2019 Swiss federal election

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2019 Swiss federal election
Switzerland
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All 200 seats in the National Council (101 seats needed for a majority)
All 46 seats in the Council of States (24 seats needed for a majority)
Turnout45.1%
Party Leader % Seats ±
National Council
Swiss People's Albert Rösti 25.6% 53 -12
Social Democrats Christian Levrat 16.8% 39 -4
FDP.The Liberals Petra Gössi 15.1% 29 -4
Greens Regula Rytz 13.2% 28 +17
Christian Democrats Gerhard Pfister 11.4% 25 -2
Green Liberals Jürg Grossen 7.8% 16 +9
BDP Martin Landolt 2.4% 3 -4
Evangelical People's Marianne Streiff 2.1% 3 +1
Labour Gavriel Pinson 1.0% 1 0
solidaritéS with PdA 1 +1
Federal Democrats Hans Moser 1.0% 1 +1
Lega Attilio Bignasca 0.8% 1 -1
Council of States
Christian Democrats 13 0
FDP.The Liberals 12 -1
Social Democrats 9 -3
Swiss People's 6 +1
Greens 5 +4
Independent 1 0
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
2019 Swiss federal election.svg
Map of Swiss cantons colored by the party that won the most votes. The seats that were won in the cantons for both the National Council and the Council of States are shown as well.
Coat of Arms of Switzerland (Pantone).svg
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TV interview with the leaders of the five biggest parties

Federal elections were held in Switzerland on 20 October 2019 to elect all members of both houses of the Federal Assembly.[1] This was followed by the 2019 election of the Swiss Federal Council, the federal executive, by the United Federal Assembly.

In the 20 October elections, the two green parties, the Green Party of Switzerland and the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, made major electoral gains, taking 13.2% and 7.8% of the vote respectively. As in the previous election, the Swiss People's Party received the most votes, but its share of votes went down to 25.6% from 29.4%.[2]

Initial media coverage interprets the 2019 election results as a "green wave" marking a leftward shift of the Swiss electorate on the political spectrum.[3][4][5][6] It remains to be seen what effect the changes in the relative vote and seat shares will have on the composition of the Federal Council, or at least on the government's agenda and legislative initiatives, if there is no change in party representation in the executive branch.[7]

In contrast to Germany and Austria, the Swiss federal government has for decades been composed of representatives of the four largest parties as a matter of political practice (rather than constitutional design), and has long operated on a consensus-seeking model characterized by accommodation of competing interest and viewpoints, rather than imposition of the will of the majority over the opposition.

Switzerland's confederate structure and frequent initiatives and referendums pose additional constraints on what elected politicians are collectively able to accomplish. For these reasons, the strong electoral gains of the two green parties do not have the same implications for coalition-government formation as they do in Austria following the September 29, 2019 parliamentary elections there, in which the Greens obtained their best results ever with 13.9% of the vote and 26 seats in a slightly smaller lower house of parliament.

Date[edit]

The elections for the National Council took place nationally on 20 October 2019.

The cantons individually organise their elections for the Council of States, which all held on 20 October 2019;[8] with one exception. In Appenzell Innerrhoden the election took place on 28 April at the 2019 Landsgemeinde.[9] Depending on the results of the 20 October election, a second round or runoff election may be required in some cantons.

Electoral system[edit]

The 200 members of the National Council are elected from 26 cantons, each of which constitutes a constituency. The cantons are of unequal population size and use different electoral systems. Six are single-member constituencies in which winners are determined by first-past-the-post voting; the remaining 20 cantons are multi-member constituencies, in which members are elected by open list proportional representation. Voters may cross out names on party lists, split their vote between parties (a system known as panachage), or draw up their own list on a blank ballot. Seats are allocated using the Hagenbach-Bischoff system.[10]

National Council seats are apportioned to the cantons based on their respective population size (which includes children and resident foreigners who do not have the right to vote). Based on the official population count recorded at the end of 2016, Bern and Lucerne each lost a seat while Geneva and Vaud each gained a seat.[11] The least-populous cantons have just one seat in the National Council — in 2019 there are six such cantons, four of which are half-cantons.[12]

The rules regarding who can stand as a candidate and vote in elections to the National Council are uniform across the Confederation. Only Swiss citizens aged at least 18 can stand or vote and the citizens resident abroad can register to vote in the canton in which they last resided (or their canton of citizenship, otherwise) and be able to vote no matter how long since, or whether they ever have, lived in Switzerland.

