COVID-19 lockdown in China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from 2020 Hubei lockdowns)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2020 coronavirus lockdown in Hubei
Part of the COVID-19 pandemic
Policemen wearing masks patrolling Wuhan Tianhe Airport during Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.jpg
A nurse measuring the body temperature for outpatients in Hubei TCM Hospital.jpg
Citizens of Wuhan lining up outside of a drug store to buy masks during the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.jpg
Staff monitoring passengers' body temperature in Wuhan railway station during the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.jpg
Passengers lining up in Wuhan railway station for their body temperature to be checked during the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.jpg
Blocked Prefectures and Municipalities in mainland China due to COVID-19.png
Top: Montage of various scenes in Wuhan during the outbreak
Bottom Map Legend:
  •   Areas that have been or are being blocked due to the outbreak
      Areas not yet blocked but with more cases
Date23 January – 8 April 2020 (2 months, 2 weeks and 2 days; most of Hubei ended on 25 March 2020; Wuhan lockdown ended on 8 April 2020)
Caused byCOVID-19 pandemic
GoalsQuarantine the region of the coronavirus outbreak
MethodsSuspension of all public transport, and control of movement in and out of the city
Resulted inAbout 13 million quarantined in Wuhan;
over 57 million in fifteen other cities[1]
COVID-19 lockdown in China is located in China
COVID-19 lockdown in China
Wuhan in Hubei province, China
People in Wuhan rush to buy vegetables.

On 23 January 2020, the central government of China imposed a lockdown in Wuhan and other cities in Hubei in an effort to quarantine the center of an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); this action is commonly referred to as the Wuhan lockdown (Chinese: 武汉封城; pinyin: Wǔhàn fēng chéng). The World Health Organization (WHO), although stating that it was beyond its own guidelines, commended the move, calling it "unprecedented in public health history".[2]

The lockdown in Wuhan set the precedent for similar measures in other Chinese cities. Within hours of the Wuhan lockdown, travel restrictions were also imposed on the nearby cities of Huanggang and Ezhou, and were eventually imposed on all 15 other cities in Hubei, affecting a total of about 57 million people.[3][4] On 2 February 2020, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, implemented a seven-day lockdown in which only one person per household was allowed to exit once each two days, and most of the highway exits were closed.[5] On 13 March 2020, Huangshi[6] and Qianjiang[7] became the first Hubei cities to remove strict travel restrictions within part or all of their administrative confines. On 8 April 2020, the Wuhan lockdown officially ended.[8]

Some Western observers, such as Amnesty International, were initially skeptical of the lockdown;[9][10] however, as the COVID-19 pandemic worsened, similar measures were enacted around the globe.


Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province in China. With a population of over 11 million, it is the largest city in Hubei, the most populous city in Central China, the seventh-most populous Chinese city, and one of the nine National Central Cities of China. Wuhan lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain, on the confluence of the Yangtze River and its largest tributary, the Han River. It is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major cities. Because of its key role in domestic transport, Wuhan is known as the "Nine Provinces' Thoroughfare" (九省通衢)[11] and sometimes referred to as "the Chicago of China".[12][13][14]



The last train on the Wuhan Metro before the lockdown
Map of locked down administrative divisions of Hubei

In mid-December 2019 the Chinese Government acknowledged an emerging cluster of people, many linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, were infected with pneumonia with no clear causes. Chinese scientists subsequently linked the pneumonia to a new strain of coronavirus that was given the initial designation 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Some of the first symptoms appeared on December 10, and 24 cases were later discovered to have connection to the seafood market.[15]

On 10 January 2020, the first death and 41 clinically confirmed infections caused by the coronavirus were reported.[16]

By 22 January, the novel coronavirus had spread to major cities and provinces in China, with 571 confirmed cases and 17 deaths reported. Confirmed cases were also reported in other regions and countries, including Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, and the United States.

According to Li Lanjuan, a professor at Zhejiang University's school of medicine and member of the high-level expert team convened by the National Health Commission, she had urged a lockdown on Wuhan on several occasions between 19 January and 22 January 2020 as a last resort to contain the epidemic.[17]

At 2 am on 23 January, authorities issued a notice informing residents of Wuhan that from 10 am, all public transport, including buses, railways, flights, and ferry services would be suspended. The Wuhan Airport, the Wuhan railway station, and the Wuhan Metro were all closed. The residents of Wuhan were also not allowed to leave the city without permission from the authorities.[18][19] The notice caused an exodus from Wuhan. An estimated 300,000 people were reported to have left Wuhan by train alone before the 10 am lockdown.[20] By the afternoon of 23 January, the authorities began shutting down some of the major highways leaving Wuhan.[21] The lockdown came two days before the Chinese New Year, the most important festival in the country, and traditionally the peak traveling season, when millions of Chinese travel across the country.[18][21]

Following the lockdown of Wuhan, public transportation systems in two of Wuhan's neighboring prefecture-level cities, Huanggang and Ezhou, were also placed on lockdown.[18] A total of 12 other county to prefecture-level cities in Hubei, including Huangshi, Jingzhou, Yichang, Xiaogan, Jingmen, Suizhou, Xianning, Qianjiang, Xiantao, Shiyan, Tianmen and Enshi, were placed on traveling restrictions by the end of 24 January, bringing the number of people affected by the restriction to more than 50 million.[1]

Lockdown timeline[edit]

