2019 European Parliament election in France

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2019 European Parliament election in France

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All 79 French seats in the European Parliament
Opinion polls
  Paris - La Manif pour Tous - 20141005 - 43 (cropped).jpg Raphaël Glucksmann-1040808 (cropped).jpg
Leader Jordan Bardella François-Xavier Bellamy Raphaël Glucksmann
Party RN LR PSPP
Alliance ENF EPP PES
Last election 24 seats, 24.86% 20 seats, 20.81% 13 seats, 13.98%
Current seats 15 16 7

  Yannick Jadot against Miguel Canete (15395546666) (cropped).jpg Manon Aubry (cropped).jpg
Leader TBD Yannick Jadot Manon Aubry
Party REMMoDem
AgirMR
EELV FI
Alliance Greens/EFA MLP
Last election New
(L'Alternative)
6 seats, 8.95% New
(FG)
Current seats 8 6 2

  Nicolas Dupont-Aignan Palais Bourbon 2017 (cropped).jpg Benoît Hamon place de République plan serré (cropped).jpg Ian BROSSAT 2017 (cropped).jpg
Leader Nicolas Dupont-Aignan Benoît Hamon Ian Brossat
Party DLF Génération.s PCF
Alliance ECR DiEM25 GUE/NGL
Last election 0 seats, 3.82% New 4 seats, 6.33%
(FG)
Current seats 2 3 3

The 2019 European Parliament election in France will be held on 26 May 2019, electing members of the 9th French delegation to the European Parliament as part of the European elections held across the European Union. The election will feature two major changes since the 2014 election, with the abolition of regional constituencies and return to national lists in addition to the increase in the number of French seats from 74 to 79 after the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union.

It will be the first national election in France since the election of Emmanuel Macron as president of France and therefore the first major electoral test of his presidency, approaching amid low approval ratings for Macron and his government. While all other major political movements have already selected their lead candidates, La République En Marche! has yet to designate one. It will remain allied with the Democratic Movement (MoDem) in the election, as well as the newly-founded party Agir, but will not have the support of the Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI), which will present an independent list.

Several lead candidates are notable for their youth: at 23 years of age, Jordan Bardella will lead the list of the National Rally (RN), while 29-year-old Manon Aubry will lead that of La France Insoumise and 33-year-old François-Xavier Bellamy was selected to lead the list of The Republicans (LR). Party leaders, meanwhile, will remain largely absent, though Nicolas Dupont-Aignan hopes to lead Debout la France (DLF) to an electoral breakthrough in an election in which souverainist and Eurosceptic parties traditionally perform strongly.

With the political landscape on the left fractured between numerous parties and movements, several will be at risk of falling short of 5% electoral threshold to secure seats. Threatened by their electoral weakness, the Socialist Party (PS), French Communist Party (PCF), and Génération.s (the movement of former PS presidential candidate Benoît Hamon) each called for unity on the left, but failed to cement any alliances. At the same time, Jean-Luc Mélenchon ruled out alliances with the other main parties on the left and Yannick Jadot, lead candidate for Europe Ecology – The Greens, categorically ruled out the party's participation in any common list. After failed efforts to create a common list on the left, the Socialist Party rallied behind Raphaël Glucksmann, who founded Place Publique in an attempt to unite the various chapels of the left, meaning that the PS will not lead an autonomous list for the first time since 1979, the year of the first European Parliament elections.

Following the gilets jaunes protests, several parties sought to incorporate figures from the movement into their electoral lists, in addition to numerous efforts by some figures within the movement to present their own list in the election.

Background[edit]

European Parliament constituencies of France in the 2014 election

Starting from the 2004 European Parliament election, France was divided into eight large regional electoral constituencies for the purposes of European Parliament elections with members elected by proportional representation. The electoral system changed ahead of the 2019 election, with broad support in the French political class for a return to a national vote.[1] On 29 November, Prime Minister Édouard Philippe announced that all parties consulted except for The Republicans supported returning to national lists, and confirmed the intention of the government to prepare a bill to change the voting system to that end,[2] which was bill was officially unveiled on 3 January 2018,[3] preserving the 5% threshold for representation and 3% for reimbursement of campaign expenses. The possibility of transnational lists following the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union was also considered.[2] The return to national lists in effect benefits smaller parties which were previously disadvantaged by the system of large regional constituencies, while larger parties would win fewer seats.[2]

On 23 January 2018, the European Parliament Committee on Constitutional Affairs adopted a proposal to reduce the size of the hemicycle from 751 to 705, splitting 27 former British seats between 14 underrepresented member states of which France was set to gain 5, increasing its representation from 74 to 79.[4] On 7 February, the European Parliament voted 368 to 274 against the principle of reallocating British seats to transnational lists, though the idea's fate was ultimately in the hands of the European Council.[5] In France, the bill creating a single national constituency was approved by a vote the National Assembly vote on the first reading on 20 February 2018,[6] and the Senate officially adopted the bill on 23 May 2018,[7] which was promulgated on 25 June after its validation by the Constitutional Council.[8] The speaking time for each of the parties was also amended to be proportional to the size of parliamentary groups in the National Assembly, a change criticized by the opposition, which believed that the reallocation favored the governing majority.[9]

As the European elections are scheduled from 23 to 26 May 2019 and French votes are traditionally held on Sundays, the next European election in France will be held on 26 May 2019.[10] Declarations of lists and candidacies must be submitted between 23 April and 3 May 2019, while voting in the overseas territories will officially take place on 25 May 2019.[11]

On 23 September 2018, the national congress of the Association of Rural Mayors of France (Association des maires ruraux de France, or AMRF) announced that they would refuse to directly transmit the results of the elections to the state on the night of the election to voice their discontent with the lack of attention given by the government to rural policy.[12]

The 3 February 2019 edition of Le Journal du Dimanche revealed that Macron was interested in holding a referendum concurrent with the European elections on 26 May to conclude the grand débat national (great national debate) and end the gilets jaunes protests.[13] The opposition, suspicious about the referendum's timing, expressed skepticism, and the idea also lacked support from members of the government.[14]

Debates[edit]

On 4 April, France 2 will hold a debate between the lead candidates on L'Émission politique, hosted by Léa Salamé and Thomas Sotto in partnership with France Inter.[15] On 23 May, the lead candidates will again convene in an event hosted by franceinfo and the think tank Terra Nova. The official campaign for the European elections will commence on 13 May.[16]