The 46 members of the Council of States are elected in 20 two-seat constituencies (representing the 20 'full' cantons) and six single-member constituencies (representing the six half-cantons). Two 'full' cantons with small populations — Uri and Glarus — have therefore each two seats in the Council of States but only one seat each in the much larger National Council. In Jura and Neuchâtel the elections are held using proportional representation, whilst the other 24 use the majority system.[13]

As each canton regulates its election to the Council of States, the rules regarding who can stand as a candidate and vote in these elections varies canton-by-canton. Jura and Neuchâtel allow certain foreign residents to vote, whilst Glarus allows 16- and 17-year-olds the vote. Swiss citizens abroad registered to vote in a canton are permitted to vote in that canton's Council of States election only if the canton's law allows it. Schaffhausen has compulsory voting, though limited in implementation by way of only an insignificant fine.

Contesting parties[edit]

The table below lists contesting parties represented in the Federal Assembly before the election.

Name Ideology Leader 2015 result
Votes (%) National Council Council of States
SVP / UDC Swiss People's Party National conservatism
Right-wing populism
Albert Rösti 29.4%
65 / 200
5 / 46
SP / PS Social Democratic Party Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Christian Levrat 18.8%
43 / 200
12 / 46
FDP / PLR FDP.The Liberals Liberalism
Conservative liberalism
Petra Gössi 16.4%
33 / 200
13 / 46
CVP / PDC Christian Democratic People's Party Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Gerhard Pfister 11.6%
27 / 200
13 / 46
GPS / PES Green Party Green politics
Progressivism
Regula Rytz 7.1%
11 / 200
1 / 46
GLP / PVL Green Liberal Party Green liberalism
Social liberalism
Jürg Grossen 4.6%
7 / 200
0 / 46
BDP / PBD Conservative Democratic Party Liberal conservatism Martin Landolt 4.1%
7 / 200
1 / 46
EVP / PEV Evangelical People's Party Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Marianne Streiff 1.9%
2 / 200
0 / 46
Lega Ticino League Regionalism
Right-wing populism
Attilio Bignasca 1.0%
2 / 200
0 / 46
PdA / PST Swiss Party of Labour Communism Gavriel Pinson 0.4%
1 / 200
0 / 46
MCG Geneva Citizens' Movement Regionalism
Right-wing populism
Francisco Valentin 0.3%
1 / 200
0 / 46

Other parties contesting in at least three cantons are:

Opinion polls[edit]

Graphical summary[edit]

The chart below depicts opinion polls conducted for the 2019 Swiss federal election; trendlines are local regressions (LOESS).

Opinion polling for the 2019 Swiss federal election.svg

Vote share[edit]

Polling firm Fieldwork date Sample
size
SVP/
UDC
SP/
PS
FDP/
PLR
CVP/
PDC
GPS/
PES
GLP/
PVL
BDP/
PBD
EVP/
PEV
Others Lead
2019 election 20 Oct 2019 25.6 16.8 15.1 11.4 13.2 7.8 2.4 2.1 5.6 8.8
Gallup 5 Sep–4 Oct 2019 2,065 26.9 18.5 15.9 10.5 10.5 7.4 3.1 7.2 8.4
Sotomo 26 Sep–2 Oct 2019 12,107 27.3 18.2 15.2 10.6 10.7 7.3 2.8 1.8 5.8 9.1
LeeWas 23–24 Sep 2019 20,515 27.9 18.0 15.6 10.4 10.2 7.2 3.2 7.4 9.9
Sotomo 19–25 Aug 2019 17,128 26.8 18.7 16.7 10.2 10.5 6.9 2.6 1.6 6.0 8.1
Sotomo 17–27 May 2019 10,388 26.5 19.1 16.2 10.6 10.1 6.4 2.9 1.8 6.4 7.4
LeeWas 22–23 May 2019 19,018 28.9 17.6 15.5 10.3 9.9 6.9 3.3 7.6 11.3
LeeWas 18–20 Feb 2019 22,326 29.2 18.4 15.9 9.9 9.6 6.7 3.9 6.4 10.8
Sotomo 1–7 Feb 2019 12,085 27.0 17.4 17.4 11.3 9.5 6.4 3.3 1.7 6.0 9.6
LeeWas 24–25 Sep 2018 19,412 29.7 17.9 17.0 9.9 7.1 5.7 4.0 8.7 11.8
gfs.bern 7–19 Sep 2018 27,105 28.0 18.7 17.3 11.0 9.1 5.9 2.0 1.9 6.1 9.3
Sotomo 13–18 Sep 2018 14,985 27.4 19.3 17.7 10.1 8.7 5.7 3.2 2.0 5.9 8.1
LeeWas 21–22 Jun 2018 14,851 29.2 18.0 16.4 10.0 7.2 5.7 4.7 8.8 11.2
LeeWas 4–5 Jan 2018 20,422 30.8 18.7 16.4 9.1 7.4 6.1 3.7 7.8 12.1
Sotomo 28 Sep–2 Oct 2017 14,063 28.7 17.7 17.1 10.9 8.1 5.4 3.4 8.6 11.0
gfs.bern 19 Feb–23 Mar 2017 1,210 28.3 20.3 17.3 10.7 8.8 4.9 3.0 6.7 8.0
gfs.bern 5 Sep–8 Oct 2016 972 29.9 18.7 16.7 10.5 7.6 5.6 3.5 7.5 11.2
OpinionPlus 29 Apr–4 May 2016 809 30.8 17.8 16.8 10.6 6.6 5.4 4.6 7.4 13.0
2015 election 18 Oct 2015 29.4 18.8 16.4 11.6 7.1 4.6 4.1 1.9 6.0 10.5

