2019–2020 Hong Kong protests
This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. (August 2021)
|Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement|
|Part of democratic development in Hong Kong, Hong Kong–Mainland China conflict and the Chinese democracy movement|
Since 15 March 2019
Since 9 June 2019
Other cities worldwide in solidarity
|Methods||Diverse (see § Tactics and methods)|
|Resulted in||Government crackdown
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Deaths, injuries and arrests|
|Arrested||10,250 (as of 17 May 2021)[b]|
|Charged||2,500 (as of 17 May 2021)|
|Property damage||HK$5.35 billion+ (US$755 million+)|
|Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement|
The Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement, also known as the 2019 Hong Kong protests, or the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests, are a series of demonstrations since 15 March 2019 in response to the introduction by the Hong Kong government of the Fugitive Offenders amendment bill on extradition. The protests began with a sit-in at the government headquarters on 15 March 2019 and a demonstration attended by hundreds of thousands on 9 June 2019, followed by a gathering outside the Legislative Council Complex to stall the bill's second reading on 12 June.
On 16 June, just one day after the Hong Kong government suspended the bill, an even bigger protest took place to push for its complete withdrawal and in reaction to the perceived excessive use of force by the Hong Kong Police Force on 12 June. As the protests progressed, activists laid out five key demands (see Objectives). Police inaction during the 2019 Yuen Long attack and 2019 Prince Edward station attack further escalated the protests.
Chief Executive Carrie Lam withdrew the bill on 4 September, but refused to concede the other four demands. A month later, she invoked the emergency powers to implement an anti-mask law. Confrontations escalated and intensified. The storming of the Legislative Council in July 2019, the deaths of Chow Tsz-lok and Luo Changqing, the shooting of an unarmed protester, and the sieges of two universities in November 2019 were landmark events.
After the conflict at Chinese University and siege of the Polytechnic University, the unprecedented landslide victory of the pro-democracy camp in the District Council election in November and the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 brought a little respite. Tensions mounted again in May 2020 after Beijing's decision to promulgate a national security bill for Hong Kong before September. More than a hundred people, including several prominent activists, have been arrested since the imposition of the law. In July 2021, the Hong Kong government declared that the law had restored peace and stability to Hong Kong. The resulting political atmosphere in Hong Kong sparked a wave of mass emigration from the city.[not verified in body]
The approval ratings of the government and the police plunged to their lowest points since the 1997 handover. The Central People's Government alleged that foreign powers were instigating the conflict, although the protests have been largely described as "leaderless". The United States passed the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act on 27 November 2019 in response to the protest movement.
The tactics and methods used in Hong Kong inspired other protests that followed worldwide.
The Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019 was first proposed by the government of Hong Kong in February 2019 in response to the 2018 murder of Poon Hiu-wing by her boyfriend Chan Tong-kai in Taiwan, which the two Hongkongers were visiting as tourists. As there is no extradition treaty with Taiwan (because the government of China does not recognise Taiwan's sovereignty), the Hong Kong government proposed an amendment to the Fugitive Offenders Ordinance (Cap. 503) and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Ordinance (Cap. 525) to establish a mechanism for case-by-case transfers of fugitives, on the order of the chief executive, to any jurisdiction with which the territory lacks a formal extradition treaty.
The inclusion of mainland China in the amendment was of concern to Hong Kong society; citizens, academics and the legal profession fear the removal of the separation of the region's jurisdiction from the legal system administered by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) would erode the "one country, two systems" principle in practice since the 1997 handover; furthermore, Hong Kong citizens lack confidence in China's judiciary system and human rights protection due to its history of suppressing political dissent. Opponents of the bill urged the Hong Kong government to explore other mechanisms, such as an extradition arrangement solely with Taiwan, and to sunset the arrangement immediately after the surrender of the suspect.
After the failure of the Umbrella Revolution in 2014 and the 2017 imprisonment of Hong Kong democracy activists, citizens began to fear the loss of the "high degree of autonomy" as provided for in the Hong Kong Basic Law, as the government of the People's Republic of China appeared to be increasingly and overtly interfering with Hong Kong's affairs. Notably, the NPCSC saw fit to rule on the disqualification of six lawmakers; fears over state-sanctioned rendition and extrajudicial detention were sparked by the Causeway Bay Books disappearances. Xi Jinping's accession to General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party in 2012 marked a more hardline authoritarian approach, most notably with the construction of Xinjiang internment camps. The spectre that Hong Kong may similarly be brought to heel became an important element in the protests.
Anti-mainland sentiment had begun to swell in the 2010s. The daily quota of 150 immigrants from China since 1997, and the massive flows of mainland visitors strained Hong Kong's public services and eroded local culture; mainlanders' perceived arrogance drew the scorn of Hongkongers. The rise of localism and the pro-independence movement after the Umbrella Revolution was marked by the high-profile campaign for the 2016 New Territories East by-election by activist Edward Leung. Fewer and fewer young people in Hong Kong identified themselves as Chinese nationals, as found by pollsters at the University of Hong Kong. The younger respondents were, the more distrustful they were of the Chinese government. Scandals and corruption in China shook people's confidence of the country's political systems; the Moral and National Education controversy in 2012, the Express Rail Link project connecting Hong Kong with mainland cities and the subsequent co-location agreement proved highly controversial. Citizens saw these policies as Beijing's decision to strengthen its hold over Hong Kong. By 2019, almost no Hong Kong youth identified as Chinese.
The polite Umbrella Revolution provided inspiration and brought about a political awakening to some, but its failure and the subsequent split within the pro-democratic bloc prompted a re-evaluation of strategy and tactics. In the years that followed, a general consensus emerged that peaceful and polite protests were ineffective in advancing democratic development, and became an example of what not to do in further protests. Media noted that protests in 2019 were driven by a sense of desperation rather than the optimism of 2014. The aims of the protests had evolved from withdrawing the bill, solidifying around achieving the level of freedom and liberties promised.
Initially, protesters demanded only the withdrawal of the extradition bill. Following an escalation in the severity of policing tactics on 12 June 2019, the protesters' objective was to achieve the following five demands (under the slogan "Five demands, not one less"):
- Complete withdrawal of the extradition bill from the legislative process: Although the chief executive announced an indefinite suspension of the bill on 15 June, its status of "pending resumption of second reading" in the Legislative Council meant that its reading could have been resumed quickly. It was formally withdrawn on 23 October 2019.
- Retraction of the "riot" characterisation: The government originally characterised the 12 June protest as "riots", it later amended the description to say there were "some" rioters, an assertion protesters still contested. The crime of "rioting" carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison.
- Release and exoneration of arrested protesters: Protesters considered their lawbreaking acts to be mostly motivated by a politically righteous cause; they also questioned the legitimacy of police arresting protesters at hospitals through access to their confidential medical data in breach of patient privacy.
- Establishment of an independent commission of inquiry into police conduct and use of force during the protests: Civic groups felt that the level of violence used by the police against protesters and bystanders, arbitrary stop-and-search, and officers' failure to observe Police General Orders pointed to a breakdown of accountability. The absence of independence of the existing watchdog, the Independent Police Complaints Council, was also an issue.
- Resignation of Carrie Lam and the implementation of universal suffrage for Legislative Council elections and for the election of the chief executive: The chief executive is selected in a small-circle election, and 30 of the 70 legislative council seats are filled by representatives of institutionalised interest groups, forming the majority of the so-called functional constituencies, most of which have few electors.
Early large-scale demonstrations
After several minor protests in March and April 2019, the anti-extradition issue attracted more attention when pro-democratic lawmakers in the Legislative Council launched a filibuster campaign against the bill. In response, the Secretary of Security John Lee announced that the government would resume second reading of the bill in full council on 12 June 2019, bypassing the Bills Committee. With the possibility of a second reading of the bill, the Civil Human Rights Front (CHRF) launched their third protest march on 9 June. While police estimated attendance at the march on Hong Kong Island at 270,000, the organisers claimed that 1.03 million people had attended the rally, a number unprecedently high for the city. Carrie Lam insisted second reading and debate over the bill be resumed on 12 June. Protesters successfully stopped the LegCo from resuming second reading of the bill by surrounding the LegCo Complex. Police Commissioner Stephen Lo declared the clashes a "riot"; police were subsequently criticised for using excessive force, such as firing tear gas at protesters at an approved rally. Following the clashes, protesters began calling for an independent inquiry into police brutality; they also urged the government to retract the "riot" characterisation.
On 15 June, Carrie Lam announced the bill's suspension but did not fully withdraw it. The same day, Marco Leung Ling-Kit, a 35-year-old man, fell to his death after slipping on scaffolding and plunging 17 meters to his death whilst protesting Lam's decision and claims of police brutality. Ruled by an inquest jury as "death by misadventure", this accident formed a rallying point for the movement and his anti-extradition slogans later became the foundations for the "five demands" of the protests, and his yellow raincoat became one of the symbols of the protests. A protest on the following day had almost 2 million people participating according to an CHRF estimate, while the police estimated that there were 338,000 demonstrators at its peak. While Lam offered a personal apology on 18 June, she dismissed calls for her resignation.
Storming of the Legislative Council and escalation
The CHRF claimed a record turnout of 550,000 for their annual march on 1 July 2019, while police estimated around 190,000 at the peak; an independent polling organisation estimated attendance at 260,000. The protest was largely peaceful. At night, partly angered by several more suicides since 15 June 2019, some radical protesters stormed into the Legislative Council; police took little action to stop them.
After 1 July 2019, protests spread to different neighbourhoods in Hong Kong. CHRF held another anti-extradition protest on 21 July on Hong Kong Island. Instead of dispersing, protesters headed for the Liaison Office in Sai Ying Pun, where they defaced the Chinese national emblem. While a standoff between the protesters and the police occurred on Hong Kong Island, groups of white-clad individuals, suspected triad members, appeared and indiscriminately attacked people inside Yuen Long station. Police were absent during the attacks, and the local police stations were shuttered, leading to suspicion that the attack was coordinated with police. The attack was often seen as the turning point for the movement, as it crippled people's confidence in the police and turned a lot of citizens who were politically neutral or apathetic against the police.
A call for a general strike on 5 August was answered by about 350,000 people according to the Confederation of Trade Unions; over 200 flights had to be cancelled. Various incidents involving alleged police brutality on 11 August prompted protesters to stage a three-day sit-in at Hong Kong International Airport from 12 to 14 August, forcing the Airport Authority to cancel numerous flights. On 23 August, an estimated 210,000 people participated in the "Hong Kong Way" campaign to draw attention to the movement's five demands. The chain extended across the top of Lion Rock.
Ignoring a police ban, thousands of protesters took to the streets of Hong Kong Island on 31 August following the arrests of high-profile pro-democracy activists and lawmakers the previous day. At night, the Special Tactical Squad (officially known as the Special Tactical Contingent) stormed Prince Edward station, where they beat and pepper-sprayed the commuters inside. On 4 September, Carrie Lam announced the formal withdrawal of the extradition bill once Legco reconvened in October and the introduction of additional measures to calm the situation. However, protests continued to push for the realisation of all five demands.
Intensification and sieges of the universities
On 1 October 2019, mass protests and violent conflict occurred between the protesters and police in various districts of Hong Kong during the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. This resulted in the first use of live rounds by police. One 18-year-old student protester was shot in the chest by police in Tsuen Wan. Carrie Lam invoked the Emergency Regulations Ordinance to impose a law to ban wearing face masks in public gatherings, attempting to curb the ongoing protests on 4 October. The law's enactment was followed by continued demonstrations in various districts of Hong Kong, blocking major thoroughfares, vandalising shops considered to be pro-Beijing and paralysing the MTR system. Protests and citywide flash rallies persisted throughout the month.
Protesters clashed with the police late at night on 3 November 2019. Alex Chow Tsz-lok, a 22-year-old student at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), was later found unconscious on the second floor of the estate's car park. He died on 8 November following two unsuccessful brain surgeries. After his death, protesters engaged in flash rallies against the police and attended vigils in various districts of Hong Kong. They blamed the police for his death, though the police denied any involvement. In response to Chow's death, protesters planned a city-wide strike starting on 11 November by disrupting transport in the morning in various districts of Hong Kong. That morning, a policeman fired live rounds in Sai Wan Ho, wounding an unarmed 21-year-old. On 14 November, an elderly man named Luo Changqing died from a head injury which he had sustained the previous day during a confrontation between two groups of anti-government protesters and residents in Sheung Shui.
For the first time, during a standoff on 11 November, police shot numerous rounds of tear gas, sponge grenades and rubber bullets into the campuses of universities, while protesters threw bricks and petrol bombs in response. Student protesters from the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) confronted the police for two consecutive days. After the conflict, protesters briefly occupied several universities. A major conflict between protesters and police took place in Hung Hom on 17 November after protesters took control of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and blockaded the Cross-Harbour Tunnel. Thus began the siege of PolyU by police which ended with them storming onto the campus and arresting several protesters and volunteer medics in the early morning of 18 November.
Electoral landslide and COVID-19
The 24 November 2019 District Council election, considered a referendum on the government and the protests, attracted a record high voter turnout. The results saw the pro-democracy camp win by a landslide, with the pro-Beijing camp suffering their greatest electoral defeat in Hong Kong's history. The unprecedented electoral success of the pro-democracy voters, the mass arrests during the PolyU siege, and faster response by police contributed to a decrease in the intensity and frequency of the protests in December 2019 and January 2020. Despite this, the CHRF organised two marches to maintain pressure on the government on 8 December 2019 and 1 January 2020.
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China caused the number of large-scale rallies to dwindle further because of fears that they might facilitate the spread of the virus. Despite this, the pro-democratic movement's tactics were repurposed to pressure the government to take stronger actions to safeguard Hong Kong's public health in the face of the coronavirus outbreak in Hong Kong. As the coronavirus crisis escalated in February and March 2020, the scale of the protests dwindled further. Police have used coronavirus laws banning groups of more than four, for example, to disperse protesters. On 18 April, police arrested 15 pro-democracy activists including Jimmy Lai, Martin Lee and Margaret Ng for their activities in 2019, drawing international condemnation.
Implementation of the national security law
On 21 May 2020, state media announced that the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) would begin drafting a new law that covers "secession, foreign interference, terrorism and subversion against the central government", to be added into the Annex III of the Hong Kong Basic Law. This meant that the law would come into effect through promulgation, bypassing local legislation. Despite international pressure, the NPCSC passed the national security law unanimously on June 30, without informing the public and the local officials of the content of the law. The law created a chilling effect in the city. Demosistō, which had been involved in lobbying for other nations' support, and several pro-independent groups announced that they had decided to disband and cease all operations, fearing that they would be the targets of the new law. Thousands of protesters showed up on 1 July to protest against the newly implemented law. On that day, the police arrested at least ten people for "breaching national security" for showing protest art.
Following the implementation of the national security law, the international community reassessed their policies towards China. Major countries in the West (Canada, the US, the UK, Australia, Germany and New Zealand) suspended its extradition treaty with Hong Kong over the introduction of the national security law. The US Congress passed the Hong Kong Autonomy Act and president Donald Trump signed an Executive Order to revoke the city's special trade status after Mike Pompeo informed the Congress that Hong Kong was no longer autonomous from China and so should be considered the same country in trade and other such matters. On 7 August, the US announced that they would impose sanctions on eleven Hong Kong and Chinese top officials, including Carrie Lam, for undermining Hong Kong's freedom and autonomy. British Home Office announced that starting from early 2021, current and former holders of the BN(O) passport in Hong Kong can resettle in the UK along with their dependents for five years before they become eligible to apply for permanent citizenship.
Invigorated by its success in the November 2019 District Council election, the pro-democratic bloc was eyeing to win over half of the 70 seats in the Legislative Council in the election set to be held on 6 September. Unfazed by the national security law, more than 600,000 people cast their votes in the bloc's historic first primaries in mid July 2020. The Hong Kong government then disqualified twelve candidates on 30 July, nearly all of whom were winners from the pro-democratic primaries. The decision drew international condemnation for obstructing the election and the democratic process. On the following day, Carrie Lam, going against the public opinion, invoked emergency powers to delay the election, citing the pandemic as the reason. While the NPCSC allowed the four disqualified incumbent lawmakers to transition to the extended term in July, they decided to remove them from office in November 2020, resulting in the mass resignation of all of opposition lawmakers.
The police continued to use the law to target local activists and critics of Beijing, including business tycoon Jimmy Lai. In January 2021, the police arrested more than 50 individuals, all of whom were candidates in the primaries for "subverting state power". This meant that most of the active and prominent politicians in the opposite camp in Hong Kong have been arrested by the authorities using the national security law. Arrest warrants were issued to exiled activists for breaching the national security law, including former lawmakers Nathan Law, Baggio Leung and Ted Hui. Twelve Hong Kong activists who were released on bail were captured by China's Coast Guard Bureau while fleeing to Taiwan on a speedboat on 23 August. Detained in Yantian, Shenzhen, they were subsequently charged with crossing the Chinese border illegally and were prevented from choosing their lawyers and meeting their families.
As protest activities dwindled, the government continued to tighten its control in Hong Kong, from censoring school textbooks and removing any mention of the Tiananmen massacre, to removing public examination questions which the authorities deemed politically inappropriate, to deregistering "yellow-ribbon" teachers, to declaring that separation of powers never existed in Hong Kong despite previous comments by the city's top judges recognising its importance in Hong Kong. It also attempted to reshape the narrative of the Yuen Long attack by claiming that the attack had not been indiscriminate, changing the officially reported police response time, and arresting Lam Cheuk-ting, a pro-democracy lawmaker who was hurt in the attack, for "rioting".
