2019 in science

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
List of years in science (table)

A number of significant scientific events have occurred or are scheduled to occur in 2019.

Events[edit]

January[edit]

1 January: The New Horizons space probe flies by Ultima Thule, a remote Kuiper belt object (3D version).[1][2][3][4]
17 January: Australopithecus sediba found to be distinct from, but similar to, both the older Australopithecus africanus and the younger Homo habilis.[18]
23 January: Five identical cloned gene-edited monkeys (similar to the one pictured above) created, in order to study several medical diseases.[32][33][34]
  • 24 January
    • NASA announces that the Opportunity rover has been on the planet Mars for 15 years.[36][37]
    • NASA scientists report the discovery of the oldest known Earth rock – on the Moon. Apollo 14 astronauts returned several rocks from the Moon and later, scientists determined that a fragment from one of the rocks contained "a bit of Earth from about 4 billion years ago." The rock fragment contained quartz, feldspar, and zircon, all common on the Earth, but highly uncommon on the Moon.[38]
    • The complete axolotl genome is reported to have been sequenced by the University of Kentucky.[39][40]
  • 25 January – AlphaStar, a new artificial intelligence algorithim by Alphabet's DeepMind subsidiary, defeats professional players of the real-time strategy game StarCraft II in ten rounds out of eleven.[41][42][43]
  • 29 January – Researchers at Purdue University's College of Engineering release a paper in the journal ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering detailing a new process to turn plastic waste in hydrocarbonic fuels.[44][45][46]
  • 30 January – Scientists report that several types of humans, including Denisovans, Neanderthals and related hybrids, may have habitated the Denisova Cave in Siberia over thousands of years, but it is unclear whether they ever shared the cave.[47]
  • 31 January
    • Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, demonstrate a new form of 3D printer, which uses light exposure to transform a viscous liquid into complex solid objects.[48]
    • A new AI developed by RMIT University in Melbourne and trained to play the 1980s video game Montezuma’s Revenge is reported to be 10 times faster than Google DeepMind and able to finish the game.[49]

February[edit]

3 February: Medical scientists announce that iridium (image above) attached to albumin produces a photosensitized molecule able to penetrate and, via photodynamic therapy, destroy cancer cells.[50][51]
13 February: Mars Opportunity rover mission ends; last image (see above) of 228,771 total over nearly 15 years.[63][64]
21 February: Report of Hachimoji DNA, an 8-base DNA, that has a similar structure (above) as the 4-base natural DNA.[75][76]

March[edit]

  • 3 March – An unmanned demonstration flight of the new crew capable version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, intended to carry American astronauts into space, achieves successful autonomous docking with the International Space Station.[89] It returned to Earth a few days later.[90]
11 March: Scientists report that cell nuclei from woolly mammoth remains showed biological activity when transplanted into mouse cells.[91]
  • 4 March – Scientists report that asteroids may be much more difficult to destroy than thought earlier.[92][93] In addition, an asteroid may reassemble itself due to gravity after being disrupted.[94]
  • 5 March
  • 7 March – Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) demonstrate a new optical imaging system that could enable the discovery of tiny tumours, as small as 200 cells, deep within the body.[100]
  • 8 March – Astronomers report that the mass of the Milky Way galaxy is 1.5 trillion solar masses within a radius of about 129,000 light-years, over twice as much as was determined in earlier studies, and suggesting that about 90% of the mass of the galaxy is dark matter.[101][102]
  • 11 March – A team of Japanese and Russian scientists report that cell nuclei from woolly mammoth remains showed biological activity when transplanted into mouse cells.[91]
  • 13 March – The laser of ELI-NP in Măgurele, part of the European ELI Project, becomes the most powerful laser system ever made, reaching a peak power of 10 Petawatt.[103]
  • 15 March – NASA reports that latent viruses in humans may be activated during space missions, adding possibly more risk to astronauts in future deep-space missions.[104]
20 March: First fossil bird, named Avimaia schweitzerae, found with an unlaid egg,[105][106]

April[edit]

