2019 Canadian federal election

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2019 Canadian federal election

← 2015 October 21, 2019 Next →

All 338 seats in the House of Commons
170 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
  Justin Trudeau in Lima, Peru - 2018 (41507133581) (cropped) (cropped).jpg Andrew Scheer portrait style (cropped).jpg Jagmeet Singh - Ottawa - 2018 (42481105871) (cropped portrait).jpg
Leader Justin Trudeau Andrew Scheer Jagmeet Singh
Party Liberal Conservative New Democratic
Leader since April 14, 2013 May 27, 2017 October 1, 2017
Leader's seat Papineau Regina—Qu'Appelle Burnaby South
Last election 184 seats, 39.47% 99 seats, 31.89% 44 seats, 19.71%
Current seats 177 95 39
Seats needed Steady Increase75 Increase131

  Yves-Francois Blanchet in October 2009.jpg Elizabeth May in July 2014.jpg Maxime Bernier in 2017 - cropped.jpg
Leader Yves-François Blanchet Elizabeth May Maxime Bernier
Party Bloc Québécois Green People's
Leader since January 17, 2019 August 27, 2006 September 14, 2018
Leader's seat Running in Beloeil—Chambly Saanich—Gulf Islands Beauce
Last election 10 seats, 4.66% 1 seat, 3.45% Pre-creation
Current seats 10 2 1
Seats needed Increase160[1] Increase168 Increase169

Canada Election 2019 Results Map.svg
Map showing boundaries of the 338 federal ridings to be contested

Incumbent Prime Minister

Justin Trudeau

The 2019 Canadian federal election (formally the 43rd Canadian general election) is scheduled to take place on October 21, 2019, to elect members of the House of Commons to the 43rd Canadian Parliament. Parliament was dissolved by Governor General Julie Payette on September 11, 2019 on the advice of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. The 40-day campaign will see the incumbent Liberals attempt to retain their majority that they won in the 2015 election. Two of the three major parties will contest this election under new leaders: the Conservative Party, led by Andrew Scheer, and the New Democratic Party under Jagmeet Singh.


The 2015 federal election resulted in a Liberal majority government headed by Justin Trudeau. The Conservatives became the Official Opposition (with Stephen Harper announcing his resignation as party leader) and the New Democrats (NDP) became the third party. While members of the Bloc Québécois and the Greens were elected to the House, both failed to achieve the required number of MPs for official party status (12). Bloc leader Gilles Duceppe announced his resignation shortly after the election, and was succeeded by Parti Québécois MNA Martine Ouellet.[2] After losing a leadership review, Ouellet announced she would step down as Bloc leader on June 11, 2018,[3] and was succeeded by Yves-François Blanchet on January 17, 2019.[4]

Due to Tom Mulcair gaining only 48% of the vote at the NDP's April 2016 leadership review, the party held a leadership election on October 1, 2017, electing Ontario MPP and the former Deputy Leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party Jagmeet Singh as his successor.[5][6]

Bill C-44 was passed in 2017 and assigned responsibility to the Parliamentary Budget Office to review party platforms for future elections, with the 2019 election the first subjected to this review.[7] The Parliamentary Budget Office has a $500,000 budget for costing party platforms for this election, but will only review a party platform at the request of the party that authored it.[7] It will also conduct confidential assessments of independent and party platform proposals preceding the election campaign.[7] The service will also be available to members of parliament representing a party that does not have official party status in the House of Commons, such as Elizabeth May.[7]

Electoral reform[edit]

In June 2015, Trudeau pledged to reform the electoral system if elected, saying, "We are committed to ensuring that 2015 is the last election held under first-past-the-post."[8][9] As the Liberals,[10] New Democrats, Bloc, and Greens were all in favour of reform, it was seen as possible that a different voting system could be in place by the next federal election.[11]

A Special Committee on Electoral Reform was formed with representatives from all five parties in the House. The committee's report, Strengthening Democracy in Canada: Principles, Process and Public Engagement for Electoral Reform, was presented in December 2016 and recommended a proportional electoral system be introduced following a national referendum. The majority of the all-party committee recommended "that the government should, as it develops a new electoral system ... [seek to] minimize the level of distortion between the popular will of the electorate and the resultant seat allocations in Parliament."[12][13]

Despite the mandate of the committee being to "identify and conduct a study of viable alternate voting systems" rather than to recommend a specific alternative system,[14] the Minister of Democratic Institutions Maryam Monsef was critical of the committee's recommendation saying "I have to admit I'm a little disappointed, because what we had hoped the committee would provide us with would be a specific alternative system to first past the post."[12] Interim Conservative Leader Rona Ambrose said Monsef's comments were "a disgrace" and Green Party Leader Elizabeth May said "[t]he minister chose to insult the committee and chose to mislead Canadians."[12]

In February 2017, Trudeau dropped support for electoral reform, issuing a mandate to newly appointed Minister of Democratic Institutions Karina Gould, saying that, "A clear preference for a new electoral system, let alone a consensus, has not emerged. ... Changing the electoral system will not be in your mandate."[15] In response to questions from the public in Iqaluit, Trudeau said "It is because I felt it was not in the best interests of our country and of our future," citing concerns that alternative electoral systems would give too much parlimentary power to fringe groups.[16]


  • September 4, 2019: Quebec Premier François Legault announced that he will not endorse anyone and forbade Coalition Avenir Québec MNAs and employees from participating in the federal campaign.[17]
  • September 11, 2019: Alberta Premier Jason Kenney announced that he will campaign for the Conservatives and encouraged UCP MLAs "to help oust Justin Trudeau's Liberals".[18]
  • September 13, 2019: Saskatchewan Premier Scott Moe said he will not endorse anyone in the federal election. He says he will speak about policies, not parties.[19]
  • September 18, 2019: Manitoba Premier Brian Pallister endorsed Andrew Scheer.[20]
  • September 18, 2019: PEI Premier Dennis King will not be actively engaging in the federal election and hopes to work well with whoever becomes prime minister post-Oct. 21.[20]

Election campaign[edit]


Significant background to the Liberal campaign is the SNC-Lavalin affair, which entailed attempted political interference with the justice system by the Prime Minister of Canada, Justin Trudeau, and the Prime Minister's Office (PMO). The Parliament of Canada's Ethics Commissioner Mario Dion found that Trudeau improperly influenced then Minister of Justice and Attorney General Jody Wilson-Raybould to intervene in an ongoing criminal case against Quebec-based construction company SNC-Lavalin.[21] The Trudeau government has maintained that there was no undue pressure or law broken, that offering SNC-Lavalin a deferred prosecution agreement (DPA) could save jobs, and that the controversy resulted from a misunderstanding and an "erosion of trust". The affair became public in February 2019, shortly after Wilson-Raybould had been shuffled to another cabinet position. Wilson-Raybould resigned from cabinet later that day. This was then followed by the resignation of fellow cabinet minister Jane Philpott, over the government's handling of the affair. In April, Wilson-Raybould and Philpott were expelled by Trudeau from the Liberal caucus. On April 2, 2019, Wilson-Raybould, as Liberal candidate for Vancouver Granville, and Philpott, as Liberal candidate for Markham—Stouffville, were deselected as candidates.[22]