Clashes between protesters and counter-protesters
Clashes between protesters and counter-protesters had become more frequent since the movement began in June 2019. During a pro-police rally on 30 June, their supporters began directing profanities at their opposition counterparts and destroyed their Lennon Wall and the memorial for Marco Leung, leading to intense confrontations between the two camps. Pro-Beijing citizens, wearing "I love HK police" T-shirts and waving the Chinese national flag, assaulted people perceived to be protesters on 14 September in Fortress Hill. Lennon Walls became sites of conflict between the two camps, with pro-Beijing citizens attempting to tear down the messages or removing poster art. Some protesters and pedestrians were beaten and attacked with knives near Lennon Walls by a single perpetrator or by suspected gang members. A reporter was stabbed and a teenager distributing pro-protest leaflets had his abdomen slashed. Owners of small businesses seen to be supportive of the protests and their employees have been assaulted in suspected politically motivated attacks and their businesses vandalised.
Some civilians rammed their cars into crowds of protesters or the barricades they set up. In one instance, a female protester suffered severe thigh fractures. Protest organisers, including Jimmy Sham from the CHRF, and pro-democratic lawmakers such as Roy Kwong were assaulted and attacked. On 3 November, politician Andrew Chiu had his ear bitten off by a Chinese mainlander who had reportedly knifed three other people outside Cityplaza. Meanwhile, pro-Beijing lawmaker Junius Ho was stabbed and his parent's grave was desecrated.
The 2019 Yuen Long attack occurred following a mass protest organised by the CHRF on 21 July. Suspected gangsters vowed that they would "defend" their "homeland" and warned all anti-extradition bill protesters not to set foot in Yuen Long. The perpetrators attacked people on Fung Yau Street North in Yuen Long before entering Yuen Long station, where they indiscriminately attacked commuters in the concourse and on the platform, as well as inside train compartments, resulting in a widespread backlash from the community. The Department of Justice has since been criticised by some lawyers for making "politically motivated" prosecutions. After the Yuen Long attack, no assailant was charged for weeks after the event, while young protesters were charged with rioting within several days. Protesters were also attacked with fireworks in Tin Shui Wai on 31 July, and then attacked by knife-wielding men in Tsuen Wan and suspected "Fujianese" gang members wielding long poles in North Point on 5 August, though they fought back against the attackers.
|The 31 July 2019 incident in which protesters were attacked by fireworks launching out of a moving vehicle (BBC News)|
|The 11 November 2019 incident in which a man was set on fire by a protester (Bloomberg)|
Amidst frustration that police had failed to prosecute pro-government violent counter-protesters and being increasingly distrustful of police because of this, hard-core protesters began to carry out vigilante attacks—described by protesters as "settling matters privately"—targeting individuals perceived to be foes. Pro-Beijing actress Celine Ma, plainclothed officers, and a taxi driver who drove into a crowd of protesters in Sham Shui Po on 8 October, were attacked. A middle-aged man was doused with flammable liquid and set on fire by a protester after he had an altercation with protesters at Ma On Shan station on 11 November. On 14 November, an elderly man died from head injuries sustained earlier during a violent confrontation between two groups of protesters and Sheung Shui residents.
Tactics and methods
The protests have been described as being largely "leaderless". Protesters commonly used LIHKG, an online forum similar to Reddit, as well as Telegram, an optionally end-to-end encrypted messaging service to communicate and brainstorm ideas for protests and to make collective decisions. Unlike previous protests, those of 2019 spread over 20 different neighbourhoods. Protesters and their supporters remained anonymous to avoid prosecutions or future potential retaliation from the authorities, employers who had a different political orientation, and corporations which kowtowed to political pressure.
For the most part there are two groups of protesters, namely the "peaceful, rational and non-violent" protesters and the "fighters" group. Nonetheless, despite differences in methods, both groups have refrained from denouncing or criticising the other and provided tacit support. The principle was the "Do Not Split" praxis, which was aimed to promote mutual respect for different views within the same protest movement.
The moderate group participated in different capacities. The peaceful group held mass rallies, and engaged in other forms of protest such as hunger strikes, forming human chains, launching petitions, labour strikes, and class boycotts. Lennon Walls were set up in various neighbourhoods to spread messages of support and display protest art. Protesters had set up pop-up stores that sold cheap protest gadgets, provided undercover clinics for young activists, and crowdfunded to help people in need of medical or legal assistance.
To raise awareness of their cause and to keep citizens informed, artists supporting the protest created protest art and derivative works. Social media platforms were used to deliver information about the protests to raise awareness to users abroad and circulate images of police brutality. Protesters held "civil press conferences" to counter press conferences by police and the government. AirDrop was used to broadcast anti-extradition bill information to the public and mainland tourists. A protest anthem, "Glory to Hong Kong", was composed, its lyrics crowdsourced on the LIHKG online forum, and sung in flash protests in shopping centres. The Lady Liberty Hong Kong statue was also crowdfunded by citizens to commemorate the protests.
Protesters have attempted to gain international support. Activists organised and coordinated numerous rallies to this end. Joshua Wong, Denise Ho and several other democrats provided testimonies during the US congressional hearing for the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act. To increase the political pressure on China, they also advocated for the suspension of the United States–Hong Kong Policy Act, which grants Hong Kong's special status. Advertisements on the protesters' cause were financed by crowdfunding and placed in major international newspapers. At events, protesters waved the national flags of other countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, calling for their support.
Efforts were made to transform the protests into a long-lasting movement. Protesters have advocated a "Yellow Economic Circle". Supporters of the protesters labelled different establishments based on their political stance and chose to patronise only in businesses which are sympathetic to the movement, while boycotting businesses supporting or owned by mainland Chinese interests. Flash rallies were held in the central business districts as office workers used their lunch break to march on the street. The protests prompted various professions to set up labour unions that compete with pro-Beijing lobbies to pressure the government further. Newly elected District Council members put forward motions to condemn the police and used their power to assist the detained protesters.
Radical protesters adopted the "be water" strategy, inspired by Bruce Lee's philosophy, often moving in a fluid and agile fashion to confound and confuse the police. They often retreated when police arrived, only to re-emerge elsewhere. In addition, protesters adopted black bloc tactics to protect their identities. Frontliners' "full gear" consisted of umbrellas, face masks, hard hats and respirators to shield themselves from projectiles and teargas. Furthermore, protesters used laser pointers to distract police officers and interfere with the operation of their cameras. At protest scenes, protesters used hand gestures for nonverbal communication, and supplies were delivered via human chains. Different protesters adopted different roles. Some were "scouts" who shared real-time updates whenever they spotted the police, A mobile app was developed to allow crowdsourcing the location of police.
Starting in August 2019, radical protesters escalated the controversial use of violence and intimidation. They dug up paving bricks and threw them at police; others used petrol bombs, corrosive liquid and other projectiles against police. As a result of clashes, there were multiple reports of police injuries and the assault of officers throughout the protests. One officer was slashed in the neck with a box cutter, and a media liaison officer was shot in the leg with an arrow during the PolyU siege. Protesters also directed violence towards undercover officers suspected to be agents provocateurs. Several individuals were arrested for illegal possession of firearms or making homemade explosives.
Unlike other civil unrests, little random smashing and looting were observed, as protesters vandalised targets they believed embodied injustice. Corporations that protesters accused of being pro-Beijing and mainland Chinese companies were also vandalised, subject to arson or spray-painted. Protesters also directed violence at symbols of the government by vandalising government and pro-Beijing lawmakers' offices, and defacing symbols representing China. The MTR Corporation became a target of vandalism after protesters had accused the railway operator of kowtowing to pressure by Chinese media by closing several stations and not releasing the CCTV footage from the 2019 Prince Edward station incident amid fears that police may have beaten someone to death. Protesters also disrupted traffic by setting up roadblocks, damaging traffic lights, deflating the tires of buses, and throwing objects onto railway tracks. Protesters occasionally intimidated and assaulted mainlanders.
Some radical protesters promoted the idea of "mutual destruction" or "phoenixism", these terms being translations of the Cantonese lam chau. They theorised that sanctions against the ruling CCP and the loss of Hong Kong's international finance centre and special trade status (caused by China's interference of the one-country, two systems principle) would destabilise mainland China's economy, and therefore, undermine the rule of the CCP and give Hong Kong a chance to be "reborn" in the future. They believed that further government crackdown would ultimately speed up the process of lam chau, ultimately hurting the regime.
Doxing and cyberbullying were tactics used by both supporters and opponents of the protests. Some protesters used these tactics on police officers and their families and uploaded their personal information online. More than 1,000 officers' personal details had been reportedly leaked online, and nine individuals had been arrested. Protest leaders have been attacked after being doxed and intimidated. HK Leaks, an anonymous website based in Russia, and promoted by groups linked to the CCP, doxed about 200 people seen as being supportive of the protests. On 25 October 2019, Hong Kong Police obtained a court injunction prohibiting anyone from sharing any personal information about police officers or their families.
Both sides of the protests spread unverified rumours, misinformation and disinformation. This included tactics such as using selective cuts of news footage and creating false narratives. Several deaths, most notably, that of Chan Yin-lam, a 15-year-old girl whom the police suspected had committed suicide, were the subject of a conspiracy theory given the unusual circumstances surrounding her death. Pro-Beijing camp spread rumour was that the CIA was involved in instigating the protests after photographs of Caucasian men taking part in the protests were shared online. The police blamed fake news for causing public's distrust towards law enforcement, though the police itself were also accused by several media outlets and prosecutors of lying to the public. Both Twitter and Facebook announced that they had discovered what they described as large-scale disinformation campaigns operating on their social networks to vilify and discredit the protesters. According to investigations by Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, some attacks were coordinated, state-backed operations that were believed to have been carried out by agents of the Chinese government.
On 13 June 2019, allegations of organised cyberattacks were made against the Chinese government. Pavel Durov, the founder of Telegram, suggested that the Chinese government may be behind the DDoS attacks on Telegram. Additionally, Durov further tweeted that some of the DDoS attacks coincided with the protest on 12 June 2019. DDoS attack occurred again on August 31, and two Chinese websites including Baidu Tieba were involved in the attack.
|The 1 October 2019 Tsuen Wan shooting incident (HKFP)|
|The 11 November 2019 Sai Wan Ho shooting incident (HKFP)|
According to polls conducted by the Hong Kong Public Opinion Research Institute, net approval of the Hong Kong Police Force fell to 22 per cent in mid-2019, due to its handling of the protests. At the end of July, 60 per cent of respondents in public surveys were dissatisfied with police handling of incidents since June 2019. Nearly 70 per cent of Hong Kong citizens believe the police have acted unprofessionally by making indiscriminate arrests and losing self-control. Their role and actions have raised questions about their accountability, the manner in which they wielded their physical force, and their crowd control methods. There have also been allegations of lack of consistency of law enforcement whether through deliberate inaction or poor organisation.
Inappropriate use of force
Hong Kong police were accused of using excessive and disproportionate force and not following both international safety guidelines and internal protocols while using their weapons. According to Amnesty International, police aimed horizontally while firing, targeting protesters' heads and torsos. Police use of bean bag rounds and rubber bullets allegedly ruptured the eyes of several protesters and the eye of an Indonesian journalist. Police were found to have been using tear gas as an offensive weapon, firing it indoors inside a railway station, using expired tear gas, which could release toxic gases upon combustion, and firing canisters from high-rise buildings. Between June and November 2019, approximately 10,000 volleys of gas had been fired. Chemical residues were found on different public facilities in various neighbourhoods.[c] The use of tear gas sparked public health concerns after a reporter was diagnosed with chloracne in November 2019, though both the environment department and the health department disputed these claims.
Several police operations, in particular in Prince Edward station where the Special Tactical Squad (STS) assaulted commuters on a train, were thought by protesters and pro-democrats to have disregarded public safety. Police were accused of using disproportionate force after an officer shot two young protesters with live ammunition in Tsuen Wan and Sai Wan Ho on 1 October 2019 and 11 November 2019 respectively.[d] An off-duty officer shot and injured a 15-year-old boy in Yuen Long on 4 October 2019 when he was assaulted by protesters who accused him of bumping into people with his car. The siege of PolyU, which was described as a "humanitarian crisis" by democrats and medics, prompted the Red Cross and Medecins Sans Frontieres to intervene as the wounded protesters trapped inside ran out of supplies and lacked first-aid care.
Police were accused of obstructing first-aid service and emergency services and interfering with the work of medical personnel inside hospitals. The arrest of volunteer medics during the siege of PolyU was condemned by medical professionals. Police were accused of using excessive force on already subdued, compliant arrestees. Videos showed the police kicking an arrestee, pressing one's face against the ground, using one as a human shield, stomping on a demonstrator's head, and pinning a protester's neck to the ground with a knee. Video footage also shows the police beating passers-by, pushing and kicking people who were attempting to mediate the conflict, and tackling minors and pregnant women.
Protesters reported suffering brain haemorrhage and bone fractures after being violently arrested by the police. Amnesty International stated that police had used "retaliatory violence" against protesters and mistreated and tortured some detainees. Detainees reported being forced to inhale tear gas, and being beaten and threatened by officers. Police officers shined laser lights directly into one detainee's eyes. The police were accused of using sexual violence on female protesters. A female alleged that she was gang raped inside Tsuen Wan police station, while the police reported that their investigation did not align with her accusation, and later announced plans to arrest her on suspicion of providing false information. Some detainees reported police had denied them access to lawyers and delayed their access to medical services. Many of these allegations were believed to have taken place in San Uk Ling Holding Centre.
Questionable tactics and unprofessional behaviour
The kettling of protesters, the firing of pepper ball rounds at protesters at near point-blank range, driving dangerously were also sources of controversy. A police officer was suspended after he hit one protester with a motorcycle and dragged him on 11 November 2019. He was later reinstated. A police van suddenly accelerated into a crowd of protesters, causing a stampede as STS officers exiting from the van chased protesters in Yau Ma Tei on 18 November 2019. Police defended the latter action as an appropriate response by well-trained officers to attacks by protesters, and that "[driving] fast doesn't mean it is unsafe".
Some police officers did not wear uniforms with identification numbers or failed to display their warrant cards, making it difficult for citizens to file complaints. The government explained in June 2019 that there was not enough space on the uniforms to accommodate identification numbers. In June 2020, the appearance of various decorations on uniforms caused this explanation to be doubted. The court ruled in November 2020 that the police had breached the Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance by hiding or not displaying their identification number. In late 2019 the government introduced "call signs" to replace warrant cards, but it was found that officers shared call signs.
The police have also repeatedly interfered with the justice process. They have been suspected of tampering with evidence, giving false testimony before court, and coercing false confessions from arrestees. The deployment of undercover officers who were suspected of committing arson and vandalism also generated controversy, and the ability of police officers to identify the differences between ordinary protesters and undercover officers was questioned. A police officer was arrested in April 2020 for perverting the course of justice after he allegedly instructed a teen to throw petrol bombs at a police station he works at.[e]
Some uniformed officers used foul language to harass and humiliate protesters and journalists and provoked protesters. The slur "cockroach"—whose dehumanising qualities have been recognised in the social sciences and psychology—was used frequently by frontline officers to insult protesters; some officers sought to counter this development, and suggested that in several instances, verbal abuse by protesters may have led officers to use the term. An officer was reprimanded by his superiors for shouting derisive comments to protesters about the death of Chow Tsz-lok. Police described a man wearing a yellow vest who was taken to an alley, surrounded by police officers, and apparently physically abused by one of them, as a "yellow object".
Police were also accused of spreading a climate of fear by conducting hospital arrests, attacking protesters while undercover, arresting people arbitrarily, targeting youngsters, banning requests for demonstrations, and arresting high-profile activists and lawmakers. During the pandemic period, it has also used the law banning groups of 4 to further ban peaceful protests. However, the police were accused of applying double standards by showing leniency towards violent counter-protesters. It has also failed to fulfill its duty to protect the protesters. Their slow response and inaction during the Yuen Long attack sparked accusations they had colluded with the attackers.
Lack of accountability
Police modified the Police General Orders by removing the sentence "officers will be accountable for their own actions" ahead of the 1 October 2019 confrontation. Police sources of the Washington Post have said that a culture of impunity pervades the police force, such that riot police often disregarded their training or became dishonest in official reports to justify excessive force. Police officers who felt that their actions were not justified were marginalised. Police commanders reportedly ignored the wrongdoings and the unlawful behaviours of frontline riot police and refused to use any disciplinary measures to avoid upsetting them. Lam's administration also denied police wrongdoings and backed the police multiple times. As of December 2019, no officer had been suspended for their actions or charged or prosecuted over protest-related actions. When the District Councils were passing motions to condemn police violence, police commissioner Chris Tang and other civil servants walked out in protest.
The Independent Police Complaints Council (IPCC) launched investigations into alleged incidents of police misconduct during the protests. Protesters demanded an independent commission of inquiry instead, as the members of the IPCC are mainly pro-establishment and it lacks the power to investigate, make definitive judgements, and hand out penalties. Despite calls from both local and international opinion leaders, Carrie Lam and both police commissioners Stephen Lo and Chris Tang rejected the formation of an independent committee. Lam insisted that the IPCC was able to fulfill the task, while Tang called the formation of such a committee an "injustice" and a "tool for inciting hatred" against the force.