Date Organizers Moderators  P  Present  I  Invitee  NI  Non-invitee Notes
PCF FI G.s PS EELV REM MoDem UDI LR DLF RN LP UPR
4 April France 2, France Inter Thomas Sotto I
Brossat
I
Aubry
NI
Hamon
I
Glucksmann
I
Jadot
I
TBD
I
Lagarde
I
Bellamy
I
Dupont-Aignan
I
Bardella
NI
Philippot
NI
Asselineau
[15][17][18][19]
10 April CNews
Europe 1
Laurence Ferrari
Matthieu Belliard
TBD
Roussel
TBD
Mélenchon
TBD
Hamon
TBD
Faure
TBD
Cormand
TBD
Guerini
TBD
Bayrou
TBD
Lagarde
TBD
Wauquiez
TBD
Dupont-Aignan
TBD
Le Pen
TBD
Philippot
TBD
Asselineau
[18][20]
23 May franceinfo, Terra Nova,
Les Échos
TBD
Brossat
TBD
Aubry
TBD
Hamon
TBD
Glucksmann
TBD
Jadot
TBD
TBD
TBD
Lagarde
TBD
Bellamy
TBD
Dupont-Aignan
TBD
Bardella
TBD
Philippot
TBD
Asselineau
[16][21]
23 May BFM TV TBD
Brossat
TBD
Aubry
TBD
Hamon
TBD
Glucksmann
TBD
Jadot
TBD
TBD
TBD
Lagarde
TBD
Bellamy
TBD
Dupont-Aignan
TBD
Bardella
TBD
Philippot
TBD
Asselineau
[22]

Outgoing delegation[edit]

Distribution of MEPs by European Parliament group as of 19 March 2019
Distribution of MEPs by national party as of 19 March 2019

The table below shows the composition of the delegation of France to the European Parliament as of 19 March 2019.[23] MEPs marked with an asterisk (*) are not standing as candidates, while those marked with two asterisks (**) have not made their intentions public but have not appeared on a list of candidates published by their respective party.

Party Seats Group Seats MEPs
LR 16 EPP 20
DVD 2
Agir 2
RN 14 ENF 15
RBM 1
PS 7 S&D 12
G.s 3
REM 1
RG 1
MoDem 2 ALDE 7
MR 2
UDI 1
REM 1
GC 1
EELV 5 Greens/EFA 6
DVE 1
DLF 2 EFDD 6
LP 2
SE 1
LFL 1
PCF 2 GUE/NGL 5
FG 1
FIUOM 1
GRS 1
RN 1 NI 3
CJ 1
SE 1

Parties and lists[edit]

The table below summarizes the current positions of parties with regard to the 2019 European elections in France.

Party Lead candidate Independent
list
List Speculative
list leaders
Declined/rejected
list leaders
Lutte Ouvrière (LO) Nathalie Arthaud Yes 79/79
New Anticapitalist Party (NPA) TBD TBD (24 Mar 2019) TBD
French Communist Party (PCF)
Ian Brossat Yes 79/79
La France Insoumise (FI)
Manon Aubry Yes 79/79
Génération.s Benoît Hamon Yes 30/79
Place Publique (PP)
Raphaël Glucksmann Yes TBD
Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV)
Yannick Jadot Yes 79/79
La République En Marche! (REM)
TBD (26 Mar 2019) Yes TBD (26 Mar 2019) Nathalie Loiseau
Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI) Jean-Christophe Lagarde Yes TBD (Mar 2019)
The Republicans (LR)
François-Xavier Bellamy Yes 26/79
Les Amoureux de la France
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan Yes TBD (25 Mar 2019)
National Rally (RN) Jordan Bardella Yes 12/79
The Patriots (LP) Florian Philippot Yes TBD
Popular Republican Union (UPR) François Asselineau Yes TBD
Résistons! Jean Lassalle Yes TBD
Other parties and movements
Urgence Écologie
Dominique Bourg Yes TBD (Mar 2019)
Animalist Party (PA) TBD Yes 69/79
Souveraineté, Identité et Libertés (SIEL) Renaud Camus Yes TBD
Union of French Muslim Democrats (UDMF) Nagib Azergui Yes TBD
Union of Democrats and Ecologists (UDE) Maybe alliances
Movement of Progressives (MdP) Maybe alliances
Radical Party of the Left (PRG) Maybe alliances

Lutte Ouvrière[edit]

The leadership of the New Anticapitalist Party (NPA) initially voted in favor of a common list with Lutte Ouvrière (LO) with its national political council on 6 and 7 October 2018 voting 37–22 (with 5 abstentions and 10 non-participants) in favor of an alliance in the 2019 European elections;[25] however, in November 2018, the parties acknowledged the failure to arrive to an agreement for a common list.[26] The annual party congress of Lutte Ouvrière on 8 and 9 December voted to present an autonomous list, with spokeswoman and former presidential candidate Nathalie Arthaud announcing that she would be its lead candidate.[27] Arthaud said the party refused an alliance with the NPA because the interests of workers were not a priority for the latter, and because she did not want to run a campaign on "all the struggles that can be fought, from ecology to feminism".[28]

New Anticapitalist Party[edit]

While the New Anticapitalist Party (NPA) initially sought to ally with Lutte Ouvrière (LO), with its national political council of 6 and 7 October 2018 approving of the principle of an alliance with by a 37–22 vote (with 5 abstentions and 10 non-participants),[25] talks broke down in November 2018.[26] On 28 January, the NPA indicated that it would attempt to present a list despite its serious financial difficulties,[29] soliciting donations from its members, and its leadership will decide at its meeting on 24 March whether to contest the European elections.[30] On 18 February, the party reiterated its desire to be present in the elections, but would need a million euros to ensure its ability to do so.[31]

French Communist Party[edit]

On 1 December 2017, Pierre Laurent, national secretary of the French Communist Party (PCF), stated that he wanted to gather "the strongest possible left group" for the 2019 European elections, launching an appeal to Jean-Luc Mélenchon of La France Insoumise and Benoît Hamon of Génération.s.[33] The national council of the PCF on 30 and 31 March approved the principle of a "common platform" including various left-wing groups as well as members of civil society and intellectuals, postponing the question of the party's strategy and potential alliances.[34] On 3 June, Ian Brossat, deputy for housing to Socialist mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo, was selected as the leader of the PCF list in the 2019 European elections.[35] On 14 June, the PCF called for a common list of the left in an open letter addressed to parties on the left, excluding the Socialist Party (PS).[36] On 17 December, Brossat indicated that he hoped to have gilets jaunes on his electoral list in 2019.[37] Fabien Roussel, recently elected leader of the party, indicated that he did not necessarily support the idea of a common list given disagreements between parties on the left, and also indicated that an alliance with Hamon would only occur under a list led by Brossat.[38]