In late August 2019, Ralph Goodale, Liberal candidate for Regina—Wascana, Lawrence MacAulay, candidate for Cardigan, and Francis Scarpaleggia, candidate for Lac-Saint-Louis, were singled out for their opposition to same-sex marriage. Pundits argued that Goodale was being hypocritical, due to his role with Scheer and the same-sex marriage incident.[23][24] Goodale later stated that he evolved on the position and wanted answers from Scheer.[25]

On August 30, 2019, Hassan Guillet, Liberal candidate for Saint-Léonard—Saint-Michel, was dropped as a candidate following allegations of anti-Semitic comments from B'nai B'rith.[26] Guillet's nomination was previously criticized over the fear that his ethnicity would be out of place in the majority Italian riding.[27] Guillet denied the allegation, alleged that the Liberals were aware of the post, and that they "imposed" his replacement Patricia Lattanzio, on the riding.[28]

Sameer Zuberi, Liberal candidate for Pierrefonds—Dollard, was nominated on September 15, 2019 despite controversial social media comments.[29] Zuberi called the accusations false.[30]

Beginning 18 September 2019, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau attracted controversy for a photograph published in Time magazine, in which he wore brownface makeup to a party at West Point Grey Academy, where he was a teacher, in 2001. Trudeau called it a mistake and apologized publicly for it.[31][32] When apologizing, Trudeau also confessed to having worn similar makeup during high-school.[33] Following his apology, an earlier instance from the early 1990s of Trudeau wearing blackface makeup was uncovered.[34][33] The following day, Trudeau apologized again and said he's "not that person anymore".[35][36][37] He also said that we shouldn't call it "makeup" but blackface, which is something bad and racist.[36]


  • April 25, 2019: Harzadan Khattra, Conservative candidate for Dufferin—Caledon, was disqualified after a fellow contestant sent the party verifiable information about "membership buying, improper voting, and other concerns".[38]
  • June 28, 2019: Salim Mansur, Conservative candidate for London North Centre, was disqualified over alleged fears that the Liberals would characterize Mansur's record as Islamophobic.[39]
  • July 10, 2019: Mark King, Conservative candidate for Nipissing-Timiskaming, was stripped of his nomination for disputed reasons.[40][41]
  • July 10, 2019: Cyma Musarat, Conservative candidate for Pickering-Uxbridge, faced an allegation from fellow party members that she won her nomination by using improper voting procedures.[42] The Conservative Party faced an accusation that its headquarters had been delaying the nomination contest to find a different candidate.[43]
  • July 24, 2019 – September 15, 2019: Ghada Melek, Conservative candidate for Mississauga—Streetsville, was revealed by former organizers of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, after it was revealed that rejected as a candidate in the provincial riding over social-media posts about Muslim extremism.[44] National Council of Canadian Muslims had issues over Melek's social media posts about Islam and LGBT+ community.[45] Scheer accepted an apology she issued for her comments.[46] Later, CTV News obtained her provincial vetting report and her promotion of conspiracy theories was seen as another factor behind her disqualification.[47] When asked about the provincial party red-flagging Malek, Scheer defended her again.[48]
  • August 22, 2019 – September 20, 2019: Scheer faced questions over an 2005 online video in which he spoke against same-sex marriage[49] Scheer himself did not respond until a press conference a week later where he argued that Trudeau was raising a wedge issue;[50] Several pundits had an issue with his response.[51][51][52] Weeks later, Scheer was asked if he needed to apologize for his comments giving the standards he set for his candidates; however he gave no response.[53] After Trudeau's apology regarding blackface, Scheer was asked again if he should apologize for his words; he gave no response.[54][55]
  • August 26–30, 2019: Alain Rayes, Scheer's Quebec Lieutenant, attracted attention after he told a Quebec radio station that he misspoke on the party stance on abortion.[56] A few days later, Scheer held a press conference, where he addressed the issue. However, his answers were seen as confusing in the media, and anti-abortion activists found his answers to be mixed-messaging.[57][58] A day later, Scheer declared that he and his cabinet would vote against anti-abortion bills if the debate is re-opened.[59]
  • September 12, 2019: Cameron Ogilvie, Conservative candidate for Winnipeg North, resigned as a candidate after the party became aware of withheld social media post which the Conservative Party described as "discriminatory".[60]
  • September 12, 2019: Rachel Wilson, Conservative candidate for York Centre, attracted attention after a video was posted online that called for pro-life legislation.[61] Wilson did not comment when asked about abortion legislation.[62]
  • September 13, 2019: Arpan Khanna, Conservative candidate for Brampton North, apologized after it was revealed that offhandedly used a homophobic slur to tease a friend.[63]
  • September 14, 2019: Justina McCaffrey, Conservative candidate for Kanata—Carleton, attracted attention for making negative remarks in a video about Justin Trudeau and francophones, and her relationship with Faith Goldy.[64] She departed a campaign event when confronted by reporters, but later released a statement apologizing for her comments and later stated that her relationship with Goldy ended a longtime ago.[64][65] However, there were pictures of the two together in 2017.[66][67][64]
  • September 17, 2019: Brock Harrison, Scheer's director of communication, and the CPC tweeted that the RCMP had confirmed Trudeau was under investigation for SNC-Lavalin. Scheer himself also repeated the allegation. Both tweets were removed after journalists deemed it to be false.[68][69]

New Democratic[edit]

Several NDP candidates were dropped or stepped down during the course of the campaign. On June 20, 2019, Rana Zaman, candidate for Dartmouth—Cole Harbour, was dropped over comments about the Israeli–Palestinian conflict that the party deemed "unacceptable".[70] On August 16, 2019, Pierre Nantel, candidate for Longueuil—Saint-Hubert, was de-selected after reports surfaced of ongoing discussions regarding Nantel joining the Green Party of Canada.[71] On September 11, 2019, Dock Currie, candidate for Kamloops-Thompson-Cariboo, was forced to resign over "flippant and aggressive" comments he made toward pro-pipeline activists.[72] The next day, Olivier Mathieu, candidate for Lasalle-Emard-Verdun, stepped down following allegations of physical abuse against his ex-spouse.[73]

Bloc Québécois[edit]

On August 9, 2019, Andre Parizeau, Bloc candidate for Ahuntsic-Cartierville, created attention over his past communist affiliations as the leader of Parti communiste du Québec (PCQ).[74] Parizeau disavowed the PCQ in order to be accepted as candidate.[75]