Results[edit]

The Green Party and Green Liberal Party gained votes and seats while most other parties decreased in size.[14][15][16]

National Council[edit]

Suisse Conseil national 2019.svg
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Swiss People's Party 620,343 25.6 53 –12
Social Democratic Party 408,128 16.8 39 –4
FDP.The Liberals 366,303 15.1 29 –4
Green Party 319,988 13.2 28 +17
Christian Democratic People's Party 275,842 11.4 25 –2
Green Liberal Party 189,162 7.8 16 +9
Conservative Democratic Party 59,206 2.4 3 –4
Evangelical People's Party 50,317 2.1 3 +1
Swiss Party of Labour 25,427 1.0 1 0
solidaritéS 1 New
Federal Democratic Union 24,145 1.0 1 +1
Ticino League 18,187 0.8 1 –1
Alternative List 7,709 0.3 0 0
Pirate Party 6,602 0.3 0 New
Christian Social Party 6,238 0.3 0 0
Geneva Citizens' Movement 5,338 0.2 0 –1
Swiss Democrats 3,202 0.1 0 0
Integral Politics 2,849 0.1 0 New
Invalid/blank votes
Total 2,462,581 100 200 0
Registered voters/turnout 45.1
Source: FSO, FSO, ch.ch, BFS

Council of States[edit]

Switzerland Council of States 2019.svg
Party[17] First round Second round Total
Seats
+/-
Seats Seats
Christian Democratic People's Party 8 5 13 Steady 0
FDP.The Liberals 7 5 12 Decrease 1
Social Democratic Party 3 6 9 Decrease 3
Swiss People's Party 3 3 6 Increase 1
Green Party 2 3 5 Increase 4
Conservative Democratic Party Decrease 1
Independent 1 1 Steady 0
Total seats 24 22 46

Elected candidates by canton[edit]

Canton of Aargau[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[18]
Swiss People's Party Hansjörg Knecht
Thomas Burgherr
Andreas Glarner
Martina Bircher
Jean-Pierre Gallati
Benjamin Glezendanner
6
Social Democratic Party Yvonne Feri
Cédric Wermuth
Gabriela Suter
3
FDP.The Liberals Thierry Burkart
Matthias Samuel Jauslin
2
Christian Democratic People's Party Ruth Humbel
Marianne Binder-Keller
2
Green Party Irène Kälin 1
Green Liberal Party Beat Flach 1
Evangelical People's Party Lilian Studer 1
Council of States (2nd round was held on 24 November)
FDP.The Liberals Thierry Burkart 1
Swiss People's Party Hansjörg Knecht 1

Canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[19]
Swiss People's Party David Zuberbühler 1
Council of States
FDP.The Liberals Andrea Caroni 1

Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[20]
Christian Democratic People's Party Thomas Rechsteiner 1
Council of States
Christian Democratic People's Party Daniel Fässler 1

Canton of Basel-Landschaft[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[21]
Swiss People's Party Thomas de Courten
Sandra Sollberger
2
Social Democratic Party Samira Marti
Eric Nussbaumer
2
Green Party Maya Graf 1
FDP.The Liberals Daniela Schneeberger 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Elisabeth Schneider-Schneiter 1
Council of States (2nd round was held on 24 November)
Green Party Maya Graf 1