On 8 November 2019, a five-member expert panel headed by Sir Denis O'Connor and appointed by Lam in September 2019 to advise the IPCC, concluded that the police watchdog lacked the "powers, capacity and independent investigative capability necessary" to fulfill its role as a police watchdog group and suggested the formation of an independent commission of inquiry given the current protest situation. After negotiations to increase the IPCC's powers fell through, the five panel members quit on 11 December 2019. The IPCC report on police behaviour during the protests released in May 2020 concluded that police has mostly followed the guidelines though there was room for improvement. While government officials called the report "comprehensive", democrats and human rights organisations were unanimous in declaring it a whitewash of police misdeeds. One of the expert panel members, Clifford Stott, said in June 2020 that the police had misjudged the dynamics of the protests and had used disproportionate force at almost all protests, thus creating more disorder than it prevented. A report co-authored by Stott, published in November 2020, saw the "absence of any credible system of accountability for the police" as one major reason for why the protests became more radical.
Local media coverage
The protests received significant press attention. Nathan Ruser from ASPI identified the protests as the most live-streamed social unrest in history. According to a poll conducted by CUHK, live feeds have replaced traditional media, social media and Telegram as the main way for citizens of Hong Kong to access protest-related information. Ruser suggested that unlike other protests, the widespread use of livestreaming technology in the Hong Kong protests meant that there was "almost parity when it comes to what [one] can learn remotely researching it to actually being there".
Many of Hong Kong's media outlets are owned by local tycoons who have significant business ties in the mainland, so many of them adopt self-censorship at some level and have mostly maintained a conservative editorial line in their coverage of the protests. The management of some firms have forced journalists to change their headline to sound less sympathetic to the protest movement. A report by BBC suggested that the management of local terrestrial broadcaster Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB) had forced employees to include more voices supporting the government and highlight the aggressive actions of the protesters, without including segments focusing on the responses from the protesters or the democrats. Journalists from South China Morning Post, which was acquired by the Chinese Alibaba Group in 2016, had their news pieces significantly altered by senior editors to include a pro-government viewpoint before they were published. TVB and local news outlet HK01 were accused of pro-government bias, and protesters have physically assaulted their news crews and damaged their equipment and vehicles. Protesters also placed political pressure on various corporations, urging them to stop placing advertisements on TVB.
On the other hand, Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK), a public broadcasting service, faced criticisms of bias in favour of the protest movement. Its critics have surrounded the headquarters of RTHK and assaulted its reporters. RTHK also faced political pressure from the police directly: police commissioner Chris Tang filed complaints to RTHK against the satirical TV show Headliner and opinion program Pentaprism for "insulting the police" and "spreading hate speech" respectively.[f] The police were criticised by journalists and democrats for interfering with press freedom. In response to around 200 complaints received by the Communications Authority, RTHK apologised "to any police officers or others who have been offended" and cancelled Headliner in May 2020, ending its 21-year run. RTHK journalist Nabela Qoser, known for her blunt questioning of government officials at press conferences, was subjected to racist abuse online by pro-Beijing groups, prompting a statement of "grave concern" from the Equal Opportunities Commission. She also had her probation period at RTHK extended.
Journalists have experienced interference and obstruction from the police in their reporting activities. Police frequently used flashlights against reporters, shining light at cameras to avoid them being filmed or photographed; journalists also reported frequently being harassed, searched, and insulted. In some cases, despite identifying themselves, they were jostled, subdued, pepper-sprayed, or violently detained by the police. Several female reporters complained about being sexually harassed by police officers. Journalists were also caught in the crossfire of protests: Indonesian journalist Veby Mega Indah of Suara was blinded by a rubber bullet; a reporter from RTHK suffered burns after he was hit by a petrol bomb. Student journalists have also been targeted and attacked by police.
Police raided the headquarters of pro-democratic newspaper Apple Daily and searched its editorial and reporters' areas on 10 August 2020. During the operation, reporters from several major news outlets were rejected from entering cordoned-off areas where a scheduled press briefing was held. Police stated that media who were "unprofessional", or had been reporting in the past in a manner considered by police as biased against the force, would be denied access to such briefings in the future. In September 2020, the police further limited press freedom by narrowing the definition of "media representatives", meaning that student reporters and freelancers would have to face more risks when they are reporting.
Hong Kong's fall by seven places to 80th in the World Press Freedom Index was attributed by Reporters without Borders to the policy of violence against journalists. When the Press Freedom Index was established in 2002, Hong Kong had ranked 18th. Following the passing of the national security law, The New York Times announced that it would relocate its digital team's office to Seoul, as the law has "unsettled news organisations and created uncertainty about the city's prospects as a hub for journalism in Asia". The Immigration Department also started declining work visas for foreign journalists, including those working for New York Times and local outlet Hong Kong Free Press.
Official statistics showed that Hong Kong had slipped into recession as its economy had shrunk in the second and third quarters of 2019. Retail sales declined and consumer spending decreased. Some restaurants saw their customers cancel bookings, and certain banks and shops were forced to close their doors. Some supply chains were disrupted because of the protests. Lower consumer spending caused several luxury brands to delay shop openings, while other brands quit. While some hawkers protested about declining sales, some shops prospered as nearby protesters bought food and other commodities. Stock of protest supplies ran low in both Hong Kong and Taiwan.
The protests also affected property owners: fearing the instability, some investors abandoned purchases of land. Demand for property also declined, as overall property transactions dropped by 24 percent when compared with the Umbrella Revolution; property developers were forced to slash prices. Trade shows reported decreased attendance and revenue, and many firms cancelled their events in Hong Kong. The Hang Seng Index declined by at least 4.8 percent from 9 June 2019 to late August 2019. As investment sentiment waned, companies awaiting listing on the stock market put their initial public offerings (IPO) on hold, there being only one in August 2019 – the lowest since 2012. Fitch Ratings downgraded Hong Kong's sovereignty rating from AA+ to AA due to doubts over the government's ability to maintain the "one country, two systems" principle; the outlook on the territory was similarly downgraded from "stable" to "negative".
Tourism was also affected: the number of visitors travelling to Hong Kong in August 2019 declined by 40 percent compared to a year earlier, while the National Day holiday saw a decline of 31.9 percent.[better source needed] Unemployment increased from 0.1 percent to 3.2 percent from September to November 2019, with the tourist and the catering sectors, seeing rises to 5.2 percent and 6.2 percent respectively during the same period, being the hardest hit. Flight bookings also declined, with airlines cutting or reducing services. During the airport protests on 12 and 13 August 2019, the Airport Authority cancelled numerous flights, which resulted in an estimated US$76 million loss according to aviation experts. Various countries issued travel warnings to their citizens concerning Hong Kong, and many mainland Chinese tourists avoided travelling to Hong Kong due to safety concerns.
The economy in Hong Kong became increasingly politicised. Some corporations bowed to pressure and fired employees who expressed their support for the protests. Several international corporations and businesses including the National Basketball Association and Activision Blizzard decided to appease China during the protests and faced intense criticisms. The Diplomat called the Yellow Economic Circle "one of the most radical, progressive, and innovative forms of long-term struggle" during the protests. Corporations perceived to be pro-Beijing faced boycotts, and some were vandalised. Meanwhile, "yellow" shops allied with protesters enjoyed a flurry of patrons even during the coronavirus crisis.
Lam's administration was criticised for its performance during the protests – her perceived arrogance and obstinacy, and her reluctance to engage in dialogue with protesters. Her extended absences, stonewalling performance at press conferences, were all believed to have enabled the protesters to escalate events.[g] According to public opinion polls, Lam's approval rating plunged to 22.3 in October 2019, the lowest among all chief executives. Her performance and those of Secretary for Security John Lee and Secretary for Justice Teresa Cheng were called "disastrous". On 2 September, Reuters received a leaked audio recording in which Carrie Lam admitted that she had "very limited" room to manoeuvre between the Central People's Government and Hong Kong, and that she would quit, if she had a choice. However, the next day she told the media that she had never contemplated discussing her resignation with the Beijing authorities. Lam's behaviour on this and later occasions strengthened the perception among a broad part of the protesters and their supporters that she was not able to make any crucial decision without instructions from the Beijing government, effectively serving as its puppet. Distrust toward the government and the lack of police accountability also led to the temporary prevalence of conspiracy theories.
Both sides claimed that rule of law in Hong Kong was undermined during the protests. While the government, the police and government supporters criticised the protesters for breaking the law and using violence to "extort" the government to accept the demands, the protesters and their sympathisers felt that lack of police oversight, selective law enforcement, selective prosecution, police brutality, and the government's blanket denial of all police wrongdoings all harmed rule of law and expressed their disappointment that the law cannot help them achieve justice. The judiciary was also scrutinised after judge Kwok Wai-kin expressed sympathy to a stabber who attacked three people in September 2019 near a Lennon Wall. He was later removed from handling all protest-related cases.
The government's extended absence and its lack of a political solution in the early stage of the protests catapulted the police into the front line, and heavy-handed policing became a substitute for solving a political crisis. The police force was initially "lost and confused" and was discontent with the government for not offering enough support. Subsequently, Lam's blanket denial of allegations of police brutality led to accusations that Lam and her administration endorsed police violence. Throughout the protests, the establishment waited for demonstrators' aggression to increase so they could justify greater militarisation of the police and dismiss the protesters as "insurgents" and thereby also dismiss their demands. Ma Ngok, a political scientist, remarked that the failures of the government meant that it "has lost the trust of a whole generation" and predicted that youths would remain angry at both the government and the police for years to come.
Police's image and accountability
The reputation of the police took a serious drubbing following the heavy-handed treatment of protesters. In October 2019, a survey conducted by CUHK revealed that more than 50 per cent of respondents were deeply dissatisfied with the police's performance. According to some reports, their aggressive behaviours and tactics have caused them to become a symbol that represents hostility and suppression. Their actions against protesters resulted in a breakdown of citizens' trust of the police. Citizens were also concerned over the ability of the police to regulate and control their members and feared their abuse of power. The suspected acts of police brutality led some politically neutral or political apathetic citizens to become more sympathetic towards the young protesters. Fearing Hong Kong was changing into a police state, some citizens actively considered emigration. The lack of any prosecutions against officers, and the absence of independent police oversight, sparked fears that the police could not be held accountable for their actions and that they were immune to any legal consequences.
Affected by the controversies surrounding the police force's handling of the protests, between June 2019 to February 2020, 446 police officers quit (which was 40 per cent higher than the figure in 2018), and the force only managed to recruit 760 officers (40 per cent lower than the previous year), falling well short of the police force's expectations. The police cancelled foot patrols because of fears officers may be attacked, and issued extendable batons to off-duty officers. Police officers also reported being "physically and mentally" tired, as they faced the risks of being doxed, cyberbullied, and distanced by their family members. Police relations with journalists, social workers, medical professionals and members from other disciplined forces became strained.
The protests deepened the rift between the "yellow" (pro-democracy) and "blue" (pro-government) camps created since the Umbrella Revolution. People who opposed the protests argued that protesters were spreading "chaos and fear" across the city, causing damage to the economy and thus harming people not involved in the protests. On the other hand, protesters justified their actions by what they saw as the greater good of protecting the territory's freedoms against the encroachment of mainland China. Anti-mainland sentiments swelled during this period. Family relationships were strained, as children argued with their parents over their attending protests, either because they felt that the protests reflected outdated values, or they disagreed with their parent's political stance or the manner of the protests.
As the protests continued to escalate, citizens showed an increasing tolerance towards confrontational and violent actions. Pollsters found that among 8,000 respondents, 90% of them believed that the use of these tactics was understandable because of the government's refusal to respond to the demands. The protest movement provided a basis for challenging the government over its controversial handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, and some observers ascribed the success in halting the first wave of the pandemic to protesters' related efforts. Unity among the protesters was seen across a wide spectrum of age groups and professions.[h] While some moderate protesters reported that the increase in violence alienated them from the protests, public opinion polls conducted by CUHK suggested that the movement was able to maintain public support. The unity among protesters fostered a new sense of identity and community in Hong Kong, which had always been a very materialistic society. This was evidenced by the adoption of "Glory to Hong Kong" as a protest anthem.
A study conducted by the University of Hong Kong found that the protests were having negative impacts on the mental health of Hong Kong residents with one third of adults, around 2 million adults of a total population of 7.4 million, reporting symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during the protests, up from 5 per cent in March 2015. This was a six times increase from four years earlier with levels of depression and PTSD comparable to a war zone. A survey, on social media, of more than 1,000 people by the Chinese University of Hong Kong found that 38 per cent were troubled by depression-related problems. Symptoms of PTSD were found not only to afflict protesters, but also those watching events unfold on the news, living in affected areas, or working in jobs that are related to the movement (nurses, doctors, reporters, police, and street cleaners). Suspected PTSD in 2019 was found to have a prevalence of 12.8 per cent in the population. Heavy social media use of 2 or more hours per day was associated with likelihood of both depression or PTSD. A Guardian article dated 22 October 2019 reported that "protesters have tracked at least nine cases of suicides that appear to be linked directly to the demonstrations" since June. In five of these cases, the victims left a suicide note referring to the protests, and three were attributed to events following the extradition bill. With the passage of the national security law and the establishment of a national security hotline, societal mistrust and stress is expected to increase.
Hong Kong government
Carrie Lam continued to push for the second reading of the bill despite a mass anti-extradition bill protest, saying that the government was "duty-bound" to amend the law. She had previously rejected meeting the protesters, believing that such meeting would have "no purpose". Following the 12 June conflict, both Police Commissioner Stephen Lo and Lam characterised the conflict as a "riot". The police later backed down on the claim, saying that among the protesters, only five of them rioted. Protesters demanded that the government fully retract the riot characterisation. Lam's analogy as Hong Kong people's mother attracted criticisms after the violent crackdown on 12 June.
Lam announced the suspension of the bill on 15 June 2019, and officially apologised to the public on 18 June two days after another massive march. In early July, Lam reiterated that the bill "had passed away" and reaffirmed that all efforts to amend the law had ceased, though her use of language was thought to be ambiguous. During July and August 2019, the government insisted that it would not make any concessions and that the IPCC would suffice to investigate police misconduct. She also refused to declare the withdrawal of the bill, and ignored calls for her to resign. On 4 September 2019, Lam announced that she would formally withdraw the extradition bill, as well as introduce measures such as adding new members to the IPCC, engage in dialogue at the community level, and invite academics to join an "independent review committee" – with no investigative powers – to evaluate Hong Kong's deep-rooted problems. However, protesters and democrats saw the withdrawal as coming too late, and insisted that all of their five core demands be answered. One day prior to the first dialogue session of Lam on 26 September 2019, a Chinese envoy termed the demands "political blackmail", leading to doubts on the leeway Lam had in the sessions. The independent review committee was then shelved by Lam in May 2020.
After condemning the protesters who had stormed the legislature on 1 July for their "use of extreme violence", and those who had defaced the national emblem during the 21 July protest, Lam suggested in early August 2019 that the protests had deviated from their original purpose and that their goal now was to challenge China's sovereignty and damage "one country, two systems". She suggested that radical protesters were dragging Hong Kong to a "path of no return" and that they had "no stake in society", and therefore, government meetings need not to include them. On 5 October 2019, after what Lam referred to as "extreme violence" had taken place, an emergency law from the colonial era was enacted to ban face masks in Hong Kong—without declaring a state of emergency—which sparked criticism from various human rights organisations.[i] Starting from October, Lam regularly referred to the protesters as "rioters" and dismissed the protesters, despite them amassing mass support, throughout late 2019. She also allied with the police, and claimed that ending violence and restoring order, rather than responding to political demands, was what people wanted in Hong Kong.
To cope with the ongoing protests, on 15 November 2019, the police had appointed no more than 100 Correctional Services Department (CSD) officers as special constables to assist them. In May 2020, the authorities announced they would recruit more personnel from the other five disciplinary services and bring the total number of special constables to 700. Several protesters who were detained at a correctional facility in Pik Uk reported that they had been tortured and physically abused by guards. They reported that the guards beat their hands and feet, slapped their face, then forced them to slap themselves after they were taken to a room without security camera during their time in detention.
According to Reuters, the government contacted eight public relations firms to improve the image of the government in late September 2019, but six of them declined to participate for fear that partnering with the HKSAR government may tarnish their reputation. On 30 July 2020, the Hong Kong government made ineligible a dozen pro-democracy candidates from running in Legislative Council elections which had been scheduled for 6 September; the elections were later postponed by a year, for which the government cited a new surge in COVID-19 cases as reason. Observers noted that the delay could have been politically motivated as the pro-Beijing camp may lose their majority in the LegCo following the election. The government claimed that the disqualified candidates had colluded with foreign forces and opposed the new national security law.
The pro-Beijing camp supported the government in promoting the bill, though U-turned when the government withdrew the bill. They condemned the use of violence by protesters, including breaking into the LegCo Complex and using petrol bombs and unidentified liquids against the police, and used the term "rubbish youths" (Chinese: 廢青) to refer to high school- and university-age participants. They maintained their support for the Hong Kong Police Force and held various counter-demonstrations to support them, and criticised the government for not taking enough actions to "halt the violence". Members of the Executive Council, Ip Kwok-him and Regina Ip alleged that there was a "mastermind" behind the protests but could not provide substantial evidence to support their claim.