  • July 23, 2019: Brock Grills, Green candidate for Peterborough—Kawartha, stepped down for "personal reasons". Grills was accused of fraud by an former employer but he and the EDA president stated that accusation was not the reason behind his stepping down. Grills, who repeated his reasoning, also mentioned the Green party central office "pushed" for his resignation because he was reaching out to other parties to ask them to adopt policies to curb climate change.[76]
  • August 16, 2019: Luc Saint-Hilaire, Green candidate for Lévis—Lotbinière, was forced to resign because of a Facebook post demanding Boufeldja Benabdallah, co-founder of the Centre Culturel Islamique de Québec, to denounce a man who allegedly lit his ex-wife on fire.[77]
  • September 9, 2019: the Green Party issued a statement insisting that there is "zero chance" of reopening the abortion debate; few hours after May stated the Green Party will not ban members from trying to reopen abortion debate in an interview.[78] May later added that MPs risk being ousted if they move to reopen the debate.[79]
  • September 10–16, 2019: Pierre Nantel, Green candidate for Longueuil—Saint-Hubert, created attention over his comments about Québec separatism on a Quebec radio station. May disputed that Nantel was a Quebec sovereigntist, but Nantel contradicted her afterwards.[80] However, May stated he could be still be a candidate.[81] Some journalists and columnists were confused by her reasoning for keeping him as a candidate.[82][83] Furthermore, May was asked by the son of the late Jack Layton to not use him for political points when defending Nantel.[84]
  • September 10–17, 2019: Mark Vercouteren, Green candidate for Chatham-Kent-Leamington, and Macarena Diab, Green candidate for Louis-Hébert were revealed to made "anti-abortion statements".[85] A spokesperson defended both of them but a few days later, it was revealed by May that Vercoutern was being "re-vetted" over the party not noticing Vercouteren's questionnaires.[81] A few days later, Vercouteren stated his view aligned with the party.[86]
  • September 12, 2019: Erik Schomann, Green candidate for Simcoe North, resigned over a 2007 Facebook post which appeared to suggest he wanted to mail pieces of a pig carcass to Muslims in support of the protesters during the Muhammed comic controversy.[87]
  • September 12, 2019: Dale Dewar, Green candidate for Regina—Qu'Appelle, apologized for making past negative comments on social media about Israel, Zionism and Israelis.[88]


  • July 30, 2019: Cody Payant, People's candidate for Carlton Trail—Eagle Creek, attracted attention for a social media post defending Lindsay Shepherd. Payant argue that it was taken out of context. Bernier defended Payant after he spoke to Payant and was satisfied with his explanation.[89]
  • September 2–4, 2019: Maxime Bernier called Greta Thunberg "mentally unstable" on Twitter.[90] A few days later, he backtracked his comments stating his intention was to criticize her role as "a spokesperson for climate alarmism" and did not mean to denigrate her.[91]
  • September 6, 2019: Ken Pereira, People's candidate for Portneuf-Jacques-Cartier, stepped down because of a "terrible family tragedy". When annouced as the candidate, Pereira attracted attention over his online posts but was defended by the party.[92]
  • September 13, 2019: Brian Misera, People's candidate for Coquitlam-Port Coquitlam, was revoked as a candidate after he allegedly admitted to the party that he was his own financial agent, a violation of Elections Canada rules.[93]
  • September 18, 2019: Steven Fletcher, People's candidate for Charleswood—St. James—Assiniboia—Headingley, denied allegations for illegally using campaign signs and voter data from the Conservative Party.[94]
  • September 19, 2019: Nancy Mercier, People's candidate for Beauséjour, raised concern from local organizations over comments about Islamism and immigration Mercier indicated her concerns are with Islamic terrorism and not members of any race.[95]

Leaders' debates[edit]

The first debate was hosted by Maclean's and Citytv on September 12. Scheer, Singh and May participated. Trudeau declined his invitation.[96][97] An empty podium was left on stage for him.[98][99]

Two official debates will be organized and held by the newly created Leaders' Debates Commission.[100] The English language debate is scheduled to take place on October 7 and the French on October 10.[101][102] Both debates are to take place at the Canadian Museum of History in Gatineau, Quebec.[101][103]

On August 12, 2019, the Commissioner extended invitations for Justin Trudeau, Andrew Scheer, Jagmeet Singh, Elizabeth May and Yves-François Blanchet to attend. He also sent a letter to Maxime Bernier indicating that he did not qualify for the debates at this time, and asking for additional information from the People's Party so that a final decision could be reached by September 16.[104] Bernier criticized the decision saying that it would not be a "real debate" without him.[105] On September 16, the Commission announced that Bernier would be invited to attend the official debates.[106]

The government established rules in 2018 to determine which party leaders are invited to the official debates.[107][108] To be invited a party must satisfy two of the following:

  1. Have at least one member elected under the party's banner;
  2. Nominate candidates to run in at least 90% of all ridings; and
  3. Have captured at least 4% of the votes in the previous election or be considered by the commissioner to have a legitimate chance to win seats in the current election, based on public opinion polls.[107][108]

In November 2018, Minister of Democratic Institutions Karina Gould said that Maxime Bernier would qualify for the debates as leader of the People's Party of Canada if the party nominated candidates in 90% of ridings.[109][102]

Debates and scheduled debates:

Subject Invited Participants Date Organizer Location Notes
Economy, foreign policy, indigenous issues and the environment Liberals; Conservatives; NDP; Greens September 12, 2019 Maclean's and Citytv Toronto The debate was moderated by Paul Wells.[110] Scheer, Singh and May participated. Justin Trudeau did not attend.[111] An empty podium was left on stage for him.[98][99][112] The "At Issue" panel on CBC's The National, praised each of the three leaders' performances. The panel believed that Trudeau's re-election odds would not be negatively affected for missing the debate.[113] Following the debate, some of Mr. Scheer's comments were criticized as misleading, while another comment caused controversy relating to the rights of Indigenous people.[114][115][116]
Foreign Policy Liberals; Conservatives; NDP; Greens October 1, 2019 Munk Debates Roy Thomson Hall, Toronto Munk Debates is calling for a bilingual leaders debate on foreign policy. Andrew Scheer, Jagmeet Singh and Elizabeth May have agreed to attend.[117][118] Trudeau has announced he will not be attending the debate.[96] Maxime Bernier was not invited.[119][120]
Liberals; Conservatives, Bloc and NDP October 2, 2019 TVA Montreal This French language debate is scheduled to occur on October 2, 2019 and be hosted by the Quebec television network, TVA. Trudeau committed to attending, after the date was moved forward from the originally scheduled date of October 16.[121][96][122] Neither Elizabeth May nor Maxime Bernier were invited.[121][123]
General Liberals; Conservatives; Bloc; NDP; Greens; People's October 7, 2019 Leaders' Debates Commission Canadian Museum of History, Gatineau This English language debate will be moderated by Rosemary Barton, Susan Delacourt, Dawna Friesen, Lisa LaFlamme and Althia Raj, each responsible for a portion of the debate.[101][100] It will be produced by the newly formed Canadian Debate Production Partnership, which is made up of the following broadcasters and newspapers: CBC News/Radio-Canada, Global News, CTV News, the Toronto Star, HuffPost Canada/HuffPost Quebec, La Presse, Le Devoir, and L'actualité.[102][103] All parties invited have confirmed their leader will attend.[124] Bernier was not invited at first, but an invitation was later extended on September 16.[104][106]
General Liberals; Conservatives; Bloc; NDP; Greens; People's October 10, 2019 Leaders' Debates Commission Canadian Museum of History, Gatineau This French language debate will be moderated by Patrice Roy, who will be assisted by several journalists from prominent Quebec newspapers.[101][100] It will be produced by the newly formed Canadian Debate Production Partnership, which is made up of the following broadcasters and newspapers: CBC News/Radio-Canada, Global News, CTV News, the Toronto Star, HuffPost Canada/HuffPost Quebec, La Presse, Le Devoir, and L'actualité.[102][103] All parties invited have confirmed their leader will attend.[124] Bernier was not invited at first, but an invitation was later extended on September 16.[104][106]

Other proposed debates:

Subject Invited Participants Date Organizer Location Notes
Climate Change TBD TBD TBD TBD On July 17, protesters gathered in cities across Canada calling for a leaders' debate to be held on the topic of climate change. The protests were directed at CBC News after organizers were told that broadcasters not the commission would determine the questions and topics of the debates. In response to the protests, the CBC released a statement saying that the commission and the editorial group at the broadcaster ultimately selected to host the debates would be responsible for making such determinations.[125][126][127][128] On August 8, 2019, organizers delivered a petition with 48,000 signatures to the CBC.[129]

Parties and standings[edit]

The table below lists parties represented in the House of Commons after the 2015 federal election, and the standings at dissolution.

