2019 Portuguese legislative election

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2019 Portuguese legislative election

← 2015 6 October 2019

230 seats in the Assembly of the Republic
116 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered10,811,436 Increase11.6%[1]
Turnout5,092,424 (54.5%)
Decrease 1.3 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  António Costa 2014 (cropped) 2.jpg EPP Summit, 22 March 2018 (27083908678) (cropped, Rui Rio).jpg Catarina Martins, SomosBibliotecas (cropped3).png
Leader António Costa Rui Rio Catarina Martins
Party PS PSD BE
Leader since 28 September 2014 18 February 2018 30 November 2014
Leader's seat Lisbon Porto Porto
Last election 86 seats, 32.38% 89 seats[a] 19 seats, 10.22%
Seats won 106 77 19
Seat change Increase 20 Decrease 12 Steady 0
Popular vote 1,866,407 1,420,553 492,487
Percentage 36.65% 27.90% 9.67%
Swing Increase 4.27 pp N/A Decrease 0.55 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Jerónimo de Sousa (1 de Maio de 2015) (cropped).jpg Assunção Cristas 2017 (cropped).jpg André Silva (cropped).jpg
Leader Jerónimo de Sousa Assunção Cristas André Silva
Party CDU CDS–PP PAN
Leader since 27 November 2004 13 March 2016 26 October 2014
Leader's seat Lisbon Lisbon Lisbon
Last election 17 seats, 8.27%[b] 18 seats[a] 1 seats, 1.39%
Seats won 12 5 4
Seat change Decrease 5 Decrease 13 Increase 3
Popular vote 329,117 216,448 166,854
Percentage 6.46% 4.25% 3.28%
Swing Decrease 1.81 pp N/A Increase 1.89 pp

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
  André Ventura (Lancamento livro DiaD Trump).jpg Joacine Katar Moreira (cropped).png
Leader André Ventura Carlos Guimarães Pinto Joacine Katar Moreira
Party CH IL LIVRE
Leader since 9 April 2019 13 October 2018 11 August 2019
Leader's seat Lisbon Porto (Lost) Lisbon
Last election Did not contest Did not contest 0 seats, 0.72%
Seats won 1 1 1
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Increase 1
Popular vote 66,442 65,545 55,656
Percentage 1.30% 1.20% 1.09%
Swing New party New party Increase 0.37 pp

2019 Portuguese legislative election - Results.svg
Party winning a plurality in each electoral district. Results are not final.

Prime Minister before election

António Costa
PS

Elected Prime Minister

TBD

The Portuguese legislative election of 2019 was held on 6 October 2019.[2] All 230 seats to the Assembly of the Republic were at stake.

The Socialist Party (PS) won the elections with almost 37% of the votes and gained, until now and when the overseas voting is still to be counted, 106 seats, a gain of 20 compared with 2015. The PS won the big districts of Porto and Lisbon, although Porto was closer than expected, and was able to gain districts from the PSD, like Aveiro and Viana do Castelo, however, by razor thin margins.[3] The PS won Lisbon city, however with a smaller share of the vote compared with 2015, 33% vs 35%, and, surprisingly, lost Porto city to the PSD.

The Social Democratic Party (PSD) got 28% of the votes and won 77 seats, with overseas voting still out. The party lost 9 seats compared with 2015, and, in terms of share of vote, it was the worst result since 1983, however in terms of seats, it was the worst result since 2005, when the party won 75 seats. The PSD was able to hold won to their bastion of Viseu, Vila Real, Braganza, Leiria and Madeira. On election night, PSD leader Rui Rio classified the results as "not a disaster" and left the door open to continue as party leader.[4] But, many in the party, days after the election, accuse him of being a loser and want new leadership.