10 April: Astronomers release the first-ever image of a black hole (M87 galaxy).[126][127][128][129]
30 April: Scientists confirm the detection of buckminsterfullerene (C60) (also known as "buckyballs") in the interstellar medium spaces between the stars.[141][142]

May[edit]

6 May: The IPBES warns that extinction of the natural living world is accelerating, largely a result of human activity - passenger pigeons are now extinct.[159][160][161]
15 May: Creation of a new synthetic form of viable life, a variant of the bacteria Escherichia coli, reported by reserchers.[175][176]

Predicted and scheduled events[edit]

May[edit]

July[edit]

October[edit]

  • The CHEOPS space telescope, whose mission is to study the formation of extra-solar planets, is expected to launch in October or November.[184]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Awards[edit]

Deaths[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Corum, Jonathan (10 February 2019). "New Horizons Glimpses the Flattened Shape of Ultima Thule - NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew past the most distant object ever visited: a tiny fragment of the early solar system known as 2014 MU69 and nicknamed Ultima Thule. - Interactive". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  2. ^ a b Chang, Kenneth (31 December 2018). "New Horizons Spacecraft Completes Flyby of Ultima Thule, the Most Distant Object Ever Visited". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  3. ^ a b Chang, Kenneth (31 December 2018). "NASA's New Horizons Will Visit Ultima Thule on New Year's Day". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b Chang, Kenneth (18 March 2019). "How Ultima Thule Is Like a Sticky, Pull-Apart Pastry - Scientists from the New Horizons mission presented their latest findings about the small distant object visited by the NASA spacecraft at the start of the year". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  5. ^ "Melting ice sheets release tons of methane into the atmosphere, study finds". University of Bristol. 2 January 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  6. ^ "China Moon mission lands Chang'e-4 spacecraft on far side". BBC News. 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Scientists engineer shortcut for photosynthetic glitch, boost crop growth 40%". Science Daily. 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Genetically modified 'shortcut' boosts plant growth by 40%". BBC News. 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  9. ^ "Excitons pave the way to more efficient electronics". EPFL. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  10. ^ "Engineers create an inhalable form of messenger RNA". MIT News. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  11. ^ "Scientists inch closer to fusion energy with discovery of a process that stabilizes plasmas". Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  12. ^ "IBM Unveils World's First Integrated Quantum Computing System for Commercial Use". IBM. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  13. ^ "IBM unveils its first commercial quantum computer". Tech Crunch. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  14. ^ The CHIME/FRB Collaboration (9 January 2019). "A second source of repeating fast radio bursts". Nature. 566 (7743): 235–238. arXiv:1901.04525. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0864-x. PMID 30653190.
  15. ^ Overbye, Dennis (10 January 2019). "Broadcasting from Deep Space, a Mysterious Series of Radio Signals". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  16. ^ "Lexar Announces 1TB 633x SDXC™ UHS-I card, the behemoth of storage capacity". Lexar. 9 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  17. ^ "Thousands of stars turning into crystals". Science Daily. 9 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  18. ^ a b Dartmouth College (17 January 2019). "Understanding our early human ancestors: Australopithecus sediba". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  19. ^ Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) (10 January 2019). "Unusual supernova opens a rare window on the collapse of a star". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  20. ^ Torbet, Georgina (13 January 2019). "Scientists debate mysterious flash of light in space, known as 'The Cow'". Digital Trends. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  21. ^ Koren, Marina (13 January 2019). "Astronomers Glimpse a Luminous Object Born From a Star's Death - It was unusually bright and evolving fast". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  22. ^ "3D printing 100 times faster with light". Science Daily. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  23. ^ "Antarctica losing six times more ice mass annually now than 40 years ago". Science Daily. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  24. ^ "Ocean giant gets a health check: Combination blood, tissue test reveals whale shark diets". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  25. ^ McCartney, Gretchen; Wendel, JoAnna (17 January 2019). "Scientists Finally Know What Time It Is on Saturn". NASA. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  26. ^ Mankovich, Christopher; et al. (17 January 2019). "Cassini Ring Seismology as a Probe of Saturn's Interior. I. Rigid Rotation". The Astrophysical Journal. 871 (1): 1. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaf798.