Name Ideology Leader 2015 result At dissolution
Votes (%) Seats
Liberal Liberalism
Social liberalism
Justin Trudeau 39.47%
184 / 338
177 / 338
Conservative Conservatism
Economic liberalism
Fiscal conservatism
Andrew Scheer 31.89%
99 / 338
95 / 338
New Democratic Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Jagmeet Singh 19.71%
44 / 338
39 / 338
Bloc Québécois Quebec sovereigntism
Social democracy
Yves-François Blanchet 4.66%
10 / 338
10 / 338
Green[a] Green politics
Green liberalism
Elizabeth May 3.45%
1 / 338
2 / 338
People's Conservatism
Libertarianism[citation needed]
Classical liberalism
Maxime Bernier N/A
1 / 338
Co-operative Commonwealth[b] Social democracy N/A N/A
1 / 338
Independents[a] N/A N/A
8 / 338
Vacant seats N/A N/A
5 / 338

Campaign slogans[edit]

Party English French Translation of French (unofficial)
Conservative Party "It's time for you to get ahead."[131] "Plus. Pour vous. Dès maintenant."[132] "More. For you. Starting now."
New Democratic Party "In it for you."[133] "On se bat pour vous"[134] "We Fight for You"
Liberal Party "Choose Forward"[135] "Choisir d'avancer"[136] "Choose to move forward"
Bloc Québécois
"Le Québec, c'est nous"[137] "Quebec, it's us"
Green Party "Not Left. Not Right. Forward Together."[138] "Ni à droite ni à gauche. Vers l'avant ensemble."[139] "Neither rightwards nor leftwards. Forward together."
People's Party "Strong & Free"[140] "Fort et libre" "Strong & Free"

Incumbents not running for reelection[edit]

The following MPs have announced that they will not be running in the next federal election:


Changes in seats held (2015–2019)
Seat Before Change
Date Member Party Reason Date Member Party
Medicine Hat—Cardston—Warner March 23, 2016[183] Jim Hillyer  Conservative Death in office October 24, 2016[184] Glen Motz  Conservative
Nunavut May 31, 2016[185] Hunter Tootoo  Liberal Resigned from caucus[a 1]  Independent
Ottawa—Vanier August 16, 2016[186] Mauril Bélanger  Liberal Death in office April 3, 2017 Mona Fortier  Liberal
Calgary Heritage August 26, 2016[187] Stephen Harper  Conservative Resignation April 3, 2017 Bob Benzen  Conservative
Calgary Midnapore September 23, 2016[188] Jason Kenney  Conservative Resignation[a 2] April 3, 2017 Stephanie Kusie  Conservative
Saint-Laurent January 31, 2017[189] Stéphane Dion  Liberal Resignation[a 3] April 3, 2017 Emmanuella Lambropoulos  Liberal
Markham—Thornhill January 31, 2017 John McCallum  Liberal Resignation[a 4] April 3, 2017 Mary Ng  Liberal
Sturgeon River—Parkland July 4, 2017[190] Rona Ambrose  Conservative Resignation October 23, 2017 Dane Lloyd  Conservative
Lac-Saint-Jean August 9, 2017[191] Denis Lebel  Conservative Resignation October 23, 2017[192] Richard Hébert  Liberal
Calgary Skyview August 31, 2017[193] Darshan Kang  Liberal Resigned from caucus[a 5]  Independent
Scarborough—Agincourt September 14, 2017[194] Arnold Chan  Liberal Death in office December 11, 2017[195] Jean Yip  Liberal
Bonavista—Burin—Trinity September 30, 2017[196] Judy Foote  Liberal Resignation[a 6] December 11, 2017 Churence Rogers  Liberal
South Surrey—White Rock September 30, 2017[197] Dianne Watts  Conservative Resignation[a 7] December 11, 2017 Gordon Hogg  Liberal
Battlefords—Lloydminster October 2, 2017[198] Gerry Ritz  Conservative Resignation December 11, 2017 Rosemarie Falk  Conservative
Chicoutimi—Le Fjord December 1, 2017[199] Denis Lemieux  Liberal Resignation June 18, 2018[200] Richard Martel  Conservative
Terrebonne February 28, 2018[201][202] Michel Boudrias  Bloc Québécois Resigned from caucus  Groupe parl qué
June 6, 2018[203]  Bloc Québécois
Rivière-du-Nord February 28, 2018 Rhéal Fortin  Bloc Québécois Resigned from caucus  Groupe parl qué
September 17, 2018[204]  Bloc Québécois
Mirabel February 28, 2018 Simon Marcil  Bloc Québécois Resigned from caucus  Groupe parl qué
June 6, 2018  Bloc Québécois
Repentigny February 28, 2018 Monique Pauzé  Bloc Québécois Resigned from caucus  Groupe parl qué
September 17, 2018[204]  Bloc Québécois
Bécancour—Nicolet—Saurel February 28, 2018 Louis Plamondon  Bloc Québécois Resigned from caucus  Groupe parl qué
September 17, 2018[204]  Bloc Québécois
Joliette February 28, 2018 Gabriel Ste-Marie  Bloc Québécois Resigned from caucus  Groupe parl qué
September 17, 2018[204]  Bloc Québécois
Montcalm February 28, 2018 Luc Thériault  Bloc Québécois Resigned from caucus  Groupe parl qué
September 17, 2018[204]  Bloc Québécois
Leeds—Grenville—Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes May 2, 2018[205] Gord Brown  Conservative Death in office December 3, 2018[206] Michael Barrett  Conservative
Regina—Lewvan May 3, 2018[207] Erin Weir  New Democratic Removed from caucus[a 8] May 11, 2018[208]  CCF
Outremont August 3, 2018[209] Tom Mulcair  New Democratic Resignation February 25, 2019[210] Rachel Bendayan  Liberal
Beauce August 23, 2018[211] Maxime Bernier  Conservative Resigned from caucus September 14, 2018  People's
Burnaby South September 14, 2018[212] Kennedy Stewart  New Democratic Resignation[a 9] February 25, 2019[210] Jagmeet Singh  New Democratic
Aurora—Oak Ridges—Richmond Hill September 17, 2018[213] Leona Alleslev  Liberal Changed affiliation  Conservative
York—Simcoe September 30, 2018[214] Peter Van Loan  Conservative Resignation February 25, 2019[210] Scot Davidson  Conservative
Parry Sound—Muskoka November 7, 2018[215] Tony Clement  Conservative Resigned from caucus[a 10]  Independent
Brampton East November 30, 2018[216] Raj Grewal  Liberal Resigned from caucus[a 11]  Independent
Nanaimo—Ladysmith January 2, 2019[217] Sheila Malcolmson  New Democratic Resigned[a 12] May 6, 2019[218] Paul Manly  Green
Saint-Léonard—Saint-Michel January 29, 2019[219] Nicola Di Iorio  Liberal Resignation
Kings—Hants February 10, 2019[220] Scott Brison  Liberal Resignation
Whitby March 20, 2019[221] Celina Caesar-Chavannes  Liberal Resigned from caucus  Independent
Markham—Stouffville April 2, 2019[222] Jane Philpott  Liberal Removed from caucus[a 13]  Independent
Vancouver Granville April 2, 2019[222] Jody Wilson-Raybould  Liberal Removed from caucus[a 13]  Independent
Langley—Aldergrove June 20, 2019 Mark Warawa  Conservative Death in office[a 14]
Calgary Forest Lawn August 2, 2019 Deepak Obhrai  Conservative Death in office[a 14]
Longueuil—Saint-Hubert August 16, 2019[223][224] Pierre Nantel  New Democratic Removed from caucus[a 15] August 16, 2019[224]  Independent
  1. ^ to seek treatment for addiction
  2. ^ in order to seek the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta
  3. ^ becoming Ambassador to the European Union
  4. ^ becoming Ambassador to China
  5. ^ amid allegations of sexual harassment
  6. ^ former Minister of Public Services and Procurement
  7. ^ following her entrance into the 2018 British Columbia Liberal Party leadership election
  8. ^ over harassment allegations
  9. ^ to run for Mayor of Vancouver
  10. ^ as a result of a sexting scandal
  11. ^ to seek treatment for a gambling addiction
  12. ^ to run for the provincial district of Nanaimo
  13. ^ a b amid the SNC-Lavalin affair
  14. ^ a b dies due to cancer, while serving as a Conservative MP
  15. ^ will run for Greens in 2019 Canadian federal election






