreads". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. ^ a b "Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) | CDC". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 10 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  13. ^ "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  14. ^ a b c d "Prevention & Treatment". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  15. ^ "Advice for public". www.who.int. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Zhejiang province next to Shanghai adopts draconian quarantine measures". South China Morning Post. 6 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  17. ^ Marsh, Sarah (23 February 2020). "Coronavirus outbreak: four cruise ship passengers test positive in UK – live news". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  18. ^ 新型肺炎流行の中国、7億8000万人に「移動制限」. CNN Japan (in Japanese).
  19. ^ a b World Health Organization (2020). Novel Coronavirus (‎2019-nCoV)‎: situation report, 13 (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization. hdl:10665/330778.
  20. ^ a b Somvichian-Clausen, Austa (30 January 2020). "The coronavirus is causing an outbreak in America—of anti-Asian racism". The Hill. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  21. ^ "Coronavirus Update: Masks And Temperature Checks In Hong Kong". Nevada Public Radio. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  22. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 Information for Travel". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  23. ^ Deerwester, Jayme; Gilbertson, Dawn. "Coronavirus: US says 'do not travel' to Wuhan, China, as airlines issue waivers, add safeguards". USA Today. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  24. ^ Kuo, Lily (11 February 2020). "China fires two senior Hubei officials over coronavirus outbreak". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  25. ^ Young, Evan (31 January 2020). "'This is racism': Chinese-Australians say they've faced increased hostility since the coronavirus outbreak began". Special Broadcasting Service.
  26. ^ Iqbal, Nosheen (1 February 2020). "Coronavirus fears fuel racism and hostility, say British-Chinese". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  27. ^ "Coronavirus fears trigger anti-China sentiment across the globe". Global News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  28. ^ Yeung, Jessie. "As the coronavirus spreads, fear is fueling racism and xenophobia". CNN. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  29. ^ "Fake Facts Are Flying About Coronavirus. Now There's A Plan To Debunk Them". NPR. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  30. ^ a b c d e ECDC (14 February 2020). European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): increased transmission beyond China − fourth update. ECDC (Risk Assessment): Stockholm; 2020.
  31. ^ a b c d Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. (February 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". Lancet. 395 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 31986264. Free to read
  32. ^ a b Wang, Chen; Horby, Peter W.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Gao, George F. (24 January 2020). "A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern". The Lancet. 395 (10223): 470–473. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 31986257. Free to read
  33. ^ Joseph, Andrew (24 January 2020). "New coronavirus can cause infections with no symptoms and sicken otherwise healthy people, studies show". STAT. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  34. ^ Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yuan, Shuofeng; Kok, Kin-Hang; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chu, Hin; Yang, Jin; Xing, Fanfan; Liu, Jieling; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Poon, Rosana Wing-Shan; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah (24 January 2020). "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster". The Lancet. 0 (10223): 514–523. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 31986261. Free to read
  35. ^ Schnirring, Lisa (25 January 2020). "Doubts rise about China's ability to contain new coronavirus". CIDRAP. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  36. ^ a b "China bans trade, consumption of wild animals due to coronavirus". CNBC. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  37. ^ Cite error: The named reference WHO_PHEIC_decl22 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  38. ^ "WHO Head Warns of 'Potential Pandemic' after Initially Praising China's Response to Coronavirus". National Review. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  39. ^ Confirmed cases, deaths and recoveries in each territory:
    1. "Iran confirms four more coronavirus deaths: State media". Dubai: CNA. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
    2. "۳ بیمار مبتلا به کرونا بهبود یافتند" [3 patients with coronavirus disease recovered] (in Persian). Young Journalists Club. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  40. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  41. ^ Burki, Talha (17 February 2020). "Outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 0. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30076-1. ISSN 1473-3099. PMID 32078809.
  42. ^ a b c Kampf, Günter; Todt, Daniel; Pfaender, Stephanie; Steinmann, Eike (6 February 2020). "Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and its inactivation with biocidal agents". Journal of Hospital Infection. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022. PMID 32035997. Retrieved 15 February 2020. Free to read
  43. ^ "新冠肺炎可通过气溶胶传播意味着什么" (in Chinese). Economic Observation Network. 8 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  44. ^ Salo, Jackie (13 February 2020). "CDC says coronavirus can spread through people who aren't showing symptoms". New York Post. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  45. ^ Holshue, Michelle L.; DeBolt, Chas; Lindquist, Scott; Lofy, Kathy H.; Wiesman, John; Bruce, Hollianne; Spitters, Christopher; Ericson, Keith; Wilkerson, Sara; Tural, Ahmet; Diaz, George (31 January 2020). "First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine: NEJMoa2001191. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 32004427.
  46. ^ Leung, Gabriel; Wu, Joseph (27 January 2020). "Real-time nowcast and forecast on the extent of the Wuhan CoV outbreak, domestic and international spread" (PDF). Wuhan-coronavirus-outbreak AN UPDATE. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  47. ^ "中疾控分析九千新冠患者:老年男性风险大 R0为3.77". news.163.com. 13 February 2020.
  48. ^ Yang, Yang; Lu, Qingbin; Liu, Mingjin; Wang, Yixing; Zhang, Anran; Jalali, Neda; Dean, Natalie; Longini, Ira; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoai; Wang, Liping; Liu, Wei; Fang, Liqun (21 February 2020). "Epidemiological and clinical features of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China". MedRxiv: 2020.02.10.20021675. doi:10.1101/2020.02.10.20021675 – via www.medrxiv.org.
  49. ^ Saey, Tina Hesman (24 January 2020). "How the new coronavirus stacks up against SARS and MERS". Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  50. ^ Julien Riou & Christian L. Althaus, Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019-NCoV, Preprint, bioRxiv, 23 January 2020.
  51. ^ "China CDC head dismisses super-spreader media report". Xinhua News Agency. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  52. ^ 还原"超级传播者"传染路径 武汉医生:疫情刚开始"整个不让说" [Restore the infection route for "super-spreader"s; "'Not allowed to speak anything' at the beginning of the outbreak," said Wuhan doctors]. China Newsweek (in Chinese). qq.com. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  53. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "COVID-19 Prevention & Treatment". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  54. ^ "Advice for public". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  55. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "What to do if you are sick with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  56. ^ "COVID-19 Thematic Website, Together, We Fight the Virus, COVID-19". www.coronavirus.gov.hk. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  57. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "COVID-19 Information for Travel". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  58. ^ a b "Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health – Severe Respiratory Disease associated with a Novel Infectious Agent". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  59. ^ a b c "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Myth busters". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  60. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  61. ^ a b "Advice for public". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  62. ^ "Coronavirus public information campaign launched across the UK". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  63. ^ "Advice for public". www.who.int.