The Left Bloc (BE) achieved basically the same results as of 2015. They won almost 10% of the votes and held on to the 19 seats they've got in 2015. On election night, Catarina Martins said she was open to new negocitations with the PS. CDU, PCP-PEV coalition, suffered heavy losses by achieving their worst results in histoty, just 6.5% of the votes and 12 seats, and Jerónimo de Sousa, PCP leader, said on election night, that written agreements with the PS are off the table. CDS – People's Party was without any doubt the biggest loser in these elections. The party also achieved their worst result in history, 4.3% of the votes, and got a parlimentary caucus reduced to just 5 seats, the lowest since 1991 and when the party was called the "taxi party". Assunção Cristas, CDS leader, resigned on election night and called for a new congress and announced she would not run for reelection.[5] People-Animals-Nature (PAN) saw a big increase in its share of the vote, winning 3.3% and 4 seats, from Lisbon, Porto and Setúbal.

This election was marked by the entry of 3 new parties in Parliament. The right-wing/far-right party Enough! (CH) was one of the big surprises on election night by electing a MP from Lisbon. It is the first time in Portuguese democracy that a right-wing/far-right party is represented in Parliament.[6] LIVRE and Liberal Initiative also elected one MP from Lisbon. Other surprise was the big failure of former Prime Minister and PSD leader Pedro Santana Lopes new party, Alliance, as it failed to win a single seat and polled below 1% of the votes.

The turnout in these elections is expected to be the lowest ever in general elections in Portugal and below 50% when the overseas voting is counted. In Portugal alone, 54.5% of voters cast a ballot, a drop compared with the 57% in the 2015 elections.

Background[edit]

Politics of Portugal[edit]

The President of Portugal has the power to dissolve the Assembly of the Republic by their own will. Unlike in other countries, the President can refuse to dissolve the parliament at the request of the Prime Minister or the Assembly of the Republic and all the parties represented in Parliament. If the Prime Minister resigns, the President must appoint a new Prime Minister after listening to all the parties represented in Parliament and then the government programme must be subject to discussion by the Assembly of the Republic, whose members of parliament may present a motion to reject the upcoming government.

PSD leadership election 2018[edit]

After a disappointing result in the 2017 local elections, in which the PSD won just 30% of the votes and 98 mayoral races against the 38% of the PS and its 160 elected mayors, Pedro Passos Coelho announced he would not run for a 5th term as PSD leader.[7] After that, Rui Rio, former mayor of Porto (2002-2013), announced he was running for the leadership.[8] Shortly after, Pedro Santana Lopes, former mayor of Lisbon (2002-2004; 2005) and Prime Minister (2004-2005), announced he was also running for the leadership of the party.[9] Election day was scheduled to January 13, 2018. After a long campaign, Rui Rio was elected with 54.15% of the votes, against the 45.85% of Santana Lopes. Turnout was 60.3%.[10] Rui Rio was officially confirmed as party leader in the PSD congress, in Lisbon, between 16 and 18 February 2018.

Date[edit]

Ballot paper for the Portuguese legislative election 2019

According to the Portuguese Constitution, an election must be called between 14 September and 14 October of the year that the legislature ends. The election is called by the President of Portugal but is not called at the request of the Prime Minister; however, the President must listen to all of the parties represented in Parliament and the election day must be announced at least 60 days before the election.[11] If an election is called during an ongoing legislature (dissolution of parliament) it must be held at least in 55 days. Election day is the same in all multi-seats constituencies, and should fall on a Sunday or national holiday. The next legislative election must, therefore, take place no later than 13 October 2019.[12] After meeting with all parties, in December 2018, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa announced that he would call a general election for 6 October 2019.

Electoral system[edit]

The Parliament of the Portuguese Republic consists of a single chamber, the Assembly of the Republic, composed of 230 members directly elected by universal adult suffrage for a maximum term of four years. Assembly members represent the entire country, rather than the constituencies in which they were elected. Governments do not require absolute majority support of the Assembly to hold office, as even if the number of opposers of government is larger than that of the supporters, the number of opposers still needs to be equal or greater than 116 (absolute majority) for both the Government's Programme to be rejected or for a motion of no confidence to be approved.[13]

Each one of Portugal's eighteen administrative districts, as well as each one of the country's two autonomous regions - the Azores and Madeira - is an electoral constituency. Portuguese voters residing outside the national territory are grouped into two electoral constituencies - Europe and the rest of the world - each one of which elects two Assembly members. The remaining 226 seats are allocated among the national territory constituencies in proportion to their number of registered electors.

