2020 Iowa Democratic caucuses

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2020 Iowa Democratic caucuses

← 2016 February 3, 2020 2024 →

49 delegates (41 pledged, 8 unpledged)

The 2020 Iowa Democratic caucuses will take place on Monday, February 3, 2020, as the first nominating contest in the Democratic Party presidential primaries for the 2020 presidential election. The Iowa caucuses are a closed caucus, with Iowa awarding 49 delegates, of which 41 are pledged delegates allocated on the basis of the results of the caucuses.

Procedure[edit]

Precinct caucuses will be held on the evening of Monday, February 3, 2020, in order to allocate delegates for county conventions. In the closed caucuses, candidates must meet a viability threshold of 15 percent within an individual precinct in order to be considered viable, with supporters of non-viable candidates then allowed to transfer their support to one of the remaining viable candidates or merge with another non-viable group in order to become viable. County convention delegates are then awarded proportionally on the basis of the results of the precinct caucuses, with the 41 pledged delegates to the 2020 Democratic National Convention allocated on the basis of the state delegate equivalents. Of the 41 pledged delegates, between 5 and 8 are allocated to each of the state's 4 congressional districts and another 5 allocated to party leaders and elected officials (PLEO delegates) in addition to 9 at-large pledged delegates.[1]

The county conventions will subsequently be held on Saturday, March 21, 2020 to choose delegates for the state Democratic convention, followed by district conventions on Saturday, April 25, 2020 to elect district delegates to the Democratic National Convention. On June 13, 2020, the state Democratic convention will meet to vote on the 9 pledged at-large and 5 PLEO delegates to send to the Democratic National Convention. The 41 pledged delegates Iowa sends to the national convention will be joined by 8 unpledged PLEO delegates (5 members of the Democratic National Committee and 3 members of Congress, of which all 3 are U.S. Representatives). These delegate totals do not account for pledged delegate bonuses or penalties from timing or clustering.[1]

On February 11, 2019, the Iowa Democratic Party proposed several changes to the procedures used in the previous caucuses, including the addition of a period for "virtual caucuses" from Wednesday, January 29, 2020 to Monday, February 3, 2020 which will allow participants unable to physically attend the precinct caucuses to join in an online virtual caucus or teleconference in which they will be given the opportunity to rank candidate preferences, with support for non-viable candidates redistributed to viable ones.[1] This process would continue until no non-viable choices remained, and the results would be aggregated with congressional districts for the purposes of delegate allocation but limited to 10 percent of state delegate equivalents, regardless of the number of those using the virtual caucus option. The results of both the virtual and precinct caucuses will be released on the night of February 3, and as a result of rules changes by the national party, raw vote totals for the first and second alignment periods of the caucuses will be published.[2]

In late August 2019, the Democratic National Committee ordered both the Iowa and Nevada Democratic state parties to scrap their plans for "virtual caucuses" because of security concerns.[3]

On September 20, 2019, the DNC conditionally approved a plan for "satellite caucus sites" that will allow Iowa Democrats to participate if they are working or going to college outside of the state on February 3, 2020.[4]

The party announced in late January 2020 that a "raw vote count" will be reported, for the first time in the history of the caucuses.[5]

Polling[edit]

Polling Aggregation
Source of poll aggregation Date
updated
Dates
polled
Bernie
Sanders
Joe
Biden
Pete
Buttigieg
Elizabeth
Warren
Amy
Klobuchar
Other Un-
decided[a]
270 to Win Jan 26, 2020 Jan 9–26, 2020 22.8% 22.4% 16.8% 14.4% 9.0% 9.4%[b] 5.2%
RealClear Politics Jan 26, 2020 Jan 16–26, 2020 23.3% 22.3% 19.3% 14.3% 7.0% 5.0%[c] 8.8%
FiveThirtyEight Jan 26, 2020 until Jan 26, 2020[d] 22.4% 22.2% 17.1% 14.1% 8.7% 9.1%[e] 6.4%
Average 22.8% 22.3% 17.7% 14.3% 8.2% 9.6%[f] 5.1%