Canton of Basel-Stadt[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[22]
Social Democratic Party Eva Herzog
Beat Jans
2
Green Party Sibel Arslan 1
Green Liberal Party Katja Christ 1
Liberal Democratic Party (Basel) Christoph Eymann 1
Council of States
Social Democratic Party Eva Herzog 1

Canton of Bern[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[23]
Swiss People's Party Andreas Aebi
Andrea Geissbühler
Erich Hess
Nadja Pieren
Albert Rösti
Werner Salzmann
Erich von Siebenthal
7
Social Democratic Party Nadine Masshardt
Flavia Wasserfallen
Tamara Funiciello
Matthias Aebischer
4
Green Party Regula Rytz
Aline Trede
Christine Badertscher
Kilian Baumann
4
Green Liberal Party Jürg Grossen
Kathrin Bertschy
Melanie Mettler
3
FDP.The Liberals Christa Markwalder
Christian Wasserfallen
2
Conservative Democratic Party Lorenz Hess
Beatrice Simon
2
Evangelical People's Party Marianne Streiff 1
Federal Democratic Union Andreas Gafner 1
Council of States (2nd round was held on 17 November)
Social Democratic Party Hans Stöckli 1
Swiss People's Party Werner Salzmann 1

Canton of Fribourg[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[24]
Social Democratic Party Ursula Schneider Schüttel
Valérie Piller Carrard
2
Christian Democratic People's Party Christine Bulliard-Marbach
Marie-France Roth Pasquier
2
FDP.The Liberals Jacques Bourgeois 1
Swiss People's Party Pierre-André Page 1
Green Party Gerhard Andrey 1
Council of States (2nd round held on 10 November)
Social Democratic Party Christian Levrat 1
FDP.The Liberals Johanna Gapany 1

Canton of Geneva[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[25]
Green Party Lisa Mazzone
Nicolas Walder
Delphine Klopfenstein Broggini
3
FDP.The Liberals Christian Lüscher
Simon de Montmollin
2
Social Democratic Party Laurence Fehlmann Rielle
Christian Dandrès
2
Swiss People's Party Yves Nidegger
Céline Amaudruz
2
Christian Democratic People's Party Vincent Maitre 1
Green Liberal Party Michel Matter 1
Ensemble à gauche Stéfanie Prezioso 1
Council of States (2nd round held on 10 November)
Green Party Lisa Mazzone 1
Social Democratic Party Carlo Sommaruga 1

Canton of Glarus[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[26]
Conservative Democratic Party Martin Landolt 1
Council of States
FDP.The Liberals Thomas Hefti 1
Green Party Mathias Zopfi 1

Grisons[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[27]
Social Democratic Party Jon Pult
Sandra Locher Benguerel
2
Swiss People's Party Magdalena Martullo-Blocher 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Martin Candinas 1
FDP.The Liberals Anna Giacometti 1
Council of States
Christian Democratic People's Party Stefan Engler 1
FDP.The Liberals Martin Schmid 1

Canton of Jura[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[28]
Social Democratic Party Pierre-Alain Fridez 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Jean-Paul Gschwind 1
Council of States
Social Democratic Party Elisabeth Baume-Schneider 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Charles Juillard 1

Canton of Lucerne[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[29]
Christian Democratic People's Party Ida Glanzmann-Hunkeler
Andrea Gmür
Leo Müller
3
Swiss People's Party Yvette Estermann
Franz Grüter
2
FDP.The Liberals Albert Vitali 1
Social Democratic Party Prisca Birrer-Heimo 1
Green Party Michael Töngi 1
Green Liberal Party Roland Fischer 1
Council of States
FDP.The Liberals Damian Müller 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Andrea Gmür 1

Canton of Neuchâtel[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[30]
FDP.The Liberals Damien Cottier 1
Green Party Fabien Fivaz 1
Social Democratic Party Baptiste Hurni 1
Swiss Party of Labour Denis de la Reussille 1
Council of States
FDP.The Liberals Philippe Bauer 1
Green Party Céline Vara 1

Canton of Nidwalden[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[31]
Swiss People's Party Peter Keller 1
Council of States
FDP.The Liberals Hans Wicki 1

Canton of Obwalden[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[32]
Swiss People's Party Monika Rüegger-Hurschler 1
Council of States
Christian Democratic People's Party Erich Ettlin 1

Canton of Schaffhausen[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[33]
Swiss People's Party Thomas Hurter 1
Social Democratic Party Martina Munz 1
Council of States
Swiss People's Party Hannes Germann 1
Independent Thomas Minder 1