Political parties and party coalitions may present lists of candidates. The lists are closed, so electors may not choose individual candidates in or alter the order of such lists. Electors cast a ballot for a single list. The seats in each constituency are apportioned according to the largest average method of proportional representation (PR), conceived by the Belgian mathematician Victor D'Hondt in 1899. Although there is no statutory threshold for participation in the allocation of Assembly seats, the application of the D'Hondt method introduces a de facto threshold at the constituency level.[14] (for example, with 21 lists running, in the foreign constituencies the real threshold would be much more than 4.5%).

For the 2019 legislative elections, the MPs distributed by districts were as follows, compared with the 2015 map:[15]

District Number of MPs Map
Lisbon 48 (+1) Portuguese electoral district apportionment - 2019.svg
Porto 40 (+1)
Braga 19
Setúbal 18
Aveiro 16
Leiria 10
Coimbra, Faro and Santarém 9
Viseu 8 (-1)
Madeira and Viana do Castelo 6
Azores and Vila Real 5
Castelo Branco 4
Beja, Bragança, Évora and Guarda* 3 (-1)
Portalegre, Europe and Outside Europe 2
*Guarda District loses one MP compared with 2015, while Beja, Bragança and Évora stay the same.

Parties[edit]

The table below lists parties currently represented in the Assembly of the Republic.

Name Ideology Political position Leader 2015 result Seats
before election
Votes (%) Seats
PPD/PSD Social Democratic Party
Partido Social Democrata
Liberal conservatism
Classical liberalism
Centre[16] to centre-right Rui Rio 38.6%
[a]
89 / 230
89 / 230
CDS-PP CDS – People's Party
Centro Democrático e Social – Partido Popular
Christian democracy
Conservatism
Right-wing Assunção Cristas
18 / 230
18 / 230
PS Socialist Party
Partido Socialista
Social democracy Centre-left António Costa 32.3%
86 / 230
85 / 230
BE Left Bloc
Bloco de Esquerda
Democratic socialism
Anti-capitalism
Left-wing Catarina Martins 10.2%
19 / 230
19 / 230
PCP Portuguese Communist Party
Partido Comunista Português
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left Jerónimo de Sousa 8.3%
[b]
15 / 230
15 / 230
PEV Ecologist Party "The Greens"
Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes"
Eco-socialism
Green politics
Left-wing Heloísa Apolónia
2 / 230
2 / 230
PAN People-Animals-Nature
Pessoas-Animais-Natureza
Animal welfare
Environmentalism
Centre-left André Lourenço e Silva 1.4%
1 / 230
1 / 230
Ind. Independent
Independente
Paulo Trigo Pereira (left the PS caucus)[17] N/A
1 / 230

Campaign period[edit]

Party slogans[edit]

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Refs
PSD « Portugal Precisa » "Portugal Needs" [18]
PS « Portugal Melhor » "Better Portugal" [19]
BE « Faz Acontecer » "Make it happen" [20]
CDS–PP « Faz sentido » "Makes sense" [21]
CDU « Avançar é Preciso » "Moving forward is necessary" [22]
PAN « Ainda vamos a tempo! » "We are still on time!" [23]

Candidates' debates[edit]