From December 2019[edit]

   – Debate qualifying poll as designated by the Democratic National Committee
Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size[g]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Pete
Buttigieg
Tulsi
Gabbard
Amy
Klobuchar
Bernie
Sanders
Tom
Steyer
Elizabeth
Warren
Andrew
Yang
Other Un­decided
Emerson College Jan 23–26, 2020 450 (LV) ± 4.6% 21% 10% 5% 13% 30% 5% 11% 5% 2%[h]
Suffolk University/USA Today Jan 23–26, 2020 500 (LV) ± 4.4% 25% 18% 1% 6% 19% 2% 13% 3% [i] 13%
YouGov/CBS News Jan 16–23, 2020 1401 (RV) ± 3.9% 25% 22% 0% 7% 26% 1% 15% 1% 2%[j] 1%
Siena College/New York Times Jan 20–23, 2020 584 (LV) ± 4.8% 17% 18% 1% 8% 25% 3% 15% 3% 1%[k] 8%
David Binder Research/Focus on Rural America Jan 15–18, 2020 500 (LV) ± 4.4% 24% 16% 1% 11% 14% 4% 18% 3% 2%[l]
Neighbourhood Research and Media/Breitbart Jan 14–17, 2020 300 (LV) ± 4.8% 23% 17% [m] 11% 10% 2% 15% 2% 6%[n] 13%
Jan 13, 2020 Booker withdraws from the race
Monmouth University Jan 9–12, 2020 405 (LV) ± 4.9% 28%[o] 25% 24% 16% 2%[p] 4%
24% 17% 2% 8% 18% 4% 15% 4% 4%[q] 5%
Selzer/CNN/Des Moines Register January 2–8, 2020 701 (LV) ± 3.7% 15% 16% 2% 6% 20% 2% 17% 5% 2%[r] 11%
YouGov/CBS News Dec 27, 2019–Jan 3, 2020 953 (RV) ± 3.8% 23% 23% 1% 7% 23% 2% 16% 2% 2%[s] 1%
Civiqs/Iowa State University Dec 12–16, 2019 632 (LV) ± 4.9% 15% 24% 3% 4% 21% 2% 18% 3% 4%[t] 4%
Emerson College Dec 7–10, 2019 325 (LV) ± 5.4% 23% 18% 2% 10% 22% 3% 12% 2% 8%[u]
Dec 3, 2019 Harris withdraws from the race

November 2019[edit]

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size[g]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Pete
Buttigieg
Tulsi
Gabbard
Kamala
Harris
Amy
Klobuchar
Bernie
Sanders
Tom
Steyer
Elizabeth
Warren
Andrew
Yang
Other Un­decided
Civiqs/Iowa State University Nov 15–19, 2019 614 (LV) ± 4.9% 12% 26% 2% 2% 5% 18% 2% 19% 4% 6%[v] 3%
Des Moines Register/CNN Nov 8–13, 2019 500 (LV) ± 4.4% 15% 25% 3% 3% 6% 15% 3% 16% 3% 6%[w] 5%
YouGov/CBS News Nov 6–13, 2019 856 (RV) ± 4.1% 22% 21% 0% 5% 5% 22% 2% 18% 1% 4%[x]
Monmouth University Nov 7–11, 2019 451 (LV) ± 4.6% 19% 22% 2% 3% 5% 13% 3% 18% 3% 6%[y] 8%
University of Iowa Oct 28–Nov 10, 2019 465 (LV) ± 4.6% 15% 16% 3% 2% 1% 18% 3% 23% 3% 2%[z] 13%
Public Policy Polling Nov 5–6, 2019 715 (LV) - 13% 20% - 3% 9% 14% 6% 21% 3% - 10%
Quinnipiac University Oct 30–Nov 5, 2019 698 (LV) ± 4.5% 15% 19% 3% 4% 5% 17% 3% 20% 3% 4%[aa] 8%
Nov 1, 2019 O'Rourke withdraws from the race

Until November 2019[edit]