Canton of Schwyz[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[34]
Swiss People's Party Pirmin Schwander
Marcel Dettling
2
FDP.The Liberals Petra Gössi 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Alois Gmür 1
Council of States
Swiss People's Party Alex Kuprecht 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Othmar Reichmuth 1

Canton of Solothurn[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[35]
Swiss People's Party Walter Wobmann
Christian Imark
2
FDP.The Liberals Kurt Fluri 1
Social Democratic Party Franziska Roth 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Stefan Müller-Altermatt 1
Green Party Felix Wettstein 1
Council of States
Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland Pirmin Bischof 1
Social Democratic Party Roberto Zanetti 1

Canton of St. Gallen[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[36]
Swiss People's Party Lukas Reimann
Roland Rino Büchel
Mike Egger
Esther Friedli
4
Christian Democratic People's Party Markus Ritter
Nicolo Paganini
2
FDP.The Liberals Marcel Dobler
Susanne Vincenz-Stauffacher
2
Social Democratic Party Barbara Gysi
Claudia Dobler
2
Green Party Franziska Ryser 1
Green Liberal Party Thomas Brunner 1
Council of States (2nd round was held on 17 November)
Christian Democratic People's Party Beni Würth 1
Social Democratic Party Paul Rechsteiner 1

Canton of Thurgau[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[37]
Swiss People's Party Verena Herzog
Diana Gutjahr
Manuel Strupler
3
Christian Democratic People's Party Christian Lohr 1
Social Democratic Party Edith Graf-Litscher 1
Green Party Kurt Egger 1
Council of States
Christian Democratic People's Party Brigitte Häberli-Koller 1
Swiss People's Party Jakob Stark 1

Canton of Ticino[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[38]
FDP.The Liberals Rocco Cattaneo
Alex Farinelli
2
Christian Democratic People's Party Marco Romano
Fabio Regazzi
2
Ticino League Lorenzo Quadri 1
Social Democratic Party Bruno Storni 1
Green Party Greta Gysin 1
Swiss People's Party Bruno Marchesi 1
Council of States (2nd round was held on 17 November)
Swiss People's Party Marco Chiesa 1
Social Democratic Party Guscetti Marina Carobbio 1

Canton of Uri[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[39]
Christian Democratic People's Party Simon Stadler 1
Council of States
FDP.The Liberals Josef Dittli 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Heidi Z'graggen 1

Canton of Valais[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[40]
Christian Democratic People's Party Benjamin Roduit
Sidney Kamerzin
Philipp Matthias Bregy
3
Swiss People's Party Jean-Luc Addor
Franz Ruppen
2
FDP.The Liberals Philippe Nantermod 1
Social Democratic Party Mathias Reynard 1
Green Party Christophe Clivaz 1
Council of States (2nd round held on 3 November)
Christian Democratic People's Party Beat Rieder
Marianne Maret
2

Canton of Vaud[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[41]
FDP.The Liberals Olivier Français
Frédéric Borloz
Olivier Feller
Isabelle Moret
Jacqueline de Quattro
5
Social Democratic Party Ada Marra
Samuel Bendahan
Brigitte Crottaz
Roger Nordmann
Pierre-Yves Maillard
5
Green Party Adèle Thorens Goumaz
Daniel Brélaz
Léonore Porchet
Gigon Michaud
4
Swiss People's Party Jean-Pierre Grin
Michaël Buffat
Jacques Nicolet
3
Green Liberal Party Isabelle Chevalley
François Pointet
2
Council of States (2nd round held on 10 November)
FDP.The Liberals Olivier Français 1
Green Party Adèle Thorens Goumaz 1

Canton of Zug[edit]

Party Candidate Seats
National Council[42]
Swiss People's Party Thomas Aeschi 1
Christian Democratic People's Party Gerhard Pfister 1
Green Party Manuelra Weichelt-Picard 1
Council of States
Christian Democratic People's Party Peter Hegglin 1
FDP.The Liberals Matthias Michel 1

Canton of Zurich[edit]