  • 23 January, transport in Wuhan, Huanggang and Ezhou severely restricted, including closure of public transit, trains, airports, and major highways
  • 24 January, travel restrictions enacted in 12 additional prefecture-level cities in Hubei
  • 13 February, the Chinese government has issued extension of order to shut down all non-essential companies, including manufacturing plants, in Hubei Province until at least 24:00 20 February.[22]
  • 20 February, the Chinese government has issued extension of order to shut down all non-essential companies, including manufacturing plants, and all schools in Hubei Province until at least 24:00 10 March.[23]
  • 13 March: Huangshi removes controls and permits on road traffic within its urban area;[6] Qianjiang does the same for its entire administrative area.[7]
  • 14 March: Hubei Sanitation and Health Committee (卫生健康委员会) Vice-Chairperson Liu Dongru (柳东如) announces that only Wuhan remains a "high-risk area",[24] and that the entirety of the rest of the province is considered medium- or "low-risk areas". Any low-risk township-level divisions, in addition to those medium- and high-risk divisions with no confirmed active cases, could lift their blockades and other mobility controls.[25] Per China News Service reporting, by 14 March, besides the aforementioned Huangshi and Qianjiang, Yichang, Huanggang, Suizhou, Xiantao, Jingzhou, Jingmen, Shiyan, Xiangyang, Tianmen and Shennongjia had announced "measures to lessen controls" and for industries to incrementally resume work and production.[25]
  • 17 March: Jingzhou removes its permit requirements for transport, resuming normal transport operations, and also removes entry/exit controls on xiaoqu.[26]
  • 18 March: The Hubei taskforce to control COVID-19 (湖北省新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部) announces that, with the exception of exit/entry into Wuhan and the province as a whole, all anti-COVID-19 traffic checkpoints within the province are to be removed.[27]
  • 22 March: Wuhan loosens its two-month lockdown.[28]
  • 25 March: Hubei lifts the lockdown outside of Wuhan,[29] although people will still need to confirm their "Green Code" health classification, designated by Alipay's monitoring system,[29] to travel.[30]
  • 8 April: Wuhan lifts its lockdown, resumes all transportation,[31] with residents intending to leave the city facing similar "Green Code" requirements as those in the rest of the province.[30][32]
Place Province Start date End date City level Population Cases Deaths Recoveries Active
Border shutdown[33]
Wuhan Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-04-08[34][25][35] Sub-provincial 11,081,000 50,340 3,869 46,471 0
Xiaogan Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 4,920,000 3,518 129 3,389 0
Huanggang Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 6,330,000 2,907 125 2,782 0
Jingzhou Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-17[37] Prefectural 5,590,200 1,580 52 1,528 0
Ezhou Hubei 2020-01-23 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 1,077,700 1,394 59 1,335 0
Suizhou Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 2,216,700 1,307 45 1,262 0
Xiangyang Hubei 2020-01-28[38] 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 5,669,000 1,175 40 1,135 0
Huangshi Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-13[39] Prefectural 2,470,700 1,015 39 976 0
Yichang Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 4,135,850 931 37 894 0
Jingmen Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 2,896,500 928 41 887 0
Xianning Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 2,543,300 836 15 821 0
Shiyan Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 3,406,000 672 8 664 0
Xiantao Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Sub-prefectural 1,140,500 575 22 553 0
Tianmen Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Sub-prefectural 1,272,300 496 15 481 0
Enshi Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-25[36] Prefectural 3,378,000 252 7 245 0
Qianjiang Hubei 2020-01-24 2020-03-13[40] Sub-prefectural 966,000 198 9 189 0
Shennongjia Hubei 2020-01-27 2020-03-25[36] Sub-prefectural 78,912 11 0 11 0
Wenzhou Zhejiang 2020-02-02 2020-02-20[41] Prefectural 9,190,000 504 1 503 0
Ürümqi Xinjiang 2020-07-18 2020-08-26[42] Prefectural 3,519,600 845 0 845 0
Shijiazhuang Hebei 2021-01-07 2021-01-31[43] Prefectural 11,031,200 - - - -
Quarantine total 59,172,000 68,135 4,512 63,623 0
Outbreak ongoing: Infection and fatality data as of 24:00 (UTC+8) 4 June 2020.[44][45][46] Totals will evolve.

Elsewhere in China[edit]

Lockdowns by outdoor restrictions[edit]

On 1 February in Huanggang, Hubei implemented a measure whereby only one person from each household is permitted to go outside for provisions once every two days, except for medical reasons or to work at shops or pharmacies. Many cities, districts, and counties across mainland China implemented similar measures in the days following, including Wenzhou, Hangzhou, Fuzhou, Harbin, and the whole of Jiangxi.