  64. ^ a b c d "疫情通报" (in Chinese). National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  65. ^ a b "Coronavirus". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  66. ^ Health, Australian Government Department of (21 January 2020). "Coronavirus (COVID-19)". Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  67. ^ a b "2019-nCoV: What the Public Should Do". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  68. ^ Cite error: The named reference :8 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  69. ^ a b c d e "Advice on the use of masks the community, during home care and in health care settings in the context of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  70. ^ "Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) or Persons Under Investigation for COVID-19 in Healthcare Settings". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 6 February 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  71. ^ "As Hongkongers clamour for surgical masks, 25,000 stolen from warehouse". South China Morning Post. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  72. ^ Takahashi, Ryusei. "Amid virus outbreak, Japan stores scramble to meet demand for face masks". Japan Times. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  73. ^ munsan (31 January 2020). "Wuhan virus: Who needs to wear a mask and what's the proper way to wear it?". The Straits Times. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  74. ^ Chia, Rachel Genevieve. "These 12 Twitter posts show the insane queues for masks in Singapore, Shanghai and Hong Kong, which are all sold out, Business Insider – Business Insider Singapore". businessinsider.sg. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  75. ^ Harun, Hana Naz; Teh, Athira Yusof; Solhi, Farah (31 January 2020). "Demand for face masks, hand sanitisers soars". New Straits Times. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  76. ^ "China CDC developing novel coronavirus vaccine". Xinhua News Agency. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  77. ^ "Chinese scientists race to develop vaccine as coronavirus death toll jumps". South China Morning Post. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  78. ^ Cheung, Elizabeth (28 January 2020). "Hong Kong researchers have developed coronavirus vaccine, expert reveals". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  79. ^ "With Wuhan virus genetic code in hand, scientists begin work on a vaccine". Reuters. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  80. ^ Levine, Jon (25 January 2020). "Scientists race to develop vaccine to deadly China coronavirus". New York Post. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  81. ^ hermesauto (23 January 2020). "Wuhan virus: Work to start on three possible vaccines, says epidemic response group". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  82. ^ "Inovio, Moderna score CEPI funding for vaccine work against deadly coronavirus". FiercePharma. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  83. ^ "Infectious Diseases". modernatx.com. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  84. ^ "Molecular Clamp: a Novel Protein Vaccine for Influenza, RSV, Ebola and Other Human and Veterinary Viruses". pharmalicensing.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  85. ^ "CEPI to fund three programmes to develop vaccines against the novel coronavirus, nCoV-2019". CEPI-US. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  86. ^ Insider, James Hennessy, Business. "Australia's Been Asked to Make a Coronavirus Vaccine at 'Unprecedented Speed'". ScienceAlert-gb. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  87. ^ a b "Local Biotech Company Developing Coronavirus Vaccine". NBC 7 San Diego-US. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  88. ^ Leonard K (18 February 2020). "Two drug companies partner with US government for coronavirus treatment and vaccine". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  89. ^ 国家卫生健康委员会办公厅 (5 February 2020). "新型冠状病毒感染肺炎的诊疗方案(试行第五版)" (PDF). 国家卫生健康委员会办公厅. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  90. ^ "2020年2月11日湖北省新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情情况".
  91. ^ Woodyatt, Amy; Kottasová, Ivana; Griffiths, James; Regan, Helen. "China changed how it counts coronavirus cases again. Here's why". CNN.
  92. ^ a b Li, Qun; Guan, Xuhua; Wu, Peng; Wang, Xiaoye; Zhou, Lei; Tong, Yeqing; Ren, Ruiqi; Leung, Kathy S. M.; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Wong, Jessica Y.; Xing, Xuesen (29 January 2020). "Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia". The New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001316. ISSN 1533-4406. PMID 31995857. Free to read
  93. ^ "China confirms sharp rise in cases of SARS-like virus across the country". 20 January 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  94. ^ "The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China, 2020".
  95. ^ "Macao sparing no effort to prevent the spread locally of a new coronavirus". Government Information Bureau. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
  96. ^ Frejdeman, Hannah (31 January 2020). "Coronaviruset har upptäckts i Jönköping". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). ISSN 1101-2412. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  97. ^ a b Holm, Phil; Moritsugu, Ken. "Where the virus has spread". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  98. ^ "Coronavirus: Window of opportunity to act, World Health Organization says". BBC News Online. 5 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  99. ^ Jeannette Guarner, MD, Three Emerging Coronaviruses in Two Decades: The Story of SARS, MERS, and Now COVID-19, American Journal of Clinical Pathology, doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqaa029
  100. ^ "Coronavirus Death Toll Climbs in China, and a Lockdown Widens". The New York Times. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  101. ^ Philippines, World Health Organization (1 February 2020). "A 44-year-old male is confirmed as the second person with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Philippines. He passed away on 1 February 2020.pic.twitter.com/5a5tPWtvpc". @WHOPhilippines. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.[non-primary source needed]
  102. ^ Ramzy, Austin; May, Tiffany (2 February 2020). "Philippines Reports First Coronavirus Death Outside China". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  103. ^ "Coronavirus updates: U.S., Japanese citizens die in Wuhan". NBC News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  104. ^ "Coronavirus Live Updates: First Death Outside Asia Reported in France". The New York Times. 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  105. ^ Yamaguchi, Mari (19 February 2020). "2 former cruise ship passengers with new coronavirus die in Japan". CTV News. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  106. ^ "China reports drop in new coronavirus cases, two Japan cruise ship passengers die". Arab News. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  107. ^ Yamaguchi, Mari (23 February 2020). "Japan reports 3rd cruise ship death, 57 more infected". ABC News. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  108. ^ "Legislator from Iran's Qom alleges virus coverup". Al Jazeera English. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  109. ^ "코로나바이러스감염증-19 국내 발생 현황(일일집계통계, 9시 기준)". 24 February 2020.
  110. ^ "Coronavirus, sette morti in Italia, 229 contagi. Le vittime di oggi hanno tutte più di 80 anni". Repubblica (in Italian). 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  111. ^ "Preliminary analysis of the 2019 nCOV outbreak in Wuhan city". Northeastern University. 22 January 2020.
  112. ^ Fifield, Anna (22 January 2020). "As families tell of pneumonia-like deaths in Wuhan, some wonder if China virus count is too low". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  113. ^ Kuo, Lily (21 January 2020). "Coronavirus: Chinese hospitals not testing patients, say relatives". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020.
  114. ^ Fan, Wenxin (24 January 2020). "Relatives Wonder Whether Pneumonia Deaths Were Tied to Coronavirus". The Wall Street Journal.
  115. ^ Hancock, Tom; Shepherd, Christian; Cookson, Clive (24 January 2020). "The new coronavirus: is China moving quickly enough?". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  116. ^ "New pneumonia Two people returning home on the second flight Infection confirmed No symptoms such as fever". NHK Japan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  117. ^ Shengjie Lai; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Ruktanonchai, Nick W. et al. (4 February 2020). Assessing spread risk of Wuhan novel coronavirus within and beyond China, January–April 2020: a travel network-based modelling study WorldPop, School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Southampton, UK. and School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.04.20020479. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  118. ^ O'Neill, Marnie. (12 February 2020). "New data reveals no country safe from coronavirus tentacles". News.com.au website Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  119. ^ "Tracking coronavirus: Map, data and timeline". BNO News. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  120. ^ "Tracking coronavirus: Map, data and timeline". BNO News. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  121. ^ "Tracking coronavirus: Map, data and timeline". BNO News. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  122. ^ "Officials Report Huge Jump in Coronavirus Cases in 1 Chinese Province". NPR. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  123. ^ "China's Hubei Reports 349 New Coronavirus Cases, Lowest Since Jan. 25". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  124. ^ Brandenburg, A. (14 February 2020). "Quadratic growth during the 2019 novel coronavirus epidemic". arXiv:2002.03638 [q-bio.PE].
  125. ^ Pan, Xingfei; Chen, Dexiong; Xia, Yong; Wu, Xinwei; Li, Tangsheng; Ou, Xueting; Zhou, Liyang; Liu, Jing (19 February 2020). "Asymptomatic cases in a family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 0. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30114-6. ISSN 1473-3099. PMID 32087116.
  126. ^ "WHO COVID-19 situation report 29" (PDF). World Health Organization. 19 February 2020.