Many lawmakers from the pan-democratic camp, such as Ted Hui and Roy Kwong, assisted the protesters in various scenarios. Responding to the escalation of the mid-August protests at the airport, the convenor of the pro-democratic caucas, Claudia Mo, while disagreeing with some protesters' actions, asserted that her group of lawmakers would not split with the protesters. Pro-democrats also condemned the arrests of and the violence directed at the protests' organisers, lawmakers and election candidates. Former government officials, including Anson Chan, the former Chief Secretary for Administration, issued several open letters to Carrie Lam, urging her to respond to the five core demands raised by protesters.
In August, 17 members from the Real Estate Developers Association of Hong Kong and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce released statements condemning the escalating protests because of the instability they had brought to the city's economy and business community, as well as the negative effects on society as a whole. Annie Wu, the daughter of Maxim's Catering founder and also a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, condemned the protesters at the United Nations Human Rights Council and suggested that Hong Kong should give up the "lost" protesters. On 30 October, Abraham Shek, a lawmaker representing the Real Estate and Construction constituency, supported the formation of an independent commission and said that the problem could not be resolved by only addressing the severe housing shortage. Tycoon Li Ka-shing took out a two-page advertisement in newspapers, urging people to "stop anger and violence in the name of love", and quoting a Chinese poem: "The melon of Huangtai cannot bear the picking again".
Despite the government, the pro-Beijing camp and state media invoking the notion of a "silent majority" who opposed the protests, and urging citizens to cut ties with the "violent protesters", citizens generally favoured the pro-democratic camp and supported the protest movement. The 2019 Hong Kong District Council election, the first poll since the beginning of the protests, had been billed as a "referendum" on the government. More than 2.94 million votes were cast for a turnout rate of 71.2%, up from 1.45 million and 47% from the previous election. This was the highest turnout in Hong Kong's history, both in absolute numbers and in turnout rates. The results were a resounding landslide victory for the pro-democracy bloc, as they saw their seat share increased from 30% to almost 88%, with a jump in vote share from 40% to 57%. Among those who were also legislators, the overwhelming majority of the losing candidates were from the pro-Beijing bloc.
Reuters conducted polls in December 2019, March 2020, June 2020 and August 2020. The last poll showed that an increasing number of Hongkongers support the pro-democracy goals since the national security law was implemented. More than half of the respondents opposed the national security law. 70% wanted an independent commission of inquiry that looked into how the police handled the protests. 63% wanted universal suffrage. The support for amnesty of all arrested protesters rose to 50%. More than half of people still wanted Carrie Lam to resign. The number of people who opposed the pro-democracy demands went down to 19%. The majority (60%) still opposed Hong Kong independence, 20% supported the idea.
Mainland China reactions
The Chinese government expressed their opposition to the protests, while taking measures against the protests and their supporters. The protests were depicted by the government and media as separatist riots. Beijing accused the movement of displaying "characteristics of colour revolutions" and "signs of terrorism". The Beijing government and state-run media accused foreign forces of interfering with domestic affairs and supporting the protesters. These allegations were rejected by Hong Kong pro-democrats, and CNN noted that China had a record of blaming foreign forces for causing domestic unrest. On 22 October 2019, following protests and violence in Catalonia and Chile, the Chinese government accused Western media of hypocrisy for not providing similar coverage and support to those protests. Chinese diplomats and ambassadors in more than 70 countries broadcast Beijing's position on the protests to shape international opinion. CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang have repeatedly backed Lam's administration and the police.
Chinese state media outlets largely ignored the protests until 17 April 2019. The protests were mostly censored from Mainland Chinese social media, such as Sina Weibo, though state-owned media and Chinese social media users later condemned the protesters. State-run media pressured various companies, including railway operator MTR Corporation and airline Cathay Pacific to take a hardline approach against employees who took part in the protests. Cathay Pacific saw its top managers "reshuffled" and began firing pro-democratic employees after the Civil Aviation Administration of China threatened to block Cathay's access to Chinese airspace. Chinese media also attempted to appeal to the "silent majority" and blame the protests on Hong Kong's education system. It also hailed police officers as "heroes", and demanded the government take more "forceful" actions and the court to hand out heavy punishments. On 8 March 2021, UK broadcasting authority Ofcom imposed a fine of £125,000 on Chinese state broadcaster CGTN for having "failed to maintain due impartiality" in five programmes on the protests aired in 2019.
Foreign envoys reported the deployment in late August of a sizeable number of People's Liberation Army (PLA) troops to Hong Kong, well beyond the usual rotation and possibly doubling the number of PLA troops compared to before the start of the protests. Drills by the People's Armed Police were observed across the border in Shenzhen in August. On 6 October 2019, the PLA issued its first warning to the protesters, who were shining laser lights on the exterior of the PLA garrison in Kowloon Tong. On 16 November, soldiers appeared publicly in the streets for the first time during the protests, in plain clothes and unarmed, to clear roadblocks and other debris left during protests alongside local residents, firefighters, and police officers before marching back to the Kowloon Tong barracks. The government insisted the soldiers were volunteers, and that it had made no request for assistance. The act was criticised by pro-democrats who deemed it a violation of the Basic Law. The Chinese government required goods mailed from mainland China to Hong Kong to be investigated while goods which were believed to relate to the protests were blocked. Chinese authorities also detained several individuals in mainland China after they voiced their support for the protesters.
China further tightened its control in Hong Kong in 2020: on 4 January, the State Council dismissed Wang Zhimin from the role of director of the Hong Kong Liaison Office and appointed Luo Huining as his successor. The decision was widely linked to the poor performance of pro-government candidates at the District Council elections in November, and Wang's perceived poor judgment of how the protests evolved. Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office director Zhang Xiaoming was demoted and replaced by Xia Baolong in February 2020. The new directors triggered the Basic Law Article 22 controversy in April when they claimed that the two offices were not covered by Article 22. In May, China announced that the NPCSC, China's rubber-stamp legislative body, would directly draft a national security law for Hong Kong and skip the local legislation procedures. Political analysts believed that Beijing's action would mark the end of the "one country, two systems" principle and Hong Kong's autonomy as promised in the Sino-British Joint Declaration. On 28 May 2020, the NPC approved the controversial national security laws for Hong Kong. The legislation allows the government's national security agencies to operate in Hong Kong. On 30 June 2020, China implemented "Hong Kong national security law". Its 66 articles target crimes of secession, subversion, terrorism and collusion with foreign forces, and includes serious penalties between 10 years of prison to life imprisonment.
As a result of the protests, many nations issued travel warnings for Hong Kong. Demonstrations in reaction to the extradition protests also took place in various locations around the world, including: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, the United States and Vietnam. Solidarity rallies held by Hong Kong international students studying abroad were often met by mainland Chinese counter-protesters. Following the death of Chow Tsz-lok, Secretary for Justice Teresa Cheng was heckled and jostled by protest supporters in Bloomsbury Square in London; she fell to the ground and injured her arm. Some protesters in the concurrent 2019 Catalan protests have claimed inspiration from, and solidarity with the Hong Kong protests. Protesters also formed the Milk Tea Alliance with Taiwanese and Thai netizens to counter online supporters of China and trolls, but it slowly evolved into an online democratic solidarity movement that advocates for democracy in Southeast Asia.
Some protesters fled to Taiwan to avoid prosecution. The Hong Kong protests were considered a contributing factor in the landslide victory of Tsai Ing-wen during the 2020 Taiwanese presidential election. Tsai, who had repeatedly shown a supportive attitude toward the Hong Kong protesters, used the slogan "today Hong Kong, tomorrow Taiwan" during her presidential campaign, referring to the city's unrest as evidence of the threats posed by the "one country, two systems" principle to Taiwan's autonomy and democracy. Christina Lai from Academia Sinica concurred that the situation in Hong Kong created a sense of "urgency" for Taiwanese voters, as China's hardline reaction implied that they would use the same strategy to undermine Taiwan's autonomy in the future. Tsai's rejection of the principle enabled her to gain support from young voters.
In the United States, the House of Representatives and Senate both unanimously passed the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act in light of the extradition bill and protests. President Donald Trump signed the bill on 27 November, alongside a companion bill restricting US exports of crowd control devices to the Hong Kong police forces. Various US politicians have expressed disapproval of corporate decisions related to the protests. On 29 May 2020, Trump ordered the removal of the special status enjoyed by Hong Kong due to Beijing's new national security law for the territory, after Pompeo declared that the city was no longer autonomous from China and should therefore, be treated as any one of Chinese cities.
Dominic Raab, the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, urged China to uphold the promises it made in the Sino-British Joint Declaration, which was a legally binding international treaty. The UK had already stopped selling crowd control equipment to the HKPF. Former UK consulate employee Simon Cheng was granted asylum in the UK in June 2020. He was previously detained by Chinese authorities who reportedly tortured him to force a confession that the UK was involved in instigating the protests, though Chinese authorities stated that he was detained for "soliciting prostitutes". On 3 June 2020, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced that if China were to continue pursuing the national security law, he would open a path to British citizenship for Hong Kong residents who were eligible for a British National (Overseas) passport (BNO). After the passing of the law on 30 June 2020, the UK confirmed these Hong Kong residents are able to come to the United Kingdom with a five-year limited leave to remain. Following those five years they will be able to apply for indefinite leave to remain in the United Kingdom and, after a further 12 months with settled status, they will be able to apply for British citizenship.
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet demanded the Hong Kong government conduct an investigation into police use of force against the protesters; she previously said that she was "troubled and alarmed" by the escalating violence used by the protesters. Amnesty International praised the protesters for their dedication despite facing "abusive policing tactics" which include the "wanton use of tear gas, arbitrary arrests, physical assaults and abuses in detention". Kenneth Roth, the head of Human Rights Watch (HRW), was denied entry to Hong Kong at Hong Kong International Airport on 12 January 2020. Hong Kong officials insisted that the decision to bar Roth from entry had been made in Hong Kong, not in mainland China. In June 2020, on the first anniversary of mass protests in Hong Kong, a statement released by HRW said that the governments of both China and Hong Kong should respect fundamental rights of people.
Norwegian lawmaker Guri Melby announced in October 2019 that she had nominated the Hong Kong protesters for the Nobel Peace Prize. The nomination was later endorsed by the Liberals in the Norwegian parliament. Several US members of Congress, including Marco Rubio and James McGovern, nominated the protesters in February 2020. On 28 November 2020, the British All-party parliamentary group on Hong Kong agreed to nominate Alexandra Wong, commonly known as "Grandma Wong", for the Nobel Peace Prize; Wong had been a frequent sight at the protests before disappearing for an extended period in August 2019.
In popular culture
- "The Battle for Hong Kong", by Channel 4, has a look into the lives of some of the protesters.
- The second episode of "China: A New World Order", by the BBC, has the protests as central theme.
- 1967 Hong Kong riots by pro-Beijing protesters
- 2010 Hong Kong democracy protests
- 2016 Mong Kok civil unrest
- 30th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests
- Hong Kong 1 July marches
- Sunflower Student Movement
- Umbrella Movement
- Human rights in China
- Human rights in Hong Kong
- List of protests in the 21st century
- 2020s in political history
- The number of civilians injured is certainly understated, because some protesters sought medical help from underground clinics due to mistrust in the government services.
- The figure includes an unknown number of repeat arrests occurring in the course of the protests. According to an article in the South China Morning Post, as of 10 October 2019 there were close to 2,400 arrests, with about 60 being repeat arrests. The number of arrestees currently in custody is uncertain as of 18 April 2020.
- The government refused to disclose the chemical composition of the gas, citing "operational concerns".
- Police defended the officer's actions at the Tsuen Wan incident saying that he and his colleague's lives were at risk as a group of protesters was assaulting another officer at the time. Protesters argued that the officer shooting the man's chest was unnecessary and that he had other less lethal alternatives available at his disposal. Explaining the Sai Wan Ho incident, police alleged the unarmed young man was trying to grab the officer's service weapon.
- The teen was arrested before any petrol bomb was thrown.
- Headliner had a segment that poked fun at the police. This forced the broadcaster to suspend the airing of the segment and the production of future seasons. An episode from Pentaprism features a lecturer from The Education University of Hong Kong (EdU) who described the Siege of PolyU as a "humanitarian crisis" and compared it to the Tiananmen Square crackdown. The sender was issued with a "serious warning" in April 2020.
- At a press conference on 5 August 2019, Lam explained her absence from the public eye in the preceding two weeks. She was concerned about the risk to organisers over the possible disruption by protesters of public events and press conferences.
- On many occasions, middle-aged and elderly volunteers attempted to separate the police and the young protesters where the two groups confronted each other, and provided various forms of assistance. Various professions organised rallies to stand in solidarity with protesters. These professions included: teachers, civil servants, the aviation industry, accountants, medical professionals, social workers, the advertising sector, and the finance sector. To express their support, sympathisers of the protest movement chanted rallying cries from their apartments every night, wrote Christmas cards to injured protesters and those in detention, and rallied outside Lai Chi Kok Reception Centre where the detainees are held.
- The democrats filed a judicial review to challenge Lam's decision, and the High Court ruled that the mask ban was unconstitutional. In April 2020, after the government had filed an appeal, the court ruled that the ban is only unconstitutional during legal demonstrations, and ruled that the police cannot physically remove the face masks worn by violators.
- 眾志衝入政總靜坐促撤回逃犯條例修訂 [Demosistō got to HK Govt. HQ against the extradition bill amendment] (video). Now.com (in Chinese). 2019-03-15. Archived from the original on 2019-11-04.
- "疫情緩解，抗爭運動重燃，香港社會運動形式將會有什麼改變？你如何看？". 端傳媒Initium Media (in Chinese). 2020-05-12.
- "Hong Kong Protests Resume After Officials Relax Social Distancing Rules". NPR. 2020-05-15.
- Ramzy, Austin; Yu, Elaine (2020-05-21). "Under Cover of Coronavirus, Hong Kong Cracks Down on Protest Movement". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2020-09-20. Retrieved 2020-09-20.
- "HKSAR Government condemns European Parliament's resolution". HKSAR Press Release. 2021-07-09.
Since its [National Security Law's] implementation in June 2020, the positive effect of the National Security Law in restoring peace and stability ... in the HKSAR has been obvious and indisputable.
- Cheng, Kris; Grundy, Tom (2019-06-15). "Hong Kong democrats urge leader Carrie Lam to drop extradition law plans entirely and resign; Sunday protest to proceed". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-06-15.
- Wong, Tessa (2019-08-17). "How Hong Kong got trapped in a cycle of violence". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2019-08-17. Retrieved 2019-08-30.
- Sala, Ilaria Maria (2019-08-21). "Why There's No End in Sight to the Hong Kong Protests". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2019-08-21. Retrieved 2019-08-27.
- 林鄭月娥電視講話 宣布撤回修例 拒設獨立委員會 (in Chinese). Stand News. 2019-09-05. Retrieved 2019-09-05.
- 傘運感和理非無用 勇武者：掟磚非為泄憤. Ming Pao (in Chinese). 2019-08-18. Archived from the original on 2019-09-13. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
- Lum, Alvin; Chung, Kimmy; Lam, Jeffie (2019-09-23). "Hong Kong's 'dead' extradition bill finally buried as government formally withdraws it". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
- "So the bill is 'dead'…but how dead, exactly? Lam's choice of words raises eyebrows". Coconuts Hong Kong. 2019-07-09. Archived from the original on 2019-07-17. Retrieved 2019-08-25.
- Ng, Kang-chung; Sum, Lok-kei (2019-06-17). "Police roll back on categorisation of Hong Kong protests as a riot". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 2019-06-17. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-06-15). "In Pictures: 'Hopeful tomorrow' -Pro-gov't group hosts rally denouncing violence and backing Hong Kong police". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
- Cheung, Tony (2019-11-06). "No country would tolerate 'violent and destructive acts' of Hong Kong's protesters, Chinese Vice-Premier Han Zheng says". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
'Stopping violence and restoring order is still the most important work for Hong Kong society, the common responsibility of the city's executive, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the biggest consensus of the city,' he said.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-11-06). "Vice-Premier says Beijing supports Hong Kong authorities, as leader Carrie Lam 'saddened' by 3,000 arrests during protests". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2020-06-25. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
'[The central government] fully acknowledges the work done by [Lam] and the SAR government, and the dedicated performance of the Hong Kong police force,' he said
- 【林鄭述職】強化「刀把子」角色 折射北京撐警強力執法思路. HK01 (in Chinese). 2019-12-17.
- Zhou, Laura (2019-11-14). "Xi Jinping again backs Hong Kong police use of force in stopping unrest". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-07-22). "'Servants of triads': Hong Kong democrats claim police condoned mob attacks in Yuen Long". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-03.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-07-22). "Hong Kong: why thugs may be doing the government's work". The Guardian.
- Barron, Laignee (2019-07-23). "Suspected 'Triad' gangs mark dangerous new phase in Hong Kong's crisis". Time.
- "Macau Government strongly backs Hong Kong national security law". Macau Business. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
- "How four deaths turned Hong Kong's protest movement dark". CNN. 2019-07-22.
People offer prayers during a vigil in Hong Kong on July 6, 2019, in memory of the four protesters who died.
- "Anti-government protests enter their seventh month". RTHK. Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
- "In Pictures: Hong Kong's volunteer frontline medics rush to treat protest casualties". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-12-21.
- Chau, Candice (2021-05-17). "10,250 arrests and 2,500 prosecutions linked to 2019 Hong Kong protests, as security chief hails dip in crime rate". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
- "Hong Kong protests: growing number of repeat arrests prompts calls for special court to fast-track cases related to violent unrest". South China Morning Post. 2019-10-21. Retrieved 2020-01-04.