Chinese administrative divisions with household-based outdoor restrictions
Start date End date Ordinary
Notes Sources
Huanggang Prefectural Hubei 2020-02-01 2020-03-22 6,162,069 2010 [47]
Wenzhou Prefectural Zhejiang 2020-02-02 2020-02-08 9,190,000 2017
Wenling Prefectural Zhejiang 2020-02-02 1,366,800 2010
Fangchenggang Prefectural Guangxi 2020-02-02 2020-02-08 860,100 2010
Guigang Prefectural Guangxi 2020-02-02 1,562,200
(Urban only)
2010 Urban districts only
Yuzhou, Yulin District Guangxi 2020-02-02 2020-02-09 900,000 2010
Zhouzhi, Xi'an County Shaanxi 2020-02-02 562,768 2010 One person per household every day
Huyi, Xi'an District Shaanxi 2020-02-03 2020-02-09 556,377 2010 One person per household every day
Bengbu Prefectural Anhui 2020-02-03 3,164,467 2010
Huaibei Prefectural Anhui 2020-02-03 2,114,276 2010
District Shandong 2020-02-03 2020-02-09 682,717 2010
Taizhou Prefectural Zhejiang 2020-02-03 5,968,838 2010
Hangzhou Prefectural Zhejiang 2020-02-04 9,806,000 2017
Ezhou Prefectural Hubei 2020-02-04 1,048,668 2010
Fuzhou Prefectural Fujian 2020-02-04 7,660,000 2017
Xuzhou Prefectural Jiangsu 2020-02-04 2020-02-08 8,577,225 2010
Jingdezhen Prefectural Jiangxi 2020-02-04 2020-03-31 1,655,000 2015 [48]
Harbin Prefectural Heilongjiang 2020-02-04 10,635,971 2010
District Henan 2020-02-04 721,723 2010 One person per household every five days
Xincheng, Xi'an District Shaanxi 2020-02-04 589,739 2010
Chang'an, Xi'an District Shaanxi 2020-02-04 1,083,285 2010
Yanta, Xi'an District Shaanxi 2020-02-05 1,178,529 2010
Lianhu, Xi'an District Shaanxi 2020-02-05 712,300 2015
Ningbo Prefectural Zhejiang 2020-02-05 8,202,000 2018
Hailing, Taizhou District Jiangsu 2020-02-05 594,656 2010
Hefei Prefectural Anhui 2020-02-05 7,965,300 2017
Fuyang Prefectural Anhui 2020-02-05 2020-02-08 7,599,913 2010
Benxi Prefectural Liaoning 2020-02-05 1,709,538 2017
Ngawa Autonomous
Sichuan 2020-02-05 930,100 2015
Garzê Autonomous
Sichuan 2020-02-05 1,164,900 2015
Liuzhou Prefectural Guangxi 2020-02-05 3,758,700 2010
Guilin Prefectural Guangxi 2020-02-05 4,961,600 2015
District Guangxi 2020-02-05 330,131 2010 One person per household every day
Jiangxi Province 2020-02-06 2020-03-31 45,200,000 2013 [48]
Xianyang Prefectural Shaanxi 2020-02-06 5,096,001 2010
Jinzhou Prefectural Liaoning 2020-02-06 3,070,000 2010
District Jilin 2020-02-06 680,631 2010
Tangshan Prefectural Hebei 2020-02-07 7,935,800 2018
Baodi, Tianjin District Tianjin 2020-02-09 799,057 2010
Hubei Province 2020-02-16 2020-03-13
59,020,000 2018
Suifenhe County Heilongjiang 2020-04-08 69,607 2018 One person per household every three days
All 233,511,355 Sum of census data and population estimates above
Closed management in Jintan District, Changzhou, Jiangsu, where citizens are allowed outside for purchasing once every two days with permit.
Some areas took road closure measures to avoid the spread of COVID-19. Pictured is a road closure notice on Tianhe Road, Yucheng Neibourhood, Yuhuan, Zhejiang.
A slogan for road closure in Lyushunkou District, Dalian, Liaoning.
Residents in Wuhan had to buy daily necessities and food across the fence gate due to their community lockdown.

Closed management of communities[edit]

Many areas across China have implemented what is called "closed management" (Chinese: 封闭式管理; pinyin: fēngbìshì guǎnlǐ) on a community-basis. In most of the areas where this came into effect, villages, communities, and units in most areas would only keep one entrance and exit point open, and each household is allowed limited numbers of entrances and exits. In some places, night-time access is prohibited, effectively a curfew, and in extreme cases, access is prohibited throughout the day.[49] People entering and leaving are required to wear masks and receive temperature tests. In some areas, vouchers are issued to the public, with vouchers and valid credentials. There are also areas where people are allowed to declare on WeChat mini-programs or public accounts and some apps at the same time.[50] Courier and food delivery personnel are usually prohibited from entering. Control in communities with confirmed cases is more stringent.

List by the time of official announcement:

Closed management of communities in Mainland China during the COVID-19 outbreak
Start Date Province-level
Population As of Year Sources and Notes
1/31 Chongqing City N/A Wanzhou District
N/A Liangping District
Ningxia Hui
Autonomous Region
Wuzhong City N/A
Yinchuan City N/A
2/2 Zhejiang Province Wenzhou City N/A [51][52][53][54][55]
2/3 Jiangsu Province Huai'an City N/A [56]
Wuxi City Jiangyin City [57]
2/4 Zhejiang Province Hangzhou City N/A [58][59]
Ningbo City N/A
Henan Province Zhengzhou City N/A
Zhumadian City N/A
Shandong Province Linyi City N/A
Heilongjiang Province Harbin City N/A
Jiangsu Province Nanjing City N/A [60]
Xuzhou City N/A until 24:00 on 8 February
Changzhou City N/A [61]
Nantong City N/A [62]
Zhenjiang City N/A [63]
Taizhou City Jiangyan District [64]
Fujian Province Fuzhou City N/A
Jiangxi Province Jingdezhen City N/A [65]
2/5 Hainan Province Haikou City N/A
Sanya City N/A [66]
Yunnan Province Kunming City N/A
Shandong Province Qingdao City N/A
Jinan City N/A
Tai'an City N/A
Rizhao City N/A
Jiangxi Province Nanchang City N/A
Anhui Province Hefei City N/A
Guangxi Zhuang
Autonomous Region
Nanning City N/A
Hebei Province Shijiazhuang City N/A
Jiangsu Province Yangzhou City N/A [67]
Taizhou City N/A [68]
Suqian City N/A [69]
Yancheng City Buning County [70]
2/6 Liaoning Province N/A N/A
Jiangxi Province N/A N/A [71]
Jilin Province Jilin City N/A
Anhui Province Ma'anshan City N/A
Guangdong Province Zhuhai City N/A
Sichuan Province Ya'an City N/A
Neijiang City N/A
Jiangsu Province Suzhou City N/A [72]
2/7 Hubei Province N/A N/A Community closed management further added on 10 February
Anhui Province N/A N/A [73]
Tianjin City N/A N/A [74]
Guangdong Province Guangzhou City N/A
Shenzhen City N/A
Gansu Province Lanzhou City N/A
Sichuan Province Chengdu City N/A [75]
Suining City N/A
Guangyuan City N/A
Guizhou Province Guiyang City N/A
Zunyi City N/A
Hebei Province Tangshan City N/A [76]
Jiangsu Province Lianyungang City N/A [77]
Chongqing City N/A Jiangjin District
2/8 Chongqing City N/A N/A   [78]
Sichuan Province Ziyang City N/A
Guangdong Province Foshan City N/A
2/9 Sichuan Province Deyang City N/A
Mianyang City N/A
Guangdong Province Huizhou City N/A
Dongguan City N/A
Shaanxi Province Hanzhong City N/A
Jiangsu Province Wuxi City N/A [79]
2/10 Beijing City N/A N/A [80]
Shanghai City N/A N/A [81]
2/12 Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region
N/A N/A   [82]
3/31 Henan Province Pingdingshan City Jia County [83]
4/8 Heilongjiang Province Mudanjiang City Suifenhe City   [84]

As of 12 February 2020, a total of 207 cities (including 26 provincial capitals and sub-provincial cities) have announced the implementation of closed management, including at least 9 first-level administrative regions (4 municipalities, 4 provinces, 1 autonomous regions, a total of 156-second-level administrative regions) and at least 51-second-level administrative regions in other provinces and cities; of which, 2 secondary administrative regions upgraded to fully closed wartime control.

Impacts and reactions[edit]

The exodus from Wuhan before the lockdown has resulted in angry responses on the Chinese microblogging website Sina Weibo from residents in other cities who are concerned that it could result in spreading of the novel coronavirus to their cities. Some in Wuhan are concerned with the availability of provisions and especially medical supplies during the lockdown.[21][85]

The World Health Organization called the Wuhan lockdown "unprecedented" and said it showed "how committed the authorities are to contain a viral breakout". However, WHO clarified that the move is not a recommendation that WHO had made and authorities have to wait and see how effective it is.[2] The WHO has separately stated that the possibility of locking down an entire city like this is "new to science".[86]

The CSI 300 Index, an aggregate measure of the top 300 stocks in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges, dropped almost 3% on 23 January 2020, the biggest single-day loss in almost 9 months, after the Wuhan lockdown was announced as investors spooked by the drastic measure sought safe haven for their investments.[87]

The unprecedented scale of this lockdown generated controversy, and at least one expert criticized this measure as "risky business" that "could very easily backfire" by forcing otherwise healthy people in Wuhan to stay in close conditions with infected people.[88] Drawing a cordon sanitaire around a city of 11 million people raises inevitable ethical concerns. It also drew comparisons to the lockdown of the poor West Point neighbourhood in Liberia during the 2014 ebola outbreak, which was lifted after ten days.[88][89]

The lockdown has caused panic in the city of Wuhan, and many have expressed concern about the city's ability to cope with the outbreak. At the time, some experts question the whether the large costs such a vast lockdown, both financially and in terms of personal liberty, will translate to effective infection control.[86] Medical historian Howard Markel argued that the Chinese government "may now be overreacting, imposing an unjustifiable burden on the population," and claimed that "incremental restrictions, enforced steadily and transparently, tend to work far better than draconian measures."[90] Others, such as Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, have defended the intent behind the lockdowns, citing that the lockdowns have bought the world a "delay to essentially prepare better." Mathematical epidemiologist Gerardo Chowell of Georgia State University stated that based on mathematical modelling, "containment strategies implemented in China are successfully reducing transmission."[91]

However, as the global COVID-19 pandemic worsened, similar lockdown measures were enacted around the world. After northern Italy became a new hotspot of the outbreak in late February, the Italian government has enacted what has been called a "Wuhan-style lockdown," by quarantining nearly a dozen towns of 50,000 people in the provinces of Lombardy and Veneto.[92][93] Iran, another developing hotspot for the coronavirus as of 25 February, has come under calls to assume similar lockdown procedures as China and Italy. Security experts such as Gal Luft of the Institute for the Analysis of Global Security in Washington, have said that "The best way for Iran to deal with the disease is to do precisely what China has done – quarantine." and that "If Wuhan with its 11 million population can be under quarantine, so can Tehran with its 8 million"[94] By 2020, public health experts estimated that the Wuhan lockdown prevented between 500,000 and 3 million infections and between 18,000 and 70,000 deaths.[95]

Reactions and measures outside Mainland China[edit]

Strict surveillance measures are being enforced at airports, seaports, and border crossings to prevent the disease spreading to countries or territories in the region. Accordingly, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and some ASEAN countries (notably Myanmar, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, and Vietnam) are thermally monitoring passengers arriving at their major international airports, while flights from and/or to Wuhan ceased operating. Activity through gateways in Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam are put under extra supervision from the Government and medical staffs. North Korea banned international flights and foreign visitors, and Papua New Guinea banned travelers from all Asian countries.