Party Candidates Seats
National Council[43]
Swiss People's Party Roger Köppel
Gregor Rutz
Alfred Heer
Thomas Matter
Hans-Ueli
Barbara Steinemann
Bruno Walliser
Mauro Tuena
Martin Haab
Therese Schläpfer
9
Social Democratic Party Angelo Barrile
Priska Graf Seiler
Jacqueline Badran
Mattea Meyer
Min Li Marti
Fabian Molina
Céline Widmer
7
Green Party Katharina Prelicz-Huber
Marionna Schlatter-Schmid
Balthasar Glättli
Bastien Girod
Meret Schneider
6
Green Liberal Party Tiana Angelina Moser
Martin Bäumle
Corina Gredig
Jörg Mäder
Judith Bellaïche
Barbara Schaffner
6
FDP.The Liberals Doris Fiala
Hans-Peter Portmann
Beat Walti
Regine Sauter
Andri Silberschmidt
5
Christian Democratic People's Party Philipp Kutter 1
Evangelical People's Party Niklaus Gugger 1
Council of States
Social Democratic Party Daniel Jositsch 1
FDP.The Liberals Ruedi Noser 1

Aftermath[edit]

The 2019 federal election was followed by the Federal Council election on 11 December 2019.[44][45] The Green Party failed to win a seat in the Federal Council despite becoming the fourth largest party in the National Council.[46][47][48]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Statistik, Bundesamt für. "Eidgenössische Wahlen 2019". bfs.admin.ch (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  2. ^ "'Tectonic shift': Swiss Greens make historic gains in election". 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  3. ^ Hurtz, Simon; dpa (20 October 2019). "Schweiz: Grüne legen deutlich zu, Rechtskonservative stärkste Kraft". Die Zeit (in German). ISSN 0044-2070. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  4. ^ Pfaff, Isabel. "Wahlen in der Schweiz: Der Wind hat sich gedreht". Süddeutsche.de (in German). Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  5. ^ "Greens surge in Swiss election as climate change worries come to the fore". Reuters. 20 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  6. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (20 October 2019). "Swiss Voters Appear to Deliver 'Green Wave,' Rebuking Far Right". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Wahlen 2019 in der Schweiz: Grüne stark, aber keine Chance auf Regierung". Merkur (in German). 21 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  8. ^ Swiss Confederation Council of States elections
  9. ^ SwissInfo
  10. ^ Electoral system IPU
  11. ^ "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Kantonen am 31.12.2016" (PDF). Swiss Confederation (Official website).
  12. ^ Swiss Confederation How many seats does each canton have in Parliament
  13. ^ Electoral system IPU
  14. ^ Michel, Felix; Metzler, Aline; Schmidli, Julian; Zehr, Angelo (21 October 2019). "The Swiss Elections 2019: All Results in Detail". Swissinfo. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  15. ^ "Why this Swiss election will go down in the history books". Swissinfo. 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  16. ^ Geiser, Urs (20 October 2019). "Swiss elections: Landslide Green gains tip parliament to the left". Swissinfo. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  17. ^ "Ständerat: Wahlergebnisse". ch.ch (in German). Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  18. ^ "AARGAU: federal election results". Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  19. ^ "APPENZELL AUSSERRHODEN: Ergebnisse der eidgenössischen Wahlen". ch.ch. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  20. ^ "Appenzell Innerrhoden: Ergebnisse der eidgenössischen Wahlen". ch.ch. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  21. ^ "BASEL-LANDSCHAFT: federal election results". ch.ch. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  22. ^ "BASEL-STADT: federal election results". Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  23. ^ "Bern: federal election results". Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  24. ^ "FRIBOURG: federal election results". Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  25. ^ "Geneva: federal election results". Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  26. ^ "GLARUS: Ergebnisse der eidgenössischen Wahlen". ch.ch. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  27. ^ "GRAUBÜNDEN: federal election results". ch.ch. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  28. ^ "JURA: Ergebnisse der eidgenössischen Wahlen". ch.ch. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  29. ^ "Lucerne: federal election results". ch.ch. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  30. ^ "NEUCHÂTEL: federal election results". ch.ch. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  31. ^ "NIDWALDEN: Ergebnisse der eidgenössischen Wahlen". ch.ch. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  32. ^ "OBWALDEN: federal election resultsWahlen". ch.ch. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  33. ^ "SCHAFFHAUSEN: federal election resultsWahlen". ch.ch. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  34. ^ "SCHWYZ : federal election results". ch.ch. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  35. ^ "SOLOTHURN : federal election results". ch.ch. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  36. ^ "ST. GALLEN: federal election results". Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  37. ^ "THURGAU: federal election results". Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  38. ^ "TICINO: federal election results". Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  39. ^ "Uri: Ergebnisse der eidgenössischen Wahlen". ch.ch (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  40. ^ "Uri: Ergebnisse der eidgenössischen Wahlen". ch.ch (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2019.
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