  127. ^ Guan, Wei-jie; Ni, Zheng-yi; Hu, Yu; Liang, Wen-hua; Ou, Chun-quan (9 February 2020). "Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China". MedRxiv: 2020.02.06.20020974. doi:10.1101/2020.02.06.20020974 – via medrxiv.org.
  128. ^ Zhu, Na; Zhang, Dingyu; Wang, Wenling; Li, Xinwang; Yang, Bo; Song, Jingdong; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Baoying; Shi, Weifeng; Lu, Roujian; Niu, Peihua (24 January 2020). "A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019". New England Journal of Medicine. United States. 382 (8): 727–733. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 31978945.
  129. ^ Zhou, Peng; et al. (23 January 2020). "Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin". bioRxiv: 2020.01.22.914952. doi:10.1101/2020.01.22.914952. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  130. ^ Cyranoski, David (7 February 2020). "Did pangolins spread the China coronavirus to people?". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00364-2.
  131. ^ "Initial genome release of novel coronavirus". Virological. 11 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  132. ^ "Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, complete genome". 17 January 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  133. ^ Benvenuto, D; Giovannetti, M; Ciccozzi, A; Spoto, S; Angeletti, S; Ciccozzi, M (29 January 2020). "The 2019-new coronavirus epidemic: evidence for virus evolution". Journal of Medical Virology. 92 (4): 455–459. doi:10.1002/jmv.25688. PMID 31994738.
  134. ^ Nuala Moran (14 February 2020). "Researchers trace COVID-19's family tree to battle outbreak and 'infodemic'". BioWorld.
  135. ^ "No, the coronavirus was not genetically engineered in a Wuhan lab, expert says". National Post. 14 February 2020.
  136. ^ "Genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus (nCoV)". 11 February 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  137. ^ Schirring, Lisa; 2020 (16 January 2020). "Japan has 1st novel coronavirus case; China reports another death". CIDRAP. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  138. ^ "Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases: Interim guidance". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  139. ^ "Real-Time RT-PCR Panel for Detection 2019-Novel Coronavirus". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  140. ^ Brueck, Hilary (30 January 2020). "There's only one way to know if you have the coronavirus, and it involves machines full of spit and mucus". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  141. ^ "Curetis Group Company Ares Genetics and BGI Group Collaborate to Offer Next-Generation Sequencing and PCR-based Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Testing in Europe". GlobeNewswire News Room. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  142. ^ "核酸检测到底准不准 试剂盒厂家称无需担心假阴性". china.caixin.com.
  143. ^ "Undiagnosed pneumonia – China (HU) (01): wildlife sales, market closed, RFI Archive Number: 20200102.6866757". Pro-MED-mail. International Society for Infectious Diseases. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  144. ^ Hui, David S.; Azhar, Esam EI; Madani, Tariq A.; Ntoumi, Francine; Kock, Richard; Dar, Osman; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Mchugh, Timothy D.; Memish, Ziad A.; Drosten, Christian; Zumla, Alimuddin (14 January 2020). "The continuing epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – the latest novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 91: 264–266. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009. ISSN 1201-9712. PMID 31953166. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  145. ^ Cohen, Jon; Normile, Dennis (17 January 2020). "New SARS-like virus in China triggers alarm" (PDF). Science. 367 (6475): 234–235. doi:10.1126/science.367.6475.234. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 31949058.
  146. ^ a b Parry, Jane (January 2020). "China coronavirus: cases surge as official admits human to human transmission". British Medical Journal. 368: m236. doi:10.1136/bmj.m236. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 31959587.
  147. ^ "Coronavirus". WebMD. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  148. ^ a b "Overview of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) – Summary of relevant conditions". BMJ. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  149. ^ "Wuhan pneumonia: Hong Kong widens net but can hospitals cope?". South China Morning Post. 17 January 2020. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  150. ^ "China approves first anti-viral drug against coronavirus Covid-19".
  151. ^ Business, Paul R. La Monica, CNN. "Gilead Sciences drug may help treat coronavirus symptoms, according to WHO". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  152. ^ Cohen, Jon (26 January 2020). "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb0611. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  153. ^ "武汉市卫健委关于当前我市肺炎疫情的情况通报". Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. 31 December 2019. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  154. ^ "Novel Coronavirus". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  155. ^ "习近平:在中央政治局常委会会议研究应对新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情工作时的讲话" (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  156. ^ "Xi began fighting the virus earlier than previously known, a newly published speech indicates". The New York Times. 15 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  157. ^ AFP, Laurent Thomet and Eva Xiao. "Officials Just Confirmed China's Mystery Virus Spreads by Human to Human Transmission". ScienceAlert. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  158. ^ Griffiths, James; Gan, Nectar (22 January 2020). "China confirms Wuhan virus can be spread by humans". CNN.
  159. ^ a b "China halts flights and trains out of Wuhan as WHO extends talks". Channel NewsAsia. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  160. ^ a b "CPC leadership meets to discuss novel coronavirus prevention, control". People's Daily. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020. Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, chaired the meeting.
  161. ^ Xiao, Bang (26 January 2020). "'No-one in the family knows what to do': Over 100 Australian children trapped in Wuhan coronavirus area". ABC News-AU. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  162. ^ "China to extend Spring Festival holiday to contain coronavirus outbreak". Beijing. Xinhua News Agency. 26 January 2020.
  163. ^ "Chinese Premier Li visits Wuhan, epicenter of virus outbreak". Beijing. Reuters. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  164. ^ 李雪晴. "China's State Council extends Spring Festival holiday – Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  165. ^ "Archived copy" 海关总署公告2020年第16号(关于重新启动出入境人员填写健康申明卡制度的公告). General Administration of Customs, P.R. China (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  166. ^ Liu, Hongxia (26 January 2020). 海关总署宣布重新启动出入境人员填写健康申明卡制度 [The General Administration of Customs announced they will restart the system for filling health declaration forms for passengers exit and enter the border] (in Chinese). Beijing. Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  167. ^ "China re-launches health declaration form requirement on border". China Global Television Network. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  168. ^ "China extends Spring Festival holiday to contain coronavirus outbreak". Xinhua News Agency. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  169. ^ Luo, Xiaojing (24 January 2020). 湖北这些学校推迟开学 北大等暂停参观 [These Hubei schools delayed new semester; Peking Univ. halted public visits] (in Chinese). The Beijing News. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  170. ^ Yu, Rong (23 January 2020). 严禁寒假补课提前开学 省教育厅部署新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情防控工作 [Strictly ban winter break tutoring and schooling; Provincial Education Department deploy countermeasures against new coronavirus outbreak]. Hunan Daily (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  171. ^ Xu, Qin (25 January 2020). 市教委:疫情解除前严禁组织大型活动 中小学取消所有假期返校 [City's Education Committee: Strictly forbid organizing large events before the outbreak dissolved; all middle and elementary schools to cancel school-returning during break]. Jiefang Daily (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  172. ^ Yao, Zhuowen. 深圳:高三初三也不得提前开学提前补课 [Shenzhen: Junior students in middle schools and high schools shouldn't start school early or start tutoring early]. People.com.cn Shenzhen (in Chinese) (25 January 2020). Shenzhen Tequ Bao (Shenzhen Special Economic Zone Newspaper). Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  173. ^ Lum, Alvin; Sum, Lok-kei (25 January 2020). "China coronavirus: Hong Kong leader hits back at criticisms of being slow". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  174. ^ "Wuhan bans cars, Hong Kong closes schools as virus spreads". Associated Press. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  175. ^ Wang, Chenxi (24 January 2020). 澳门关闭博物馆延期开学防控新型冠状病毒疫情 [Macau closed museums and delayed school-openings to control coronavirus outbreak] (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  176. ^ Zhao, Shi (24 January 2020). 澳门高校延后开学,要求开学后主动报告假期去向 [Universities and colleges in Macau delayed openings, to ask students to report where they've been to during the break] (in Chinese). Pengpai News. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  177. ^ a b c Qian, Tong (26 January 2020). 