  27. ^ "Greenland ice melting four times faster than in 2003". Science Daily. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  28. ^ "Growing our team and business in Michigan". Medium - Waymo blog. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  29. ^ "Waymo plans to open the world's first self-driving-car factory this year". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  30. ^ "Waymo Adding A Michigan Factory And 'Hundreds' Of Jobs To Build Self-Driving Vehicles". Forbes. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  31. ^ "Google self-driving spinoff Waymo to put factory in Michigan". CBC. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  32. ^ a b Science China Press (23 January 2019). "Gene-edited disease monkeys cloned in China". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  33. ^ a b Mandelbaum, Ryan F. (23 January 2019). "China's Latest Cloned-Monkey Experiment Is an Ethical Mess". Gizmodo. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  34. ^ a b McRae, Mike (24 January 2019). "Chinese Scientists Have Cloned a Genetically Altered Primate For The First Time". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  35. ^ Queen Mary University of London (23 January 2019). "Astronomers find star material could be building block of life". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  36. ^ Agle, DC (24 January 2019). "NASA's Opportunity Rover Logs 15 Years on Mars". NASA. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  37. ^ Chang, Kenneth (25 January 2019). "'This Could Be the End' for NASA's Mars Opportunity Rover - The agency has received only silence from the intrepid explorer since contact was lost during a global dust storm on the red planet last June". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  38. ^ Universities Space Research Association (USRA) (24 January 2019). "Earth's Oldest Rock Found on the Moon". NASA. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  39. ^ "Sci-fi to reality: Superpowered salamander may hold the key to human regeneration". EurekAlert!. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  40. ^ "Complete Axolotl Genome Could Pave the Way Toward Human Tissue Regeneration". Gizmodo. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  41. ^ "AlphaStar: Mastering the Real-Time Strategy Game StarCraft II". Alphabet DeepMind. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  42. ^ "DeepMind's new AI just beat top human pro-gamers at Starcraft II for the first time". MIT Technology Review. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  43. ^ "DEEPMIND BEATS PROS AT STARCRAFT IN ANOTHER TRIUMPH FOR BOTS". Wired. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  44. ^ "Chemical Engineering research to turn plastic waste into clean fuels". Purdue University. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  45. ^ Wan-Ting Chen; Kai Jin; Nien-Hwa Linda Wang (January 10, 2019). "Use of Supercritical Water for the Liquefaction of Polypropylene into Oil". ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b03841. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  46. ^ "Groundbreaking new technique can turn plastic waste into energy-dense fuel". Digital Trends. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  47. ^ Zimmer, Carl (30 January 2019). "High Ceilings and a Lovely View: Denisova Cave Was Home to a Lost Branch of Humanity - The mysterious Denisovans may have occupied a cave in what is now Siberia for more than 250,000 years". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  48. ^ "New 3D printer shapes objects with rays of light". EurekAlert!. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  49. ^ "Atari master: New AI smashes Google DeepMind in video game challenge". RMIT University. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  50. ^ a b University of Warwick (3 February 2019). "Simply shining light on dinosaur metal compound kills cancer cells". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  51. ^ a b Zhang, Pingyu; et al. (15 December 2018). "Nucleus‐Targeted Organoiridium–Albumin Conjugate for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy". Angewandte Chemie. doi:10.1002/ani.201813002 (inactive 2019-02-14). Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  52. ^ Chang, Kenneth (31 January 2019). "How NASA's Curiosity Rover Weighed a Mountain on Mars - With a bit of technical improvisation, scientists worked out that the bedrock of Mount Sharp appeared to be less dense than had been expected". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  53. ^ Lewis, Kevin W. (1 February 2019). "A surface gravity traverse on Mars indicates low bedrock density at Gale crater". Science. 363 (6426): 535–537. doi:10.1126/science.aat0738.
  54. ^ "A third of Himalayan ice cap doomed, finds 'shocking' report". The Guardian. 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  55. ^ Wester, Philippus; Mishra, Arabinda; Mukherji, Aditi; Shrestha, Arun Bhakta (4 February 2019). The Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-92288-1. ISBN 978-3-319-92287-4.