On 26 January, the PCF officially unveiled its list of 79 candidates, to be approved by party members in a vote from 31 January to 2 February. It includes two incumbent MEPs (Patrick Le Hyaric and Marie-Pierre Vieu), trade unionist Marie-Hélène Bourlard in second position (featured in the documentary film Merci patron! by sitting France Insoumise deputy François Ruffin), and is half composed of workers.[39]

La France Insoumise[edit]

At the convention of his movement on 25 November 2017, Jean-Luc Mélenchon announced that La France Insoumise would present a list in 2019 under the banner of L’Europe Insoumise. He added that he considered the 2019 elections a "referendum on the European question", saying "we must break the chains, exit the European budgetary treaties". He also speculated about a possible alliance with Podemos in Spain and other European parties,[41] with the movement negotiating an alliance with Podemos and the Portuguese Left Bloc in Lisbon on 12 April.[42] At the national level, Mélenchon continued to refuse any alliance with either Hamon's movement or the French Communist Party (PCF).[43] Mélenchon intended to make the election a duel between his party and that of Macron with a souverainist message,[44] representing a rebuke to both the European Commission and NATO.[45] Mélenchon announced on 11 March 2018 that he himself would not be a candidate.[46]

The movement published an unordered list of candidates on 5 June, with Charlotte Girard and Manuel Bompard guaranteed spots as the presumptive list leaders,[48] in first and second position, respectively,[49] and Younous Omarjee as the sole incumbent MEP. The movement received 637 applications, of which 506 were submitted by men and 131 by women; the electoral committee then ensured the social, geographic, and political parity of the applicants, though only one blue-collar worker applied and Île-de-France was overrepresented among applicants. The resulting list was then submitted to adherents of the movement for feedback until July,[48] when the list was ranked,[49] with another 9 spots on the list left empty for members of civil society and trade unions and associations.[48] On 4 July, following a meeting of the electoral committee on 30 June, the movement published an updated list consisting of 66 candidates, with 13 spots reserved for members of civil society.[50]

The list produced by the electoral committee was met with criticism by dissatisfied activists, including Liêm Hoang-Ngoc of the "insubordinate Socialists", who "suspended" his movement's participation; former electoral committee member Lilian Guelfi, who denounced alleged favoritism by Manuel Bompard; and Sarah Soilihi and François Cocq, who withdrew their candidacies following its publication.[51] Djordje Kuzmanovic later quit the movement in November following his removal from the list after sexist remarks.[52] Nevertheless, the consultation of activists from 4 to 20 July resulted in its approval by 86.97% of participants.[53] After Emmanuel Maurel and Marie-Noëlle Lienemann announced their departure from the PS in mid-October, Mélenchon indicated that they might receive places on the FI list.[54] Maurel and Lienemann formed a new political party close to the Citizen and Republican Movement (MRC), the Republican and Socialist Left (GRS), in early 2019.[55] On 15 October, MRC president Jean-Luc Laurent announced an alliance with Maurel and Linemann create a common list with La France Insoumise,[56] later reaffirmed by Mélenchon. Maurel also announced that he would leave the social democratic group in the European Parliament.[57]

On 15 November, Girard confirmed that she would neither lead the list nor be a candidate in 2019, and appeared to imply that she was sidelined within the movement.[58] On 9 December,[40] the movement officially voted approve a list of 79 candidates and designate Manon Aubry, a 29-year-old tax evasion specialist and spokeswoman at Oxfam France, as its lead candidate. Manuel Bompard, campaign director, was second on the list, followed by Leïla Chaibi and outgoing MEP Younous Omarjee. Emmanuel Maurel, who quit the PS for an alliance with the movement, was sixth on its list, with Mélenchon appearing on the list in the symbolic penultimate position and Girard in the final 79th position.[59] According to Aubry, their list included several active gilets jaunes.[60] As in the 2017 presidential campaign, the movement used holograms to hold virtual meetings in 471 small towns throughout France.[61]

Génération.s[edit]

On 21 January 2018, Benoît Hamon announced alongside former Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis that Génération.s would contest the 2019 European elections, intending to create lists with a common anti-austerity program across Europe.[63] On 10 March, Hamon called for the creation of the "first pan-European transnational list" alongside Razem in Poland, The Alternative in Denmark, and LIVRE in Portugal, with a common manifesto published in June.[64] The movement communicated with the Greens and PCF, even if the possibility of an alliance between the three was unlikely.[34]

Hamon sought to invite Élise Lucet, host of Cash Investigation on France 2, to lead the movement's list in the European elections; however, Lucet insisted that she would remain free of any political allegiance.[65] Audrey Pulvar was also contacted, but indicated that she was not interested,[66] as did Christiane Taubira.[67] Noël Mamère remained a possible "consensus candidate" in an alliance with the Greens, given his membership of both formations,[68] but announced on 25 June that he would not run in the European elections.[69] On 29 October, the movement launched its call for applications for prospective candidates from civil society,[70] receiving between 300 and 400 applications.[71]

In an interview published in Le Monde on 6 December, Hamon confirmed that he would be the lead candidate of a "citizen alliance",[72] but on 7 January 2019 closed the door to an alliance with the PS, citing its membership of the Party of European Socialists (PES).[73] Le Journal du Dimanche reported that top candidates would also include MEPs Guillaume Balas and Isabelle Thomas, ex-La France Insoumise member Sarah Soilihi, spokeswoman Aurore Lalucq, and community activist Salah Amokrane.[74] In mid-November, incumbent MEP, Édouard Martin confirmed that he would not seek a second term.[75] In an interview published in the 8 February edition of Le Monde, Hamon proposed that the left hold a "citizen vote" in April to select a common list and program,[76] though only New Deal, the Radicals of the Left, and the Movement of Progressives indicated any interest in his proposal.[77] After the failure of the initiative, Hamon announced on 23 February that he would lead the Génération.s list,[78] and revealed the first thirty candidates on the list at an event in Paris on 26 February.[79] Lalucq later quit the list, announcing on 18 March that she would join Place Publique.[80]

Socialist Party[edit]