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size[g]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Cory
Booker
Pete
Buttigieg
Kamala
Harris
Amy
Klobuchar
Beto
O'Rourke
Bernie
Sanders
Elizabeth
Warren
Other Un­decided
Siena College/New York Times Oct 25–30, 2019 439 (LV) ± 4.7% 17% 2% 18% 3% 4% 1% 19% 22% 8%[ab] 6%
Civiqs/Iowa State University Oct 18–22, 2019 598 (LV) ± 5% 12% 1% 20% 3% 4% 1% 18% 28% 8%[ad] 4%
Suffolk University/USA Today Oct 16–18, 2019 500 (LV) ± 4.4% 18% 1% 13% 3% 3% 1% 9% 17% 7%[ae] 29%
Emerson College Oct 13–16, 2019 317 (LV) ± 5.5% 23% 3% 16% 2% 1% 0% 13% 23% 15%[af]
Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus Oct 8–10, 2019 548 (LV) ± 3.6% 22% 2% 17% 3% [note 1] 1% 5% 25% 26%[ag] [note 1]
YouGov/CBS News Oct 3–11, 2019 729 (RV) ±4.6% 22% 2% 14% 5% 2% 2% 21% 22% 7%[ah]
Selzer/CNN/Des Moines Register [1] Sep 14–18, 2019 602 (LV) ± 4.0% 20% 3% 9% 6% 3% 2% 11% 22% 11%[ai] 14%
David Binder Research Sep 14–17, 2019 500 (LV) ± 4.4% 25% 2% 12% 5% 8% 1% 9% 23% 9%[aj] 6%
Civiqs/Iowa State University Sep 13–17, 2019 572 (LV) ± 5.2% 16% 2% 13% 5% 3% 2% 16% 24% 11%[ak] 8%
YouGov/CBS News Aug 28–Sep 4, 2019 835 ± 4.3% 29% 2% 7% 6% 2% 2% 26% 17% 9%[al]
Change Research Aug 9–11, 2019 621 (LV) ± 3.9% 17% 3% 13% 8% 2% 3% 17% 28% 9%[am]
Monmouth University Aug 1–4, 2019 401 (LV) ± 4.9% 28% 1% 8% 11% 3% <1% 9% 19% 11%[an] 10%
Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus Jul 23–25, 2019 630 ± 3.3% 23% 2% 7% 12% 2% 11% 23% 4% 16%
YouGov/CBS News Jul 9–18, 2019 706 ± 4.4% 24% 3% 7% 16% 4% 1% 19% 17% 9%[ao]
Jul 9, 2019 Steyer announces his candidacy
Change Research Jun 29–Jul 4, 2019 420 (LV) 16% 1% 25% 16% 1% 2% 16% 18% 5%[ap]
David Binder Research Jun 29–Jul 1, 2019 600 ± 4.0% 17% 2% 10% 18% 4% 1% 12% 20% 9%[aq] 9%
Suffolk University/USA Today Jun 28–Jul 1, 2019 500 ± 4.4% 24% 2% 6% 16% 2% 1% 9% 13% 6%[ar] 21%