2019 Portuguese legislative election debates
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present    A  Absent invitee  N  Non-inviteee 
PS
Costa
PSD
Rio
BE
Martins
CDU
Sousa
CDS–PP
Cristas
PAN
Silva
Refs
2 Sep SIC Clara de Sousa P N N P N N [24]
3 Sep RTP3 António José Teixeira N N P N P N [24]
5 Sep SIC Clara de Sousa N P N N P N [24]
6 Sep RTP1 António José Teixeira P N P N N N [24]
7 Sep SIC Notícias Clara de Sousa N N P N N P [24]
9 Sep RTP1 António José Teixeira N P N N N P [24]
11 Sep SIC Clara de Sousa P N N N N P [24]
12 Sep RTP1 António José Teixeira N P N P N N [24]
13 Sep TVI Pedro Pinto P N N N P N [24]
14 Sep RTP3 António José Teixeira N N N N P P [24]
15 Sep TVI Pedro Pinto N P P N N N [24]
16 Sep RTP1,
SIC,
TVI
Clara de Sousa
Maria Flor Pedroso
José Alberto Carvalho
P P N N N N [24]
18 Sep Antena 1,
RR,
TSF
Natália Carvalho
Eunice Lourenço
Anselmo Crespo
P P P P P P [24]
23 Sep Antena 1,
RR,
TSF
Natália Carvalho
Eunice Lourenço
Anselmo Crespo
P P N N N N [24]
23 Sep RTP1 Maria Flor Pedroso P P P P P P [24]
Candidate viewed as "most convincing" in each debate
Date Organisers Polling firm/Link
PS PSD BE CDU CDS–PP PAN Notes
23 Sep Antena 1, RR, TSF Aximage 37.9 38.7 N/A N/A N/A N/A 21.4% Both/Neither
23 Sep RTP1 Aximage 30.9 31.2 18.9 1.5 7.1 2.9 7.5% No one

Opinion polling[edit]

Graph showing a 30-day average trendline of Portuguese opinion polls from the election in 2015 to the election in 2019. Each line corresponds to a political party.

Preliminary results[edit]

The centre-left Socialist Party (PS) of incumbent Prime Minister Costa obtained the largest share of the vote, and the most seats. Costa said he would look to continue the confidence-and-supply agreement with the far-left. The centre-right Social Democratic Party (PSD) got 27.9 percent of the vote, its worst result since 1983. Portugal's much-vaunted immunity to Europe's far-right wave was interrupted by the election of a debut representative from the nationalist Enough party, which scored 1.3 percent overall, with the party's leader stating “this is an historic occasion, it will be the first time in 45 years that a party with these characteristics enters the assembly.”[25]

Votes in the diaspora constituencies have not yet be made public, for a total of four seats.

National summary[edit]

Summary of the 6 October 2019 Assembly of the Republic elections results
Portuguese Assembly of the Republic composition, 2019 election.svg
Parties Votes % ±pp swing MPs MPs %/
votes %
2015 2019 ± % ±
Socialist 1,866,407 36.65 Increase4.3 86 106 Increase20 46.90 Increase9.9 1.28
Social Democratic 1,420,553 27.90 [a] 89 77 Decrease12 33.47 Decrease4.6 1.20
Left Bloc 492,487 9.67 Decrease0.5 19 19 Steady0 8.41 Steady0.0 0.87
Unitary Democratic Coalition 329,117 6.46 Decrease1.8 17 12 Decrease5 5.31 Decrease2.2 0.82
People's 216,448 4.25 [a] 18 5 Decrease13 2.21 Decrease5.8 0.52
People–Animals–Nature 166,854 3.28 Increase1.9 1 4 Increase3 1.77 Increase1.33 0.54
Enough 66,442 1.30 N/A N/A 1 Increase1 0.44 N/A 0.34
Liberal Initiative 65,545 1.29 N/A N/A 1 Increase1 0.44 N/A 0.34
LIVRE 55,656 1.09 Increase0.4 0 1 Increase1 0.44 Increase0.4 0.40
Alliance 39,316 0.77 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.00
React, Include, Recycle 34,638 0.68 N/A N/A 0 N/A 0.00 N/A 0.00
Portuguese Workers' Communist 34,572 0.68 Decrease0.4 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
National Renovator 15,272 0.30 Decrease0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Earth 11,622 0.23 Decrease0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
We, the Citizens! 11,239 0.22 Decrease0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
United Party of Retirees and Pensioners 10,424 0.20 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Together for the People 9,945 0.20 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Democratic Republican 9,217 0.18 Decrease0.9 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
People's Monarchist 7,875 0.15 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Labour 7,499 0.15 [c] 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Socialist Alternative Movement 3,158 0.06 [c] 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Yet to be declared 4
Total valid 4,874,286 95.71 Decrease0.5 230 230 Steady0 100.00 Steady0
Blank ballots 129,599 2.54 Increase0.4
Invalid ballots 88,539 1.74 Increase0.1
Total 5,092,424 100.00 Decrease2.5
Registered voters/turnout 9,343,084 54.50
Source: Election Results
Vote share
PS
36.65%
PSD
27.90%
BE
9.67%
CDU
6.46%
CDS-PP
4.25%
PAN
3.28%
CH
1.30%
IL
1.29%
L
1.09%
Alliance
0.77%
RIR
0.68%
PCTP/MRPP
0.68%
Others
1.69%
Blank/Invalid
4.28%
Parliamentary seats
PS
46.90%
PSD
33.47%
BE
8.41%
CDU
5.31%
CDS-PP
2.21%
PAN
1.77%
CH
0.44%
IL
0.44%
L
0.44%