According to a piece published in Le Figaro on 22 November 2017, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem sought to lead the Socialist Party (PS) list in the 2019 European elections conditional on her participation in the leadership election, but party members, including Olivier Faure, denied this report,[81] and she ultimately declined to stand as a candidate.[82] Pierre Moscovici was frequently suggested as a potential PS list leader,[44] though many within the party opposed his candidacy,[83] and he confirmed would not seek to become the lead candidate on 4 October 2018.[84] On 11 February, Stéphane Le Foll ruled out leading the list even if elected to lead the party,[85] as did Faure after his election as First Secretary of the PS.[86] Christiane Taubira also reportedly declined when offered to lead the list.[34] Christian Eckert also signaled that he was "available" to lead the PS list,[87] but later declined to run,[88] though Julien Dray declared his candidacy.[89]

On 7 August, Le Figaro revealed that Faure approached Paul Magnette, former leader of the Belgian Socialist Party, to lead the French PS list;[90] Magnette, however, declined on 17 August, citing his continued desire to run for re-election as mayor of Charleroi in the 2018 elections.[91] Emmanuel Maurel was also reportedly approached to lead the list,[92] and did not rule out the possibility at the time.[93] Ex-president François Hollande was also approached to lead the list but declined,[94] as did ex-prime minister Bernard Cazeneuve.[95] On 8 October, Le Figaro reported that outgoing MEP Éric Andrieu was a candidate to lead the PS list,[96] as was Christine Revault d'Allonnes, who announced her candidacy on 11 October.[97] Gabrielle Siry,[98] Ségolène Neuville, and Sylvie Guillaume are also considered potential list leaders.[99] In early October, Faure sought to ask Ségolène Royal to lead the list,[100] but she definitively ruled out the possibility on 4 November,[101] but also entertained the possibility of leading her own list on the left.[102] Jean-Christophe Cambadélis was also solicited, but declined as well.[103] The PS received 215 applications from party officials by 26 October, with an electoral committee presided over by Pierre Jouvet to evaluate potential heads of lists and candidates.[104]

In preparation for the elections, the PS began drafting its platform in May.[83] A "digital collaborative platform", laruchesocialiste.fr, was launched for the occasion and allowed supporters to submit and vote on proposals for Europe,[86] but only elicited 337 responses from 272 people in two months.[105] Disagreements on the left wing of the party on the final form of the program persisted through September, despite commitments to create a left-wing and ecologist "intergroup" in the European Parliament, halt any new free trade treaties, and vote against the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with Canada. The text marked a new approach for the PS, arguing in favor of more social and environmental controls in trade agreements, a revision of the European treaties led by the left, and greater leniency on competition law to favor a "European champion of energy".[106] Faure also affirmed that the PS would not support the candidacy of Frans Timmermans as Spitzenkandidat.[106] In an interview with Le Monde published on 12 October, Maurel quit the PS and castigated its failure to represent socialism,[107] soon followed by Marie-Noëlle Lienemann the following day,[108] with the creating a new left-wing party in early 2019, the Republican and Socialist Left (GRS), associated with Citizen and Republican Movement (MRC).[55]

On 15 December 2018, at the ending of a meeting of the national council of the PS, Faure for the first time proposed that the party participate in a "rally" of forces on the left[109] After Royal ruled out standing as a candidate of a common list on 11 January,[110] Faure indicated he would be ready to lead a PS list if necessary.[111] Raphaël Glucksmann, who co-founded Place Publique in an effort to unite the left, was reportedly offered the position of lead candidate.[112] On 13 February, the national office of the party approved of Faure's plans to seek an alliance with Place Publique,[113] and Glucksmann officially announced his intention to lead a list in the European elections on 15 March; as a result, France 2 journalist Léa Salamé will temporarily retire due to her conflict of interest resulting from her relationship with him.[114] On 16 March, the national council of the PS voted to designate Glucksmann as lead candidate, with 128 votes in favor, 5 against, and 35 abstensions (including Le Foll and Carvounas). The list will be composed of half PS candidates and half those of Place Publique and figures from civil society, as well as other political political parties, and will require the approval of a membership vote on 2 April.[115] This will be the first time since 1979 the PS will lead its own list in the European elections.[116] The decision to ally with the PS prompted Thomas Porcher to depart Place Publique.[117]

Outgoing MEP Sylvie Guillaume may appear second on the list, followed by Pierre Larrouturou (of New Deal) in third or fifth, and incumbent MEP Éric Andrieu within the top ten places. Claire Nouvian, Gabrielle Siry, and Anne Hessel are also expected to appear on the list.[118] New Deal officially announced its support for the list on 18 March, as did ex-Génération.s spokeswoman Aurore Lalucq.[119]

Europe Ecology – The Greens[edit]

On 27 February 2018, MEP Yannick Jadot stated that EELV would seek to present an independent list in 2019.[121] Both Jadot and fellow MEP Michèle Rivasi opposed a rapprochement with Hamon like that in the 2017 presidential election. Among outgoing MEPs, José Bové, Eva Joly, and Pascal Durand do not intend to seek a third mandate.[122][123] Durand, a supporter of Nicolas Hulot, was seen as open to working with La République En Marche!, as was Karima Delli, despite her denial of any such intentions,[122] and on 13 April, she expressed her desire to lead the EELV list.[124] Other candidates reportedly included David Cormand, Julien Bayou, Marie Toussaint, and Mounir Satouri.[123] Cécile Duflot ruled out the possibility after announcing her departure from politics on 5 April.[125] On 19 December, Ségolène Royal offered to join the EELV list in second position, though messages to Jadot went reciprocated,[126] and the latter rejected the proposal the following day.[127]

Given the difficulty in finding a potential list leader, Noël Mamère was named a possible "consensus candidate" in an alliance with Hamon,[68] but later declined on 25 June.[69] On 9 and 10 June, the federal council of the party agreed to put forth provisional lists to be submitted to a membership vote from 11 to 16 July,[129][130] and the outlines of the party's plans for the 2019 elections were presented from 23 to 25 August.[123] Two possible lists were created – one led by Jadot and the other by Rivasi – with the names of Damien Carême and Julien Bayou removed after later revisions.[128] On 16 July, the party announced that Jadot won the vote with 58.69% of votes against 35.59% for Rivasi, becoming leader of the EELV list for 2019.[131] He subsequently reaffirmed that he would not ally with Hamon again in the European elections.[132] On 23 September, the EELV federal council agreed to place Damien Carême, mayor of Grande-Synthe, 3rd on the EELV list, a change to be approved by a membership vote.[133] Alexis Tiouka, a former representative to the UN for the rights of indigenous peoples, was selected to join the list, becoming the first-ever Native American on a European electoral list.[134] In an interview on 25 February 2019, Jadot announced the addition of regional councilor Benoît Biteau to the list in 11th position.[135][136]

