2020 New Zealand cannabis referendum
Do you support the proposed Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill?
Results by electorate.
|Source: Electoral Commission, New Zealand|
The 2020 New Zealand cannabis referendum was a non-binding referendum held on 17 October 2020 in conjunction with the 2020 general election and a euthanasia referendum, on the question of whether to legalise the sale, use, possession and production of recreational cannabis. It was rejected by New Zealand voters. The form of the referendum was a vote for or against the proposed "Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill". Official results were released by the Electoral Commission on 6 November 2020 with 50.7% of voters opposing the legalisation and 48.4% in support.[a]
The results of the cannabis referendum would not have affected the legal status of medicinal cannabis or licensed hemp production, both of which were already legal. They would also not have affected laws regarding driving under the influence of drugs, or workplace health and safety (e.g. being under the influence of cannabis at work).
Cannabis has been illegal in New Zealand since 1927. Historically, neither of the two biggest political parties in New Zealand, Labour or National have tried to decriminalise or legalise cannabis. The Green Party, which has advocated for drug law reform for many years,[when?] secured a commitment to hold a referendum after the 2017 election as part of its confidence and supply agreement with Labour. This agreement followed statements made by the Green Party in December 2016, that if it formed a government in the 2017 election it would legalise the personal production and possession of cannabis for personal use.
In May 2019, a background cabinet paper outlining the options that had been considered for the referendum and the draft legislation was released. The referendum was announced and defended as "binding" by prime minister Jacinda Ardern and justice minister Andrew Little, but as it would not be "self-executing," the bill would still have had to pass a vote in parliament if the referendum returned a "yes" result. Legally the referendum was non-binding and the proposed bill could have been changed in any way before becoming law.
Possession of any amount of recreational cannabis is illegal in New Zealand. Cannabis use is controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 and the maximum sentence for possession of cannabis is 3 months' imprisonment or a $500 fine; although there is a preference against imprisonment. The presumption of supply threshold is 28 grams or 100 joints; above this threshold it is presumed any cannabis possessed is for supply. Cultivation of cannabis carries a maximum penalty of 7 years' imprisonment, while dealing of cannabis carries a maximum penalty of 8 years' imprisonment. Per the tariff case R v Terewi , cultivating cannabis for personal use warrants a community sentence or, if there are aggravating factors, a short-term prison sentence.
The Misuse of Drugs Amendment Act 2019 became law on 13 August 2019 and affirmed existing Police discretion of whether prosecution or a health approach is preferable for personal drug possession and use.
On 1 April 2020, Misuse of Drugs (Medicinal Cannabis) Regulations 2019 came into effect. This enabled the approval of prescription medicinal psychoactive cannabis products that previously were unavailable, and also the licensing of commercial cultivation of cannabis plants for medicinal use. Approved cannabis-based pharmaceuticals can be prescribed by a specialist doctor, but require patients to meet strict criteria. Prior to the referendum, only Sativex was approved for use in New Zealand. Sativex is not subsidised, so patients must pay the full retail cost. In 2020 the Medicinal Cannabis Scheme significantly modified medicinal access to psychoactive cannabis products, and in March 2021 two new cannabidiol drugs were certified for minimum quality standards.
Terminally ill patients have had a legal defence against prosecution for possessing and consuming cannabis under the Misuse of Drugs (Medicinal Cannabis) Amendment Act since December 2018.
In May 2020 the final legislation was made available and it was confirmed that the question put to voters would be: Do you support the proposed Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill?
The two options were:
- "Yes, I support the proposed Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill" and
- "No, I do not support the proposed Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill".
If passed into law unchanged, the proposed "Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill" would have served as new regulatory framework for the production, sale, purchase and consumption of non-medical cannabis in New Zealand. A new regulatory body, the Cannabis Regulatory Authority would have been established with the primary objectives of promoting the well-being of New Zealanders, reducing cannabis-related harm and reducing the overall use of cannabis over time.