- Pang, Jessie (2020-04-18). "Hong Kong police detain veteran democracy activists in raids". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
- Yau, Cannix (2019-10-08). "Hong Kong's economy lost HK$2.8 billion in 'golden week', experts say". South China Morning Post.
- "Hong Kong tallies cost of unrest as protest march looms". The Straits Times. 2019-12-07.
- "Counting the cost of protest – Hong Kong police rack up $120 million overtime bill". Reuters. 2019-12-13.
- "10,250 arrests and 2,500 prosecutions linked to 2019 Hong Kong protests, as security chief hails dip in crime rate". HKFP. 2021-05-17.
- "2019-20 Hong Kong protests: Storytelling through the best and worst times". the Eyeopener. 2020-10-19.
- "林郑月娥：香港国安法实施后社会秩序逐步恢复正常". 紫荆网新闻 (in Chinese). 2020-08-18.
- Leung, Christy (2019-04-01). "Extradition bill not made to measure for mainland China and won't be abandoned, Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam says". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
- Chernin, Kelly (2019-06-18). "Mass protests protect Hong Kong's legal autonomy from China – for now". The Conversation. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
- Lam, Jeffie; Cheung, Tony (2019-04-16). "Hong Kong's pro-democracy lawmakers seek last-minute adjustment to extradition bill to ensure Taiwan murder suspect faces justice". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
- Cheung, Helier (2019-06-17). "Hong Kong extradition: How radical youth forced the government's hand". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2019-06-17. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Leung, Hillary (2019-08-27). "Then and Now: 79 Days of Protest in Hong Kong". Time. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Cheung, Helier (2019-09-04). "Why are there protests in Hong Kong? All the context you need". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2019-09-08. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Branigan, Tania; Kuo, Lily (2020-06-09). "How Hong Kong caught fire: the story of a radical uprising". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-07-02.
- Lam, Jeffie (2019-08-06). "'Liberate Hong Kong; revolution of our times': Who came up with this protest chant and why is the government worried?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- "Almost nobody in Hong Kong under 30 identifies as "Chinese"". The Economist. 2019-08-26.
- Dissanayake, Samanthi (2014-09-30). "Things that could only happen in a Hong Kong protest". BBC. Retrieved 2020-07-02.
- "The Guardian view on Hong Kong's protests: the mood hardens". The Guardian. 2019-07-02. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Griffiths, James (2019-07-22). "Hong Kong's democracy movement was about hope. These protests are driven by desperation". CNN. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Ferguson, Adam (2019-08-15). "Arrests, Tear Gas and Uncertainty: Scenes From Hong Kong's Summer of Unrest". Time. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Hsu, Stacy (2019-06-27). "World leaders urged to address Hong Kong issue ahead of G20". Focus Taiwan.
- Pang, Jessie; Siu, Twinnie (2019-10-23). "Hong Kong extradition bill officially killed, but more unrest likely". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-10-23. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
- "Police in Central Hong Kong Stop, Search Subway Passengers Ahead of Vote". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
- Kwan, Rhoda (2020-11-19). "Hong Kong police played pivotal role in radicalising protests in build-up to Poly-U siege, policing expert report says". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
- 便衣警拍攝示威者 拒展示委任證 警員反問記者：憑乜嘢. Stand News (in Chinese). Hong Kong. 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
- Ng, Kang-chung (2019-09-25). "Disband Hong Kong's police force? Online poll shows most in favour of move". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Qin, Amy (2019-07-08). "Hong Kong Protesters Are Fueled by a Broader Demand: More Democracy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2019-07-25.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-03-31). "In Pictures: 12,000 Hongkongers march in protest against 'evil' China extradition law, organisers say". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2020-04-28. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
- Sum, Lok-kei (2019-05-21). "Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam defends Beijing's involvement in extradition bill row, pointing out foreign powers 'escalated' controversy". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
- Gunia, Amy; Leung, Hillary (2019-06-10). "Hong Kong's Leader Says Extradition Bill to Go Ahead Prompting Calls for Fresh Protests". Time.
- Lague, David; Pomfret, James; Torode, Greg (2019-12-20). "How murder, kidnappings and miscalculation set off Hong Kong's revolt – A REUTERS SPECIAL REPORT". Reuters. Retrieved 2019-12-21.
- "Government response to procession". The Hong Kong Government. 2019-06-09.
- "As it happened: Hong Kong police and extradition protesters renew clashes as tear gas flies". South China Morning Post. 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
- "Police take action to stop riot". HK Government. 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
- Lomas, Claire (2019-06-13), "Hong Kong protests: Police accused of shooting at journalists amid demonstration over China extradition bill", The Independent, retrieved 2019-07-16
- "How not to police a protest: Unlawful use of force by Hong Kong Police". Amnesty International. 2019-06-21.
- Leung, Kanis; Su, Xinqi; Sum, Lok-kei (2019-06-15). "Hong Kong protest organisers vow to press ahead with Sunday march and strike action despite government backing down on extradition bill". South China Morning Post.
- Grundy, Tom (2019-06-15). "Man protesting Hong Kong's extradition law dies after falling from mall in Admiralty". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
- Wang, Wallis (2021-05-26). "Misadventure verdict on Pacific Place protester who plunged to his death". The Standard. Archived from the original on 2021-06-02. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
- Creery, Jennifer (2020-06-25). "Explainer: From 'five demands' to 'independence' – the evolution of Hong Kong's protest slogans". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- "As it happened: A historic day in Hong Kong concludes peacefully as organisers claim almost 2 million people came out in protest against the fugitive bill". South China Morning Post. 2019-06-16. Retrieved 2021-06-05.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma; Yu, Verna (2019-06-18). "Hong Kong protesters unimpressed by Lam's 'sincere' apology". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-06-05.
- Cheung, Tony (2019-06-15). "Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam suspends extradition bill, but won't apologise for rift it caused or withdraw it altogether". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- 【7.1遊行】歷來最多！55萬人上街促查6.12警暴 起步6小時龍尾先到金鐘. Apple Daily (in Chinese). Retrieved 2019-07-01.
- "Organisers say 550,000 attend annual July 1 democracy march as protesters occupy legislature". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
- "CORRECTED-Mass movement: counting marchers in Hong Kong". Reuters. 2019-07-05.
- Ruwitch, John; Pang, Jessie (2019-07-01). "Hong Kong protesters smash up legislature in direct challenge to China". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-07-01.
- Cheung, Eric (2019-07-01). "New manifesto of Hong Kong protesters released". CNN. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
- Su, Alice (2019-07-02). "Crackdown, arrests loom over Hong Kong as martyrdom becomes part of protest narratives". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
- 【逃犯條例】全港各區接力示威 遍地開花. Sing Tao Daily (in Chinese). 2019-07-07. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-07-05). "Hong Kong extradition bill battle continues with more protests planned for the weekend". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-07-07.
- Creery, Jennifer (2019-07-13). "'Reclaim Sheung Shui': Thousands of Hongkongers protest influx of parallel traders from China". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-07-14. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-07-22). "Hong Kong chief Carrie Lam condemns protesters defacing national emblem; says Yuen Long attacks 'shocking'". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-03. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
- "Tear gas fails to clear Sheung Wan protesters". RTHK. 2019-07-21. Archived from the original on 2019-07-21. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
- "Junius Ho accused of supporting Yuen Long mob". The Standard. 2019-07-22. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
- Purbrick, Martin (2019-10-14). "A Report of the 2019 Hong Kong Protests". Asian Affairs. 50 (4): 465–487. doi:10.1080/03068374.2019.1672397.
- Sum, Lok-kei; Lo, Clifford; Leung, Kanis. "Protesters shine light on arrest of Hong Kong student with new kind of laser rally". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-08-07). "Angry protests and tear gas in Sham Shui Po after arrest of Hong Kong student leader for possessing laser pens". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-08-08. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
- "Another general strike possible, says organiser". RTHK. 2019-08-06. Archived from the original on 2019-08-06. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
- Lee, Danny. "Hundreds of flights cancelled leaving travellers facing chaos as citywide strike action hits Hong Kong International Airport". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
- Hui, Mary. "Photos: Hong Kong protesters paralyzed the city's transport". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
- Cheng, Kris. "Calls for general strike and 7 rallies across Hong Kong on Monday, as protests escalate". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
- "HK airport shuts down as protesters take over". RTHK. 2019-08-12. Archived from the original on 2019-08-12. Retrieved 2019-08-12.
- "Hong Kong Protesters Take Hostage During Violent Clashes at Airport". HuffPost. 2019-08-13. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
- "Hong Kong's business reputation takes hit with second day of airport chaos". USA Today. 2019-08-13.
- Rasmi, Adam; Hui, Mary. "Thirty years on, Hong Kong is emulating a human chain that broke Soviet rule". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
- Lew, Linda (2019-08-30). "Police ban of mass Hong Kong protest planned by Civil Human Rights Front upheld on appeal". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
- "In Hong Kong, Protests Resume After Wave of Arrests". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-08-31. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
- Mahtani, Shibani; McLaughlin, Timothy (2019-08-31). "Hong Kong protesters take to streets in defiance of arrests, ban on rally". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
- "Hong Kong: Rampaging police must be investigated". Amnesty International. 2019-09-01. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
In response to the latest clashes between police and protesters in Hong Kong on Saturday night – including one incident where police stormed the platform of Prince Edward metro station and beat people on a train – Man-Kei Tam, Director of Amnesty International Hong Kong, said: "Violence directed at police on Saturday is no excuse for officers to go on the rampage elsewhere. The horrifying scenes at Prince Edward metro station, which saw terrified bystanders caught up in the melee, fell far short of international policing standards.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-09-04). "'Too little, too late': Hong Kong democrats and protesters vow further action despite extradition bill withdrawal". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-05. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- "Hong Kong police filmed shooting teen protester at close range". ABC News. 2019-10-01.
- Lam, Jeffie; Sum, Lok-kei; Leung, Kanis (2019-10-03). "Was police officer justified in opening fire on Hong Kong protester?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-10-03.
- "Fresh Hong Kong rallies as police call teenager shooting 'lawful'". Al Jazeera. 2019-10-02. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
- "Anger as Hong Kong bans face masks at protests". BBC News. 2019-10-04. Archived from the original on 2019-10-04. Retrieved 2019-10-05.
- Kirby, Jen (2019-10-04). "The Hong Kong government tried to ban face masks. Protesters are already defying it". Vox. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
- Promfret, James (2019-10-04). "Explainer: Hong Kong's controversial anti-mask ban and emergency regulations". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-10-04. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
- "14-year-old shot by plainclothes Hong Kong police officer as protesters attack vehicle". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-10-04. Archived from the original on 2019-10-04. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- "Sergeant slashed in the neck". The Standard. 2019-10-13. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- Choi, Martin (2019-10-31). "Halloween protests in Hong Kong: police fire tear gas in Mong Kok, Central and Sheung Wan as people denounce alleged force brutality and march against mask ban". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- 催淚彈下墮樓 科大生腦重創命危 疑將軍澳停車場3樓墮2樓 消防稱無人阻救援. Ming Pao (in Chinese). 2019-11-05. Archived from the original on 2019-11-05. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
- Lum, Alvin (2019-11-08). "Student who suffered brain injury in car park fall has died". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 2019-11-17. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
- Ramzy, Austin; Cheung, Ezra (2019-11-07). "Anger in Hong Kong After Student Dies From Fall Following Clash With Police". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-11-08. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- Chan, Holmes; Cheng, Kris; Creery, Jennifer (2019-11-11). "Hong Kong police fire live rounds and tear gas as protesters disrupt morning traffic in citywide 'general strike' bid". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
- Lamb, Kate; Pang, Jessie (2019-11-11). "'Pam, pam, pam': Hong Kong police open fire, wounding protester". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-11-11. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
- Wright, Rebecca; Leung, Kenneth; Humayun, Hira (2019-11-14). "Elderly man hit with brick amid Hong Kong protests has died". CNN.
- "Hong Kong protests: Elderly man hit on head by brick dies". Today. 2019-11-15.
- "Tear gas fired on campuses for first time as student protesters battle police at Chinese University, Polytechnic University and University of Hong Kong". South China Morning Post. 2019-11-11. Retrieved 2019-11-12.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-11-12). "CUHK turns into battleground between protesters and police as clashes rage on across Hong Kong universities". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-11-14. Retrieved 2019-11-12.
- Magramo, Kathleen; Chan, Ho-him; Lum, Alvin (2019-11-15). "Are universities becoming 'weapons factories' as claimed by police?". South China Morning Post.
- Kennedy, Merrit (2019-11-14). "Hong Kong Police Say Protesters Are Shooting Arrows From Universities". NPR.
- "Police enter Poly U after marathon standoff". RTHK. 2019-11-18. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- Needham, Kirsty (2019-11-18). "Riot police storm Hong Kong Polytechnic University after all-night siege". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
- "Protests turn Hong Kong's council elections into referendum on Lam's government". Reuters. 2019-10-18. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
- "Hong Kong voters deliver landslide victory for pro-democracy campaigners". The Guardian. 2019-11-24.
- "Hong Kong Election Results Give Democracy Backers Big Win". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
- Taylor, Jermoe (2020-01-23). "'A little break': Hong Kong protesters mull tactics as intensity fades". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- "Hong Kong protesters keep up pressure with mass march". CNN. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
- "Organisers say over 1mn took part, condemn police". RTHK. Retrieved 2020-01-04.
- Kirby, Jen (2020-02-07). "How Hong Kong's protests are shaping the response to the coronavirus". Vox. Retrieved 2020-02-09.
- Davidson, Helen (2020-03-15). "Hong Kong: with coronavirus curbed, protests may return". The Guardian.
- "'Not done yet': Virus delivers blow to Hong Kong protests but rage remains". Hong Kong Free Press. 2020-02-25. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
- Hui, Mary (2020-04-01). "Hong Kong police are using coronavirus restrictions to clamp down on protesters". Quartz. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
- "Hong Kong police break up pro-democracy singing protest at mall". Reuters. 2020-04-26. Retrieved 2020-04-27.
- Murdoch, Scott (2020-04-19). "Foreign governments condemn Hong Kong protest arrests". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
- Leung, Christy (2020-07-01). "Hong Kong national security law: flags, banners, and slogans advocating independence, liberation or revolution now illegal". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-07-02.
- Grundy, Tom (2020-05-21). "'Highly necessary: Beijing to discuss enacting national security law in Hong Kong following months of protest". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
- "Beijing unanimously passes national security law for Hong Kong as Chief Exec. Carrie Lam evades questions". Hong Kong Free Press. 2020-06-30. Retrieved 2020-06-30.
- "China passes Hong Kong security law, deepening fears for future". Al Jazeera. 2020-06-30. Retrieved 2020-06-30.
- "最少 10 人涉違《國安法》被捕 家屬：兒子僅手機貼「光時」貼紙、袋藏文宣". Stand News. 2020-07-01. Retrieved 2020-07-02.
- The Canadian Press, The Canadian Press (2020-07-03). "Canada suspends extradition treaty with Hong Kong over new security law". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
- Needham, Kirsty (2020-07-09). "Angering China, Australia suspends extradition treaty with Hong Kong, extends visas". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
- AFP, AFP (2020-07-21). "UK suspends extradition treaty with Hong Kong". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
- Graham-McLay, Charlotte (2020-07-28). "New Zealand suspends Hong Kong extradition treaty over China national security law". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
- "Germany suspends extradition treaty with Hong Kong citing election delay – minister". Hong Kong Free Press. 2020-07-31. Retrieved 2020-08-01.
- "HK 'no longer autonomous from China' – Pompeo". BBC News. 2020-05-27. Retrieved 2020-05-28.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (2020-08-07). "US imposes sanctions on leader Carrie Lam over Hong Kong crackdown". CNN. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- Lau, Stuart (2020-07-22). "Britain unveils details of citizenship offer for Hongkongers with BN(O) passports". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
- Pao, Jeff (2020-03-06). "Functional constituencies are key in LegCo vote". Asia Times. Retrieved 2020-05-22.
- Ho, Kelly (2020-07-30). "Hong Kong bans Joshua Wong and 11 other pro-democracy figures from legislative election". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
- Ho, Kelly (2020-07-15). "Hong Kong ex-lawmaker withdraws from coordinating democratic primaries after Beijing's criticism". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
- Lau, Stuart (2020-07-31). "Hong Kong elections: candidate disqualification faces international criticism". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-08-01.
- "民研：55% 市民支持立法會選舉如期舉行 黎恩灝：押後續損民主價值". Stand News. 2020-07-31. Retrieved 2020-08-01.
- Leung, Tony (2020-11-11). "Mass resignation of Hong Kong opposition lawmakers after Beijing rules on disqualification". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
- Davidson, Helen (2021-01-06). "Dozens of Hong Kong pro-democracy figures arrested in sweeping crackdown". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
- Zhung, Viola (2021-01-06). "Hong Kong Has Arrested Almost Everyone in the Political Opposition". Vice. Retrieved 2021-01-07.
- "Hong Kong police order arrest of Nathan Law and other exiled activists – state media". Hong Kong Free Press. 2020-07-31. Retrieved 2020-08-01.
- Gabbatt, Adam (2020-08-01). "China uses Hong Kong security law against US and UK-based activists". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-08-01.