The Greens intend to target both ex-Socialists and disappointed Macron voters who view his government's policies as too right-wing.[137] Jadot has sought to portray the EELV as neither left nor right but "central", attempting to represent a "pragmatic" German-style ecology and create an "ecologist pole" as opposed to the "productivist" and "populist" poles, saying that "ecology is not the left".[138]

La République En Marche![edit]

On 6 March 2019, Les Échos reported that the choice was to be made internally between either health minister Agnès Buzyn or European affairs minister Nathalie Loiseau by 6 March,[139] having first reported on 22 February reported that Buzyn was interested in leading the list.[140] Loiseau officially announced she would seek the nomination for lead candidate following her debate with Marine Le Pen on the set of L'Émission politique on 14 March,[141] and will likely be invested on 25 March before the entirety of the list is unveiled on 26 March.[142] The designation of either would likely prompt a significant government reshuffle.[143] Les Échos and Le Parisien later reported that Buzyn withdrew her name from consideration.[144] Alain Juppé was the subject of early speculation regarding his potential candidacy to lead the list,[2] though confirmed on 19 March 2018 that he would not stand.[145] His later appointment to the Constitutional Council in February 2019 precluded his participation in the campaign, and in a final interview, he indicated he would have supported Macron's list in the elections.[146] On 4 March 2019, former prime minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin also confirmed his support for Macron's list.[147]

Other speculated list leaders included Édouard Philippe, François Bayrou, Nicolas Hulot, Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet,[1][148] Sylvie Goulard, Daniel Cohn-Bendit,[149] Arnaud Danjean,[150] and Michel Barnier. Pierre Moscovici ruled out the possibility,[44] as did Barnier,[151] Jean-Yves Le Drian,[152] Bayrou,[153] and Danjean.[154] Daniel Cohn-Bendit initially did not rule out his candidacy,[155] but later declined on 1 October 2018.[156] Thomas Pesquet's participation in the citizen consultation provoked speculation, though he later denied his interest.[157] Outgoing Green MEP Karima Delli, ministers Marlène Schiappa and Brune Poirson, and deputy Amélie de Montchalin,[158] Pascal Canfin, head of the French section of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and former France Inter journalist Bernard Guetta were also considered potential candidates.[159] Canfin declined to lead the list on 16 November, having already rejected an offer to join the government following Hulot's resignation.[160] In late January 2019, Laurence Tubiana, president of the European Climate Foundation and former COP21 negotiator, was mentioned as a possibility,[161] as was Le Drian and sailor Maud Fontenoy (considered, however, too close to Christian Estrosi).[162] Justice minister Nicole Belloubet was also coy about her interest,[163] and the name of Emmanuelle Wargon was also mentioned.[164]

On 17 December 2017, at the congress of the Democratic Movement (MoDem), Christophe Castaner, leader of La République En Marche!, said he supported an "enlarged list" for the European elections on the basis of an alliance between the two parties.[165] On 26 September, the movement officially announced the opening of applications for prospective candidates from civil society,[166] receiving 2,673 applications from adherents and supporters of the party,[167] winnowed by an investiture committee chaired by Jean-Marc Borello.[168] Former Élysée advisor Stéphane Séjourné was designated campaign director on 29 October, tasked with creating a list alongside Agir,[159] and seeking a lead candidate with a "green profile".[169] For the MoDem, Bayrou selected Régis Lefebvre to serve as deputy campaign director alongside Séjourné.[170]

On 15 February, Challenges revealed that EELV MEP Pascal Durand would be on the list in an electable position, Séjourné in the top 25 places,[171] and Martin Bohmert, leader of Les Jeunes avec Macron, also in an electable position.[172] The centre-right party Agir proposed several candidates for the list, including two in electable position: Nicolas Barnier, the son of Michel Barnier and a parliamentary assistant, as well as Fabienne Keller. Gilles Boyer, Élisabeth Morin-Chartier, and Xavier Fournier,[173] proposing 14 candidates in total.[174] Ex-LR member Frédéric Lefebvre also offered to stand as a candidate. The Radical Movement proposed 3 candidates for the list: outgoing MEP Dominique Riquet, Olga Johnson, and Mélanie Fortier. In all, about 50 places will be reserved for the presidential party and 29 for its allies, of which the MoDem will have around 15,[175] intending to negotiate for 8 of the top 22 places,[176] including for sitting MEP Nathalie Griesbeck and Guetta. Manon Laporte of the Centrist Alliance is also interested,[177] as is the case with ex-PS MEP Gilles Pargneaux.[161] One outgoing MEP, Jean Arthuis, announced that he would not seek to run again in 2019,[178] while Agir MEP Tokia Saïfi is also not seeking another mandate.[175] Foreign nationals may also be on the list, including former Italian undersecretary for European affairs Sandro Gozi.[179]

La République En Marche considered alliances with similar European political parties including Citizens in Spain and the Democratic Party in Italy, with possibilities not limited to members of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE). Pieyre-Alexandre Anglade was delegated with the task of forming contacts with potential European partners and probing the possibility of a shared political platform.[180] On 9 September 2018, Guy Verhofstadt, leader of the ALDE group, claimed in an interview that La République En Marche would be ally with ALDE in the elections, which Castaner denied.[181] Reports in October indicated Macron and Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte reached an agreement in principle for an alliance, though Anglade emphasized that ALDE parties would merely serve as the foundation of the movement's European ambitions, with talks with EPP parties on the right such as Civic Platform in Poland and New Democracy in Greece as well as PES parties on the left including the Democratic Party in Italy and the Social Democratic Party of Austria. The party may attempt to recruit elected MEPs following the election (especially ALDE MEPs) to form a group in the European Parliament.[182] After a report aired on France 2 on 11 March about ALDE's financial backing from Monsanto, manufacturer of glyphosate, the party announced that it would not join the ALDE,[183] leading the latter to announce that it would no longer accept corporate donations.[184]

Democratic Movement[edit]

At the congress of the Democratic Movement (MoDem), ally of La République En Marche! (REM), on 17 December 2017, party president François Bayrou appealed for a "common house" with the presidential party for the 2019 European elections, an idea also supported by Christophe Castaner, leader of La République En Marche!, who in his speech envisaged the possibility of an "enlarged list" including not only the two parties.[165] Bayrou said he himself did not want to be a candidate,[44] and reiterated this position a month later, saying that he would continue to serve as mayor of Pau and was not interested in running for a national or European parliamentary mandate.[153]