  56. ^ Good, Andrew; Wendel, JoAnna (5 February 2019). "Beyond Mars, the Mini MarCO Spacecraft Fall Silent". NASA. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  57. ^ "2018 fourth warmest year in continued warming trend, according to NASA, NOAA". NASA. 6 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  58. ^ "Massive collision in the planetary system Kepler 107". EurekAlert!. 6 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  59. ^ Marchione, Marilyn (7 February 2019). "Tests suggest scientists achieved 1st 'in body' gene editing". AP News. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  60. ^ Staff (2 February 2019). "Ascending Dose Study of Genome Editing by the Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) Therapeutic SB-913 in Subjects With MPS II". ClinicalTrials.gov. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  61. ^ Amos, Jonathan (7 February 2019). "Rosalind Franklin: Mars rover named after DNA pioneer". BBC News. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  62. ^ New York University (7 February 2019). "Scientists discover new type of magnet". Phys.org. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  63. ^ a b Agle, DC; Brown, Dwayne; Wendel, JoAnna (13 February 2019). "NASA's Opportunity Rover Mission on Mars Comes to End". NASA. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  64. ^ a b Margolis, Jacob (16 February 2019). "How A Tweet About The Mars Rover Dying Blew Up On The Internet And Made People Cry". LAist. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  65. ^ Berger, Eric (8 February 2019). "New images of the distant Ultima Thule object have surprised scientists - "The new images are creating scientific puzzles."". Ars Technica. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  66. ^ Mondal, Mayukh; Bertranpedt, Jaume; Leo, Oscar (16 January 2019). "Approximate Bayesian computation with deep learning supports a third archaic introgression in Asia and Oceania". Nature Communications. 10 (246). doi:10.1038/s41467-018-08089-7. PMID 30651539.
  67. ^ Dockrill, Peter (11 February 2019). "Artificial Intelligence Has Found an Unknown 'Ghost' Ancestor in The Human Genome". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  68. ^ "Gene therapy first to 'halt' most common cause of blindness". BBC News. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  69. ^ "GENE THERAPY DURABLY REVERSES CONGENITAL DEAFNESS IN MICE". Pasteur Institute. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  70. ^ "Cultured lab meat may make climate change worse". BBC News. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  71. ^ "Climate-friendly labriculture depends on an energy revolution". Science Daily. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  72. ^ Jaouen, Klervia; et al. (19 February 2019). "Exceptionally high δ15N values in collagen single amino acids confirm Neandertals as high-trophic level carnivores". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. doi:10.1073/pnas.1814087116. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  73. ^ Yika, Bob (19 February 2019). "Isotopes found in bones suggest Neanderthals were fresh meat eaters". Phys.org. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  74. ^ Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (19 February 2019). "Neanderthals' main food source was definitely meat - Isotope analyses performed on single amino acids in Neanderthals' collagen samples shed new light on their debated diet". Science Daily. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  75. ^ a b Hoshika, Shuichi; et al. (22 February 2019). "Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks (paywall)". Science. 363 (6429): 884–887. doi:10.1126/science.aat0971. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  76. ^ a b Zimmer, Carl (21 February 2019). "DNA Gets a New — and Bigger — Genetic Alphabet - DNA is spelled out with four letters, or bases. Researchers have now built a system with eight. It may hold clues to the potential for life elsewhere in the universe and could also expand our capacity to store digital data on Earth". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  77. ^ Belluz, Julia (4 March 2019). "CRISPR babies: the Chinese government may have known more than it let on - The latest developments in the gene-editing saga raise more questions than answers". Vox. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  78. ^ Regalado, Antonio (21 February 2019). "China's CRISPR twins might have had their brains inadvertently enhanced - New research suggests that a controversial gene-editing experiment to make children resistant to HIV may also have enhanced their ability to learn and form memories". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  79. ^ "Israel's Beresheet Moon mission gets under way". BBC News. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  80. ^ "Israeli company sends world's first privately funded mission to moon". The Guardian. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  81. ^ "Newfound 'FarFarOut' Is Most Distant Solar System Body Ever Seen". Space.com. 27 February 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  82. ^ Haeusler, Martin; et al. (25 February 2019). "Morphology, pathology, and the vertebral posture of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. doi:10.1073/pnas.1820745116. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  83. ^ Cassella, Carly (1 March 2019). "We Have Been Wrong About a Key Feature of Neanderthals' Appearance". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  84. ^ "Micron Unveils World's First 1TB microSD Card to Meet Consumer Demand for Mobile Storage". GlobalNewswire. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  85. ^ "Climate rewind: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into coal". Science Daily. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  86. ^ ESA Staff (28 February 2019). "First Evidence of "Planet-Wide Groundwater System" on Mars Found". European Space Agency. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  87. ^ Houser, Kristin (28 February 2019). "First Evidence of "Planet-Wide Groundwater System" on Mars Found". Futurism.com. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  88. ^ "Nanotechnology makes it possible for mice to see in infrared". Science Daily. 28 February 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  89. ^ "SpaceX Dragon capsule docks with space station". BBC News. 3 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  90. ^ "SpaceX's Crew Dragon Capsule Splashes Down After Return Trip to Earth". New York Times. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  91. ^ a b "Japan team edges closer to bringing mammoths back to life". Nikkei Asian Review. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  92. ^ Johns Hopkins University (4 March 2019). "Asteroids are stronger, harder to destroy than previously thought". Phys.org. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  93. ^ El Mir, Charles; Ramesh, KT; Richardson, Derek C. (15 March 2019). "A new hybrid framework for simulating hypervelocity asteroid impacts and gravitational reaccumulation". Icarus. 321: 1013–1025. doi:10.1016/Icarus.2018.12.032. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  94. ^ Andrews, Robin George (8 March 2019). "If We Blow Up an Asteroid, It Might Put Itself Back Together - Despite what Hollywood tells us, stopping an asteroid from creating an extinction-level event by blowing it up may not work". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  95. ^ "HIV remission achieved in second patient". Science Daily. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  96. ^ "UK patient 'free' of HIV after stem cell treatment". BBC News. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  97. ^ Rappaport, S.; et al. (22 February 2019). "Deep Long Asymmetric Occultation in EPIC 204376071". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz537. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  98. ^ Starr, Michelle (6 March 2019). "Astronomers Have Discovered Another Mysterious Dimming Star, And It's Even More Epic". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  99. ^ Nowakowski, Tomasz (5 March 2019). "Astronomers detect deep, long asymmetric occultation in a newly found low-mass star". Phys.org. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  100. ^ "New optical imaging system could be deployed to find tiny tumors". Science Daily. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  101. ^ Starr, Michelle (8 March 2019). "The Latest Calculation of Milky Way's Mass Just Changed What We Know About Our Galaxy". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  102. ^ Watkins, Laura L.; et al. (2 February 2019). "Evidence for an Intermediate-Mass Milky Way from Gaia DR2 Halo Globular Cluster Motions". arXiv:1804.11348 [astro-ph.GA].
  103. ^ "Magurele Laser officially becomes the most powerful laser in the world". Business Review (in Romanian). 2019-03-13. Retrieved 2019-03-13.
  104. ^ Staff (15 March 2019). "Dormant viruses activate during spaceflight -- NASA investigates - The stress of spaceflight gives viruses a holiday from immune surveillance, putting future deep-space missions in jeopardy". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  105. ^ a b Bailleul, Alida M.; et al. (20 March 2019). "An Early Cretaceous enantiornithine (Aves) preserving an unlaid egg and probable medullary bone". Nature Communications. 10 (1275). doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09259-x. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  106. ^ a b Greshko, Michael (20 March 2019). "In a first, fossil bird found with unlaid egg - "I couldn't even sleep at night," the lead paleontologist says of her reaction to the discovery". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  107. ^ Grossman, David. "A Meteor Hit Earth With the Force of a Nuclear Bomb and We Hardly Even Noticed". Popular mechanics. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  108. ^ University of Huddersfield (20 March 2019). "Researchers shed new light on the origins of modern humans - The work, published in Nature, confirms a dispersal of Homo sapiens from southern to eastern Africa immediately preceded the out-of-Africa migration". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  109. ^ Rito, Teresa; et al. (18 March 2019). "A dispersal of Homo sapiens from southern to eastern Africa immediately preceded the out-of-Africa migration". Scientific Reports. 9 (4728). doi:10.1038/s41598-019-41176-3. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  110. ^ Bejan, Adrian (18 March 2019). "Why the Days Seem Shorter as We Get Older". Academia Europaea. doi:10.1017/S1062798718000741. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  111. ^ Duke University (21 March 2019). "It's spring already? Physics explains why time flies as we age - A slowdown in image processing speeds up our perception of time passing as we age". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  112. ^ Livni, Ephrat (21 March 2019). "Physics explains why time passes faster as you age". Quartz. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  113. ^ "Karen Uhlenbeck first woman to win the Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  114. ^ Chang, Kenneth (19 March 2019). "Karen Uhlenbeck Is First Woman to Receive Abel Prize in Mathematics - Dr. Uhlenbeck helped pioneer geometric analysis, developing techniques now commonly used by many mathematicians". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  115. ^ University of California at Riverside (19 March 2019). "Carbon monoxide detectors could warn of extraterrestrial life - For some distant worlds, carbon monoxide may actually be compatible with a robust microbial biosphere". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  116. ^ Starr, Michelle (27 March 2019). "Strange Earth Organisms Have Somehow Survived Living Outside The ISS". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  117. ^ de Vera, Jean-Pierre; et al. (11 February 2019). "Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS". Astrobiology. 19 (2). doi:10.1089/ast.2018.1897. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  118. ^ European Southern Observatory (27 March 2019). "GRAVITY instrument breaks new ground in exoplanet imaging - Cutting-edge VLTI instrument reveals details of a storm-wracked exoplanet using optical interferometry". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  119. ^ De Gruyter (4 April 2019). "Life on Mars? - A Martian meteorite discovered 40 years ago delivers fresh evidence that life once existed on Mars". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  120. ^ Gyollai, Ildikó; et al. (29 March 2019). "Mineralized biosignatures in ALH-77005 Shergottite - Clues to Martian Life?". De Gruyter. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  121. ^ Abotalib, Abotalib Z.; Heggy, Essam (28 March 2019). "A deep groundwater origin for recurring slope lineae on Mars". Nature Geoscience. 12: 235–241. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  122. ^ University of Southern California (28 March 2019). "New evidence of deep groundwater on Mars - Researchers suggests that deep groundwater can generate surface streams on Mars". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  123. ^ Pew Research Center. "What Americans know about science - Americans with more formal education fare better on science-related questions, while Republicans and Democrats are roughly similar in their overall levels of science knowledge". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  124. ^ "66-million-year-old deathbed linked to dinosaur-killing meteor". EurekAlert!. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  125. ^ "A seismically induced onshore surge deposit at the KPg boundary, North Dakota". PNAS. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  126. ^ a b "Astronomers capture first image of a black hole". EurekAlert!. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  127. ^ a b Overbye, Dennis (10 April 2019). "Black Hole Picture Revealed for the First Time - Astronomers at last have captured an image of the darkest entities in the cosmos - Comments". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  128. ^ a b The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration (10 April 2019). "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 87 (1). Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  129. ^ a b Landau, Elizabeth (10 April 2019). "Black Hole Image Makes History". NASA. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  130. ^ Giuranna, Marco; et al. (1 April 2019). "Independent confirmation of a methane spike on Mars and a source region east of Gale Crater". Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0331-9. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  131. ^ Galey, Patrick (1 April 2019). "Scientists find likely source of methane on Mars". Phys.org. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  132. ^ Chang, Kenneth (1 April 2019). "Something on Mars Is Producing Gas Usually Made by Living Things on Earth - Mars emits methane, a European orbiter has confirmed. But scientists can't say yet whether the source is geological or biological". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  133. ^ ETH Zurich (1 April 2019). "First bacterial genome created entirely with a computer". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  134. ^ Venetz, Jonathan E.; et al. (1 April 2019). "Chemical synthesis rewriting of a bacterial genome to achieve design flexibility and biological functionality". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. doi:10.1073/pnas.1818259116. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  135. ^ Good, Andrew; Greiciua, Tony (4 April 2019). "Curiosity Captured Two Solar Eclipses on Mars". NASA. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  136. ^ Dvorsky, George (5 April 2019). "Curiosity Rover Spots a Pair of Solar Eclipses on Mars". Gizmodo. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  137. ^ BioMed Central (7 April 2019). "NASA researchers catalogue all microbes and fungi on the International Space Station". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  138. ^ Sielaff, Aleksandra Checinska; et al. (8 April 2019). "Characterization of the total and viable bacterial and fungal communities associated with the International Space Station surfaces". Microbiome. 7 (50). doi:10.1186/s40168-019-0666-x. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  139. ^ Good, Andrew (11 April 2019). "Curiosity Tastes First Sample in 'Clay-Bearing Unit'". NASA. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  140. ^ "Beresheet spacecraft: 'Technical glitch' led to Moon crash". BBC News. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  141. ^ a b Starr, Michelle (29 April 2019). "The Hubble Space Telescope Has Just Found Solid Evidence of Interstellar Buckyballs". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  142. ^ a b Cordiner, M.A.; et al. (22 April 2019). "Confirming Interstellar C60 + Using the Hubble Space Telescope". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 875 (2). Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  143. ^ Zimmer, Carl (12 April 2019). "Scott Kelly Spent a Year in Orbit. His Body Is Not Quite the Same - NASA scientists compared the astronaut to his earthbound twin, Mark. The results hint at what humans will have to endure on long journeys through space". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  144. ^ Garrett-Bakeman, Francine E.; et al. (12 April 2019). "The NASA Twins Study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight". Science. 364 (6436). doi:10.1126/science.aau8650. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  145. ^ Fingas, Jon (16 April 2019). "CRISPR gene editing has been used on humans in the US - It's part of a trial that could rethink medicine". Engadget. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  146. ^ Staff (17 April 2019). "CRISPR has been used to treat US cancer patients for the first time". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  147. ^ Fisher, Christine (17 April 2019). "NASA finally found evidence of the universe's earliest molecule - The elusive helium hydride was found 3,000 light-years away". Engadget. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  148. ^ Güsten, Rolf; et al. (17 April 2019). "Astrophysical detection of the helium hydride ion HeH+". Nature. 568: 357–359. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1090-x. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  149. ^ Brown, Dwayne; Johnson, Alana; Good, Andrew (23 April 2019). "NASA's InSight Detects First Likely 'Quake' on Mars". NASA. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  150. ^ Bartels, Meghan (23 April 2019). "Marsquake! NASA's InSight Lander Feels Its 1st Red Planet Tremor". Space.com. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  151. ^ "Dark Matter Hunters Observe 'Rarest Event Ever Recorded'". Newsweek. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  152. ^ "Dark matter detector observes rarest event ever recorded". EurekAlert!. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  153. ^ NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (25 April 2019). "Mystery of the universe's expansion rate widens with new Hubble data". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  154. ^ Wall, Mike (25 April 2019). "The Universe Is Expanding So Fast We Might Need New Physics to Explain It". Space.com. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  155. ^ Mandelbaum, Ryan F. (25 April 2019). "Hubble Measurements Confirm There's Something Weird About How the Universe Is Expanding". Gizmodo. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  156. ^ Riess, Adam G.; et al. (28 March 2019). "Large Magellanic Cloud Cepheid Standards Provide a 1% Foundation for the Determination of the Hubble Constant and Stronger Evidence for Physics Beyond ΛCDM" (PDF). arXiv. arXiv:1903.07603v2. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  157. ^ Pietrzyński, G; et al. (13 March 2019). "A distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud that is precise to one per cent". Nature. 567: 200–203. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-0999-4. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  158. ^ Tokyo University of Science (30 April 2019). "New giant virus may help scientists better understand the emergence of complex life - Large DNA virus that helps scientists understand the origins of DNA replication and the evolution of complex life". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  159. ^ a b Plumer, Brad (6 May 2019). "Humans Are Speeding Extinction and Altering the Natural World at an 'Unprecedented' Pace". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  160. ^ a b Staff (6 May 2019). "Media Release: Nature's Dangerous Decline 'Unprecedented'; Species Extinction Rates 'Accelerating'". Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  161. ^ a b The Editorial Board (11 May 2019). "Life as We Know It - Plant and animal species are disappearing faster than at any time in recorded history. We know who is to blame". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  162. ^ "Removal of gene prevents development of pancreatic cancer in mice". EurekAlert!. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  163. ^ NASA (May 2, 2019). "Hubble astronomers assemble wide view of the evolving universe". EurekAlert!. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  164. ^ "End to Aids in sight as huge study finds drugs stop HIV transmission". The Guardian. 2 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  165. ^ "Gay HIV transmission with treatment is 'zero risk', study confirms". BBC News. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  166. ^ "UK generates usable electricity from americium". World Nuclear News. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  167. ^ "UK scientists generate electricity from rare element to power future space missions". National Nuclear Laboratory. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  168. ^ "Radical Desalination Approach May Disrupt the Water Industry". Columbia University. 6 May 2019. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  169. ^ "Teenager recovers from near death in world-first GM virus treatment". The Guardian. 8 May 2019. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  170. ^ "Phage therapy: 'Viral cocktail saved my daughter's life'". BBC News. 8 May 2019. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  171. ^ "415 ppm CO2 threshold crossed May 2019". Foster Lab. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  172. ^ "It's Official: Atmospheric CO2 Just Exceeded 415 ppm For The First Time in Human History". Science Alert. 13 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  173. ^ Greenberg, Andy (14 May 2019). "Meltdown Redux: Intel Flaw Lets Hackers Siphon Secrets from Millions of PCs". WIRED. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  174. ^ "It's not just fish, plastic pollution harms the bacteria that help us breathe". EurekAlert!. 14 May 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  175. ^ a b Zimmer, Carl (15 May 2019). "Scientists Created Bacteria With a Synthetic Genome. Is This Artificial Life? - In a milestone for synthetic biology, colonies of E. coli thrive with DNA constructed from scratch by humans, not nature". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  176. ^ a b Fredens, Julius; et al. (15 May 2019). "Total synthesis of Escherichia coli with a recoded genome". Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1192-5. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  177. ^ "Potential disease-modifying drug for osteoarthritis identified". University of Nebraska Medical Center. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  178. ^ Timmer, John (16 May 2019). "First results from New Horizons' time in the Kuiper Belt - Only about 10 percent of the data has been transmitted so far, but it says a lot". Ars Technica. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  179. ^ Stern, S. A.; et al. (17 May 2019). "Initial results from the New Horizons exploration of 2014 MU69, a small Kuiper Belt object". Science. 364 (64421). doi:10.1126/science.aaw9771. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  180. ^ "Nearly a quarter of West Antarctic ice is now unstable". University of Leeds. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  181. ^ "Antarctica's Ice Is Melting 5 Times Faster Than in the 90s". Desmog. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  182. ^ "Growth in life expectancy in Australia slows, research finds". University of Melbourne. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  183. ^ "Slower increase in life expectancy in Australia than in other high income countries: the contributions of age and cause of death". Medical Journal of Australia. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  184. ^ "Exoplanet mission launch slot announced". 23 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  185. ^ "First SpaceX mission with astronauts set for June 2019: NASA". phys.org. 5 October 2018.
  186. ^ "Simon Norton, mathematical prodigy who became the subject of the biography 'The Genius in my Basement' – obituary". The Daily Telegraph. London. 2019-02-15.
  187. ^ "Legendary scientist who predicted climate change effects dead at 87". Mashable. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2019-02-20.

External links[edit]