Target seats[edit]

The following is a list of ridings which had been lost by the indicated party in the 2015 election by less than 15%. For instance, under the Liberal column are the 86 seats in which they lost by under 15%, ranked by the percent margin. Listed is the name of the riding, followed by the party which was victorious (in parentheses) and the margin, in terms of percentage of the vote, by which the party lost. Based on a uniform swing, the Conservatives would need to win 71 seats to win a majority, making Chicoutimi—Le Fjord the tipping point riding. Highlighted seats indicate ridings whose incumbents represent a party different from the one elected in 2015.

Liberal Conservative
  1. Barrie—Springwater—Oro-Medonte (Cons) 0.17%
  2. Desnethé—Missinippi—Churchill River (NDP) 0.27%
  3. Pierre-Boucher—Les Patriotes—Verchères (BQ) 0.36%
  4. Kitchener—Conestoga (Cons) 0.53%
  5. Montmagny—L'Islet—Kamouraska—Rivière-du-Loup (Cons) 0.56%
  6. Jonquière (NDP) 0.71%
  7. Hochelaga (NDP) 0.96%
  8. Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot (NDP) 1.10%
  9. Burnaby South (NDP) 1.19%
  10. Longueuil—Saint-Hubert (NDP) 1.21%
  11. Salaberry—Suroît (NDP) 1.25%
  12. Trois-Rivières (NDP) 1.60%
  13. Beloeil—Chambly (NDP) 1.73%
  14. Central Okanagan—Similkameen—Nicola (Cons) 2.35%
  15. Calgary Confederation (Cons) 2.38%
  16. Hamilton Mountain (NDP) 2.40%
  17. South Surrey—White Rock (Cons)4 2.54%
  18. Richmond Centre (Cons) 2.85%
  19. Churchill—Keewatinook Aski (NDP) 3.04%
  20. Carleton (Cons) 3.12%
  21. Simcoe North (Cons) 3.71%
  22. Drummond (NDP) 3.92%
  23. Flamborough—Glanbrook (Cons) 4.34%
  24. Parry Sound—Muskoka (Cons) 4.42%
  25. Chatham-Kent—Leamington (Cons) 4.48%
  26. Elmwood—Transcona (NDP) 4.63%
  27. Kamloops—Thompson—Cariboo (Cons) 4.84%
  28. Abitibi—Baie-James—Nunavik—Eeyou (NDP) 4.88%
  29. Milton (Cons) 4.94%
  30. La Pointe-de-l'Île (BQ) 5.01%
  31. Terrebonne (BQ) 5.02%
  32. Joliette (BQ) 5.08%
  33. Cariboo—Prince George (Cons) 5.15%
  34. Port Moody—Coquitlam (NDP) 5.15%
  35. Beauport—Limoilou (Cons) 5.16%
  36. Huron—Bruce (Cons) 5.23%
  37. Perth—Wellington (Cons) 5.35%
  38. Mirabel (BQ) 5.38%
  39. Rivière-du-Nord (BQ) 5.69%
  40. Algoma—Manitoulin—Kapuskasing (NDP) 5.81%
  41. Markham—Unionville (Cons) 6.04%
  42. London—Fanshawe (NDP) 6.34%
  43. Beauport—Côte-de-Beaupré—Île d'Orléans—Charlevoix (Cons) 6.63%
  44. Leeds—Grenville—Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes (Cons) 6.82%
  45. Richmond—Arthabaska (Cons) 6.90%
  46. Dufferin—Caledon (Cons) 7.17%
  47. Mégantic—L'Érable (Cons) 7.28%
  48. Repentigny (BQ) 7.39%
  49. Haldimand—Norfolk (Cons) 7.55%
  50. Sherbrooke (NDP) 7.57%
  51. Niagara Falls (Cons) 7.60%
  52. Esquimalt—Saanich—Sooke (NDP) 7.66%
  53. Regina—Lewvan (NDP) 7.73%
  54. Bruce—Grey—Owen Sound (Cons) 7.84%
  55. Simcoe—Grey (Cons) 8.00%
  56. Timmins—James Bay (NDP) 8.14%
  57. Chilliwack—Hope (Cons) 8.55%
  58. Langley—Aldergrove (Cons) 9.08%
  59. South Okanagan—West Kootenay (NDP) 9.15%
  60. Montcalm (BQ) 9.29%
  61. Barrie—Innisfil (Cons) 9.30%
  62. North Okanagan—Shuswap (Cons) 9.35%
  63. Durham (Cons) 9.38%
  64. Nanaimo—Ladysmith (NDP)[1] 9.68%
  65. Brantford—Brant (Cons) 10.19%
  66. Outremont (NDP)2 10.65%
  67. Oshawa (Cons) 10.83%
  68. Sarnia—Lambton (Cons) 11.55%
  69. Abitibi—Témiscamingue (NDP) 11.87%
  70. Manicouagan (BQ) 11.88%
  71. Calgary Forest Lawn (Cons) 12.02%
  72. Cowichan—Malahat—Langford (NDP) 12.17%
  73. Hamilton Centre (NDP) 12.17%
  74. York—Simcoe (Cons) 12.48%
  75. Stormont—Dundas—South Glengarry (Cons) 12.51%
  76. Brandon—Souris (Cons) 12.96%
  77. Haliburton—Kawartha Lakes—Brock (Cons) 13.08%
  78. Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke (Cons) 13.17%
  79. Oxford (Cons) 13.48%
  80. Lanark—Frontenac—Kingston (Cons) 14.11%
  81. Wellington—Halton Hills (Cons) 14.42%
  82. Edmonton West (Cons) 14.44%
  83. New Westminster—Burnaby (NDP) 14.49%
  84. Laurier—Sainte-Marie (NDP) 14.61%
  85. North Island—Powell River (NDP) 14.74%
  86. Lac-Saint-Jean (Cons)5 14.83%
  1. Elmwood—Transcona (NDP) 0.14%
  2. Edmonton Mill Woods (Liberal) 0.18%
  3. Regina—Lewvan (NDP) 0.27%
  4. Kootenay—Columbia (NDP) 0.45%
  5. Hastings—Lennox and Addington (Liberal) 0.45%
  6. Calgary Centre (Liberal) 1.22%
  7. Aurora—Oak Ridges—Richmond Hill (Liberal) 2.15%
  8. Edmonton Centre (Liberal) 2.24%
  9. Mission—Matsqui—Fraser Canyon (Liberal) 2.32%
  10. Pitt Meadows—Maple Ridge (Liberal) 2.49%
  11. Newmarket—Aurora (Liberal) 2.57%
  12. Kildonan—St. Paul (Liberal) 2.82%
  13. Whitby (Liberal) 2.86%
  14. York Centre (Liberal) 2.89%
  15. Northumberland—Peterborough South (Liberal) 2.95%
  16. King—Vaughan (Liberal) 3.18%
  17. Coquitlam—Port Coquitlam (Liberal) 3.28%
  18. Oakville North—Burlington (Liberal) 3.41%
  19. Burlington (Liberal) 3.50%
  20. Richmond Hill (Liberal) 3.58%
  21. Fundy Royal (Liberal) 3.79%
  22. Desnethé—Missinippi—Churchill River (NDP) 4.01%
  23. Cambridge (Liberal) 4.52%
  24. Vaughan—Woodbridge (Liberal) 4.85%
  25. New Brunswick Southwest (Liberal) 5.36%
  26. Kitchener South—Hespeler (Liberal) 5.59%
  27. St. Catharines (Liberal) 5.61%
  28. Essex (NDP) 5.73%
  29. Niagara Centre (Liberal) 5.97%