春节假期将延长 各地延迟返工返校政策陆续出台 [Sping festival break to be extended; several places announced delayed work-returning and school-reopening policies]. Caixin (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  178. ^ "Factbox: As virus spreads, hotels, airlines offer refunds, stores close". Reuters. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  179. ^ 今起全国飞机、火车免费退票 [Free ticket refunds offer to planes and trains nation-wide from today] (in Chinese). thepaper.cn / Pengpai News. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  180. ^ "China Orders Travel Agencies to Suspend Tours to Contain Virus Outbreak". Bloomberg. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  181. ^ "Beijing to suspend interprovincial road transport starting Sunday". China Daily. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  182. ^ "Chinese prosecutors urged to toughen crackdown on epidemic-related crimes". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  183. ^ a b c d "China's museums offer online exhibitions amid coronavirus outbreak". MSN. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  184. ^ "China opens more online exhibitions amid virus outbreak". ecns.cn. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  185. ^ "关于向"博物馆网上展览平台"提供网上展览内容资源的倡议书". ncha.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  186. ^ a b "At home with history – China.org.cn". china.org.cn. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  187. ^ 胡哲. "East China province launches online exhibitions amid epidemic – Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  188. ^ James Griffiths; Amy Woodyatt. "Wuhan coronavirus: Thousands of cases confirmed as China goes into emergency mode". CNN. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  189. ^ 襄阳火车站关闭,湖北省最后一个地级市“封城”_媒体_澎湃新闻-The Paper. www.thepaper.cn. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  190. ^ 全国新型肺炎疫情实时动态 - 丁香园·丁香医生. ncov.dxy.cn. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  191. ^ 全国新型肺炎疫情实时动态 - 腾讯. feiyan.wecity.qq.com. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  192. ^ "Archived copy" 武汉肺炎病毒持续扩散 湖北下令封15个城市 (in Chinese). Germany: Deutsche Welle. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  193. ^ Coleman, Alistair; Allen, Kerry (22 January 2020). "Chinese social media users worry over virus". BBC News Online.
  194. ^ a b "Coronavirus Crisis Exposes Cracks in China's Facade of Unity". The New York Times. 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  195. ^ a b Smith, Nicola; Newey, Sarah (26 January 2020). "Coronavirus: Fears rise of Chinese cover-up as 56 million in lockdown and hospitals overwhelmed". The Telegraph.
  196. ^ "Residents of China's Wuhan rush to stock up as transport links severed". Reuters. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  197. ^ 武汉一线 [Wuhan First-line: Rising vegetable prices, napa cabbages 35 CNY each]. 澎湃新闻-The Paper (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  198. ^ "China warns coronavirus strengthening as Lunar New Year holiday extended three more days to discourage travel". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  199. ^ "Wuhan virus: China imposes partial lockdown in Shantou, the first city to face measure outside virus epicentre". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  200. ^ "China's Shantou city will not ban cars, ships, people from entering, state media reports". Reuters. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  201. ^ Zheng, Lichun (26 January 2020). 广东汕头撤回交通管制通告 市民一度抢购物资 [Shantou, Guangdong's announcement on traffic restrictions was reversed; residents rushed to stockpile food and supplies for a while]. Caixin (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  202. ^ Ying, Rui (27 January 2020). 北京、深圳、广州、南京,这些城市官宣"不封城" [Beijing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Nanjing – these cities officially announced they "will not lock down"]. The Beijing News (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  203. ^ Ma, Zhenhuan (26 January 2020). "Authorities say no imminent lockdown of Beijing". People's Republic of China: China daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  204. ^ 温州市新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情防控工作领导小组通告(第7号) (in Chinese). Wenzhou People's Government. 2 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  205. ^ "Hangzhou and Taizhou, cities far from virus epicentre, implement travel restrictions". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  206. ^ Griffiths, James; Dewan, Angela; Mezzofiore, Gianluca; Borghese, Livia; Kottasová, Ivana. "7,000 held on cruise ship in Italy as global fears spread over coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  207. ^ McCurry, Justin; Ratcliffe, Rebecca (5 February 2020). "Coronavirus: cruise ship carrying 3,700 quarantined in Japan after 10 test positive". The Guardian.
  208. ^ "Almost 2,000 passengers held on cruise ship in Hong Kong amid coronavirus scare". CNBC. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  209. ^ Denyer, Simon; O'Grady, Siobhán (7 February 2020). "Passengers quarantined on cruise ship are desperate to escape coronavirus that infected 64 fellow travelers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  210. ^ Denyer, Simon; Brulliard, Karin; Taylor, Adam; Iati, Marisa (6 February 2020). "Another 41 people test positive for coronavirus on quarantined cruise ship in Japan, health minister says". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  211. ^ "Coronavirus: Thousands on cruise ship allowed to disembark after tests". BBC News Online. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  212. ^ "Infection tally on Diamond Princess hits 130 as Japan mulls testing all passengers". Japan Times. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  213. ^ "Coronavirus: Passengers leave Diamond Princess amid criticism of Japan". BBC News Online. 20 February 2020. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  214. ^ a b "湖北黄冈:每户家庭每两天可指派1人上街采购无关人员不得外出". jznews.com.cn. 2 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  215. ^ "浙江温州严控居民出行:每家每两天可指派1人出门采购". guancha.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  216. ^ 政府网站 (2 February 2020). "浙江温岭出行管控:每户每两天可派1人出门采购". Sina Corp. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  217. ^ "防城港:每家每两天可派一人出门采购". gxnews.com.cn. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  218. ^ "广西3城市下文:每户家庭每两天可派1人出门采购!". gxnews.com.cn. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  219. ^ a b "广西3城市下文:每户家庭每两天可派1人出门采购!". gxnews.com.cn. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  220. ^ a b c d "西安多区、县实行居民出行管控:最多每两天可派1人外出采购". Sina Corp. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  221. ^ "安徽蚌埠市管控居民出行:每户每两天可派1人出门_抗疫_澎湃新闻-The Paper". thepaper.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  222. ^ "安徽淮北:每户家庭每两天可指派1名成员出门_人员". sohu.com. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  223. ^ "温州台州严格控制人员进出 每户每两天可指派1名家庭成员外出采购 _ 东方财富网". finance.eastmoney.com. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  224. ^ "杭州多地发"最严禁令" 每户每两天1人外出采购一次_防控". sohu.com. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  225. ^ "湖北鄂州:主城区家庭每户每两天指派1人上街采购生活物资-中新网". chinanews.com. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  226. ^ "深夜突发!南京、宁波、福州、哈尔滨…所有小区封闭管理!最狠这座城:每户5天只能1人外出采购1次_媒体_澎湃新闻-The Paper". thepaper.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  227. ^ "今日12时至8日24时,徐州严格实行社区居民出行管控等措施_新华报业网". xhby.net. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  228. ^ "江西景德镇严控居民出行:每户每2天限1人外出采购". guancha.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  229. ^ 北京日报客户端 (4 February 2020). "哈尔滨所有小区封闭管理 每户每两天可1人外出". Sina Corp. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  230. ^ "多地防控升级:驻马店一区限每户5天1人外出,宁波实名买退烧药". sohu.com. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  231. ^ "西安多个区加强管控 小区封闭式管理外出采购仅限一人-新闻频道-西安网". news.xiancity.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  232. ^ "西安市莲湖区发布关于实施疫情防控"十项规定"的通告". news.hsw.cn. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  233. ^ 一财资讯 (4 February 2020). "宁波疫情防控措施再升级:每户每两天可由1名成员外出采购". Sina Corp. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  234. ^ "江苏各地实施小区封闭式管理 防控手段请了解". wxrb.com. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  235. ^ "合肥实行封闭式管理,每两天1名家庭成员外出采购". takefoto.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  236. ^ "刚刚!阜阳市发布严控村(居)民出行通告:每户每两天可派1人外出采购". 365jia.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  237. ^ "本溪市居民小区每户家庭每两天可指派1名家庭成员外出釆购生活物资". news.syd.com.cn. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  238. ^ "阿坝州:每户家庭每两天指派1名家庭成员外出采购_四川在线". sichuan.scol.com.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  239. ^ "甘孜州发布公告 所有村组、居民小区、单位实行封闭式管理_四川在线". sichuan.scol.com.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  240. ^ "暂停外地居民接待、购买药品需实名……广西多地实行"最严管控"-广西新闻网". gxnews.com.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  241. ^ "桂林市新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情防控工作领导小组". eastmoney.com. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  242. ^ "暂停外地居民接待、购买药品需实名……广西多地实行"最严管控"-广西新闻网". gxnews.com.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  243. ^ "累计确诊新冠肺炎600例 江西全省所有村组小区一律封闭管理". nbd.com.cn. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  244. ^ "咸阳出台疫情防控十条措施 每户每周可两次指派1人外采-中新网". chinanews.com. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  245. ^ 锦州市新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情防控指挥部 (6 February 2020). "锦州市新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎 疫情防控指挥部令 第4号". Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  246. ^ "长春市宽城区:每户家庭每两天可派一人出门采购生活物资". Sina Corp. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  247. ^ "河北唐山对所有村庄、小区、单位实行封闭式管理". chinanews.com. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  248. ^ "各地逾2.5万名医疗队员支援湖北". People's Daily. 16 February 2020.