The proposed Bill included provisions for the following:
- Minimum purchase and possession age of 20 years old
- Allowing an eligible person to purchase and possess up to 14 grams of dried cannabis (or its equivalent) per day
- Allowing each eligible person to grow up to two cannabis plants for personal use on their own property, up to a maximum of four plants per household
- A ban on marketing and advertising cannabis products
- Requirement to include harm minimisation messaging on cannabis products
- Confining use to private homes and licensed premises, and only in compliance with the Smoke-free Environments Act 1990
- Limiting the sale of recreational cannabis to physical stores (i.e. no remote or online sales)
- Control over the potency of recreational cannabis being sold
- State licensing regime for recreational cannabis
- Applying an excise tax and a harm-reduction levy to cannabis products (in addition to the 15% GST which applies to all goods sold in New Zealand)
- Establishing the Cannabis Regulatory Authority to license and authorise supply
The full text of the bill was available, along with a guide, from the New Zealand government's referendums website.
Many polling organisations asked New Zealanders questions related to cannabis legislation. The results were inconsistent, with "different companies producing wildly different results". However, every poll showed a clear split along age lines. Voters aged 18 to 29, Green and Labour party supporters and Māori people were more likely to support cannabis legalisation, while voters aged 50 and over and National party supporters were more likely to oppose cannabis legalisation.
Overall, support for decriminalisation reached a peak of around 65% three years before the referendum, but declined from 54% in February 2020 to around 45% in polls taken a month or so before the referendum. A 2020 study of Twitter users who tweeted about cannabis between July 2009 to August 2020 found that 62% had a positive view of cannabis, with tweets in 2020 having a slightly higher proportion of positive views on cannabis (65.3%), while 53.5% of those who talked about the cannabis referendum were in support of the bill.
Most polling conducted prior to September 2020 asked about opinions on the legalisation of cannabis for personal use, or in some cases, about government control of use and sale of cannabis, rather than about the Legalisation and Control Bill, which was released for public consultation in May 2020. Polls asking about the specific bill showed mixed opinion, from 35% for / 53% against to 49% for / 45% against.
Opinion poll numbers tend to trend higher around support for medicinal use of cannabis. When voting age New Zealanders were asked in July 2017 if they supported "growing and/or using cannabis for medical reasons if you have a terminal illness", 59% responded that it should be legal, 22% supported decriminalisation, while 15% responded it should be illegal. However, when they were asked their thoughts on "Possessing a small amount of cannabis for personal use", 37% responded that it should be decriminalised, 31% responded that it should be illegal, and 28% responded that it should be fully legal.
|Date||Polling organisation||Sample size||For||Against||Undecided||Lead|
|10–14 Oct 2020||1 News Colmar Brunton||1,005||41||51||8||10|
|2–4 Oct 2020||Research New Zealand||1,002||46||40||14||6|
|22 Sep – 5 Oct 2020||UMR Research||1,129||49||45||6||4|
|24–28 Sep 2020||Horizon Research||1,481||52||47||–||5|
|17–21 Sep 2020||1 News Colmar Brunton||1,008||35||53||11||18|
|20–25 Aug 2020||Horizon Research||1,300||49.5||49.5||1||Tie|
|20–23 Aug 2020||Research New Zealand||1,003||39||46||15||7|
|9–13 Jul 2020||Research New Zealand||1,012||43||39||18||4|
|20–24 Jun 2020||1 News Colmar Brunton||1,007||40||49||11||9|
|10–14 Jun 2020||Horizon Research||1,593||56||43||–||13|
|6–9 Mar 2020||Research New Zealand||1,000||43||33||19||10|
|21–26 Feb 2020||Horizon Research||1,986||54||45||1||9|
|8–12 Feb 2020||1 News Colmar Brunton||1,004||39||51||9||12|
|23–27 Nov 2019||1 News Colmar Brunton||1,006||43||49||7||6|
|11–17 Nov 2019||Horizon Research||1,199||48||38||14||10|
|3–4 Aug 2019||Horizon Research||1,003||39||47||14||8|
|4–8 Jun 2019||1 News Colmar Brunton||1,002||39||52||8||13|
|9 May 2019||Horizon Research||1,161||52||37||11||15|
|3–17 Mar 2019||Research New Zealand||1,220||29||49||18||20|
|10–26 Oct 2018||Horizon Research||995||60||24||16||36|
|15–19 Oct 2018||1 News Colmar Brunton||1,006||46||41||12||5|
|2–17 Jul 2018||Curia Market Research||943||49||47||3||2|
Leading up to the referendum, much media attention was paid to the upcoming vote, and to arguments for and against the legalisation of cannabis in New Zealand. Proponents of the bill focused largely on the inefficacy of prohibition, and the prevalence of black market cannabis in New Zealand, while opponents argued that the legislation would allow greater access to the drug, especially for children.