Agir[edit]

On 4 December 2017, Franck Riester announced that his newly founded centre-right party Agir, consisting of various defectors from The Republicans, would present candidates in the 2019 European elections, not ruling out an alliance with the Union of Democrats and Independents (UDI) and other pro-European reformist parties.[185] The party decided to apply to join the European People's Party (EPP) and sit with the EPP group if it won seats,[186] complicating negotiations for a common list in which members would be expected to sit within the same group once elected.[187] Following the Benalla affair, Riester indicated that the idea of an autonomous list of the "pro-European right" was "serious",[188] though later confirmed the party's participation in an alliance with La République En Marche,[189] which was made official on 5 March 2019.[190]

Radical Movement[edit]

The idea of a separate list in order to raise the national profile of the reunified Radical Movement received the support of some party figures,[188] who subsequently announced in September 2018 that would be preparing an independent list of candidates for the 2019 European elections while remaining open to alliances.[191] In an published in Challenges on 6 February 2019, co-president Laurent Hénart indicated that the movement would likely join a common list with La République En Marche,[192] officially approved on 9 March,[193] sparking dissent among some ex-PRG members including co-president Sylvia Pinel, who announced her departure from the party to resurrect the PRG on two days later.[194]

Union of Democrats and Independents[edit]

On 15 December 2018, Lagarde launched the party's campaign at its extraordinary congress,[195] hoping to gain the support of pro-European voters who were not necessarily in favor of Macron's ideas on Europe.[196] Lagarde castigated Macron's "tactics", critiquing his policies as an "ultraliberal project of the Europe of markets", and saying that for the UDI, "the market could be a means but not an end".[197] The party is also seeking to gain support from LR voters disillusioned by the hard-right political line of Wauquiez.[198]

Former LR vice president Virginie Calmels as well as general Pierre de Villiers were approached as potential candidates, with the prior confirming that she had received multiple offers on the right but was waiting to see the political line adopted by her party.[199] However, she later denied any contact between them and ruled out the possibility of working with the UDI.[200] President of the Hauts-de-France region and ex-LR member Xavier Bertrand planned to appear at the launch of the UDI congress remotely, but reiterated that he did not support a federal Europe did support the UDI list.[201] The UDI will accept applications from prospective candidates until 15 February and reveal its list in March,[197] which will include former MEP Nora Berra, an Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes regional councilor elected on the LR list who later quit the party to protest its hard-right positioning, in second position.[202]

While the party's sole remaining MEP Patricia Lalonde initially supported the principle of an independent list, she later urged the party to join the LR list, expressing support for Bellamy and Wauquiez.[203]

The Republicans[edit]

On 18 November, Le Journal du Dimanche reported that LR leader Laurent Wauquiez was considering 33-year-old Catholic philosopher François-Xavier Bellamy as a candidate to lead the LR list in 2019,[206] though his political inexperience and ultra-conservative profile raised concerns among a number of prominent LR politicians,[207] with his anti-abortion views and involvement in the anti-same-sex marriage movement in France arousing opposition.[208] Wauquiez decided to submit three names to the CNI on 29 January, naming not only Bellamy but Agnès Evren and Arnaud Danjean as candidates for the list,[209] representing a compromise balancing the various strands of the party, with Evren close to Pécresse and Danjean a committed pro-European close to Alain Juppé.[210] On 29 January, the CNI validated the nominations of Bellamy, Evren, and Danjean with 38 out of 40 votes.[211] On 12 February, Hervé Morin of The Centrists met with Wauquiez about the possibility of an alliance, discussing securing 2 out of the top 20 places on the list.[212] On 6 March, the LR national investiture committee designated the candidates for the first 26 places on the list.[204] Alexandre Vergnes, general secretary of Hunting, Fishing, Nature and Traditions (CPNT), was initially slated to appear on the list in 13th – and later 15th – position, but was later demoted to 30th.[213]

Before his election as party leader on 10 December 2017, Wauquiez ruled out leading the party's European election list in the case of his victory.[214] Potential list leaders included Virginie Calmels, Damien Abad,[44] Nadine Morano,[148] Jean Leonetti, Arnaud Danjean,[215] Luc Ferry,[150] Brice Hortefeux,[216] Pierre de Villiers,[217] Éric Woerth, Christian Jacob,[218] Geoffroy Didier, Philippe Juvin, and Michel Dantin.[219] Danjean was considered an unlikely possibility, given his still-recent flirtation with Macron,[215] and later declined to be head of list,[220] privately declining when offered the post by Bruno Retailleau.[221] Leonetti confirmed to Le Monde on 5 December that he would not seek to be the party's lead candidate,[222] and associates of Wauquiez rejected the idea of Ferry's candidacy,[150] with Ferry himself uninterested.[216] Dantin, meanwhile, decided to abandon his mandate as MEP to seek another term as mayor of Chambéry in 2020.[223] Valérie Pécresse,[224] Rachida Dati,[225] and Michel Barnier also declined to lead the LR list.[151]

In an interview published on 10 March 2018 in Le Journal du Dimanche, Thierry Mariani militated for an alliance with the FN,[226] and was subsequently threatened with expulsion from the party.[227] On 9 October, Wauquiez ruled out the possibility of alliances with Debout la France, La République En Marche!, or the National Rally in a letter addressed to Nicolas Dupont-Aignan.[228]

Among outgoing MEPs, Nadine Morano, Brice Hortefeux, Alain Cadec, Franck Proust, Geoffroy Didier,[216] and Angélique Delahaye will seek to stand as candidates, while Françoise Grossetête, Élisabeth Morin-Chartier, Michèle Alliot-Marie, Alain Lamassoure, Jérôme Lavrilleux, Renaud Muselier, and Maurice Ponga do not intend to seek the party's investiture,[229] with Rachida Dati also opting out in view of the 2020 municipal elections in Paris.[230]

Debout la France[edit]