  249. ^ "上海医疗队抵达武汉后进行培训_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  250. ^ "北京市属医院医疗队驰援武汉_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  251. ^ "江西省第一批援助武汉医疗队启程出发_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  252. ^ "浙江:第二批紧急医疗队驰援武汉_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  253. ^ "黑龙江省援助医疗队奔赴武汉_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  254. ^ "上海第二批援鄂医疗队驰援武汉_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  255. ^ "天津第二批医疗队出发驰援武汉_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  256. ^ "内蒙古自治区赴湖北首批医疗队启程_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  257. ^ "吉林省第二批援鄂医疗队出发_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  258. ^ a b "新疆第二批援鄂医疗队整装出征_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  259. ^ "甘肃省第二批援鄂护理专业医疗队出征_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  260. ^ "安徽省第二批援鄂抗疫医疗队启程_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  261. ^ "海南援助湖北护理专业医疗队飞赴武汉_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  262. ^ "省援助湖北护理专业医疗队出发侧记_今日海南_海南省人民政府网". hainan.gov.cn.
  263. ^ "多地增派医疗队支援湖北_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  264. ^ a b "上海两支医疗队350名队员奔赴武汉_滚动新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  265. ^ "第五批江苏援湖北医疗队958人出发_滚动新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  266. ^ "辽宁60人医疗队驰援武汉_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  267. ^ a b c d "贵州福建山西医疗队驰援湖北_滚动新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  268. ^ "天津:医疗队启程支援武汉_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  269. ^ "辽宁省第二批对口支援湖北襄阳医疗队出征_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  270. ^ "海南省第四批支援湖北医疗队出发_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  271. ^ "山西省第七批支援湖北医疗队启程_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  272. ^ "内蒙古第五批支援湖北医疗队启程_图片新闻_中国政府网". gov.cn.
  273. ^ "新冠肺炎吹哨醫師 李文亮病逝 民眾激憤". 世界新聞網 (in Chinese). 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  274. ^ "Coronavirus kills Chinese whistleblower doctor". BBC News. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  275. ^ a b c d "The true cost of China's coronavirus cover-up: How state censorship let the outbreak spread | National Post". 7 February 2020.
  276. ^ "Coronavirus Spreads, and the World Pays for China's Dictatorship". MSN. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  277. ^ a b Griffiths, James. "Wuhan is the latest crisis to face China's Xi, and it's exposing major flaws in his model of control". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  278. ^ a b c d "China's slow response to coronavirus has shown the weakness of its centralised model". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  279. ^ "Xi orders resolute efforts to curb virus spread". Xinhua News Agency. 20 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  280. ^ "Chinese premier stresses curbing viral pneumonia epidemic". China Daily. Beijing. Xinhua News Agency. 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  281. ^ Fifield, Anna; Sun, Lina H.; Bernstein, Lenny (22 January 2020). "Chinese officials try to contain virus outbreak as first case confirmed in U.S." The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  282. ^ Zheng, William; Lau, Mimi (21 January 2020). "China's credibility on the line as it tries to dispels fears it will cover up spread of Wuhan virus". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  283. ^ Wei, Lingling (28 January 2020). "China Strains to Stamp Out Coronavirus Criticisms at Home". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  284. ^ a b c Li, Jane. "China is dispatching journalists to tell the coronavirus story it wants its people to hear". Quartz. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  285. ^ a b c d Zhong, Raymond (27 January 2020). "As Virus Spreads, Anger Floods Chinese Social Media". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  286. ^ Tan, Huileng (29 January 2020). "China's Xi faces his 'greatest political challenge' with coronavirus outbreak, says analyst". CNBC. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  287. ^ Gilbert, David (30 January 2020). "You Can Now Go to Jail in China for Criticizing Beijing's Coronavirus Response". Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  288. ^ Jankowicz, Mia. "The 1,600-bed Wuhan coronavirus hospital that China panic-built in a few days is less than half full 11 days after it opened". Business Insider.
  289. ^ Perper, Rosie. "China boasted that it built 2 new coronavirus hospitals in 12 days. But they're treating less than half the people they're supposed to". Business Insider.
  290. ^ Montgomery, Blake (28 January 2020). "The Chinese Government Is Spreading Coronavirus Disinformation" – via thedailybeast.com.
  291. ^ "How concerned should we be about the coronavirus outbreak? It's complicated | National Post". 28 January 2020.
  292. ^ a b Lapin, Tamar (30 January 2020). "China residents face jail if they slam country's coronavirus response". Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  293. ^ a b Jiang, Steven. "The Wuhan coronavirus is Chinese President Xi Jinping's ultimate test". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  294. ^ a b Myers, Steven Lee; Buckley, Chris (26 January 2020). "In Coronavirus, a 'Battle' That Could Humble China's Strongman". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  295. ^ "In coronavirus outbreak, China's leaders scramble to avert a Chernobyl moment". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  296. ^ "China's online censors tighten grip after brief coronavirus respite". Reuters. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  297. ^ Kuo, Lily (4 February 2020). "Taking credit, avoiding blame? Xi Jinping's absence from coronavirus frontline". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  298. ^ Griffiths, James. "China is waking up to the dangers of knee-jerk censorship in a crisis". CNN. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  299. ^ Gilbert, David (30 January 2020). "You Can Now Go to Jail in China for Criticizing Beijing's Coronavirus Response". Vice. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  300. ^ "China's online censors tighten grip after brief coronavirus respite". Reuters. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  301. ^ a b Gayle, Alison Rourke (now); Molly Blackall Damien; Weaver, Matthew; Murray, Jessica; Rourke (earlier), Alison; Doherty, Ben; Doherty, Ben (31 January 2020). "Virus death toll reaches 213 in China – as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  302. ^ "China: Respect Rights in Coronavirus Response". Human Rights Watch. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  303. ^ "Li Wenliang: Coronavirus death of Wuhan doctor sparks outpouring of anger". BBC News. 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  304. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma (6 February 2020). "'Hero who told the truth': Chinese rage over coronavirus death of whistleblower doctor". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  305. ^ "Li Wenliang's death is a new crisis for China's rulers". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  306. ^ Comment, Full (12 February 2020). "Terry Glavin: China is 'disappearing' coronavirus truth-seekers | National Post".