Distribution by constituency[edit]

e • d Results of the 2019 election of the Portuguese Assembly of the Republic
by constituency
Constituency % S % S % S % S % S % S % S % S % S Total
S
PS PSD BE CDU CDS–PP PAN CHEGA! IL LIVRE
Azores 40.1 3 30.2 2 8.0 - 2.5 - 4.8 - 2.7 - 0.9 - 0.7 - 0.9 - 5
Aveiro 34.3 7 33.6 6 10.0 2 3.1 - 5.7 1 3.0 - 0.7 - 1.0 - 0.7 - 16
Beja 40.7 2 13.3 - 9.1 - 22.8 1 2.3 - 2.0 - 2.0 - 0.4 - 0.6 - 3
Braga 36.4 8 34.1 8 8.9 2 4.0 - 4.1 1 2.6 - 0.7 - 0.8 - 0.7 - 19
Bragança 36.5 1 40.8 2 6.0 - 2.1 - 4.5 - 1.3 - 0.8 - 0.4 - 0.3 - 3
Castelo Branco 40.9 3 26.3 1 11.1 - 4.8 - 3.7 - 2.4 - 1.3 - 0.6 - 0.9 - 4
Coimbra 39.0 5 26.6 3 11.2 1 5.6 - 3.5 - 2.6 - 0.9 - 0.8 - 0.9 - 9
EvoraÉvora 38.3 2 17.5 - 9.0 - 18.9 1 3.4 - 2.0 - 2.2 - 0.7 - 0.7 - 3
Faro 36.8 5 22.3 3 12.3 1 7.1 - 3.8 - 4.8 - 2.1 - 0.8 - 1.0 - 9
Guarda 37.6 2 34.3 1 7.8 - 3.0 - 5.0 - 1.6 - 1.5 - 0.6 - 0.5 - 3
Leiria 31.1 4 33.5 5 9.4 1 4.3 - 5.3 - 2.9 - 1.5 - 0.9 - 0.9 - 10
Lisbon 36.7 20 22.6 12 9.7 5 7.8 4 4.4 2 4.4 2 2.0 1 2.5 1 2.1 1 48
Madeira 33.4 3 37.1 3 5.2 - 2.1 - 6.1 - 1.8 - 0.7 - 0.7 - 0.4 - 6
Portalegre 44.7 2 20.1 - 10.5 - 8.1 - 3.8 - 1.7 - 2.7 - 0.5 - 0.6 - 2
Porto 36.7 17 31.2 15 10.1 4 4.8 2 3.3 1 3.5 1 0.6 - 1.5 - 1.0 - 40
Santarém 37.1 4 25.2 3 10.2 1 7.6 1 4.7 - 2.6 - 2.0 - 0.8 - 0.9 - 9
Setúbal 38.6 9 14.4 3 12.1 2 15.8 3 3.0 - 4.4 1 1.9 - 1.1 - 1.2 - 18
Viana do Castelo 34.8 3 33.8 3 8.5 - 4.0 - 6.2 - 2.4 - 0.7 - 0.6 - 0.6 - 6
Vila Real 37.2 2 39.0 3 6.1 - 2.5 - 4.5 - 1.7 - 0.8 - 0.4 - 0.6 - 5
Viseu 35.4 4 36.2 4 7.9 - 2.3 - 5.9 - 2.1 - 1.0 - 0.6 - 0.5 - 8
Europe 2
Rest of the World 2
Total 36.7 106 27.9 77 9.7 19 6.5 12 4.3 5 3.3 4 1.3 1 1.3 1 1.1 1 230
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