On 19 January 2018, Europe 1 revealed that Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, leader of Debout la France, appeared to close the door to an alliance with the National Rally (RN) while still appealing for a "union of patriots" that could yet include members of the National Rally.[231] On 20 March, the National Centre of Independents and Peasants (CNIP) voted unanimously to join Dupont-Aignan's "The Lovers of France" (Les Amoureux de la France),[232][233] a political formation including the Christian Democratic Party of Jean-Frédéric Poisson and mayor of Béziers Robert Ménard.[234] On 31 May, the three figures of the "The Lovers of France" presented a "common program" with president of the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group Ryszard Legutko in attendance,[235] coinciding with the defection of FN MEP Bernard Monot to join DLF and the publication of an open letter from Le Pen inviting Dupont-Aignan to form a common list,[236] which the latter subsequently rejected publicly.[237] On 23 September, Dupont-Aignan officially announced that he intended to lead a "union list" of the right in the 2019 European elections,[238] and Debout la France officially concluded its alliance with the ECR group on 21 December.[239] Dupont-Aignan intends to continue living within his constituency if elected and vacate his seat in the National Assembly.[240]

RN MEP Sylvie Goddyn, who was expelled from the party on 19 October 2018 after indicating her support for Dupont-Aignan's initiative for a union list,[241] will be on the party's list,[242] as will Poisson.[243] According to a report in Le Figaro, Dupont-Aignan also sought to invite Jean Lassalle to lead his list but was rebuffed,[244] as was the case with Thierry Mariani,[245] who chose to join the RN list.[246] Jeannette Bougrab also refused to join the list, while both Dupont-Aignan and Le Pen failed to recruit LR member Erik Tegnér. DLF is attempting to draft another LR figure, Malika Sorel,[247] while UBS whistleblower Stéphanie Gibaud is confirmed to be a candidate on the DLF list.[248] On 11 February, L'Opinion reported that wealthy financier and writer Charles Gave would appear on the DLF list and provide the party with nearly 2 million euros in funding, while his daughter Emmanuelle Gave would also be on the list in an electable position.[249] After Quotidien revealed the younger Gave's history of controversial tweets, DLF announced on 20 February that she would not be nominated as a candidate.[250]

National Rally[edit]

According to a report in L'Obs on 22 November, Jordan Bardella, the 23-year-old head of the party's youth wing Génération Nation, was favored by Le Pen to lead the list,[251] with Hénin-Beaumont mayor Steeve Briois appointed campaign director.[252] On 7 January, Louis Aliot confirmed that Bardella would lead the party's list in the European elections after being confirmed unanimously by the members of the RN's leadership.[253] Two LR members, former minister Thierry Mariani and Jean-Paul Garraud, as well as economist Hervé Juvin, will appear on the party's list.[254] In addition, André Rougé, who advised Le Pen during the presidential campaign and another ex-UMP member, employed in the mayoral office of Jacques Chirac until 1995, was also on the list.[255] A number of other lead candidates were considered, but ultimately did not run. On 1 December 2017, Nicolas Bay announced that Marine Le Pen would not lead the party's list in 2019.[256] Juvin was also considered a possibility.[257] On 12 October 2018, Aliot confirmed said he would seek to become lead candidate,[258] but announced on 20 November that he would instead seek the mayoralty of Perpignan in the 2020 municipal elections.[259]

On 13 December 2017, Le Pen claimed that she wanted an alliance with Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, president of Debout la France,[260] and met with Dupont-Aignan the same day to discuss "a possible partnership",[261] but was rebuked a month later,[231] publishing an open letter seeking an alliance on 31 May 2018,[236] only to receive his rejection again on 3 June.[237] RN MEP Sylvie Goddyn was expelled from the party on 19 October 2018 after indicating her openness to Dupont-Aignan's initiative for a union list on the right.[241]

Le Pen will campaign with Bardella at public meetings on Saturday afternoons in 20 small communes over the course of a campaign, the cost of which is anticipated to be around 4 million euros, in addition to a single major campaign event in a regional capital on 1 May.[262] On 17 January, Le Pen announced that she would participate in two joint meetings with Salvini as part of the campaign, one in February and the other close to the election, both in Italy due to campaign finance regulations.[263]

The Patriots[edit]

On 23 November 2017, Florian Philippot announced that his movement, The Patriots (Les Patriotes), would present candidates in the 2019 European elections, fighting for the French exit from the European Union.[264] The party had 3 MEPs, including Sophie Montel and Mireille d'Ornano,[23] though Montel quit the party on 5 July 2018.[265] Philippot launched the party's campaign for the European elections with the publication of his book Frexit, setting out his vision of Europe, in September 2018. Despite his hopes to build a cross-party list, his appeals to Henri Guaino, François Asselineau, and Jean Lassalle went unreciprocated.[266] Lacking public financing, Philippot called for donations to help fund the party's campaign,[267] claiming to have raised €250,000 by mid-August 2018.[268] As with other parties, the movement sought to recruit gilets jaunes onto its list, with Philippot seeking to register the name with the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) as well.[269] Philippot confirmed on 22 February that his party would have the financial means to contest the elections, saying that he would lead the list, followed by d'Ornano in second place.[270]

Popular Republican Union[edit]

On 18 November 2017, François Asselineau, founder of the Popular Republican Union (UPR), said at the party congress in Tours that he would "probably" be a candidate on the party's list in the 2019 European elections.[271] Asselineau intends to leverage the party's online presence to help raise funds from its 32,000 members.[272]

Résistons![edit]

In an interview published in Valeurs actuelles on 3 May 2018, former presidential candidate Jean Lassalle announced his intention to present a list under the banner of his movement Résistons! in the European elections, hoping to defend the "territories and rurality" from the "European supranationalism, globalization and hypercapitalism". He voted "no" in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty referendum as well as the 2005 referendum on the European Constitution and opposed the Treaty of Lisbon in 2008. He intends to create a list composed of local mayors, farmers, business executives, and professionals inadequately represented in politics.[273] On 6 March 2019, Lassalle indicated he had about a "quarter" of the 800,000 to 1 million euros needed to finance the campaign.[274]

Gilets jaunes[edit]

Ralliement d'initiative citoyenne[edit]

On 4 December, amid the gilets jaunes protests, Jean-François Barnaba announced that he intended to prepare a list of gilets jaunes to contest the European elections in 2019.[276] On 10 December, Hayk Shahinyan announced that he would also attempt to constitute a list.[277] Christophe Chalençon, one of the leaders of the "free" gilets jaunes, also supported the ambition of presenting a list in the European elections, saying that French businessman and politician Bernard Tapie, former owner of Olympique de Marseille, offered the movement headquarters to permit the movement to organize itself.[278] Tapie later said that he himself would not play a role in helping the movement organize, however.[279] Despite Lalanne's announcement of a list, Shahinyan continued his own initiative, saying that his initiative was the first and included better-known figures of the movement.[280] Shahinyan's association, Gilets Jaunes, le mouvement, was the best-organized group, with 85,000 euros and 14,000 members.[281]