- Lau, Jack (2020-09-15). "Hong Kong protests: Carrie Lam says calling 12 detained in Shenzhen 'democracy activists' a bid to distract from wanted status". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- Talusan, Lucille (2020-09-18). "Will We See Them Alive Again? Families of 12 Detained Hong Kong Youths Fear for Their Lives". CBN News. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- Ho, Kelly (2020-08-19). "Hong Kong teachers' union raises concerns over censorship as publishers revise textbooks after gov't review". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
- Cheng, Selina (2020-12-01). "Hong Kong official who resigned over history exam question reveals 'immense political pressure'". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
- Wong, Rachel (2020-10-06). "Hong Kong teacher struck off for allegedly promoting independence as Lam vows more action against 'bad apples'". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- Creery, Jennifer (2020-09-01). "No separation of powers in Hong Kong says Chief Exec. Carrie Lam, despite previous comments from top judges". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
- "Two Hong Kong democrats arrested over 2019 protests; Lam Cheuk-ting detained over alleged 'rioting' during Yuen Long mob attack". 26 August 2020. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- Lok-hei, Sum (2019-07-22). "Pro-Beijing lawmaker Junius Ho defends white-clad mob that attacked civilians in Hong Kong MTR station, says they can be 'pardoned for defending their home'". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
- "Video: Thousands join pro-Hong Kong police rally, as anti-extradition law 'Lennon Wall' messages destroyed". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-06-30. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- "Hong Kong protesters clash with pro-Beijing counterparts". Al Jazeera. 2019-09-15. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Lum, Alvin; Lo, Clifford (2019-07-11). "Two retired policemen among three people arrested over clashes sparked by 'Lennon Walls', Hong Kong's latest show of defiance against hated extradition bill". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-07-11.
- "Scuffles at Hong Kong's sticky note 'Lennon wall'". BBC News. 2019-07-11. Archived from the original on 2019-07-12. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
- "As it happened: bloody clashes and tear gas fired as Hong Kong protesters descend on Yuen Long". South China Morning Post. 2019-07-27. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-08-20). "26-year-old woman in critical condition after knife attack at Hong Kong 'Lennon Wall'". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-17. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Lo, Clifford (2020-01-31). "Hong Kong protests: armed gang launches vicious attack on group outside Yuen Long MTR station". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-02-02.
- "Man arrested over 'Lennon Tunnel' knife attack". RTHK. 2019-10-19. Archived from the original on 2019-10-20. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- "Owners of Yuen Long 'yellow restaurant' attacked in possibly politically motivated assault". 2020-06-29. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- "Chef at pro-protest restaurant Lung Mun Cafe attacked in bloody assault". 2020-07-06. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- "Car rams through protesters' barricade in Yuen Long (VIDEOS)". Coconuts Hong Kong. 2019-08-05. Archived from the original on 2019-08-07. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-10-06). "Video: Taxi rams into pro-democracy protesters outside local Hong Kong gov't offices, driver beaten". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-10-10). "Hong Kong taxi driver accused of ploughing into protesters to receive HK$520k from pro-Beijing group". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-02-02.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-09-24). "Hong Kong pro-democracy lawmaker Roy Kwong attacked in Tin Shui Wai". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-10-01.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-08-29). "Hong Kong protest organiser Max Chung beaten up in Tai Po, shortly after police grant him unconditional release". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-08-29. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-10-16). "Hong Kong protest leader Jimmy Sham attacked by men wielding hammers, Civil Front say". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-11-26. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
- James, Stanley; Lung, Natalie (2019-11-03). "More Than 70 Injured as Hong Kong Protesters, Police Clash". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
- Chan, KG (2019-11-04). "Fights and a knife attack on a rowdy HK weekend". Asia Times. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
- "Pro-Beijing lawmaker stabbed by 'fake supporter' in Hong Kong". BBC News. 2019-11-06. Archived from the original on 2019-11-06. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- Lam, Jeffie; Su, Xinqi; Ting, Victor (2019-07-23). "Attackers vandalise graves of pro-Beijing legislator's parents". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-12-30.
- "Suspected triads had warned of Yuen Long attacks". RTHK. 2019-07-22. Archived from the original on 2019-07-21. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- Su, Xinqi (2019-08-07). "Hong Kong's justice department denies prosecution of protesters is politically motivated, as 3,000 of city's legal profession take part in second silent march". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Cheng, Kris. "Hong Kong protesters injured in drive-by firework attack during demo outside Tin Shui Wai police station". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-08-06). "Hong Kong man in black slashed by assailants targeting protesters in Tsuen Wan". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Ives, Mike (2019-08-11). "Hong Kong Convulsed by Protest as Police Fire Tear Gas into Subway". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-08-11. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Kuo, Lily; Choi, Christy (2019-08-05). "Hong Kong protests descend into chaos during citywide strike". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
- Yu, Elaine; May, Tiffany; Ives, Mike (2019-10-07). "Hong Kong's Hard-Core Protesters Take Justice into Their Own Hands". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-10-07. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
- Smith, Nicola; Law, Zoe (2019-10-08). "Vigilante violence prompts fears of widening polarisation in Hong Kong". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2019-12-17.
- Looi, Sylvia. "Former Hong Kong actress Celine Ma claims attack by protestors, video surfaces insisting otherwise (VIDEO)". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
- Siu, Phila (2020-01-19). "Hong Kong protests: two plain-clothes police officers beaten up, tear gas fired and rally organiser arrested as mayhem breaks out in Central". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- Yau, Cannix (2019-10-16). "Hong Kong taxi driver beaten by mob denies he was paid to ram car into crowd of protesters". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Mars, Liseotte (2019-11-13). "Hong Kong: Gruesome video of man set on fire marks escalation in violence". France 24. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
- "Hong Kong Police say man set alight when arguing with protesters". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-11-11. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
- Choi, Martin (2019-11-22). "Call for peace from son of man killed by brick hurled in Hong Kong clash". South China Morning Post.
- Banjo, Shelly; Lung, Natalie; Lee, Annie; Dormido, Hannah (2019-08-23). "Hong Kong Democracy Flourishes in Online World China Can't Block". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2019-08-23. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
- Yong, Michael (2019-08-05). "Hong Kong protests: A roundup of all the rallies, clashes and strikes on Aug 5". CNA. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
- Smith, Trey (2019-10-22). "In Hong Kong, protesters fight to stay anonymous". The Verge. Retrieved 2020-02-07.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-08-18). "Hong Kong's dilemma: fight or resist peacefully". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-10.
- Lau Yiu-man, Lewis (2019-06-28). "Hong Kong's Protesters Are Resisting China With Anarchy and Principle: The movement is leaderless but not chaotic. It self-regulates even as it constantly reinvents itself". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-06-28. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
- "Hunger strikers vow to continue Hong Kong protest – Protesters that include members of religious groups say fast not over until extradition bill is officially withdrawn". UCAN. Union of Catholic Asian News Limited. Archived from the original on 2019-09-24. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
- "Hong Kong's human chain protest against extradition bill" (video). BBC News. 2019-08-23. Archived from the original on 2019-08-23. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
- "Hundreds of petitions appear in protest of Hong Kong's controversial China extradition bill". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-05-30. Retrieved 2019-06-16.
- Tam, Felix; Zaharia, Marius (2019-09-02). "Hong Kong neighborhoods echo with late night cries for freedom". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-09-02. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-09-02). "Hong Kong students boycott classes as Chinese media warns 'end is coming". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
- "Hong Kong students hold second day of class boycotts and pro-democracy rallies". Reuters. 2019-09-03. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- Low, Zoe (2019-07-20). "How Hong Kong's Lennon Walls became showcases for art and design of extradition bill protests". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-02-07.
- Cheng, Kris; Chan, Holmes (2019-07-09). "In Pictures: 'Lennon Wall' message boards appear across Hong Kong districts in support of anti-extradition bill protesters". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-08-06. Retrieved 2019-07-10.
- Pang, Jessie (2019-10-11). "Hong Kong protesters gear up at 'National Calamity Hardware Store'". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-10-11. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
- Creery, Jennifer (2019-10-27). "Broken bones, blisters and bruises: Hong Kong underground clinic volunteers grapple with influx of protest injuries". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-02-07.
- Ng, Naomi (2019-07-06). "Stand strong and brace for long battle over extradition bill, mourners told at vigil for two protesters at Hong Kong Education University". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
- Creery, Jennifer (2019-07-25). "Wilting bauhinias and widemouthed tigers: The evolution of Hong Kong's protest posters". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
- Steger, Isabella (2019-09-02). "Hong Kong's fast-learning, dexterous protesters are stumped by Twitter". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
- Aiken, Sam (2019-09-11). "Decentralized governance: inside Hong Kong's open source revolution (LIHKG, Reddit, Pincong, GitHub)". Medium. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
- Shao, Grace (2019-08-16). "Social media has become a battleground in Hong Kong's protests". CNBC. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-08-06). "Masked protesters hold own press con as Hong Kong NGOs condemn alleged police abuses". Hong Kong Free Press.
- Liu, Nicolle; Wong, Sue-Lin (2019-07-02). "How to mobilise millions: Lessons from Hong Kong". Financial Times. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
The protesters also use iPhone's AirDrop function to anonymously and rapidly share information.
- Dixon, Robyn; Yam, Marcus (2019-09-13). "'Glory to Hong Kong': A new protest anthem moves singers to tears". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2019-09-16. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
- Pang, Jessie (2019-10-13). "Hong Kong protesters and police clash, metro and shops targeted". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-10-13. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
- Kao, Shanshan (2019-06-26). "Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protesters stage 'marathon petition' at G20 nation consulates ahead of Osaka summit". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
- Leung, Hillary (2019-07-26). "The Face of a Faceless Protest: Meet Hong Kong's Ventus Lau". Time. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
- "Hong Kong activists Denise Ho and Joshua Wong testify at US congressional hearing on protests". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-09-17. Archived from the original on 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
- Marlow, Iain (2019-10-02). "Why Hong Kong's 'Special Status' Is Touchy Territory". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2020-05-22.
- "'Stand with Hong Kong': G20 appeal over extradition law crisis appears in over 10 int'l newspapers". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-06-28. Archived from the original on 2019-06-29. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
- Lum, Alvin (2019-08-12). "Hong Kong protesters raise US$1.97 million for international ad campaign as they accuse police of 'war crimes' and using 'chemical weapons'". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
- Chai, Holmes (2019-07-13). "Explainer: The conflicting messages behind protesters' use of the colonial Hong Kong flag". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-07-14. Retrieved 2019-10-29.
- Leung, Kanis (2019-08-18). "Hong Kong protesters slash personal spending in economic boycott designed to force government into meeting extradition bill demands". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-08-24.
- Sun, Fiona (2019-11-02). "Not the Michelin guide: Hong Kong restaurants branded 'yellow' if they support protests, 'blue' if they don't". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Chan, Alexander (2019-12-13). "'Buy Yellow, Eat Yellow': The Economic Arm of Hong Kong's Pro-Democracy Protests". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2020-01-12.
- Low, Zoe (2019-11-08). "Hundreds of office workers march across Hong Kong in protest against government and to show support for student who died in car park fall". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- McLaughin, Timothy (2020-02-06). "Democracy Drives Labor in a Hyper-Capitalist City". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-02-09.
- McLaughin, Timothy (2020-01-22). "Hong Kong Protesters Finally Have (Some) Power". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- Hui, Mary (2019-07-26). "Hardhats have replaced umbrellas as the symbol of Hong Kong's protests". Quartz. Retrieved 2020-08-06.
- Yeung, Elizabeth (2019-08-26). "Hong Kong protesters cast 'dark day' over city's innovation sector by vandalising smart lamp posts, says technology chief Nicholas Yang". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Anderlini, Jamil (2019-09-02). "Hong Kong's 'water revolution' spins out of control". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2019-10-12. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
- Hale, Erin (2019-08-07). "'Be water': Hong Kong protesters adopt Bruce Lee tactic to evade police crackdown". The Independent. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-08-09). "Explainer: How frontline protesters' toolkit has evolved over Hong Kong's long summer of dissent". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Dapiran, Anthony (2019-08-01). ""Be Water!": seven tactics that are winning Hong Kong's democracy revolution". New Statesman. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
- Fung, Kelly (2019-09-24). "Hong Kong protests: The video game-like roles taken when demonstrations turn violent, from 'fire wizards' to scouts". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-08-23). "'We must defend our city': A day in the life of a Hong Kong protester". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- Deng, Iris (2019-10-08). "Apple allows Hong Kong protest map app that can track police and protester locations". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
- "Hong Kong: Petrol bombs tossed at police in latest protest". BBC. 2019-10-20. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
- "Yuen Long protest gets ugly, petrol bombs thrown". RTHK. 2019-09-21. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
- Asher, Saira; Tsoi, Grace (2019-08-30). "What led to a single gunshot being fired?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2019-11-23. Retrieved 2019-08-30.
- Chan, Kelvin; Cheung, Kin (2019-08-24). "Hong Kong police draw guns, arrest 36 from latest protest". Associated Press. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
- Westcott, Ben; Shelley, Jo. "Hong Kong university under siege by police as authorities warn live rounds are an option". CNN. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
- 【光復紅土】示威者呼籲「捉鬼」要理性 見可疑人應拍低勿傷害. Hong Kong 01 (in Chinese). 2019-08-17. Retrieved 2019-10-29.
- "'Undercover officer' beaten in Tseung Kwan O". 2019-10-13. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
- Wong, Brian (2019-12-23). "Hong Kong teen who fired at police was part of gang that planned to 'slaughter' officers during protest rally, court hears". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-06-14.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (2019-10-06). "A battle for the soul of the city: why violence has spiralled in the Hong Kong protests". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
- Chatterjee, Sumeet; Roantree, Anne Marie (2019-10-02). "Mainland banks, pro-Beijing businesses caught in Hong Kong protest cross-hairs". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-10-02. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
- "Maxim's distances itself from 'rioters' remark by founder's daughter Annie Wu". The Standard. 2019-09-25. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
- Leung, Kanis (2019-08-11). "Hong Kong businesses caught in crossfire of protest crisis, as new phone apps make politics part of shopping". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
- Su, Xinqi (2019-07-13). "Hong Kong border town of Sheung Shui rocked by protest violence and chaos before police finally clear streets at night". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Sum, Lok-kei (2019-09-30). "Hong Kong protests: three arrested over July 1 storming of Legislative Council, according to reports, in police swoop of high-profile activists ahead of National Day". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
- Creery, Jennifer (2019-07-22). "Video: Office of Hong Kong pro-Beijing lawmaker Junius Ho trashed as dozens protest response to Yuen Long attacks". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-03. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
- Roxburgh, Helen (2019-07-22). "'Absolutely intolerable': Protesters at Beijing's Hong Kong office hurt the feelings of all Chinese people, top official says". hkfp.com. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
- Creery, Jennifer (2019-09-22). "Explainer: 'The Communist Party's Railway' – How Hong Kong's once-respected MTR fell afoul of protesters". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
- "Hong Kong lawmaker and protesters demand CCTV footage of police storming MTR station". 2019-09-06. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- Yao, Rachel (2019-07-24). "Extradition bill protesters cause rush hour chaos in Hong Kong as they block main MTR rail line in city". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
- Press, Hong Kong Free (2019-08-03). "Hong Kong police deploy tear gas after protesters bring Kowloon to a halt with wildcat road occupations". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-08-05. Retrieved 2019-08-04.
- "Around 100 Yau Tsim Mong traffic lights damaged". RTHK. 2019-10-21. Archived from the original on 2019-10-21. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Yau, Cannix (2019-11-12). "Are Hong Kong's buses the next target in protesters' bid to cripple the city's transport services?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Yau, Cannix (2019-11-12). "Hong Kong plunged into commuter chaos as protesters block roads and target rail services – with turmoil expected to continue for another day". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- "Attack on JPMorgan banker in Hong Kong sparks outrage in mainland China". South China Morning Post / Bloomberg. 2019-10-05. Retrieved 2019-12-30.
- Pao, Jeff (2020-05-21). "Patten opposed to 'burn with us' strategy for Hong Kong". Asia Times. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
- Ramzy, Austin (2019-09-27). "In Hong Kong, Unity Between Peaceful and Radical Protesters. For Now". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
- "Analysis: With a new law for Hong Kong, Beijing makes clear sovereignty is its bottom line". Los Angeles Times. 2020-05-28. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
- Mozur, Paul (2019-07-26). "In Hong Kong Protests, Faces Become Weapons". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-07-26. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- "Someone Is Doxing Hong Kong Protesters And Journalists — And China Wants Them To Keep Going". 2019-09-20. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-10-25). "Hong Kong court orders temporary ban on the release of police officers' personal information". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-10-29.
- Banjo, Shelly; Lung, Natalie (2019-11-13) [11 November 2019]. "How Fake News and Rumors Are Stoking Division in Hong Kong". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2019-11-13. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
- "Fake news is stoking violence and anger in Hong Kong's continuing protests". The Japan Times. 2019-11-12. Archived from the original on 2019-11-17. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
- "Las 'fake news' amplifican el miedo y la confusión en Hong Kong". SWI swissinfo.ch (in Spanish). Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.
- Chan, Esther; Blundy, Rachel (2019-11-21). "Fake news amplifies fear and confusion in Hong Kong". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-11-22.
- Pao, Jeff (2019-10-19). "Friends not convinced girl's death was suicide". Asia Times. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- Yeung, Jessie. "Hong Kong isn't just battling on the streets: There is also a war on misinformation". CNN. Retrieved 2019-12-30.