  30. Calgary Skyview(Liberal) 6.13%
  31. Eglinton—Lawrence (Liberal) 6.25%
  32. Kelowna—Lake Country (Liberal) 6.41%
  33. Markham—Stouffville (Liberal) 6.44%
  34. Mississauga—Lakeshore (Liberal) 6.49%
  35. Port Moody—Coquitlam (NDP) 6.58%
  36. Steveston—Richmond East (Liberal) 6.61%
  37. Saskatoon West (NDP) 6.68%
  38. Oakville (Liberal) 6.89%
  39. Kenora (Liberal) 7.04%
  40. Québec (Liberal) 7.11%
  41. South Okanagan—West Kootenay (NDP) 7.44%
  42. Mississauga—Streetsville (Liberal) 7.45%
  43. Louis-Hébert (Liberal) 7.66%
  44. Burnaby South (NDP) 7.96%
  45. Burnaby North—Seymour (Liberal) 8.25%
  46. Peterborough—Kawartha (Liberal) 8.75%
  47. Tobique—Mactaquac (Liberal) 9.59%
  48. Courtenay—Alberni (NDP) 9.84%
  49. Nanaimo—Ladysmith (NDP)[2] 9.85%
  50. Hamilton Mountain (NDP) 10.19%
  51. Mississauga—Erin Mills (Liberal) 10.48%
  52. London West (Liberal) 10.49%
  53. London—Fanshawe (NDP) 10.58%
  54. Cloverdale—Langley City (Liberal) 10.75%
  55. Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot (NDP) 11.92%
  56. Kanata—Carleton (Liberal) 12.08%
  57. Pickering—Uxbridge (Liberal) 12.11%
  58. Jonquière (NDP) 12.30%
  59. Mount Royal (Liberal) 12.46%
  60. Edmonton Strathcona (NDP) 12.68%
  61. Drummond (NDP) 12.72%
  62. Charleswood—St. James—Assiniboia—Headingley (Liberal) 12.98%
  63. Miramichi—Grand Lake (Liberal) 13.00%
  64. Cowichan—Malahat—Langford (NDP) 13.13%
  65. Trois-Rivières (NDP) 13.20%
  66. Don Valley North (Liberal) 13.60%
  67. Sault Ste. Marie (Liberal) 13.63%
  68. Hamilton East—Stoney Creek (Liberal) 13.73%
  69. Scarborough—Agincourt (Liberal) 13.92%
  70. North Island—Powell River (NDP) 14.04%
  71. Chicoutimi—Le Fjord (Liberal)3 14.49%
  72. Vancouver South (Liberal) 14.93%
  73. Brampton Centre (Liberal) 14.97%
New Democratic Bloc Québécois
  1. Chicoutimi—Le Fjord (Liberal)3 1.37%
  2. Mirabel (BQ) 1.41%
  3. St. John's East (Liberal) 1.44%
  4. Kenora (Liberal) 1.62%
  5. Parkdale—High Park (Liberal) 1.80%
  6. Québec (Liberal) 1.86%
  7. Rivière-du-Nord (BQ) 1.91%
  8. Toronto—Danforth (Liberal) 2.17%
  9. Rivière-des-Mille-Îles (Liberal) 2.89%
  10. Davenport (Liberal) 2.90%
  11. Saint-Jean (Liberal) 4.09%
  12. Ottawa Centre (Liberal) 4.12%
  13. Niagara Centre (Liberal) 4.19%
  14. Pitt Meadows—Maple Ridge (Liberal) 4.26%
  15. Pierre-Boucher—Les Patriotes—Verchères (BQ) 4.30%
  16. Kamloops—Thompson—Cariboo (Cons) 4.48%
  17. Montmagny—L'Islet—Kamouraska—Rivière-du-Loup (Cons) 4.79%
  18. Lac-Saint-Jean (Cons)5 4.81%
  19. Nickel Belt (Liberal) 5.02%
  20. Beauport—Limoilou (Cons) 5.10%
  21. Laurentides—Labelle (Liberal) 5.75%
  22. Edmonton Griesbach (Cons) 5.94%
  23. Gaspésie—Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine (Liberal) 6.21%
  24. Hamilton East—Stoney Creek (Liberal) 6.28%
  25. Oshawa (Cons) 6.30%
  26. Burnaby North—Seymour (Liberal) 6.48%
  27. La Pointe-de-l'Île (BQ) 6.82%
  28. Richmond—Arthabaska (Cons) 7.32%
  29. Terrebonne (BQ) 7.40%
  30. Thérèse-De Blainville (Liberal) 7.57%
  31. Joliette (BQ) 7.61%
  32. Sarnia—Lambton (Cons) 7.68%
  33. Montarville (Liberal) 7.86%
  34. Coquitlam—Port Coquitlam (Liberal) 8.03%
  35. Compton—Stanstead (Liberal) 9.47%
  36. Saskatoon—University (Cons) 10.00%
  37. Cariboo—Prince George (Cons) 10.81%
  38. Longueuil—Charles-LeMoyne (Liberal) 11.28%
  39. Acadie—Bathurst (Liberal) 11.31%
  40. Saskatoon—Grasswood (Cons) 11.41%
  41. Repentigny (BQ) 11.42%
  42. Edmonton Centre (Liberal) 12.74%
  43. Montcalm (BQ) 13.16%
  44. Mégantic—L'Érable (Cons) 13.46%
  45. Sackville—Preston—Chezzetcook (Liberal) 13.56%
  46. La Prairie (Liberal) 13.58%
  47. North Okanagan—Shuswap (Cons) 13.70%
  48. Louis-Hébert (Liberal) 14.04%
  49. Thunder Bay—Rainy River (Liberal) 14.36%
  50. Regina—Qu'Appelle (Cons) 14.49%
  51. LaSalle—Émard—Verdun (Liberal) 14.95%
  52. Surrey Centre (Liberal) 14.99%
  1. Salaberry—Suroît (NDP) 2.07%
  2. Laurentides—Labelle (Liberal) 2.35%
  3. Hochelaga (NDP) 3.17%
  4. Beloeil—Chambly (NDP) 3.39%
  5. Longueuil—Saint-Hubert (NDP) 3.95%
  6. Montarville (Liberal) 4.12%
  7. Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot (NDP) 4.37%
  8. Thérèse-De Blainville (Liberal) 5.41%
  9. Jonquière (NDP) 5.90%
  10. Rivière-des-Mille-Îles (Liberal) 6.95%
  11. Drummond (NDP) 7.64%
  12. Saint-Jean (Liberal) 8.35%
  13. Longueuil—Charles-LeMoyne (Liberal) 8.36%
  14. Laurier—Sainte-Marie (NDP) 9.56%
  15. Québec (Liberal) 10.05%
  16. La Prairie (Liberal) 10.22%
  17. Chicoutimi—Le Fjord (Liberal)3 10.57%
  18. Montmagny—L'Islet—Kamouraska—Rivière-du-Loup (Cons) 12.87%
  19. Beauport—Côte-de-Beaupré—Île d'Orléans—Charlevoix (Cons) 14.37%
  20. Richmond—Arthabaska (Cons) 14.39%
  21. Châteauguay—Lacolle (Liberal) 14.74%
  22. Trois-Rivières (NDP) 14.83%
  23. Lac-Saint-Jean (Cons)5 14.90%
  1. Victoria (NDP) 9.36%
  2. Nanaimo—Ladysmith (NDP)1 13.44%
  1. ^ The Green Party won this seat in a by-election on May 9, 2019.
  2. ^ The Liberal Party won this seat in a by-election of February 25, 2019.
  3. ^ The Conservative Party won this seat in a by-election on June 18, 2018.
  4. ^ The Liberal Party won this seat in a by-election on December 11, 2017.
  5. ^ The Liberal Party won this seat in a by-election on October 23, 2017.