Arguments for reform
Prohibition being ineffective
The New Zealand Drug Foundation (NZDF), a pro-reform charitable trust, said that 80% of New Zealanders have tried cannabis by age 21, but only 10% of the population become heavy users. The NZDF reported that New Zealanders consume around 74 tonnes of cannabis a year, and that each year, the New Zealand Police spend over 330,000 hours on cannabis enforcement which costs the taxpayer almost $200 million. NZDF suggested that legalisation would free up police to focus on more serious drug crimes.
Disproportionate impact on Māori
The NZDF also argued that there is a significant underground market for cannabis and that prohibition disproportionately criminalizes Māori. According to the NZDF, Māori are three times more likely to get a cannabis conviction than non-Māori for the same level of cannabis use, are twice as likely as non-Māori to suffer a substance use disorder and find it harder to access health and treatment services. The NZDF suggested that Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill would largely eliminate the black market for cannabis and reduce the number of young Māori receiving convictions by enabling Māori participation in a regulated legal market, and providing for Māori representation on the body charged with developing national cannabis policy.
It was independently reported that 79% of Māori supported the Bill.
Employment & tax intake
Studies conducted by independent consultancy Business and Economic Research Limited indicate the annual tax intake from cannabis, if it was legalised, would be more than $1 billion. The NZDF suggested that this money could be put into healthcare (including more addiction treatment facilities), schools, education programmes and other infrastructure that will benefit all New Zealanders. The cannabis industry could employ about 5000 people and allow the government to regulate and tax the sale and distribution.
Arguments against reform
Use by children
Opponents of the bill suggested that despite an age limit on legal cannabis trade, children would be influenced by new legal and social norms, and, similar to alcohol and cigarettes, a greater prevalence of the drug would lead to cannabis use at younger ages than the legislation regulates for. In Oregon, where cannabis has been legalised, the number of children younger than six reported poisoned by cannabis rose by 271 per cent (from 14 cases to 52). Concerns were also expressed that government and authorities were not able to control underage access and use of alcohol and vaping products, so were unlikely to be able to control illegal cannabis use.
The age at which people start using cannabis is an important factor, and use of the drug can affect brain development in teenagers. A New Zealand study found that heavy use by teens led to an average loss of eight IQ points between ages 13 and 38. Even if these individuals quit as adults, lost mental abilities didn't fully return. Those who started smoking cannabis as adults didn't show notable IQ declines. Frequent use in early teens also doubles the risk of developing schizophrenia in the future.
Increase in use
The Smart Approaches to Marijuana NZ Coalition, and the Say Nope to Dope campaign, suggest that the introduction of a legal market would lead to competition with the existing black market and drive cannabis prices down. The group suggested that this would lead to an increase in cannabis use overall, an outcome that is counter to the purpose of the bill: reducing harm.
Road and workplace accidents
Concerns were also been raised that if more people start smoking it, this might lead to more road accidents and workplace injuries. Research in New Zealand showed that regular cannabis users have ten times the risk of car crash injuries or death compared to non-users, with another study showing that more than half of drivers causing a crash had drugs in their system.