On 23 January, the group announced in a press release that they would present a list called Ralliement d'initiative citoyenne (RIC, or Citizens' Initiative Rally, referencing the acronym of the proposed referendum desired by many gilets jaunes) led by Ingrid Levavasseur, a 31-year old nurse assistant and figurehead in the movement, and also revealed the first 10 names on the list, with the remaining spots open to applications. The movement intended to solicit donations, possibly through a crowdfunding scheme.[275] Shahinyan was chosen as campaign director. The announcement of a list provoked largely negative reactions among other gilets jaunes, many of whom were skeptical and considered them opportunists. Marc Doyer, eighth on the list, was revealed to have previously supported Macron.[282] After attacks regarding his previous support of Macron, Doyer withdrew from the list on 28 January. Shahinyan also stepped down as campaign director, citing doubts.[283] On 31 January, Brigitte Lapeyronie, ex-UDI member and trade unionist, also announced that she would not stand as a candidate due to personal reasons.[284] Barnaba, who hoped to lead his own list, also quit.[285] On 13 February, Levavasseur announced that she would quit the RIC list, a week after a controversial meeting with Luigi Di Maio,[286] and announced on RTL on 11 March that she would not attempt to present a list.[287] Two others on the list, Côme Dunis and Ayouba Sow, confirmed their departure from the initiative on 26 February.[288] Jérémy Clément said that he would be ready to be lead candidate for the list unless a "more legitimate" candidate emerged.[289]

Others[edit]

An open letter signed by singer and actor Francis Lalanne and Jean-Marc Governatori, co-secretary of the Independent Ecological Alliance (AEI) published on 7 December indicated that Governatori would ensure 800,000 euros in funding for a gilets jaunes list.[290] On 17 December, Lalanne announced the launch of the Rassemblement gilet jaune citoyen list,[291] though was opposed by many gilets jaunes who felt that Lalanne's initiative did nothing to represent them.[292] Thierry Paul Valette originally planned to appear on the list.[293] Lalanne's associates claimed to have already selected 33 candidates by mid-January.[294] After the launch of the RIC list led by Levavasseur, Lalanne and Governatori indicated their interest in an alliance.[295] According to Le Figaro, Jean-François Barnaba was expected to be chosen as the lead candidate for this list, despite having once considered launching his own list.[296] On 22 March, he instead announced that he wanted to lead his own list, which he christened Jaunes et citoyens.[297]

On 29 January, a gilet jaune leader from Nice, Patrick Cribouw, announced his intention to present a list in the European elections under the banner of Union jaune.[298] Spokesman Fréderic Ibanez claimed the list already had around 40 candidates and would attempt to remain apolitical in terms of its composition.[299] Appearing on BFM TV on 2 March, Cribouw claimed the list was complete and called for alliances with Mouraud, Levavasseur, and Valette.[300] On 1 February, Thierry Paul Valette announced the creation of a European election list under the banner of the Rassemblement des Gilets jaunes citoyens, claiming to have already chosen 10 candidates,[301] after having quit Lalanne's initiative over disagreements regarding his approach.[302] Shahinyan and Chalençon announced their intention to create the mouvement alternatif citoyen (MAC) and hold a member vote in March to decide whether to present a list.[303] On 3 March, Chalençon announced the creation of the Evolution citoyenne (Citizen Evolution) list for the European elections, without naming a list leader or any candidates.[304] Jacline Mouraud launched her party, Les Émergents, on 27 January, and reiterated her intention not to present a list in the European elections but the 2020 municipal elections.[305]

Many of Macron's supporters considered gilets jaunes lists desirable, given that an internal poll suggested that such a list would siphon votes from the opposition and increase turnout by engaging traditional abstentionists,[306] paradoxically strengthening Macron as a result.[307] Others, however, warned that an electoral transformation of the movement could result in a French Five Star Movement.[308]

Other parties and movements[edit]

Jacques Cheminade of Solidarity and Progress intends to present a separate list in 2019,[232] as does the Rally of Ecologists for Life (Rassemblement des écologistes pour le vivant, REV) of Aymeric Caron.[310] On 23 November 2018, Delphine Batho of Ecology Generation confirmed that she intended to present a list,[311] to be unveiled by the end of March 2019.[312] On 18 March, Batho confirmed alongside Antoine Waechter of the Independent Ecological Movement that Dominique Bourg would lead their "Ecology Emergency" list.[313] In late February 2019, the Union of Democrats and Ecologists (UDE) indicated that joining a rally list associated with La République En Marche was possible if the list had a sufficiently green profile,[314] and the UDE, along with fifty other ecologist figures including Cap21 general secretary Stéphane Gemmani and actress Pauline Delpech, called in an open letter to join such a list on 3 March.[315] Régions et Peuples Solidaires planned to contest the elections and left open the possibility an alliance with the Greens,[316] with Roccu Garoby seeking to lead the list.[317] On 16 February, the party agreed to ally with the Greens, with François Alfonsi, Lydie Massard, and Anne-Marie Hautant to be candidates on the list.[318] On 23 February, the Independent Ecological Alliance (AEI) announced that it reached an agreement with the EELV, with Caroline Roose and Salima Yenbou within the top 10 electable places on the list.[319]

Jean-Marie Le Pen, who joined the European neo-fascist Alliance for Peace and Freedom in April 2018,[321] ruled out the possibility of seeking another term on 8 February 2019.[322] Essayist Raphaël Glucksmann, interested in participating in the European elections,[323] founded Place Publique with economist Thomas Porcher and environmentalist Claire Nouvian in November 2018.[324] In September 2018, MEP Virginie Rozière, founder of the Radicals of the Left presented a list of 13 candidates and indicated an openness to alliances.[309] On 15 October 2018, Renaud Camus announced that Souveraineté, Identité et Libertés (SIEL) would present a list.[325] After quitting from La République En Marche! following a series of controversies, Joachim Son-Forget announced the creation of a party matching his initials, Je suis français et européen (abbreviated JSFee), which he claimed would contest the European elections.[326] While initial reports suggested that Brigitte Bardot would be a candidate for the Animalist Party, she later denied that she would be a candidate but affirmed her support for the list.[327] On 2 March, the l'Union des démocrates musulmans français (UDMF, or Union of French Muslim Democrats) launched its campaign for the European elections and unveiled its list led by Nagib Azergui.[328]

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polling for the European Parliament election, 2019 (France).png

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]