2019 United States elections

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2019 United States elections
Off-year elections
Election dayNovember 5
House elections
Seats contested3 mid-term vacancies
Net seat change0
US House special elections 2019.png
Map of the 2019 House special elections
     Democratic hold      Republican hold
     Democratic gain      Republican gain
     Not yet held
Gubernatorial elections
Seats contested3
Net seat change0
Color coded map of the 2015 gubernatorial races
Map of the 2019 gubernatorial races
Light blue: Democratic incumbent
Light red: Republican incumbent
Dark red: Term-limited Republican
Gray: no election

The 2019 United States elections will be held, in large part, on Tuesday, November 5, 2019. This off-year election includes the regular gubernatorial elections in Kentucky, Louisiana, and Mississippi. State legislative elections will also be held in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Virginia, as well as for the New Jersey General Assembly (the lower house of the New Jersey legislature). Numerous citizen initiatives, mayoral races, and a variety of other local elections will also occur. Special elections to the United States Congress will take place for the (thus far) three vacancies that arose.

Federal special elections[edit]

The following special elections will be held to replace members who resigned or died in the 116th U.S. Congress:

State elections[edit]

Partisan control of states prior to the 2019 elections.
  Democratic trifecta
  Republican trifecta
  Divided government
  Officially non-partisan legislature

The 2019 state elections will impact the redistricting that will follow the 2020 United States Census, as many states task governors and state legislators with drawing new boundaries for state legislative and Congressional districts. Republicans will defend their "trifecta" (unified control of the governorship and the state legislature) in Kentucky and Mississippi, while Democrats will defend their trifecta in New Jersey. The other two states holding elections, Louisiana and Virginia, both have a divided government, meaning that each major party controls the governorship or at least one legislative chamber.


Three states will hold gubernatorial elections in 2019:


Legislative elections will be held for both houses of the Louisiana Legislature, the Mississippi Legislature, and the Virginia General Assembly, as well as the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature.

Ballot measures[edit]

  • In the U.S. Virgin Islands, a ballot initiative to change how seats in the Legislature of the Virgin Islands are apportioned was defeated due to low voter turnout. A majority of voters approved of the reapportionment plan during the March 30, 2019, special election; however, only about 9 percent of registered voters participated in the election, and a majority of all registered voters was required for the initiative to pass.[15]

Local elections[edit]

Mayoral elections[edit]

Incumbent mayors won re-election in major cities during 2019, including Arlington, Texas (Jeff Williams[16]); Colorado Springs, Colorado (John Suthers[17]); Denver (Michael Hancock[18]); Fort Collins, Colorado (Wade Troxell[19]); Fort Worth, Texas (Betsy Price[20]); Gainesville, Florida (Lauren Poe[21]); Jacksonville, Florida (Lenny Curry[22]); Las Vegas (Carolyn Goodman[23]); and San Antonio, Texas (Ron Nirenberg[24]). Incumbent Ken McClure in Springfield, Missouri was unopposed in seeking re-election.[25]

Several large cities elected their first out LGBT+ mayors in 2019. In Chicago, Lori Lightfoot was elected as the city's first African-American female mayor and first lesbian mayor[26] in what was only the second-ever mayoral runoff election in the city's history.[27] In Tampa, Florida, Jane Castor also won a run-off election to become the first gay woman to lead a major Florida city.[28]

In Madison, Wisconsin, Satya Rhodes-Conway defeated longtime incumbent mayor Paul Soglin.[29] In Brownsville, Texas, Trey Mendez won a run-off election to replace incumbent mayor Tony Martinez, who came in third in the primary election.[30][31] Open mayoral seats were won in Dallas, Texas (Eric Johnson[24]); Green Bay, Wisconsin (Eric Genrich[32]); Kansas City, Missouri (Quinton Lucas[33]); Lincoln, Nebraska (Leirion Gaylor Baird[34]); Newark, Delaware (Jerry Clifton[35]); and West Palm Beach, Florida (Keith James[36]). In Garland, Texas, Scott LeMay was unopposed in seeking an open mayoral seat.[37]

Other major cities holding mayoral elections in 2019 include:

Special elections[edit]

  • Special Election Runoff in Phoenix, Arizona, following the resignation of Mayor Greg Stanton and no candidate winning a majority in the November 2018 special election, held on March 12, 2019; won by Kate Gallego[69][70]
  • Special mayoral election in Port Richey, Florida, attorney Scott Tremblay was elected mayor[71] to replace former Vice Mayor Terrence Rowe who was arrested on conspiracy charges 20 days after being elevated to mayor following the arrest of former mayor Dale Massad for practicing medicine without a license.[72]
  • Special mayoral election in Allentown, Pennsylvania, interim mayor Ray O'Connell won the Democratic primary to finish the remaining two years of former Mayor Ed Pawlowski, who resigned in 2018 after being convicted for corruption. O'Connell faces Republican Tim Ramos, who was unopposed in the May primary, in the November general election.[73]
  • Special mayoral election in Scranton, Pennsylvania, will be held in November to replace Mayor Bill Courtright, who resigned after pleading guilty to federal corruption charges.[74]