- Wong, Rachel (2020-03-04). "Hong Kong police chief blames distrust of force on 'fake news' and 'misunderstandings'". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- "Head of prosecutors' group accuses police of lying". RTHK. 2019-09-02. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-11-04). "'Investigate police violence, stop police lies': Hong Kong police axe press con amid journalists' silent protest over arrests". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
- "Information operations directed at Hong Kong". Twitter Safety Blog. 2019-08-19. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- Gleicher, Nathaniel (2019-08-19). "Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior From China". Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- Kelly, Makena (2019-08-19). "Facebook and Twitter uncover Chinese trolls spreading doubts about Hong Kong protests". The Verge. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
- Porter, Jon (2019-06-13). "Telegram blames China for 'powerful DDoS attack' during Hong Kong protests". The Verge. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
- Li, Jane (2019-09-02). "A Hong Kong protester site says cyber attacks against it piggy-backed off China's Baidu". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
- "Hong Kong Police Force approval rating nears historic low, reason not specified". Coconuts. 2019-06-19. Archived from the original on 2019-06-20. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
- Mangahas, Mahar (2019-10-05). "Hong Kong's vigorous opinion polls". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2019-12-22. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
- "HK police have lost public support, survey finds". EJ Insight. 2019-11-06. Archived from the original on 2019-11-08. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
- Mahtani, Shibani; McLaughlin, Timothy; Liang, Tiffany; Ho Kilpatrick, Ryan (2019-12-24). "In Hong Kong crackdown, police repeatedly broke their own rules – and faced no consequences". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
- "Verified: Hong Kong Police Violence Against Peaceful Protesters". Amnesty International. 2019-06-21. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- Lo, Clifford (2019-06-13). "Teacher from well-known Hong Kong school among four arrested in public hospitals after clashes with police at anti-extradition protests". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- 警方記者會】邀爆眼少女錄口供 李桂華﹕攞口供前唔拘捕. HK01 (in Chinese).
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (2019-10-03). "Hong Kong protests: journalist blinded in one eye amid mounting violence". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Ramzy, Austin; Lai, K.K. Rebecca (2019-08-18). "1,800 Rounds of Tear Gas: Was the Hong Kong Police Response Appropriate?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-08-18. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
Gijsbert Heikamp was filming with his cellphone at a protest outside a police station in Tsim Sha Tsui. He was outside the station, standing behind a barrier, when officers began firing tear gas from behind a fence. Two of the canisters went through gaps in the barrier, hitting him in the stomach and on the right arm.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-08-09). "Hong Kong reporters coughed blood and developed rashes after tear gas exposure, doctors say". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- Marlow, Iain (2019-09-08). "How Tear Gas Became the New Norm on the Streets of Hong Kong". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
- "Over 2,000 tear gas canisters fired in single day". RTHK. 2019-11-27. Archived from the original on 2019-12-19. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
- "Experts warn tear gas residue lingers for weeks". RTHK. 2019-09-11. Archived from the original on 2019-09-13. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Leung, Kenneth Kai-cheong (2019-08-20). "Why police should limit the use of tear gas". EJ Insight. Archived from the original on 2019-08-20. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- "Kenneth Leung demands answers on risks of 10,000 tear gas rounds". The Standard. 2019-11-21. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
- "Hong Kong reporter diagnosed with chloracne after tear gas exposure, prompting public health concerns". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-11-14. Archived from the original on 2019-11-15. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Cheung, Elizebath (2019-11-20). "Fires on the streets, not tear gas, to blame for dioxins in Hong Kong air, environment minister says". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-05-18.
- Tong, Elson (2019-09-01). "Hong Kong reels from chaos: 3 MTR stations remain closed, police defend storming trains, more demos planned". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-01. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-07-15). "Hong Kong democrats question police 'kettling' tactic during Sha Tin mall clearance, as pro-Beijing side slams violence". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-07-21. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- "Use of live ammunition is disproportionate: UK". RTHK. 2019-10-01. Archived from the original on 2019-10-02. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-10-01). "Hong Kong police say shooting of 18-year-old at close range was in self-defence". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-10-01. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
- "Shooting of teen legal, reasonable: Stephen Lo". RTHK. 2019-10-02. Archived from the original on 2019-10-02. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
- "Police officer intended to kill, say protesters". RTHK. 2019-10-02. Archived from the original on 2019-10-03. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
- Chan, Veta (2019-10-02). "Hong Kong police defend shooting protester as 'lawful and reasonable'". NBC News. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
- Chiu, Joanne (2019-11-11). "Hong Kong Protester Shot by Police as Clashes Escalate". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- "Protester shot by police, trail of destruction across Hong Kong, while Beijing celebrates National Day". South China Morning Post. 2019-10-02. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-11-11). "Hong Kong protester shot by police with live round in critical condition". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-11-11. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
- Chung, Kimmy (2019-10-05). "Police insider says the shot was meant to have been fired into air". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (2019-11-22). "Hong Kong university siege continues as city prepares for election". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- Pao, Jeff (2019-11-18). "Hong Kong Poly U siege a 'humanitarian crisis'". Asia Times. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-11-11). "Explainer: Aggressive policing creates rifts in Hong Kong's civil service, with firefighters caught in fallout". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
- Li, Paula (2020-09-02). "I'm a doctor in Hong Kong – the police crackdown on protesters has turned even hospitals into war zones". Retrieved 2020-09-27.
- "Hong Kong medics disheartened by political pressure in hospitals are planning to leave the city". 2020-11-29. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-11-23). "'Unheard of in civilised countries': Top medical journal blasts Hong Kong police for treatment of medics at Polytechnic University". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- 【728集會】警否認以腳踢示威者頭 沒阻消防救護進入示威範圍. Hong Kong 01 (in Chinese). 2019-07-29. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-08-12). "Video: Hong Kong police make bloody arrest, assisted by officers suspected to be undercover as protesters". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-08-12. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- 【警方記者會】否認被捕者當人盾 江永祥：當時好忙、一心多用. Hong Kong 01 (in Chinese). 2019-09-30. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-11-20). "'We couldn't hesitate': escaping Hong Kong's university siege". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
- "'I couldn't breathe': Hong Kong police say neck restraint used during arrest of schoolgirl was within protocol". Hong Kong Free Press. 2020-06-01. Retrieved 2020-06-15.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-08-26). "'Natural reaction' for gun-wielding officer to kick kneeling man, Hong Kong police say". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-12-02). "'Don't forget our original intentions': Thousands protest in Kowloon, as Hong Kong police fire tear gas". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- Lau, Chris (2019-09-07). "Police defend tactics after video of officer tackling 12-year-old Hong Kong girl goes viral". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- Marcolini, Barbara (2019-09-22). "Police Dressed as Protesters: How Undercover Police in Hong Kong Severely Injured People". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-01-12.
- "Hong Kong police ignore request from lawmakers to visit controversial San Uk Ling detention centre". 2019-09-10. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
- "Amnesty accuses Hong Kong police of abuses, torture of protesters". Reuters. 2019-09-20. Archived from the original on 2019-09-20. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- "Detained protesters not being mistreated, police say". EJ Insight. 2019-08-29. Archived from the original on 2019-08-29. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- Creery, Jennifer (2019-09-20). "Broken bones, internal bleeding: Hong Kong police used 'reckless, indiscriminate' tactics during protests, says Amnesty". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
- "Hong Kong democracy group files complaint to U.N. over alleged abuse". 2020-06-02. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- Carvalho, Raquel (2019-08-28). "Thousands gather at #MeToo rally to demand Hong Kong police answer accusations of sexual violence against protesters". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
- Leung, Christy (2019-11-10). "Hong Kong teenager has abortion following allegations she was gang-raped in police station, but force says investigation shows inconsistencies". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-10.
- "Hong Kong woman who accused officers of gang rape defends claim after police chief says she must be arrested for lying". 2020-05-13. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-08-15). "Arrested protesters accuse police of ill-treatment in detention and denial of access to lawyers". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- Leung, Christy (2019-09-27). "Why Hong Kong police stopped sending anti-government protesters to the remote and controversial San Uk Ling Holding Centre". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
- "Strong, peaceful turnout to mark June 12 clashes". 2019-12-12. Retrieved 2020-09-06.
- "Hong Kong police breached internal and manufacturer guidelines by improperly firing projectiles". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-09-01. Archived from the original on 2019-09-17. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-11-11). "Hong Kong police suspend motorcycle officer who drove into protesters". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-11-11). "Hong Kong protests: man shot by police and burns victim in critical condition". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- "Hong Kong cop who drove motorbike into protesters back on active duty as police chief rejects inquiry calls". 2019-12-01. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-11-19). "Hong Kong police accused of driving vehicles into protesters during clearance operation". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-11-30. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-06-21). "Hong Kong activists complain police failed to display ID numbers, as security chief says uniform has 'no room'". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- Siu, Phila (2019-07-08). "Hong Kong police accused of provoking protesters and failing to wear ID during Mong Kok chaos after extradition bill march". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- Ho, Kelly (2020-06-29). "Hong Kong officers wearing unofficial uniform adornments 'understandable' and help 'boost morale,' say police". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- "Judge rules against police who did not show identification during Hong Kong protests". South China Morning Post. 2020-11-20. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
- "Multiple officers wear same 'unique' call signs". RTHK. 2019-12-27. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- Lau, Chris (2019-08-13). "Hong Kong police deny planting evidence and say protesters dropped sticks during course of arrest". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-08-08). "Hong Kong student leader arrested over laser pointers freed, as protesters challenge police over safety of tear gas, rubber bullets". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-08-08. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- "Man arrested for 831 Prince Edward police raid fled Hong Kong after charges multiply". 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-09-03.[permanent dead link]
- "Officers told lie after lie in assault case". 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- "Court acquits Hong Kong man accused of pushing policeman during protests". 2020-07-07. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- Haas, Benjamin (2019-12-09). "In a Vacuum of Trust, Conspiracies Take Root in Hong Kong". The Nation. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
- "Warning shots right and reasonable, say police". RTHK. 2019-09-01. Archived from the original on 2019-09-01. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
- Cheung, Tony (2020-04-20). "Hong Kong policeman suspected of perverting course of justice over 'arrest of man with petrol bombs'". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
- Hui, Marry (2019-06-20). "Cantonese is Hong Kong protesters' power tool of satire and identity". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
- 【引渡惡法】警方唔克制驅散示威者：認X住我呀！隻揪呀！. Apple Daily (in Chinese). 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
- "Can the term 'cockroach' actually be a compliment for Hong Kong protesters? Officers from police's public relations unit contradict each other on pesky issue". Retrieved 2020-10-29.
- Mahtani, Shibani; McLaughlin, Timothy (2019-11-04). "'Dogs' vs. 'cockroaches': On Hong Kong streets, insults take a dangerous turn". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-11-05.
- Cheung, Tony (2019-11-10). "Hong Kong protests: police officer reprimanded after he was filmed saying he would celebrate student Chow Tsz-lok's death 'with champagne'". South China Morning Post.
- Wong, Stella (2019-09-24). "Police say kick was at 'yellow object'". The Standard. Retrieved 2019-09-25.
- Kinniburgh, Colin (2019-09-01). "How Hong Kong protesters' tactics have evolved alongside those of police". France 24. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- "-Injured civilians and medics face 'white terror'". RTHK. 2019-08-15. Archived from the original on 2019-09-06. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
- Creery, Jennifer (2019-10-27). "Broken bones, blisters and bruises: Hong Kong underground clinic volunteers grapple with influx of protest injuries".
- "Hong Kong police arrest 15 in fresh shopping mall protests". 2019-12-28. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
- "Video: Hong Kong police accidentally apprehend undercover officers during Boxing Day mall protest". 2019-12-27. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
- Su, Alice (2019-09-27). "'Being young is a crime' in Hong Kong: Police arrest students and teenagers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
- 警兩月8發反對通知書 民間記者會：港人權利倒退內地水平. Ming Pao (in Chinese). 2019-08-20. Archived from the original on 2019-09-15. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- "Arrests of high-profile Hong Kong activists a bid to spread 'white terror' – video". The Guardian. 2019-08-30. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
- Hui, Mary (2020-04-01). "Hong Kong police are using coronavirus restrictions to clamp down on protesters". Quartz. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-09-16). "Hong Kong police deny 'double standards' after accusations of leniency towards anti-protester mob". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-17. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- "Hong Kong police admit plainclothes officers were present in Yuen Long before mob attack". 2020-07-16. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
- Yuen, Verna (2020-10-29). "Hong Kong's reluctant police officer: 'It's not for us to deliver punishment'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- "Police brutality doesn't exist in HK: Carrie Lam". RTHK. 2020-01-26. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- Chung, Kimmy (2020-01-17). "Civil servant's walkout over motion condemning Hong Kong police chief at district council meeting prompts official complaint from pro-democracy group". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- Cheng, Kris. "Hong Kong's independent police watchdog to investigate protest complaints, but lacks legal power to summon witnesses". HKFP.
- Yu, Kam-yin (2019-08-22). "Independent inquiry still an option for Carrie Lam". EJ Insight. Archived from the original on 2019-08-22. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
- Tong, Elson (2020-07-24). "34 ex-Hong Kong officials and legislators make second appeal for investigation into extradition bill saga". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-12-24). "Explainer: Hong Kong's Five Demands – an independent investigation into police behaviour". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- Lau, Chris; Lum, Alvin (2019-09-06). "Hong Kong protests: Carrie Lam has ruled out commission of inquiry into police actions, so what can replace it and will it work?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-10-31.
- "Police watchdog unequipped to investigate recent unrest: overseas experts". The Standard. 2019-11-10. Retrieved 2019-11-10.
- "Overseas experts to quit police watchdog panel". RTHK. 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
- Grundy, Tom (2020-05-15). "Hong Kong police watchdog clears force of misconduct citing online 'propaganda', but says 'room for improvement'". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- Wong, Rachel (2020-05-15). "'Absurd, preposterous, whitewash': Reactions pour in as Hong Kong police watchdog clears force of wrongdoing". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- "Ex-IPCC panel adviser says he felt 'manipulated' – RTHK". RTHK.
- Hui, Mary (2019-10-28). "Hong Kong journalists took over a police news conference in protest". Quartz. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
- Hui, Mary (2019-11-11). "The Hong Kong protests are the most live-streamed protests ever". Quartz (publication). Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- Yang, William (2020-10-11). "Hong Kong media succumbing to Chinese pressure". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- "香港TVB、有線新聞、Now 電視台報道「反送中」抗議的細微差別背後". BBC. 2019-07-16. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- McLaughlin, Timothy (2020-08-01). "A Newsroom at the Edge of Autocracy". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-11-01). "Hong Kong court refuses broadcaster TVB's bid for injunction against staff assaults and property damage". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
- Chung, Kimmy (2019-11-09). "Attack on cameraman by Hong Kong protesters condemned by city's media groups". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-11-30.
- Sum, Lok-kei (2020-07-10). "Pocari Sweat among big brand advertisers ditching Hong Kong broadcaster TVB over claims its extradition bill protest coverage was biased". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- Lo, Zoe (2020-08-24). "Hong Kong government supporters' protest targets 'biased' journalists at public broadcaster RTHK's headquarters". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- Grundy, Tom (2020-05-19). "Hong Kong public broadcaster suspends satirical show hours after gov't demands apology for 'insulting' police". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- "RTHK given 'serious warning' over police comments". RTHK. 2020-04-20. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- "Activists deplore police chief for targeting satirical show". The Standard. 2020-02-20. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- "RTHK apologises, will halt production of 'Headliner'". RTHK. 2020-05-19.
- "Equality watchdog slams online slurs aimed at local journalist of South Asian descent". Coconuts Hong Kong. 2020-01-22.
- "EOC Opposes All Forms of Online Bullying and Discrimination". Equal Opportunities Commission. 2020-01-21.
- Mok, Danny (2020-09-27). "RTHK seeks to extend probation period of Hong Kong journalist known for hard-nosed questions to public officials, sources say". South China Morning Post.
- "HKJA urges police chief to order an end to abuse". RTHK. 2020-03-02. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- "HKJA condemns police 'sex assault', arrest threats". RTHK. 2020-01-27. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- "HKJA urges police chief to live up to his word". 2020-05-27. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
- Cheng, Kris (2020-07-08). "Hong Kong press watchdogs condemn police over insults, 'malicious jostling' of journalists during protest clearance". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- Wong, Rachel (2020-03-10). "Hong Kong police apologise for treatment of reporter as watchdog urges action to protect press freedom". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- "Hong Kong police chief admits 'undesirable' treatment of press at protest". 2020-05-12. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
- "Hong Kong's Now TV says driver was struck by police projectile, detained and beaten inside station". 2019-10-14. Retrieved 2020-09-04.
- "Cops draw fire for targeting journalists with water cannon". Retrieved 2020-10-29.
- "Hong Kong protests: how a Post journalist was hit by projectile during police operation". Retrieved 2020-10-29.
- Lau, Chris (2020-10-12). "Lawyer of Indonesian journalist shot in the eye mulls legal action against Hong Kong police over 'failure' to bring guilty to book". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- "RTHK condemns violence after reporter suffers burn". RTHK. 2019-10-06. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
- "Police knelt on the neck of a student journalist during protest". 2020-08-13. Archived from the original on 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-09-03.
- Wong, Rachel (2020-08-11). "Apple Daily raid: Hong Kong police defend decision to give only 'trusted media' access to ground operations". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- Siu, Phila (2020-08-11). "Hong Kong police scheme to give only 'trusted media' access to cordoned off areas draws press backlash". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- Leung, Christy (2020-09-22). "Hong Kong police limit access to press briefings to news outlets recognised by government, sparking concern and criticism from media groups". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
- "HK slips in press freedom rankings". The Standard. 2020-04-21. Retrieved 2020-05-20.