Change Research Jun 17–20, 2019 308 (LV) 27% 5% 17% 4% 2% 1% 18% 20% 7%[as]
Selzer/CNN/Des Moines Register Jun 2–5, 2019 600 ± 4.0% 24% 1% 14% 7% 2% 2% 16% 15% 6%[at] 6%
Change Research May 15–19, 2019 615 (LV) ± 3.9% 24% 1% 14% 10% 2% 5% 24% 12% 9%[au]
Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus Apr 30–May 2, 2019 576 ± 4.1% 35% 2% 11% 5% 4% 3% 14% 10% 16%
Apr 25, 2019 Biden announces his candidacy
Gravis Marketing Apr 17–18, 2019 590 ± 4.0% 19% 4% 14% 6% 4% 5% 19% 6% 7%[av] 16%
Apr 14, 2019 Buttigieg announces his candidacy
Monmouth University Apr 4–9, 2019 351 ± 5.2% 27% 3% 9% 7% 4% 6% 16% 7% 7%[aw] 12%
David Binder Research Mar 21–24, 2019 500 ± 4.4% 25% 7% 6% 9% 6% 6% 17% 8% 9%[ax] 7%
Emerson College Mar 21–24, 2019 249 ± 6.2% 25% 6% 11% 10% 2% 5% 24% 9% 8%[ay]
Public Policy Polling (D)[A] Mar 14–15, 2019 678 29% 4% 5% 6% 7% 15% 8% 4% 22%
Mar 14, 2019 O'Rourke announces his candidacy
Selzer/CNN/Des Moines Register Mar 3–6, 2019 401 ± 4.9% 27% 3% 1% 7% 3% 5% 25% 9% 5%[az] 10%
Feb 19, 2019 Sanders announces his candidacy
Feb 10, 2019 Klobuchar announces her candidacy
Feb 9, 2019 Warren announces her candidacy
Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus Jan 31–Feb 2, 2019 558 ± 3.6% 25% 4% 17% 5% 4% 10% 11% 1%[ba] 25%
Emerson College Jan 30–Feb 2, 2019 260 ± 6.0% 29% 4% 0% 18% 3% 6% 15% 11% 15%[bb]
Feb 1, 2019 Booker announces his candidacy
Jan 21, 2019 Harris announces her candidacy
Jan 11, 2019 Gabbard announces her candidacy
Change Research Dec 13–17, 2018 1,291 (LV) 20% 4% 7% 5% 19% 20% 7% 18%[bc]
Selzer/CNN/Des Moines Register Dec 10–13, 2018 455 ± 4.6% 32% 4% 5% 3% 11% 19% 8% 7%[bd] 6%
David Binder Research Dec 10–11, 2018 500 ± 4.4% 30% 6% 7% 10% 11% 13% 9% 8%[be] 6%
David Binder Research Sep 20–23, 2018 500 ± 4.4% 37% 8% 10% 12% 16% 6%[bf] 9%
Nov 6, 2017 Yang announces his candidacy
Public Policy Polling (D)[B] Mar 3–6, 2017 1,062 17% 3% 11% 34%[bg] 32%