  307. ^ "The Coronavirus Story is Too Big for China to Spin". The Coronavirus Story is Too Big for China to Spin.
  308. ^ Kuo, Lily (11 February 2020). "Coronavirus: outspoken academic blames Xi Jinping for 'catastrophe' sweeping China". The Guardian.
  309. ^ "As the coronavirus spreads, China is losing its control online". The Globe and Mail.
  310. ^ "Novel Coronavirus in China". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  311. ^ Schnirring, Lisa (6 January 2020). "Questions still swirl over China's unexplained pneumonia outbreak". CIDRAP. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  312. ^ "Wuhan novel coronavirus and avian flu: advice for travel to China". Government of the United Kingdom. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  313. ^ Sample, Ian (19 January 2020). "Coronavirus: China reports 17 new cases of Sars-like mystery virus". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  314. ^ "rRT-PCR, a method to confirm Wuhan coronavirus case – Artificial Intelligence for Chemistry-US". Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  315. ^ Schnirring, Lisa (14 January 2020). "Report: Thailand's coronavirus patient didn't visit outbreak market". CIDRAP. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  316. ^ Bogoch, Isaac I.; Watts, Alexander; Thomas-Bachli, Andrea; Huber, Carmen; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Khan, Kamran (14 January 2020). "Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan, China: Potential for International Spread Via Commercial Air Travel". Journal of Travel Medicine. doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa008. PMID 31943059.
  317. ^ a b "Confirmed: All Schengen Countries, but France, Have Suspended Visa Issuance in China". Schengen Visa Info. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  318. ^ "Armenia suspends visa-free travel for Chinese citizens over virus fears -deputy PM". Reuters. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  319. ^ "Novel coronavirus". abf.gov.au. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  320. ^ "Coronavirus outbreak: Govt bans airlines from boarding passengers from China to India". indiatoday.in. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  321. ^ "Iraq's Basra airport to deny entry to travellers from China and Chinese citizens over coronavirus – state news agency". Reuters. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  322. ^ "Kurdistan's Erbil airport denies entry to three Chinese over coronavirus". Reuters. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  323. ^ "Indonesia closes doors to travelers from China". The Jakarta Post. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  324. ^ "Kazakh prime minister orders to suspend visa-free entry for Chinese transit passengers". Trend.Az. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  325. ^ "Kuwait suspends China, Hong Kong flights". aa.com.tr. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  326. ^ "Starting from February 6, 2020, China (including Hong Kong, Macau) to be listed as Level 2 Area or above; Chinese residents to be prohibited from entering Taiwan". Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. 6 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  327. ^ "Vietnam to stop issuing visas for Chinese tourists over coronavirus concerns". Reuters. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  328. ^ "Proclamation on Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons who Pose a Risk of Transmitting 2019 Novel Coronavirus". The White House. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  329. ^ "Countries ban China arrivals as coronavirus death toll hits 213". Arab News. 31 January 2020.
  330. ^ Jackson, Lagipoiva Cherelle (13 February 2020). "Samoa turns away eight of its own citizens over coronavirus fears". The Guardian.
  331. ^ "Something Is Terribly Wrong When Samoa Turns Away Its Own Citizens".
  332. ^ O'Connor, Tom (30 January 2020). "China's neighbors close borders as country's coronavirus cases surpass SARS". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  333. ^ Smith, Josh; Zhang, Lusha (21 January 2020). "North Korea suspends foreign tourism over coronavirus fears: tour companies". Reuters. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  334. ^ "Archived copy" 懂球帝. n.dongqiudi.com. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  335. ^ Colangelo, Anthony; Wicks, Kathryn (26 January 2020). "Matildas' Olympic qualifiers switched to Sydney after virus fears". Brisbane Times.
  336. ^ "IOC Boxing Task Force: Asian/Oceanian Tokyo 2020 boxing qualifying event to be held in Jordan in March". Olympic Channel. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  337. ^ "Olympic boxing qualifiers moved to Jordan". Japan Times. Reuters. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  338. ^ "British Airways, Iberia suspend direct flights to mainland China amid virus fears". Reuters. 29 January 2020.
  339. ^ "Coronavirus: Lufthansa setzt alle China-Flüge aus". tagesschau.de.
  340. ^ "Alert: British Airways, Lion Air and Seoul Air suspend all flights to China; others cut back service as virus fears grow". San Francisco Chronicle. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  341. ^ "Coronavirus: Czech Republic Becomes First Schengen Country to Stop Granting Visas in China". Schengen Visa Info. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  342. ^ "Closure 30–31 jan 2020". Belgium in China. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  343. ^ "After Czech Republic, Greece Halts Visa Issuance in China Amid Coronavirus Epidemic". Schengen Visa Info. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  344. ^ a b "Italy Suspends Visa Issuance and All Air Traffic From China". Schengen Visa Info. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  345. ^ "Egypt's flag carrier suspends China flights staring Feb. over coronavirus". Egypt Today. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  346. ^ "Sospesi tutti i collegamenti aerei tra Italia e Cina". Ente Nazionale per l'Aviazione Civile (in Italian). 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  347. ^ a b "Qatar Air Suspends Flights to China as Cases Jump: Virus Update". Financial Post. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  348. ^ "Airlines around the world are suspending flights to China as the coronavirus spreads". CNN. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  349. ^ Pallini, Thomas. "34 airlines have canceled flights to China amid coronavirus fears – here's the full list". Business Insider. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  350. ^ "U.S. declares public health emergency over coronavirus". NBC News. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  351. ^ Goyal, Piyush (2 February 2020). "Cabinet Secretary holds review meeting on Novel Coronavirus". Twitter. New Delhi: Press Information Bureau Government of India. Retrieved 2 February 2020.[non-primary source needed]
  352. ^ a b "Coronavirus infections predicted to grow exponentially; first death outside China; outbreak becomes political". The Washington Post. 2 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  353. ^ Berutu, Sachril Agustin. "Antisipasi Corona, Penundaan Penerbangan Dari-Ke China Tanpa Batas Waktu". detiknews (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  354. ^ Sugianto, Danang. "Tengah Malam Nanti, Penerbangan RI-China Resmi Disetop". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  355. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia set to ban live animal imports from China as coronavirus fears grow". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  356. ^ "Çin'den Türkiye'ye tüm uçuşlar durduruluyor". Gazete Duvar (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  357. ^ Tosun, Mehmet (3 February 2020). "Turkey to suspend flights from China until end of month". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  358. ^ "Australian Health Sector Emergency Response Plan for novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)" (PDF).