Opinion polls[edit]

Evolution of voting intentions according to polls conducted during campaign period of the 2019 Canadian federal election, graphed from the data in the table below. Trendlines are local regressions, with polls weighted by proximity in time and a logarithmic function of sample size. 95% confidence ribbons represent uncertainty about the trendlines, not the likelihood that actual election results would fall within the intervals.
Evolution of voting intentions during the pre-campaign period of the 43rd Canadian federal election. Trendlines are local regressions, with polls weighted by proximity in time and a logarithmic function of sample size. 95% confidence ribbons represent uncertainty about the regressions, not the likelihood that actual election results would fall within the intervals. – Source code for plot generation is available here.[264]


Election spending[edit]

Before the campaign, there are no limits to what a political party, candidate, or third party (corporations, unions, special interest groups, etc.) can spend: spending rules are only in force after the writs have been dropped and the campaign has begun.[265]

Reimbursements for political parties and candidates[edit]

Political parties receive a reimbursement for 50 per cent of their election expenses during the writ period. Similarly, electoral district associations receive a reimbursement of 60 per cent of their election expenses during the writ period. Both reimbursements are publicly funded.[266]

Registered third parties[edit]

A person or group must register as a third party immediately after incurring election advertising expenses totalling $500 or more.[267] There are strict limits on advertising expenses, and specific limits that can be incurred to promote or oppose the election of one or more candidates in a particular electoral district. Registered third parties are subject to an election advertising expenses limit of $150,000. Of that amount, no more than $8,788 can be incurred to promote or oppose the election of one or more candidates in a particular electoral district.[268]

Elections Canada climate change advertising warning[edit]

On August 19, 2019, some environmental groups were warned by Elections Canada that any third party that promotes information about climate change during the election period could be deemed to be engaging in partisan activity.[269] Registered charities with a charitable tax status would be required to register as a third party for the election if they engaged in any partisan activity incurring $500, which would include advertising and surveys, or otherwise risk their charitable tax status.[270] These regulations are due to People's Party of Canada leader Maxime Bernier expressing doubts about the legitimacy of climate change, because a third party that advertises the dangers of climate change during the election period may be considered to be indirectly advocating against the People's Party.[270] After confusion about the warning, Elections Canada released a public statement to clarify that the prohibition applied only to advertising, not speech in general the following day.[271]

True North Strong & Free Advertising Corp. billboard[edit]

On August 25, 2019, billboards purchased by a True North Strong & Free Advertising Corp., a third party promoting the People's Party of Canada's immigration policy, with the text "Say NO to Mass Immigration" appeared in Vancouver, Calgary, Regina, and Halifax. True North Strong & Free Advertising Corp is run by Frank Smeenk, the chief executive of a Toronto-based mining exploration company. The Peoples Party of Canada told the media that it had no contact with the group.[272] Initially, Pattison Outdoor Advertising defended the billboards, arguing that they complied with the Advertising Standards Canada Code[273] but later decided to pull them and said that they would review their protocols on advocacy advertising.[274] The Pattison president later revealed that the billboards would have stayed up had True North Strong & Free identified themselves on the billboards and how the public could get in touch with them.[275]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Following his removal from the NDP caucus, Pierre Nantel sat as an Independent until the writ was dropped, but will run as a Green Party candidate on Federal election day.[130]
  2. ^ Erin Weir designated himself as a member of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation following his expulsion from the NDP caucus. The CCF is not a registered party and Weir's designation exists only in a parliamentary, not electoral, sense. See: Co-operative Commonwealth Federation#2018
  3. ^ The House of Commons allows members to choose their own affiliation; Weir chose to revive the CCF name when he was ejected from the NDP caucus.