Results[edit]

e • d 2020 Democratic Party's presidential nominating process in Iowa
– Summary of results –
Candidate State delegate equivalents Estimated delegates
Count Percentage Pledged Unpledged Total
Michael Bennet
Joe Biden
Michael Bloomberg
Pete Buttigieg
John Delaney
Tulsi Gabbard
Amy Klobuchar
Deval Patrick
Bernie Sanders
Tom Steyer
Elizabeth Warren
Andrew Yang
Uncommitted
Total 1,285 100%
Source: Iowa Democrats, The Green Papers

Notes[edit]

Partisan clients
  1. ^ Poll sponsored by End Citizens United
  2. ^ Poll sponsored by O'Say Can You See PAC, the PAC that supported O'Malley in 2016
Additional candidates
  1. ^ Calculated by taking the difference of 100% and all other candidates combined
  2. ^ Yang and Steyer with 3.0%; Gabbard with 1.6%; Bloomberg with 1.0%; Delaney with 0.5%; Bennet with 0.3%; Patrick with 0.0%
  3. ^ Yang with 2.3%; Steyer with 2.0%; Gabbard with 0.7%; Bloomberg not averaged; Bennet, Delaney, and Patrick not reported
  4. ^ FiveThirtyEight aggregates polls with a trendline regression of polls rather than a strict average of recent polls.
  5. ^ Yang with 3.0%; Steyer with 2.9%; Bloomberg with 1.5%; Gabbard with 1.2%; Delaney with 0.3%; Bennet and Patrick with 0.1%
  6. ^ Yang with 2.8%; Steyer with 2.6%; Gabbard with 1.2%; Bloomberg with 2.3%; Delaney with 0.4%; Bennet with 0.2%; Patrick with 0.1%
  7. ^ a b c Key:
    A – all adults
    RV – registered voters
    LV – likely voters
    V – unclear
  8. ^ Delaney with 1%; Bennet and Patrick with 0%; Someone Else with 1%
  9. ^ Not included in existing release
  10. ^ Delaney with 1%; Bennet and Patrick with 0%; someone else with 1%
  11. ^ Bloomberg with 1%; Bennet, Delaney, and Patrick with 0%
  12. ^ Bennet and Bloomberg with 1%; Delaney and Patrick with 0%
  13. ^ Not listed separately from "others"
  14. ^ Trump with 5%; "others" with 2%
  15. ^ If the only viable candidates to caucus for were the four listed in this poll
  16. ^ "None of these/wouldn't vote" with 2%
  17. ^ Booker with 4%, Bennet and Delaney with <1%, Patrick with 0%, Other with <1%
  18. ^ Booker with 3%; Bloomberg with 1%; Bennet, Castro, Delaney, Patrick and Williamson with 0%; someone else with 1%
  19. ^ Booker with 2%; Bennet, Castro, Delaney, Patrick and Williamson with 0%; someone else with 1%
  20. ^ Booker with 3%; Castro with 1%; Delaney, Bloomberg, Bennet, Williamson with 0%
  21. ^ Booker with 4%; Bloomberg with 2%; Bennet, Castro, Delaney, Patrick and Williamson with 0%; someone else with 2%
  22. ^ Bennet, Bloomberg, Booker, Bullock, Castro and Williamson with 1%; Delaney, Messam, Patrick and Sestak with 0%
  23. ^ Booker with 3%; Bloomberg with 2%; Bennet with 1%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Sestak and Williamson with 0%; none with 2%
  24. ^ Booker, Bullock, and Castro with 1%, Messam, Delaney, Bennet, Williamson, and Sestak with 0%, "Someone else" with 1%
  25. ^ Booker with 2%; Bullock and Castro with 1%; Bennet, Bloomberg, Delaney, and Williamson with <1%; Sestak with 0%
  26. ^ Castro with 1%; Bennet, Booker, Bullock, Delaney, O'Rourke and Ryan with 0%
  27. ^ Bennett, Booker, Bullock and Castro with 1%; Delaney, Messam, Sestak and Williamson with 0%
  28. ^ Yang with 3%; Gabbard and Steyer with 2%; Delaney with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, Messam, Sestak and Williamson with 0%
  29. ^ As evidenced by Sestak being listed in second choices but not first preferences and the lack of an 'other' column in the first preferences topline
  30. ^ Steyer with 3%; Gabbard and Yang with 2%; Bennet with 1%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Ryan and Williamson with 0%; Messam and Sestak with no voters[ac]
  31. ^ Gabbard and Steyer with 3%; Yang with 1%; Delaney, Ryan and Williamson with 0%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, Messam and Sestak with no voters; refused with 0%
  32. ^ Yang with 5%; Bullock with 4%; Gabbard and Steyer with 2%; Bennet and Williamson with 1%; Castro with 0%; Delaney, Messam, Ryan and Sestak with no voters; everyone else with 4%
  33. ^ Yang with 1%; a different Democratic candidate, don't know, or refused with 25%
  34. ^ Steyer with 3%, Bennet, Gabbard, Williamson, and Ryan with 1%, Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Messam, Sestak, and Yang with 0%; "someone else" with 0%
  35. ^ Gabbard, Steyer, and Yang with 2%, Bullock, Castro, and Delaney with 1%, Bennet, de Blasio, Ryan, Sestak, and Williamson with 0%; "none of these" with 2%
  36. ^ Steyer with 3%; Yang with 2%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney and Gabbard with 1%; Bennet, de Blasio, Messam, Ryan, Sestak and Williamson with 0%