  359. ^ Press, Associated. "Countries Evaluate Evacuation of Citizens Amid Wuhan Coronavirus Panic". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  360. ^ "Pakistan cancels flights to China as fears of coronavirus spread". Dialogue Pakistan. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  361. ^ "Brazil to evacuate citizens stuck in Wuhan". The Business Time. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  362. ^ "Aviões decolam de Wuhan, na China, com 40 passageiros repatriados ao Brasil e à Polônia". G1 (in Portuguese). 7 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  363. ^ Leonardo Benassatto (9 February 2020). "Brazilians Evacuated From China amid coronavirus Land in Brazil". Reuters. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  364. ^ Carmody, James (5 February 2020). "Coronavirus fear remains on Christmas Island as authorities reassure locals they are safe from infection". ABC News. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  365. ^ Zhou, Naaman; Doherty, Ben (8 February 2020). "'A hard and sad decision': fleeing coronavirus in Wuhan for Christmas Island". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  366. ^ "Australians fly home from quarantine on Christmas Island after coronavirus evacuation from Wuhan". ABC News. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  367. ^ Wang, Vivian; Rich, Motoko; Bradsher, Keith (15 February 2020). "Shifting Ground in Coronavirus Fight: U.S. Will Evacuate Americans From Cruise Ship". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  368. ^ "Cruise ship passengers begin 14-day quarantine in Cornwall, Ont.", CBC News, 21 February 2020
  369. ^ "21 countries send aid to coronavirus-hit China". armenpress.am. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  370. ^ "Pittsburgh planning aid for sister city of Wuhan, China, stricken with coronavirus". triblive.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  371. ^ Mayo, Bob (27 January 2020). "Pittsburgh reaches out to help its Chinese sister city deal with coronavirus, looks at its own preps". WTAE. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  372. ^ Song, Rayna (3 February 2020). "Chinese students react to coronavirus outbreak". The Daily Northwestern. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  373. ^ Staff (28 January 2020). "Direct Relief Rushes Facial Masks to China to Fight Coronavirus Spread". Direct Relief. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  374. ^ Secon, Holly. "The Gates Foundation is spending $10 million to fight the coronavirus outbreak in China and Africa. Bill Gates has warned about a pandemic for years". Business Insider. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  375. ^ Voytko, Lisette. "Bill And Melinda Gates Donate $100 Million To Coronavirus Vaccine Research And Treatment". Forbes. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  376. ^ "Japan sends plane to fly citizens home from China's virus-hit Wuhan". Reuters. 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  377. ^ 日本民间捐100万口罩驰援武汉. guancha.cn (in Chinese). 26 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  378. ^ a b "Support efforts begin across Japan to help coronavirus-hit Wuhan". Japan Times. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  379. ^ "Feature: Japan offers warm support to China in battle against virus outbreak – Xinhua | English.news.cn". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  380. ^ Kaos, Jr., Joseph (31 January 2020). "Coronavirus: Malaysia to donate 18 million medical gloves to China". The Star. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  381. ^ "Will gov't give free masks? Palace says, 'How can we give when there's none'". GMA News. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  382. ^ "Turkish plane carrying Wuhan evacuees lands in Ankara". TRT World. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  383. ^ "Coronavirus: German air force evacuates citizens from Wuhan; gives China 10,000 protective suits". South China Morning Post. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  384. ^ hermesauto (19 February 2020). "Coronavirus: Singapore Red Cross to send $2.3m worth of aid to China, steps up local outreach to seniors". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  385. ^ 比照SARS集中醫治 武漢擬6天建千床醫療站 – 兩岸 – 重點新聞 (in Chinese). Central News Agency. 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  386. ^ "李克强督战武汉"小汤山"医院建设:把这里建成遏制疫情蔓延的"安全岛"". gov.cn. 28 January 2020.
  387. ^ "Wuhan to follow Beijing's SARS treatment model in new coronavirus control". Xinhua News Agency. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  388. ^ Siddique, Haroon (24 January 2020). "Chinese city plans to build coronavirus hospital in days". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  389. ^ Xu, Jinbo (25 January 2020). 特别的除夕:武汉吹响建设火神山医院"集结号" [A special Lunar New Year's Eve: Wuhan sound the rally for building Huoshenshan hospital] (in Chinese). China News Service. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  390. ^ "雷神山医院病床增至1600张". bjnews.com.cn. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  391. ^ "火神山、雷神山医院将于2月3日和2月6日收治病人". 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  392. ^ He, Guanghua; Tian, Doudou (25 January 2020). 武汉将再建一个"小汤山"医院 [Wuhan to build another "Xiaotangshan" hospital]. People's Daily (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  393. ^ 武漢肺炎︰火神山首階段施工近完成 當局再建雷神山 [Wuhan Pneumonia: First stage of Huoshenshan Hospital construction nearing completion, authorities to build Leishenshan Hospital]. Oriental Daily News (in Chinese). 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  394. ^ Hartley-Parkinson, Richard (29 January 2020). "China completes 1,000-bed coronavirus hospital in just 48 hours". Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  395. ^ Yu, Sun; McMorrow, Ryan (12 February 2020). "China seizes hotels, hospitals and cars to fight coronavirus". Financial Times.
  396. ^ Yang, Stephanie (28 January 2020). "WHO Chief Praises Beijing's Coronavirus Response as Travel Barriers Rise". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  397. ^ a b Gabriel Crossley, Alison Williams (23 January 2020). "Wuhan lockdown 'unprecedented', shows commitment to contain virus: WHO representative in China". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  398. ^ a b Griffiths, James. "WHO's relationship with China under scrutiny due to coronavirus crisis". CNN.
  399. ^ Health, Sarah Boseley, ed. (18 February 2020). "China's handling of coronavirus is a diplomatic challenge for WHO". The Guardian.
  400. ^ "WHO head again praises China and Xi Jinping on response to outbreak". South China Morning Post. 13 February 2020.
  401. ^ "Health Concerns Meet Politics Amid Taiwan's WHO Exclusion". The New York Times. Associated Press. 14 February 2020.
  402. ^ "Mission impossible? WHO director fights to prevent a pandemic without offending China". Science | AAAS. 10 February 2020.
  403. ^ "IHR Emergency Committee on Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  404. ^ a b "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  405. ^ "Coronavirus declared global health emergency". BBC News Online. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  406. ^ "$675 million appeal to stop coronavirus in its tracks, as deaths rise". UN News. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  407. ^ "WHO Calls for US$675 million To Combat Coronavirus; China Experiences Largest 24-Hour Increase in Cases Since Outbreak Began". Health Policy Watch. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  408. ^ "WHO Director-General's remarks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11 February 2020". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  409. ^ "WHO Director-General's remarks at the media briefing on COVID-2019 outbreak on 14 February 2020". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  410. ^ "World must prepare for pandemic, says WHO". BBC News Online. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  411. ^ AFP (25 January 2020). "Trump praises China 'efforts and transparency' on virus". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  412. ^ hermesauto (25 January 2020). "Trump praises China 'efforts and transparency' on Wuhan virus". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  413. ^ "Coronavirus reaches Europe as France confirms 3 cases". DW.COM. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  414. ^ "China Doing Good Job in Combating Virus, German Minister Says – Bloomberg". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  415. ^ "Singapore leaders stand in solidarity with China over COVID-19 outbreak". Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  416. ^ "Russia and China pledge to maintain special relationship despite Moscow's slow response to coronavirus". Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  417. ^ "Pope Francis praises China's efforts to contain coronavirus". Reuters. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  418. ^ "Coronavirus, in dieci comuni lombardi: 50 mila persone costrette a restare in casa. Quarantena all'ospedale milanese di Baggio". la Repubblica (in Italian). 21 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  419. ^ "Coronavirus, decreto del governo: nei comuni focolaio stop ad ingressi ed uscite. Conte: "Non trasformeremo l'Italia in un lazzaretto"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 22 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  420. ^ "Coronavirus: Inter Milan v Sampdoria among Serie A games postponed". BBC Sport. 22 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  421. ^ "Coronavirus, come funziona la quarantena e cosa rischia chi la viola (l'arresto)". Il Sole 24 ORE.