Recall elections[edit]

During 2019, voters in several cities initiated recall elections against incumbent mayors. Mayors were successfully recalled in Bovill, Idaho; Dalton Gardens, Idaho; Wickenburg, Arizona; and York, Nebraska. Mayors in Arnegard, North Dakota; Elk River, Idaho; Kooskia, Idaho; and Sugar City, Idaho, were retained in office.[75]

In Fall River, Massachusetts, voters successfully recalled Mayor Jasiel Correia and re-elected him in the same election. Correia faced recall after being charged with wire fraud and filing false tax returns in 2018. Five candidates, including Correia, qualified to run in the event of a successful recall, and a plurality of voters voted for Correia.[76]

Other local elections and referenda[edit]

Tribal elections[edit]

Several notable Native American tribal governments held elections for tribal leadership in 2019.

Incumbent Tribal Chairman Don Gentry of the Klamath Tribes[85] and incumbent Tribal Council Chief Beverly Kiohawiton Cook of the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe[86] were both re-elected to a third term. Seminole Tribe of Florida incumbent Tribal Council Chairman Marcellus Osceola Jr. was re-elected to a second term.[87] Incumbent Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Tribal Chair Richard Peterson[88] and incumbent Comanche Nation Tribal Chairman William Nelson Sr.[89] were also re-elected. Choctaw Nation incumbent Chief Gary Batton was unopposed in seeking a second term,[90] and Chickasaw Nation Gov. Bill Anoatubby was unopposed in seeking a ninth consecutive four-year term.[91]

Former Cherokee Nation Secretary of State Chuck Hoskin Jr. was elected principal chief in a contentious election.[92] Ned Norris Jr. was elected chairman of the Tohono O'odham Nation, a position he previously held for two terms, defeating incumbent Chairman Edward Manuel.[93][94] Cyrus Ben defeated incumbent Tribal Chief Phyliss J. Anderson to lead the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians.[95] Byron Nelson Jr. was elected tribal chairman of the Hoopa Valley Tribe, defeating incumbent Ryan Jackson.[96]

A special election triggered by the resignation of Jicarilla Apache Nation President Levi Pesata in February[97] was won by Legislative Council member Darrell Paiz in a runoff,[98] and Rynalea Whiteman Pena was elected president of the Northern Cheyenne Tribal Council in a special election following the resignation of prior president L. Jace Killsback.[99] Beth Drost was elected as the first female Tribal Chair of the Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa in a special election following the death of long-time Tribal Chair Norman Deschampe.[100] The White Earth Nation in Minnesota is holding a special election to fill the remaining term of Chairman Terry Tibbetts, who passed away in March 2019. Brent Gish and Michael Fairbanks advanced from the June primary to the August general election.[101]

  • Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians: Incumbent Principal Chief Richard Sneed is seeking his first full-term, having been elevated from Vice Chief in 2017 following the impeachment of then Principal Chief Patrick Lambert. Sneed and former Tribal Council Member Teresa McCoy, who was originally denied certification to run,[102] advanced from the June primary to face off in the September general election.[103]
  • Muscogee (Creek) Nation: Incumbent Principal Chief James R. Floyd declined to run for a second term.[104]

Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Council Chair Cedric Cromwell faces a recall election over questions about his management of tribal funds. The recall effort was certified in May with the election date to be set later.[105]

Tribal referenda[edit]

Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone voters rejected a ballot petition to replace a blood quantum requirement for tribal membership with a direct lineal descent system.[106] The Hoopa Valley Tribe in California narrowly rejected an effort to open tribal land to cannabis cultivation.[96]

Tables of partisan control results[edit]

These tables show the partisan results of the congressional, gubernatorial, and state legislative races in 2019. Only the affected congressional districts and states in 2019 are shown. Governorships/legislatures in these affected states that are not up for election in 2019 are already filled in for the "after 2019 elections" section. Bold indicates a change in control.

House Congressional seats
  Before 2019 elections After 2019 elections
Seat Incumbent State delegation[107] Winner State delegation
North Carolina 3rd Rep Rep 9–3[a]    
North Carolina 9th Vacant[a]  
Pennsylvania 12th Rep Split 9–9 Rep Split 9–9
House Congressional party changes
  Change from Change to
Seat Previous State delegation[107] Current State delegation
Michigan 3rd[b] Rep Split 7–7 Ind 7–6–1
State control results
  Before 2019 elections[107] After 2019 elections
State Governor State leg. Governor State leg.
Kentucky Rep Rep   Rep
Louisiana Dem Rep    
Mississippi Rep Rep    
New Jersey Dem Dem Dem  
Virginia Dem Rep Dem  
  1. ^ a b The seat for North Carolina's 9th congressional district is counted as vacant due to the voided 2018 election. It was previously held by a Republican.
  2. ^ On July 4, 2019, Rep. Justin Amash declared he would leave the Republican Party and continue to serve as an independent.


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