  37. ^ Gabbard with 4%; Yang with 3%; Steyer with 2%; Ryan and Williamson with 1%; Bennet, de Blasio, Bullock, Castro and Delaney with 0%
  38. ^ Steyer with 2%; Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Messam, Ryan, Sestak and Williamson with 0%; someone else with 2%
  39. ^ Bullock, Gabbard, and Steyer with 2%; Bennet, Castro, and Yang with 1%; Delaney, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Messam, and Williamson with 0%
  40. ^ Steyer with 3%; Gillibrand and Yang with 2%; Bullock, Delaney, Gabbard, and Hickenlooper with 1%; Bennet, Castro, Inslee, O'Rourke, and Williamson with <1%; de Blasio, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, and Sestak with 0%
  41. ^ Castro and Steyer with 2%; Delaney, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Sestak with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, de Blasio, Gabbard, Gravel, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Williamson, and Yang with 0%
  42. ^ Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Inslee, Swalwell, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Moulton, Ryan, and Williamson with 0%
  43. ^ Bennet, Bullock, Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; Hickenlooper, Inslee, Ryan, and Swalwell with <1%; Messam and Moulton with 0%; others with <1%
  44. ^ Bennet, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, de Blasio, Gillibrand, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Sestak, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 1%
  45. ^ Delaney with 2%; Castro, Gabbard, Gravel, Moulton, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, de Blasio, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%
  46. ^ Bennet, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Inslee, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with <1%; de Blasio and Messam with 0%
  47. ^ Yang with 2%; Abrams, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, and Swalwell with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, Ryan, and Williamson with 0%
  48. ^ Delaney with 2%; Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Hickenlooper, and Yang with 1%; Castro and Inslee with 0%
  49. ^ Castro with 2%; Delaney, Gillibrand, Ryan, Swalwell, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, de Blasio, Gabbard, and Inslee with <1%; Bennet, Hickenlooper, McAuliffe, Messam, Moulton, and Williamson with 0%
  50. ^ Delaney with 3%; Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Inslee, Swalwell, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, Hickenlooper, and Williamson with <1%; Bennet and McAuliffe with 0%; others with <1%
  51. ^ Castro, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, and Inslee with 1%; Gillibrand and Yang with 0%; others with 4%
  52. ^ Bennet, Bullock, Castro, Delaney, and Inslee with 1%; Bloomberg, de Blasio, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, Swalwell, Williamson, and Yang with <1%
  53. ^ Gillibrand with 1%
  54. ^ Brown with 4%; Castro with 2%; Delaney and Gillibrand with 1%; Gabbard and Yang with 0%; others with 8%
  55. ^ Kennedy with 5%; Clinton with 4%; Brown with 2%; Bloomberg, Castro, Cuomo, Delaney, Gillibrand, Kerry, and Swalwell with 1%; Holder, McAuliffe, Schultz, and Steyer with 0%
  56. ^ Bloomberg with 3%; Brown, Castro, Delaney, and Hickenlooper with 1%; Bullock, Garcetti, Gillibrand, Holder, Inslee, Steyer, Swalwell, and Yang with <1%
  57. ^ Brown with 3%; Bloomberg and Kerry with 2%; Delaney with 1%; Garcetti with 0%; others with <1%
  58. ^ Gillibrand and Holder with 2%; Avenatti and Delaney with 1%; Bullock, Garcetti, Landrieu, and Patrick with <1%; others with 1%
  59. ^ O'Malley with 18%; Cuomo with 8%; Castro and Sandberg with 4%; Gillibrand with 3%; Schultz with 1%
  1. ^ a b The poll did not announce this result separately; it is listed as part of 'Other'.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Iowa Democratic Delegation 2020". The Green Papers. March 31, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  2. ^ Pfannenstiel, Brianne (February 11, 2019). "How Democrats hope to let Iowans participate in the caucuses without showing up in person". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  3. ^ Natasha Korecki (August 30, 2019). "DNC throws Iowa, Nevada caucuses into confusion". Politico. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  4. ^ Natasha Korecki (September 20, 2019). "Iowa Dems pitch out-of-state caucuses". Politico. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  5. ^ Natasha Korecki; Steven Shepard (January 16, 2020). "The caucus change that has Iowa bracing for a hot mess". Politico. Retrieved January 21, 2020.

External links[edit]