  422. ^ "Venice Carnival closes amid coronavirus outbreak". BBC. 23 February 2020.
  423. ^ Griffiths, James. "China's unprecedented reaction to the Wuhan virus probably couldn't be pulled off in any other country". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  424. ^ "Toll From Outbreak Climbs in China as Infections Reach Europe and Australia (Anger and mistrust spill over online)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020.
  425. ^ Hernández, Javier C. (21 January 2020). "The Test a Deadly Coronavirus Outbreak Poses to China's Leadership". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  426. ^ 8人散布不实消息被武汉公安查处 胡锡进透露内情. Sina Corp. 22 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  427. ^ 8名散布武汉肺炎谣言者被依法查处. guancha.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  428. ^ "Mystery pneumonia virus probed in China". BBC News Online. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  429. ^ Chris Buckley; Steven Lee Myers (1 February 2020). "As New Coronavirus Spread, China's Old Habits Delayed Fight". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  430. ^ Wang, Lianzhang (1 February 2020). "'Rumormonger' Doctor Who Raised the Alarm Says He Has Coronavirus". Sixth Tone. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  431. ^ Xiong, Yong; Gan, Nectar (4 February 2020). "This Chinese doctor tried to save lives, but was silenced. Now he has coronavirus". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  432. ^ Tom Phillips, Emma Graham-Harrison and Justin McCurry (6 February 2020). "Doctor who blew whistle over coronavirus has died, hospital says". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  433. ^ "Li Wenliang: Coronavirus death of Wuhan doctor sparks outpouring of anger". BBC News Online. 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  434. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma (6 February 2020). "'Hero who told the truth': Chinese rage over coronavirus death of whistleblower doctor". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  435. ^ Cao, Yin (7 February 2020). "Supervisory Commission to probe issues involving Dr Li". China Daily. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  436. ^ Belluz, Julia (4 February 2020). "China's draconian response to the new coronavirus, explained by a China expert". Vox. Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  437. ^ "Chinese provincial press conference on coronavirus inspires anger, criticism". Reuters. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  438. ^ 多名本港記者武漢採訪被帶到派出所 [Several Hong Kong correspondents were brought to a police station when interviewing in Wuhan]. Hong Kong Economic Journal (in Chinese). 14 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  439. ^ Yuan, Li (22 January 2020). "China Silences Critics Over Deadly Virus Outbreak". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  440. ^ Zhang, Fan (26 January 2020). 湖北抗击肺炎疫情这一周:防控措施如何升级 [The one week of Hubei fighting pneumonia outbreak: How preventive measures upgrade]. Caixin (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  441. ^ Derwin, Jack (31 January 2020). "The Wuhan coronavirus will hurt these Australian companies and cost the economy billions, according to global bank UBS". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  442. ^ a b She, Zongming (21 January 2020). 武汉"万家宴":他们的淡定让人没法淡定 [Wuhan's "Wanjiayan": Their chillness make others chill-less] (in Chinese). The Beijing News. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  443. ^ 19日为何还办万家宴?武汉市长回应 [Why holding the "Wanjiayan" on 19th? Wuhan's major responded] (in Chinese). thepaper.cn / Pengpai News. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  444. ^ Su, Zimu (22 January 2020). 武汉社区还在举办万家宴 市长回应 [Wuhan's community still holds Wanjiayan; mayor responded] (in Chinese). Duowei News. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  445. ^ Deng, Lingling Wei and Chao (24 January 2020). "China's Coronavirus Response Is Questioned: 'Everyone Was Blindly Optimistic'". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  446. ^ "人民网评:面对疫情,任何侥幸都可能夺人性命--观点--人民网". People's Daily. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  447. ^ a b Aneja, Atul (31 January 2020). "Xi's 'authoritarian' leadership in countering coronavirus crisis draws flak". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  448. ^ Kim, Jo. "Wuhan Coronavirus: China Plays the Blame Game". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  449. ^ Shepherd, Christian; Wong, Sue-Lin (30 January 2020). "Coronavirus poses challenge for China's centralised system". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  450. ^ "China's credibility on the line as it tries to dispels fears it will cover up spread of Wuhan virus". TODAYonline. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  451. ^ "UPDATE 1-Mayor of China's Wuhan draws online ire for '80 out of 100' interview". Reuters. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  452. ^ "WHO praises Beijing, but criticisms emerge from China itself". EJ Insight. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  453. ^ McNeil Jr., Donald G.; Kanno-Youngs, Zolan (10 February 2020). "C.D.C. and W.H.O. Offers to Help China Have Been Ignored for Weeks". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  454. ^ "Coronavirus: Passengers leave Diamond Princess amid criticism of Japan". BBC News Online. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  455. ^ "Coronavirus: Diamond Princess exodus begins amid criticism over quarantine". The Guardian. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  456. ^ Normile, Dennis (19 February 2020). "Scientist decries 'completely chaotic' conditions on cruise ship Japan quarantined after viral outbreak". sciencemag.org. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  457. ^ Yoshida, Reiji (20 February 2020). "COVID-19 spread on Diamond Princess before quarantine, report suggests". Japan Times. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  458. ^ "23 passengers released without being tested". NHK. 22 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  459. ^ "Coronavirus: woman on Diamond Princess cruise ship tested positive after disembarking". The Guardian. 23 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  460. ^ "Japan woman tests positive for coronavirus after leaving cruise ship". The Mainichi. 23 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  461. ^ ""중국 입국 제한 권고 안 듣더니… '삼류행정' '불통' 재확인했다"". Kukmin Ilbo (in Korean). 22 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  462. ^ "중국인 입국 금지 요청". Cheong Wa Dae (in Korean). Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  463. ^ "정부, 보도자료에 '대구 코로나19'라고 썼다가 논란 일자 사과…"명백한 실수"". The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). 22 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  464. ^ "Sanctioned Iranian Airline Continues Flights To China Despite Coronavirus Ban". RFE/RL.
  465. ^ a b "The Iranian regime risks exacerbating the outbreak of covid-19". The Economist. 24 February 2020.
  466. ^ BBC Monitoring, UGC Newsgathering (30 January 2020). "China coronavirus: Misinformation spreads online about origin and scale". BBC News Online. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  467. ^ Jessica McDonald (24 January 2020). "Social Media Posts Spread Bogus Coronavirus Conspiracy Theory". factcheck.org. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  468. ^ Lytvynenko, Jane. "Here's A Running List Of Disinformation Spreading About The Coronavirus". Buzzfeed News. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  469. ^ Ghaffary, Shirin; Heilweil, Rebecca (31 January 2020). "How tech companies are scrambling to deal with coronavirus hoaxes". Vox. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  470. ^ Richtel, Matt (6 February 2020). "W.H.O. Fights a Pandemic Besides Coronavirus: an 'Infodemic'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  471. ^ Paul, Katie (1 February 2020). "As coronavirus misinformation spreads on social media, Facebook removes posts". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  472. ^ Yi, Man (4 February 2020). "Coronavirus: UN health agency moves fast to tackle 'infodemic'; Guterres warns against stigmatization". UN News. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  473. ^ Cohen, Jon (9 February 2020). "Scientists 'strongly condemn' rumors and conspiracy theories about origin of coronavirus outbreak". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb3730.