An analysis of air travel patterns was used to map and predict patterns of spread and was published in the Journal of Travel Medicine in mid-January 2020. Based on information from the International Air Transport Association (2018), Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Taipei had the largest volume of travelers from Wuhan. Dubai, Sydney, and Melbourne were also reported as popular destinations for people travelling from Wuhan. Using the validated tool, the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index (IDVI), to assess the ability to manage a disease threat, Bali was reported as least able in preparedness, while cities in Australia were considered most able.[96][97]

As a result of the outbreak, many countries including most of the Schengen Area, Armenia, Australia, Iraq, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Maldives, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, and the United States have imposed temporary entry bans on Chinese citizens or recent visitors to China, or have ceased issuing visas and reimposed visa requirements on Chinese citizens.[98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109]

Countries and territories in the region, including Hong Kong, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Russia, and Vietnam have also responded with border tightening/closures with the mainland China.[110] On 22 January North Korea closed its borders to international tourists to prevent the spread of the virus into the country. Chinese visitors make up the bulk of foreign tourists to North Korea.[111]

Also on 22 January, the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) announced that it would be moving the matches in the third round of the 2020 AFC Women's Olympic Qualifying Tournament from Wuhan to Nanjing, affecting the women's national team squads from Australia, China PR, Chinese Taipei, and Thailand.[112] A few days later, the AFC announced that together with Football Federation Australia they would be moving the matches to Sydney.[113] The Asia-Pacific Olympic boxing qualifiers, which were originally set to be held in Wuhan from 3 to 14 February, were also cancelled and moved to Amman, Jordan, to be held between 3 and 11 March.[114][115]

On 23 January, the United States Department of State ordered evacuation of all non-emergency U.S. personnel and their family members from Wuhan.[116] On 27 January the United States CDC issued updated travel guidance for China, recommending that travellers avoid all nonessential travel to all of the country. The CDC has directed U.S. Customs and Border Protection to check individuals for symptoms of the coronavirus.[117]

On 29 January British Airways cancelled all their flights to mainland China as a reaction to the spread of the virus.[118] Lufthansa followed hours later by also suspending all their flights.[119] Lion Air and Air Seoul also suspended all their flights.[120] The same day, Czechia stopped issuing Schengen Visas to Chinese citizens.[121]

On 30 January Belgium, Greece, and Italy closed all Schengen Visa application centers in China.[122][123][124] The same day, Egyptair announced suspension of flights between Egypt and Hangzhou starting 1 February 2020 while those to Beijing and Guangzhou will be suspended starting 4 February 2020 until further notice.[125]

On 31 January Italy closed all passenger air traffic between Italy and China and Taiwan. The Italian Civil Aviation Authority NOTAM says that effective 31 January, all passenger flights from China, including the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, and Taiwan are suspended until further notice, on request of the Italian health authorities. Aircraft that were flying to Italy when the NOTAM was published, were cleared to land.[124][126]

On 1 February after Belgium, Czechia, Greece, and Italy, all other Schengen countries' visa application centers were closed, with the exception of France, suspending the issuing of visas to Chinese citizens.[98]

Qatar Airways took the decision to suspend flights to mainland China from 3 February until further notice, due to significant operational challenges caused by entry restrictions imposed by several countries.[127] Qatar Airways is the first carrier in the Middle East to do so. An ongoing review of operations will be conducted weekly with the intention to reinstate flights as soon as the restrictions are lifted.[127]

Though some of the airlines cancelled flights to Hong Kong as well, British Airways, Finnair, and Lufthansa have not, and American Airlines continues operating a limited service to the area. Hong Kong's four airlines halved the flights to mainland China.[128] The following airlines have so far reduced or cancelled flights to and from China:[129][130][131][132][133][134][135][136]

On 31 January the United States declared the virus a public health emergency. Starting 2 February, all inbound passengers who have been to Hubei in the previous 14 days will be put under quarantine for up to 14 days. Any U.S. citizen who has traveled to the rest of mainland China will be allowed to continue their travel home if they are asymptomatic, but will be monitored by local health departments.[137]

On 1 February Vietnam suspended all flights to and from China.[132]

On 2 February India issued a travel advisory that warned all people residing in India to not travel to China, suspended E-visas from China, and further stated anyone who has traveled to China starting 15 January (to an indefinite point in the future) could be quarantined.[138] New Zealand announced that it will deny entry to all travellers from China and that it will order its citizens to self-isolate for 14 days if they are returning from China.[139] Indonesia and Iraq followed by also banning all travellers that visited China within the past 14 days.[139]

On 3 February Indonesia announced it would ban passenger flights and also sea freights from and to China start on 5 February until further notice. In addition, live animal imports and other products followed by this decision. Minister of Trade Agus Suparmanto said "We will obviously stop live animals imports from China and are still considering banning other products".[140][141][142] Turkey announced it would suspend all flights from China until the end of February and begin scanning passengers coming from South Asian countries at airports.[143][144]