- Grynbaum, Michael (2020-07-14). "New York Times Will Move Part of Hong Kong Office to Seoul". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
- "Visas 'weaponised': Gov't denies Hong Kong Free Press editor a work visa, without explanation, after 6-month wait". Hong Kong Free Press. 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2020-08-27.
- Esfandiari, Sahar (2019-10-29). "Hong Kong to enter recession after protests destroyed retailers and brought the city's tourist industry to its knees". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020-03-07.
- Tsang, Denise (2019-07-08). "Hong Kong protests hit city where it hurts – in the wallet". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- La Torre, Vincenzo (2019-11-20). "Chanel, Rimowa delay new stores, Prada moving out, sales plummet at Moncler, Gucci – will Hong Kong become city of 'ghost malls'?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- "Hawkers say protests are hitting their income". RTHK. 2019-07-16. Archived from the original on 2019-07-17. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
- Wong, Michelle (2019-06-12). "Mixed fortunes for businesses as Hong Kong anti-extradition protests force some to close and bring a roaring trade to others". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Chan, KG (2019-08-13). "Taiwan's tear gas mask stocks running out". Asia Times. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Yiu, Enoch (2019-08-27). "Hong Kong protests 2019 vs Occupy Central: after 79 days, retailers, investors, developers hit far worse by this year's demonstrations". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Swift, Ryan (2019-11-17). "Hong Kong protests deal massive blow to trade exhibitions as visitor numbers slump 20 percent". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Tsang, Denise (2019-09-06). "Beleaguered Hong Kong hit by double whammy as Fitch Ratings downgrades city and stock exchange hit by cyberattacks". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Kwok, Donny (2019-09-09). "Hong Kong August visitors plunge 40% year-on-year, hotels half-full: finance chief". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-09-09. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
- "HK sees 55% dip in holiday tourists". Ecns.cn. Chinanews.com. 2019-10-10. Retrieved 2019-10-10.
- Master, Farah (2019-12-17). "Hong Kong needs to stop violence says top official as jobless rate rises". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-05-18.
- Lee, Danny (2019-11-18). "No joy for airlines seeking waivers, cuts in Hong Kong airport fees to help get through hard times". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Morrison, Allen (2019-08-26). "Commentary: How Hong Kong's protests are affecting its economy". Channel News. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- "Hong Kong protests: How badly has tourism been affected?". BBC News. 2019-08-12. Archived from the original on 2019-08-13. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Suen, Daniel (2020-01-21). "Hong Kong's Lunar New Year fairs exhibit protest-themed goods". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-18.
- Schuman, Michael (2019-08-27). "Angering China Can Now Get You Fired". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- Branigan, Tania (2019-08-28). "Cathay denounced for firing Hong Kong staff after pressure from China". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- Nguyen, Terry (2019-10-11). "American brands are trying to play both sides of the Hong Kong-China conflict". Vox. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- Chan, Alexandar (2019-12-13). "'Buy Yellow, Eat Yellow': The Economic Arm of Hong Kong's Pro-Democracy Protests". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- Chen, Frank (2019-11-08). "In protest-hit HK, eating out is political". Asia Times. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- Pang, Jessie (2020-05-01). "Business booms for 'yellow' firms backing Hong Kong protest movement". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
- "Carrie Lam arrogance swelled turnout, Charles Mok says". The Standard. 2019-06-17. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
- Carroll, Toby (2019-09-27). "Hong Kong is one of the most unequal cities in the world. So why aren't the protesters angry at the rich and powerful?". The Conversation. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
- Anderlini, Jamil (2019-08-30). "Hong Kong police furious over government handling of protests". Financial Times. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Hamlett, Tim (2019-07-07). "Hong Kong's missing leader: Whatever happened to the new-look Carrie Lam?". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Cheung, Tony; Cheung, Gary; Lam, Jeffie (2019-08-05). "Hong Kong being dragged down 'path of no return' says Carrie Lam, as she calls protests an attack on Beijing's sovereignty". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-10-09). "'Disastrous performance': Carrie Lam's rating plunges to lowest among any Hong Kong Chief Exec. yet". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
- "Exclusive: 'If I have a choice, the first thing is to quit' – Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam – transcript". Reuters. 2019-09-03. Archived from the original on 2019-09-04. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- "Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam responds to audio recording where she discusses quitting". CNN. 2019-09-03. Archived from the original on 2019-09-04. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- Grace, Carrie (2017-06-21). "Hong Kong's Carrie Lam: 'I am no puppet of Beijing'". BBC. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
- Wong, Justin (2020-03-02). "Protests, Politics and Challenges to Hong Kong's Rule of Law". Harvard Political Review. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- Wong, Rachel (2020-04-28). "Hong Kong judge removed from protest-related cases after expressing sympathy with attacker". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- "Hong Kong Police Strain Under Pressure to Solve Political Crisis". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P. 2019-07-29.
- Troude, Grey (2019-07-17). "From 'Asia's finest' to 'black dogs': Hong Kong police under pressure". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-07-17. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Wong, Brian (2019-09-06). "Why the Mutually Assured Destruction Rhetoric in Hong Kong Is Dangerous". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-08-11). "Protests, clashes and lack of trust: the new normal for Hong Kong". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Ewing, Kent (2019-06-25). "From 'Asia's finest' to 'public enemy no.1,' Hong Kong's police force are in a paralysed state of confusion". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- "Police luster fades, sinks to seven-year low". The Standard. 2019-08-13. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- "Hong Kong's ranking in global law and order index plunges from fifth place to 82nd on the heels of last year's unrest". Retrieved 2020-10-30.
- Lee, Francis (2019-10-16). "Our research in Hong Kong reveals what people really think of the protesters – and the police". The Independent. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
- Hale, Erin (2019-11-01). "'Blunt, unplanned': Police tactics under fire in HK protests". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
- Sataline, Suzanne (2019-09-01). "From Asia's Finest to Hong Kong's Most Hated". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-09-10). "Hong Kong police issue extendable batons to off-duty officers, but critics concerned over potential for abuse". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-10. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- Khan, Natasha (2019-09-02). "'Mom Says Come Home': Hong Kong Protests Divide Families". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- Lee, Chermaine; Ripley, Will (2019-10-08). "Hong Kong's violent protests show no sign of stopping. Some are deciding it's time to leave". CNN. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
- "Hundreds of police quit force during protests". RTHK. 2020-04-08. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
- Lo, Clifford (2019-08-30). "Hong Kong protests: police stop regular foot patrols due to staff crunch and risk of being attacked". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Watson, Ivan (2019-08-15). "Hong Kong's police describe their side of the protests". CNN. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- Su, Xinqi (2019-07-08). "Hong Kong journalism groups accuse police of assaulting reporters and photographers during extradition bill clashes in Mong Kok". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
- "Hong Kong social workers complain of mistreatment by riot police". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-11-02. Retrieved 2019-11-13.
- "Social worker jailed one year for obstructing police". Retrieved 2020-10-29.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-08-28). "On the frontlines: the Hong Kong public hospital doctors making a stand against police violence". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-17. Retrieved 2019-11-13.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-11-11). "Explainer: Aggressive policing creates rifts in Hong Kong's civil service, with firefighters caught in fallout". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-13.
- Yeung, Jessie (2019-10-27). "As violence and vandalism escalate in Hong Kong, some protest supporters have had enough". CNN. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Zhu, Julie (2019-10-30). "Mainlanders in Hong Kong worry as anti-China sentiment swells". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- Law, Violet (2019-09-03). "Family politics: How Hong Kong protests affect the home dynamic". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- 梁啟智 (2019-10-16). 民意仍然堅實 處境造就升級. Inmediahk.net (in Chinese).
- Yuen, Samson (2019-09-20). "New research shows vast majority of Hong Kong protesters support more radical tactics". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- Tufekci, Zeynep (2020-05-12). "How Hong Kong Did It". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-10-29.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-09-13). "'I'll take the blow for them': the volunteers protecting Hong Kong protesters". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
- Cheng, Lillan (2019-12-02). "Hong Kong advertising workers down tools to promote anti-government protest movement instead". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- May, Tiffany (2019-08-02). "Hong Kong's Civil Servants Protest Against Their Own Government". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-08-02. Retrieved 2019-08-03.
- "Financial workers stage flash mob, vow to join Monday strike". EJ Insight. 2019-08-02. Archived from the original on 2019-08-02.
- Leung, Kanis (2019-08-17). "More than 22,000 march in teachers' rally supporting Hong Kong's young protesters, organisers say". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
- "Public hospital staff hold protests over police 'abuse of power'". EJ Insight. 2019-08-13. Retrieved 2019-08-13.
- Tam, Felix; Zaharia, Marius (2019-09-02). "Hong Kong neighborhoods echo with late night cries for freedom". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-09-04. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- Zhou, Joyce; Park, Minwoo; Saito, Yoyo; Caliskan, Mehmet Emin; Saito, Mari (2019-12-17). "'We can celebrate later': Hong Kongers pen Christmas cards to protesters". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
- Cheng, Kris (2020-01-23). "Thousands rally in solidarity with detained protesters ahead of Lunar New Year". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-02-19.
- Ting, Victor (2020-01-10). "More than 2 million Hongkongers show signs of PTSD, study finds". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- "Hong Kong PTSD level 'like warzones', study finds". BBC News. 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- "Hong Kong protest violence is leading to mental health catastrophe". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- Smith, Nicola; Leung, Jasmine (2020-01-09). "Mental health crisis looms after seven months of Hong Kong protests". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- Mogul, Rhea (2019-12-15). "PTSD and protests: How the violence on Hong Kong's streets impacts mental health". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- "Mental health burden of Hong Kong protests highlights risks of social unrest". Healio. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-10-21). "'Society is suffering': Hong Kong protests spark mental health crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-10-31.
- "Hong Kong protest: Flowers pile up for protester who fell to his death at Pacific Place". The Straits Times. 2019-06-16. OCLC 8572659. Archived from the original on 2019-06-17.
- 【逆權運動】林鄭遭質問失人命後始撤回修例 辯稱只為建構對話基礎非推《緊急法》. Apple Daily (in Chinese). 2019-09-05. Retrieved 2019-09-05.
- 逃犯條例：牆身留反修例字句 教大女學生墮樓亡. on.cc東網 (in Chinese). 2019-06-29. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
- Tan, Kenneth (July 2019). "Third suicide by an anti-extradition protestor in Hong Kong sparks alarm bells". shanghaiist. Retrieved 2019-07-03.
- "Police national security hotline will rip HK apart". Retrieved 2020-10-29.
- Su, Xinqi (2019-05-27). "Top foreign diplomats express serious concerns about Hong Kong government's extradition proposal at Legislative Council". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-06-04). "No reason to pull extradition bill, says Chief Exec. Carrie Lam ahead of protests". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Ho, Kelly (2020-09-04). "From defensive, to apologies, to doubling down: How Carrie Lam's response to Hong Kong's protest movement evolved over a year". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-06-18). "Hong Kong police chief backs down on categorisation of unrest, saying only five people were rioters". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-06-18. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- "Mothers' online petition takes issue with Carrie Lam's spoiled child remark". The Standard. 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- "Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam 'sincerely apologises' for extradition row, but refuses to retract bill or resign". Hong Kong Free Press. 2019-06-18. Archived from the original on 2019-06-30. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Kuo, Lily (2019-07-09). "Hong Kong: Carrie Lam says extradition bill is 'dead' but will not withdraw it". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Sum, Lok-kei (2019-07-09). "Hong Kong's controversial extradition bill may be 'dead' but city leader Carrie Lam still unable to win over her critics". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-09-04). "Hong Kong to officially withdraw extradition bill from legislature, but still no independent probe into crisis". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 2019-09-04. Retrieved 2019-09-04.
- France-Presse, Agence (2019-09-26). "Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam faces public anger in 'dialogue session'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2019-09-30. Retrieved 2019-10-01.
- Ng, Joyce (2020-05-15). "Hong Kong protests: city leader Carrie Lam shelves independent review into what caused unrest". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2021-01-03.
- Tong, Elson (2019-07-02). "Hong Kong's Carrie Lam condemns protesters' occupation of legislature as 'extreme use of violence'". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- "Carrie Lam, security officials hounded at press conference on response to Yuen Long". Coconuts Hong Kong. 2019-07-22. Archived from the original on 2019-07-22. Retrieved 2019-09-07.
- Cheung, Tony; Sum, Lok-kei; Leung, Kanis (2019-08-09). "Protest crisis worsening economic slump, Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam says". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
- "Protesters defy face-mask ban in Hong Kong". Reuters. Thompson Reuters Corp. 2019-10-05. Archived from the original on 2019-10-06. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
- Chan, Holmes (2019-10-05). "Hong Kong democrats to challenge mask ban in court, accuse leader Carrie Lam of 'usurping legislature'". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
- "High Court rules mask ban law is unconstitutional". RTHK. 2019-11-18. Archived from the original on 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
- Lau, Chris (2020-04-09). "Hong Kong mask ban legal when aimed at unauthorised protests, Court of Appeal rules in partially overturning lower court verdict". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
- Leung, Christy (2019-11-16). "'Prison flying tigers' join fight against Hong Kong protesters as 70 special constables take to streets for first time". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-12-16.
- Leung, Christy (2020-05-29). "Hong Kong protests: about 130 firefighters and paramedics to join police as special constables to handle demonstrations". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
- "HK protesters say they were tortured in prison". RTHK. 2020-05-05. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
- "Exclusive: The Chief Executive 'has to serve two masters' – HK leader Carrie Lam – full transcript". Reuters. 2020-09-12. Retrieved 2020-06-06.
- Barron, Laignee (2020-08-07). "Around the World Elections Are Being Delayed Because of the Pandemic. Here's Where Experts Say Hong Kong Went Wrong". Time. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
- Pang, Yanni Chow (2020-07-30). "Hong Kong blocks 12 democrats from election as China security law shadow looms". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
- "AL candidates supporting Hong Kong protests could face ban". 2021-03-19.
- "Pro-establishment camp also to blame for extradition bill saga". EJ Insight. 2019-06-20. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- "Govt, allies condemn 'violent, radical protesters'". RTHK. 2019-07-01. Archived from the original on 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- "Violent actions from both sides slammed". The Standard. 2019-09-02. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Kammerer, Peter (2015-10-12). "Hong Kong should stop denigrating the young people who are its future, or risk driving them away". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
- "DAB holds pro-police rally, but queries tactics". RTHK. 2019-07-17.
- 何君堯促警方撤銷民陣集會申請 「只可以去公園傾下計」 | 獨媒報導. 香港獨立媒體網 (in Chinese). 2019-07-17.
- "Pro-Beijing camp slams govt for not halting violence". RTHK. 2019-11-12. Retrieved 2020-07-02.
- "Two ExCo members say 'mastermind' behind recent protests". EJ Insight. 2019-08-09. Archived from the original on 2019-08-09. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Barron, Laignee (2019-07-19). "'Whenever There's Trouble He Rushes There.' Meet Legislator Roy Kwong, the God of Hong Kong Protests". Time. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
- "Hong Kong Airport Reopens After Court Order Forbids 'Obstructions,' Limits Protests". Radio Free Asia. 2019-08-14. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
- 【機場集會】不認同阻礙登機 毛孟靜強調不割席：示威者已知有錯. Hong Kong 01 (in Chinese). 2019-08-14. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- 【沙田衝突】批警封路釀「困獸鬥」 民主派：不會割席. Stand News (in Chinese). 2019-07-15. Retrieved 2019-09-08.
- Wood, Vincent (2019-10-04). "Hong Kong protests: Politician has ear 'bitten off' as several injured in knife attack". Independent. Retrieved 2019-11-04.
Pro-Beijing camp complains about violence, but so far, the most brutal physical violent acts were done by police and their supporters," Lo Kin-hei said, adding: "Just now, District Councillor Andrew Chiu was attacked, his left ear halved from a bite.
- Tong, Elson (2019-07-24). "34 ex-Hong Kong officials and legislators make second appeal for investigation into extradition bill saga". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-07-25.
- Hui, Sophie (2019-08-09). "Property giants condemn violence at protests". The Standard. Retrieved 2019-11-13.
- Wan, Cindy (2019-11-05). "Wu turns back on 'lost' youngsters". The Standard. Retrieved 2020-02-06.
- "Maxim's distances itself from Annie Wu remarks". RTHK. 2019-09-25. Retrieved 2020-02-06.
- Cheng, Kris (2019-10-30). "Hong Kong gov't should form independent probe into police conduct at protests, says pro-Beijing lawmaker Abraham Shek". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2019-11-01.
- Chow, Chung-yan (2019-08-16). "Hong Kong tycoon Li Ka-shing invokes poetry in call for end to protests and violence". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- Ho Kilpatrick, Ryan (2019-11-26). "The day Hong Kong's true "silent majority" spoke". New Statesman. Retrieved 2020-02-06.
- "Pro-democracy candidates win big in election viewed as referendum on protests". NBC News. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
- "Hong Kong democrats score historic victory amid ongoing protests". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
- Manzanaro, Sofia Sanchez (2019-11-24). "Joy at huge surge for pro-democracy candidates in Hong Kong elections". Euronews. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
- 參選區會21立法會議員至少10人落馬 主要屬建制派 (in Chinese). RTHK. Retrieved 2019-11-25<