Maps[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e The Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the People's Party (CDS–PP) contested the 2015 election in a coalition called Portugal Ahead (PàF) and won a combined 38.6% of the vote and elected 107 MPs to parliament.
  2. ^ a b The Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) and the Ecologist Party "The Greens" (PEV) contested the 2015 election in a coalition called Unitary Democratic Coalition (CDU) and won a combined 8.3% of the vote and elected 17 MPs to parliament.
  3. ^ a b The Socialist Alternative Movement (MAS) and the Portuguese Labour Party (PTP) contested the 2015 election in a coalition called AGIR! (Act!) and won a combined 0.4% of the vote.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mapa Oficial n.º 8/2019", Comissão Nacional de Eleições, 12 August 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  2. ^ "Marcelo anuncia eleições legislativas em 6 de outubro", Sapo 24, 7 December 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Um mapa cor-de-rosa com sete maiorias absolutas", Púbico (Portuguese newspaper), 7 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Rui Rio: “Não há desastre nenhum”", Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, 7 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  5. ^ "CDS volta a meter-se num táxi e Assunção Cristas sai de cena", Púbico (Portuguese newspaper), 7 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  6. ^ "Entrada de extrema-direita no Parlamento “deve alarmar partidos”", Púbico (Portuguese newspaper), 8 October 2019. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Passos Coelho não se recandidata à liderança do PSD". Expresso (in Portuguese). 2017.
  8. ^ "Rui Rio anuncia quarta-feira candidatura à liderança do PSD", RTP, 6 October 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  9. ^ "PSD. Santana Lopes apresenta candidatura à liderança este domingo", RTP, 17 October 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  10. ^ "Rui Rio é o novo presidente do PSD", Jornal de Negócios, 13 January 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-22. Retrieved 2015-10-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Electoral law to the Assembly of the Republic
  13. ^ "Constitution of the Portuguese Republic" (PDF).
  14. ^ "Election Resources on the Internet: Portugal - The Electoral System". Electionresources.org. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  15. ^ ""Mapa Oficial n.º 8/2019"" (PDF). CNE - Comissão Nacional de Eleições - Diário da República, 1.a série—N.o 154-12 de agosto de 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  16. ^ Lusa. "Rui Rio: "Nós não somos de direita. Nós somos do centro, somos moderados"" [Rui Rio: "We aren't right-wing. We are on the center, we're moderate"]. PÚBLICO (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2019-09-03.
  17. ^ Paulo Trigo Pereira sai da bancada do PS com críticas ao “paternalismo” do Governo , Expresso, 7 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  18. ^ "PSD Legislativas 2019". PSD (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  19. ^ "PS Legislativas 2019". PS (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  20. ^ "BE Legislativas 2019". BE (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  21. ^ "CDS Legislativas 2019". CDS-PP (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  22. ^ "CDU Legislativas 2019". CDU (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  23. ^ "PAN apresenta Programa Eleitoral para Legislativas 2019". PAN (in Portuguese). 30 August 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Este é o calendário de debates para as legislativas". Eco (in Portuguese). 2 August 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  25. ^ https://www.politico.eu/article/antonio-costa-portugal-elections/

External links[edit]