  1. ^ a b 武汉肺炎病毒持续扩散 湖北下令封15个城市 | DW | 24 January 2020 (in Chinese). Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Wuhan lockdown 'unprecedented', shows commitment to contain virus: WHO representative in China". Reuters. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  3. ^ James Griffiths; Amy Woodyatt. "Wuhan coronavirus: Thousands of cases confirmed as China goes into emergency mode". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  4. ^ 襄阳火车站关闭,湖北省最后一个地级市"封城". (in Chinese). 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  5. ^ "China shuts down city of Wenzhou, far from virus epicentre". The Straits Times. 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b 湖北省黄石市:解除市区交通管制,停办通行证. Sina News. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  7. ^ a b 湖北潜江市民燃放烟花庆祝解封. Sina News. 13 March 2020.
  8. ^ Zhong, Raymond. "China Ends Wuhan Lockdown, but Normal Life Is a Distant Dream". New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  9. ^ "Here are seven ways the coronavirus affects human rights". Amnesty International. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  10. ^ Bernstein, Lenny; Craig, Tim (24 January 2020). "Unprecedented Chinese quarantine could backfire, experts say". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Archived copy" 九省通衢“盛宴开席” – 读我网. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Foreign News: On To Chicago". Time. 13 June 1938. Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  13. ^ Jacob, Mark (13 May 2012). "Chicago is all over the place". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  14. ^ 水野幸吉 (Mizuno Kokichi) (2014). 中国中部事情:汉口 [Central China: Hankou]. Wuhan Press. p. 3. ISBN 9787543084612.
  15. ^ "Shrimp vendor at Wuhan market may be coronavirus 'patient zero'". New York Post. 27 March 2020.
  16. ^ Qin, Amy; Hernández, Javier C. (10 January 2020). "China Reports First Death From New Virus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  17. ^ "Build-up to coronavirus lockdown: inside China's decision to close Wuhan". Yahoo News. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  18. ^ a b c "Lockdowns rise as China tries to control virus". United Kingdom: BBC. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  19. ^ 武汉凌晨大逃亡 “封城令”引爆更大恐慌. (in Chinese). 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  20. ^ 武漢肺炎》高調「#逃離武漢」 封城前夕至少30萬人逃出 – 國際 – 自由時報電子報. Liberty Times (in Chinese). Taiwan. 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  21. ^ a b c Regan, Helen; Griffiths, James; Culver, David; Guy, Jack. "Wuhan virus spreads as China puts cities on lockdown and scraps New Year celebrations". CNN. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  22. ^ 湖北继续延迟复工开学:企业不早于2月20日24时前复工. Hubei Provincial New Coronavirus Infectious Pneumonia Prevention and Control Headquarters. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  23. ^ 湖北:除疫情防控必需外各类企业不早于3月10日复工. Hubei Provincial New Coronavirus Infectious Pneumonia Prevention and Control Headquarters. Xinhua News Agency. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  24. ^ 解禁!湖北封闭式管理松绑 武汉市为高风险地区. 15 March 2020.
  25. ^ a b c 湖北封閉式管理鬆綁 低風險鄉鎮社區全數解禁. Central News Agency (in Chinese). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  26. ^ 湖北荆州:17日起小区有序解封. 荆州发布 (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  27. ^ 湖北:保供稳价 保障群众生活. (in Chinese). 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  28. ^ "China scrambles to curb rise in imported coronavirus cases, Wuhan eases lockdown". India Today. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  29. ^ a b "China to lift travel restrictions in Hubei after months of coronavirus lockdown". The Guardian. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  30. ^ a b Guo, Zehan (郭泽涵) (24 March 2020). 中国发布丨明起湖北除武汉外地区解除离鄂通道管控 武汉4月8日起解除离汉离鄂通道管控. 中国网. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  31. ^ "China to Lift Lockdown Over Virus Epicenter Wuhan on April 8". Bloomberg. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  32. ^ Press, Associated (6 April 2020). "Green symbol on Chinese smartphone screens allows subway travel, hotel check-in; new 'health code' a tool in getting economy on its feet". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020.
  33. ^ James Griffiths; Amy Woodyatt. "Wuhan coronavirus: Thousands of cases confirmed as China goes into emergency mode". CNN. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  34. ^ 解禁!湖北封闭式管理松绑 武汉市为高风险地区 (in Chinese). 15 March 2020.
  35. ^ "China to Lift Lockdown Over Virus Epicenter Wuhan on April 8". Bloomberg. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "China to lift travel restrictions in Hubei after months of coronavirus lockdown". The Guardian. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  37. ^ 湖北荆州:17日起小区有序解封. 荆州发布 (in Chinese). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  38. ^ 襄阳火车站关闭,湖北省最后一个地级市“封城”_媒体_澎湃新闻-The Paper. (in Chinese). Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  39. ^ 湖北黄石:解除市区交通管制,停办通行证 (in Chinese). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  40. ^ 湖北潜江市民燃放烟花庆祝解封. Sina News. 13 March 2020.
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ "2020年6月4日湖北省新冠肺炎疫情情况 (Update on the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei province at 24:00 4 June 2020)". National Health Commission of Hubei Province (in Chinese). Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  45. ^ 新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情实时大数据报告. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  46. ^ 湖北疫情地图. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  47. ^ "湖北黄冈取消小区物理封闭 进出不受一户一人限制". Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  48. ^ a b "取消社区封闭式管控、全面恢复餐饮经营……江西发布指引". Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  49. ^ 湖北十堰张湾区实施战时管制 全国多小区限制夜间出行.
  50. ^ 南方都市报. 深圳:全部小区、城中村凭码(证)进出. 网易. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  51. ^ 武漢肺炎 浙江溫州也限制居民外出,中央通訊社,2020/02/02