  1. ^ Though parties registered with Elections Canada can field candidates in any riding they wish, the Bloc Québécois has never fielded candidates outside of Quebec (78 seats)
  2. ^ a b "Bloc Québécois' new leader: Who is Martine Ouellet?". The Gazette. Montreal. March 14, 2017. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
  3. ^ a b Tunney, Catharine (June 4, 2018). "Embattled Bloc Québécois leader Martine Ouellet resigns". CBC News. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Yves-François Blanchet becomes Bloc Québécois leader". CBC News. January 17, 2019. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Kirkup, Kristy (April 10, 2016). "NDP rejects Mulcair as leader, votes in support of holding leadership race". Ottawa Citizen. The Canadian Press. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  6. ^ a b Kirkup, Kristy (October 1, 2017). "Jagmeet Singh named leader of the federal NDP". CTV News. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Beeby, Dean (April 18, 2019). "PBO launches new service to cost out party platforms, despite the political risks". CBC News. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  8. ^ John Geddes. "Can Justin Trudeau fix the vote with electoral reform?". Maclean's. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  9. ^ "Justin Trudeau unveils Liberal platform". CBC Player. January 6, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  10. ^ Liberal Caucus. "PRIORITY RESOLUTION: RESTORING TRUST IN CANADA'S DEMOCRACY". Liberal.ca. Liberal Party of Canada. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  11. ^ "Mulcair Promises Proportional Representation If NDP Wins". HuffPost. January 2, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  12. ^ a b c Wherry, Aaron (December 1, 2016). "Electoral reform committee recommends referendum on proportional representation, but Liberals disagree". CBC News.
  13. ^ Bryden, Joan (December 1, 2016). "Liberal MPs urge Prime Minister to break promise of new voting system by next election". Ottawa Citizen.
  14. ^ Special Committee on Electoral Reform. "Mandate". ourcommons.ca. House of Commons of Canada. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  15. ^ Wherry, Aaron. "Trudeau government abandons promise of electoral reform". CBC News. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  16. ^ Kirkup, Kristy (February 10, 2017). "Trudeau defends electoral reform decision, citing fear of political discord". The Globe and Mail. The Canadian Press. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  17. ^ Authier, Philip (September 4, 2019). "CAQ MNAs not allowed to take sides in federal election: Quebec premier". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  18. ^ "Jason Kenney: MLAs encouraged to stump for Scheer on own time and dime". Edmonton. September 11, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  19. ^ "Premier Moe says he won't endorse anyone in federal election". CBC News. September 3, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  20. ^ a b Flanagan, Ryan (September 18, 2019). "Where are the premiers? Most provincial leaders mum on federal campaign". Federal Election 2019. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  21. ^ Tunney, Catherine. "RCMP looking at SNC-Lavalin affair 'carefully,' promise to take actions 'as required'". cbc.ca. CBC News. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  22. ^ Vigliotti, Marco; Pinkerton, Charlie; Johnson, Kelsey (April 2, 2019). "Jody Wilson-Raybould, Jane Philpott removed from Liberal caucus". iPolitics. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
  23. ^ DiManno, Rosie (August 24, 2019). "Rosie DiManno: Liberals should be ashamed for dredging up Andrew Scheer same-sex marriage speech". The Hamilton Spectator.
  24. ^ Selley, Chris (August 23, 2019). "Chris Selley: Goodale's same-sex-marriage gambit is staggeringly arrogant and hypocritical". National Post.
  25. ^ white-crummey, Arthur (August 23, 2019). ['I too have evolved': Goodale wants clarity from Scheer on LGBTQ positions "'I too have evolved': Goodale wants clarity from Scheer on LGBTQ positions"] Check |url= value (help). Regina Leader-Post.
  26. ^ Zimonjic, Peter. "Liberals dump Quebec candidate after B'nai Brith, Conservatives allege anti-Semitic comments Social Sharing".
  27. ^ "Saint-Léonard: un ex-député libéral outré par la candidature d'un non-Italien". La Presse (in French). June 12, 2019. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
  28. ^ "Montreal city councillor replaces former imam Hassan Guillet as Liberal candidate". Montreal Gazette. September 10, 2019.
  29. ^ "Sameer Zuberi chosen as Liberal candidate for Pierrefonds-Dollard". CBC News. September 17, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  30. ^ Arnold, Janice (September 18, 2019). "Liberals stand by Montreal candidate accused of 'anti-Semitic past'". The Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  31. ^ "Justin Trudeau Wore Brownface at 2001 'Arabian Nights' Party While He Taught at a Private School, Canada's Liberal Party Admits". Time. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  32. ^ "Trudeau says he is 'deeply sorry' he appeared in brownface at school gala in 2001 | CBC News".
  33. ^ a b "Third instance of Trudeau in skin-darkening makeup emerges — new video said to have been filmed in '90s". The National Post. September 19, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  34. ^ "Exclusive: Video shows Trudeau in blackface in 3rd instance of racist makeup - National | Globalnews.ca". globalnews.ca. September 19, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  35. ^ "Justin Trudeau speaks after racist photo: Live updates". www.cnn.com. September 19, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  36. ^ a b Wright, Heather (September 19, 2019). "Trudeau: "I recognize it is something absolutely unacceptable to do. I appreciate calling it makeup, but it was blackface...and that is just not right."". @HeatherCTV. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  37. ^ Harris, Kathleen (September 19, 2019). "'What I did hurt them': Trudeau apologizes to racialized Canadians over blackface scandal". CBC News. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  38. ^ Strader, Matthew (April 25, 2019). "Harzadan Khattra out as Dufferin-Caledon Conservative MP candidate". CaledonEnterprise.com. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
  39. ^ "GOLDSTEIN: Scheer and Conservatives running scared | Toronto Sun". June 29, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  40. ^ July 10 (July 10, 2019). "King stripped of Tory nomination". North Bay Nugget. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  41. ^ "Rota reacts to King controversy". BayToday.ca. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
  42. ^ Dillon, Moya (July 10, 2019). "Pickering-Uxbridge Conservatives split over federal nomination". DurhamRegion.com. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  43. ^ Times, The Hill (March 25, 2019). "Former Ontario Conservative MP Chisu to run as a People's Party candidate in upcoming election". The Hill Times. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  44. ^ Politics, Canadian (July 24, 2019). "Her run for the Ontario PCs ended after she tweeted about Islam, but Ghada Melek is now a federal Conservative candidate | National Post". Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  45. ^ Keri, Been (August 5, 2019). "Muslim group calls on Conservative candidate to step down over social media posts". Global News.
  46. ^ Cornwell, Steve (September 13, 2019). "Scheer on the defensive over past anti-LGBTQ posts by Mississauga and Brampton Conservative candidates". bramptonguardian.com.
  47. ^ Aiello, Rachel (September 14, 2019). "Tory candidate Scheer defended deemed 'extremely controversial and problematic' in 2016 vetting report". ctvnews. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  48. ^ Sachedina, Omar (September 14, 2019). "I asked Scheer about this story by colleagues @glen_mcgregor and @rachaiello - He stands by Ghada Malek - Says she has accepted responsibility - Doesn't see an issue with vetting procedures even though Ontario PCs red-flagged herhttps://election.ctvnews.ca/mobile/tory-candidate-scheer-defended-deemed-extremely-controversial-and-problematic-in-2016-vetting-report-1.4593683 …". @omarsachedina. Retrieved September 19, 2019. External link in |title= (help)
  49. ^ "Andrew Scheer urged to end 'boycott' of gay pride events after 2005 speech on same-sex marriage comes to light | The Star". thestar.com. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
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