  52. ^ 聯合新聞網. "湖北外最嚴重疫情!溫州半封城 居民限制外出". 聯合新聞網 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  53. ^ "黄冈后 温州发布最严出行管控通知". 金融界. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  54. ^ hermesauto (2 February 2020). "China shuts down city of Wenzhou, far from virus epicenter". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  55. ^ "温州市新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情防控工作领导小组通告(第7号)". Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  56. ^ 淮安发布. "关于加强疫情期间社区防控工作的通告". 淮安市人民政府. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  57. ^ "江阴:全市住宅小区实行封闭管理". 无锡新传媒. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  58. ^ 武漢肺炎防疫 杭州全市實行封閉式管理,中央通訊社,2020/02/02
  59. ^ 杭州市人民政府关于实施“防控疫情,人人有责” 十项措施的通告,杭州网,2020/02/02
  60. ^ 自由時報. "武漢肺炎》六朝古都也淪陷! 南京宣布封城". 自由時報. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  61. ^ "所有村庄、小区、单位实行封闭式管理!常州发布十二项措施". 扬子晚报. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  62. ^ 袁杰. "南通实行最严管控:所有小区、企业、单位封闭式管理". 澎湃新闻. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  63. ^ "【第6号】关于疫情期间全面做好人员管控工作的通告". 金山网. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  64. ^ "姜堰区关于加强新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情防控工作的通告". 泰州市姜堰区人民政府. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  65. ^ "深夜突发!南京、宁波、福州、哈尔滨…所有小区封闭管理!最狠这座城:每户5天只能1人外出采购1次".
  66. ^ "海南海口、三亚对所有村庄、小区等实行封闭式管理".
  67. ^ "扬州:所有村庄、小区、企业、单位实行封闭式管理". 扬子晚报. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  68. ^ 泰州发布. "关于严格疫情防控期间人员管控的通告(第7号)". 泰州市人民政府. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  69. ^ "宿迁市最新通告". 西楚网. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  70. ^ "关于进一步加强疫情防控期间小区管理的通告". 阜宁县人民政府. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  71. ^ 「封城」進階「封省」 遼寧、江西宣布全省封閉式管理
  72. ^ 1048苏州交通广播. "苏州市第7号通告". Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  73. ^ 安徽也宣布封省!中國封省已達四省 Archived 8 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine,2020/02/07,鉅亨網新聞中心
  74. ^ 首個實施「封閉式管理」直轄市 天津下令社區關閉非必要進出通道,東森新聞,2020-2-7
  75. ^ 成都全市城镇居住小区(院落)实行封闭式管理,人民网,2020-2-7
  76. ^ 廣州實施封閉式管理 要求滯留疫區者不得返城,聯合報,2020-2-7
  77. ^ [1]
  78. ^ "重庆所有小区实行封闭式管理 每户定期派1人外出采购". Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  79. ^ "无锡市第8号通告:进一步加强疫情期间社区防控工作". 无锡新传媒. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  80. ^ 武漢肺炎/北京半封城狀態社區管制 上海成關注目標,中央社,2020-02-10
  81. ^ 上海全市1.3万个小 区实现“封闭式管理”,新浪新闻,2020-02-10
  82. ^ 内蒙古对所有单位、小区、嘎查村实行封闭式管理,中国经济新闻网,2020-02-12
  83. ^ "突发!河南郏县再次封村封小区,大多经营性场所暂停营业 | 第一财经". Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  84. ^ 4月8日6时起 黑龙江绥芬河市所有小区实行封闭管理
  85. ^ "Wuhan lockdown: China takes extreme measures to stop virus spread | DW | 23 January 2020". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  86. ^ a b "How is China coping with the coronavirus outbreak?". United Kingdom: BBC. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  87. ^ "China stocks slump 3% on Wuhan lockdown over virus outbreak". The Economic Times. India. 23 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  88. ^ a b Levenson, Michael (22 January 2020). "Scale of China's Wuhan Shutdown Is Believed to Be Without Precedent". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  89. ^ MacDougall, Clair (12 May 2015). "Liberia's Military Tries to Remedy Tension Over Ebola Quarantine". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 16 July 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  90. ^ Markel, Howard (27 January 2020). "Opinion | Will the Largest Quarantine in History Just Make Things Worse?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  91. ^ "Wuhan quarantine bought the world time to prepare for Covid-19". STAT. 21 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  92. ^ Oddone, Elisa. "Italy struggles with virus 'that doesn't respect borders'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  93. ^ "Could the US Contain a Coronavirus Outbreak?". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  94. ^ "Fears mount as coronavirus outbreak worsens in sanctions-hit Iran". South China Morning Post. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  95. ^ "The real reason China is pushing for a better global response to the Covid-19 pandemic". South China Morning Post. 14 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  96. ^ Schnirring, Lisa (14 January 2020). "Report: Thailand's coronavirus patient didn't visit outbreak market". CIDRAP. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  97. ^ Bogoch, Isaac I.; Watts, Alexander; Thomas-Bachli, Andrea; Huber, Carmen; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Khan, Kamran (14 January 2020). "Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan, China: Potential for International Spread Via Commercial Air Travel". Journal of Travel Medicine. 27 (2). doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa008. PMC 7107534. PMID 31943059.
  98. ^ a b "Confirmed: All Schengen Countries, but France, Have Suspended Visa Issuance in China". Schengen Visa Info. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  99. ^ "Armenia suspends visa-free travel for Chinese citizens over virus fears -deputy PM". Reuters. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  100. ^ "News page". Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  101. ^ "Iraq's Basra airport to deny entry to travellers from China and Chinese citizens over coronavirus – state news agency". Reuters. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  102. ^ "Kurdistan's Erbil airport denies entry to three Chinese over coronavirus". Reuters. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  103. ^ "Kazakh prime minister orders to suspend visa-free entry for Chinese transit passengers". Trend.Az. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  104. ^ "Indonesia closes doors to travelers from China". The Jakarta Post. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  105. ^ "Kuwait suspends China, Hong Kong flights". Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  106. ^ "Countries ban China arrivals as coronavirus death toll hits 213". Arab News. 31 January 2020.
  107. ^ "Vietnam to stop issuing visas for Chinese tourists over coronavirus concerns". Reuters. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  108. ^ "Proclamation on Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons who Pose a Risk of Transmitting 2019 Novel Coronavirus". Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2020 – via National Archives.
  109. ^ "NOVEL CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK". Archived from the original on 25 January 2005. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  110. ^ O'Connor, Tom (30 January 2020). "China's neighbors close borders as country's coronavirus cases surpass SARS". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  111. ^ Smith, Josh; Zhang, Lusha (21 January 2020). "North Korea suspends foreign tourism over coronavirus fears: tour companies". Reuters. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  112. ^ "Archived copy" 懂球帝. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  113. ^ Colangelo, Anthony; Wicks, Kathryn (26 January 2020). "Matildas' Olympic qualifiers switched to Sydney after virus fears". Brisbane Times.
  114. ^ "IOC Boxing Task Force: Asian/Oceanian Tokyo 2020 boxing qualifying event to be held in Jordan in March". Olympic Channel. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  115. ^ "Olympic boxing qualifiers moved to Jordan". Japan Times. Reuters. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  116. ^ "China Travel Advisory". Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  117. ^ "2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Summary". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  118. ^ "British Airways, Iberia suspend direct flights to mainland China amid virus fears". Reuters. 29 January 2020.
  119. ^ "Coronavirus: Lufthansa setzt alle China-Flüge aus".
  120. ^ "Alert: British Airways, Lion Air and Seoul Air suspend all flights to China; others cut back service as virus fears grow". San Francisco Chronicle. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  121. ^ "Coronavirus: Czech Republic Becomes First Schengen Country to Stop Granting Visas in China". Schengen Visa Info. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  122. ^ "Closure 30–31 jan 2020". Belgium in China. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  123. ^ "After Czech Republic, Greece Halts Visa Issuance in China Amid Coronavirus Epidemic". Schengen Visa Info. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  124. ^ a b "Italy Suspends Visa Issuance and All Air Traffic From China". Schengen Visa Info. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  125. ^ "Egypt's flag carrier suspends China flights staring Feb. over coronavirus". Egypt Today. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  126. ^ "Sospesi tutti i collegamenti aerei tra Italia e Cina". Ente Nazionale per l'Aviazione Civile (in Italian). 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  127. ^ a b "Qatar Air Suspends Flights to China as Cases Jump: Virus Update". Financial Post. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  128. ^ "Airlines around the world are suspending flights to China as the coronavirus spreads". CNN. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  129. ^ Pallini, Thomas. "34 airlines have canceled flights to China amid coronavirus fears – here's the full list". Business Insider. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  130. ^ Chokshi, Niraj (31 January 2020). "Coronavirus Travel: 3 Major U.S. Airlines Suspend China Flights". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  131. ^ "Wuhan virus: Scoot to suspend flights between Singapore and 11 Chinese cities, SIA to reduce capacity". CNA. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  132. ^ a b "China travel bans spread despite WHO advice". Bangkok Post. 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  133. ^ "PAL, Cebu Pacific suspend flights between Philippines, China". ABS-CBN News. 2 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  134. ^ "Garuda Indonesia to halt flights to China amid new coronavirus fear". The Jakarta Post. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  135. ^ Khoiri, Ahmad Masaul. "Citilink Ikut Setop Semua Penerbangan ke dan dari China". detikTravel (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  136. ^ "Antisipasi Virus Corona, Penerbangan Rute China-Indonesia Ditunda Sementara". Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  137. ^ "U.S. declares public health emergency over coronavirus". NBC News. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  138. ^ Goyal, Piyush (2 February 2020). "Cabinet Secretary holds review meeting on Novel Coronavirus". Twitter. New Delhi: Press Information Bureau Government of India. Retrieved 2 February 2020.[non-primary source needed]
  139. ^ a b "Coronavirus infections predicted to grow exponentially; first death outside China; outbreak becomes political". The Washington Post. 2 February 2020. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  140. ^ Berutu, Sachril Agustin. "Antisipasi Corona, Penundaan Penerbangan Dari-Ke China Tanpa Batas Waktu". detiknews (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  141. ^ Sugianto, Danang. "Tengah Malam Nanti, Penerbangan RI-China Resmi Disetop". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  142. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia set to ban live animal imports from China as coronavirus fears grow". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  143. ^ "Çin'den Türkiye'ye tüm uçuşlar durduruluyor". Gazete Duvar (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  144. ^ Tosun, Mehmet (3 February 2020). "Turkey to suspend flights from China until end of month". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.