Impact on health
Opponents to the bill emphasised that cannabis smoke irritates the lungs, and people who smoke it frequently can have the similar breathing problems to those who smoke tobacco. These problems include daily cough and phlegm, more frequent lung illness, and a higher risk of lung infections. A succession of clinical studies have found it increases the risk of chronic bronchitis, inflammation of the throat, and impaired immune function. However, it has not been shown to cause lung cancer. Cannabis may also precipitate schizophrenia in individuals who are vulnerable because of a personal or family history of schizophrenia.
Campaigning and endorsements
The rules regarding campaigning for the referendum were generally the same as for the general election. All advertisements had to carry a promoter statement, stating the name and physical address of the promoter. It was illegal to campaign on polling day, or within a 10-metre radius of an advance polling booth.
During the regulated period, which ran from 18 August to 16 October 2020, promoters had to declare their campaign expenses and there were limits on how much they could spend on referendum campaigning. The maximum expense limit was $338,000 per referendum for those promoters registered with the Electoral Commission, and $13,600 per referendum for unregistered promoters.
There were 15 registered promoters for the 2020 General Election and Referendums, two of which were against recreational cannabis: Family First New Zealand and SAM (Smart Approaches to Marijuana) NZ Coalition and 13 were in support. The Helen Clark Foundation was not registered, but was influential in the lead up to the election.
On 30 June 2020, minister of justice Andrew Little claimed SAM NZ's campaign was funded by US political organisation Smart Approaches to Marijuana (SAM), via Family First, however SAM NZ state they are fully funded by concerned New Zealand families and did not receive any funding from the US organisation.
The New Zealand Medical Association initially announced its opposition to the legislation, although controversy around a lack of membership consultation led the board to retract their public stance. The NZMA originally stated that "cannabis is a harmful drug that causes a range of health and social harms at the individual and community level", however it was subsequently revealed that the NZMA relied on outdated information and had not consulted any of its 5,000 doctors before making their statement public. Many GPs were upset by this and, subsequently, more than 100 doctors publicly supported cannabis legalisation. Dr Emma Clare said many doctors thought the referendum would pass, and so did not speak up about the NZMA's anti legislation stance. The NZMA was also criticised by former prime minister Helen Clark, who said it had given "a false impression to voters of what doctors think". Less than two weeks before election day, when early voting had been going on for over a week, the NZMA sent a letter of apology to its members which said: "The NZMA will have no position regarding the cannabis referendum."
While the government claimed to not have a position on the legalisation of cannabis, opponents of the proposed bill criticised government-published information for bias and lobbying for law change. The New Zealand Medical Journal was critical of the government naming and promoting the proposed bill as planning to "reduce harm", because evidence on outcomes were inconclusive, as legalisation was a still new model. The government was also criticised for not releasing an assessment report of the potential effects of legalisation, until after voting had begun.
The government-funded NZ Drug Foundation claimed to be apolitical, but was accused of misleading advertising, saying the proposed bill would improve access to medicinal cannabis, when the proposed bill did not include medicinal cannabis.
Close to the election, The Spinoff said Family First's "Say Nope To Dope" and SAM-NZ's "Vote Nope To Dope" campaigns had "out-worked and out-messaged pro-legalisation campaigners", observing "one team just wanting it more".
Much media attention was given to the fact that prime minister Jacinda Ardern would neither endorse, nor reveal her personal stance on the referendum. In May 2020 Jacinda Ardern polled as New Zealand's most popular prime minister in a century, thanks in part to her success in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic. Speculation prior to the election held that an endorsement from Ardern, would likely sway the outcome of the referendum, but despite publicly endorsing a Yes vote for the euthanasia referendum, she did not share her position on the cannabis referendum. Ardern stated that she wanted New Zealanders to form their own views on the matter, and that the Labour Party also held no official position.
Professor Papaarangi Reid, head of the department of Māori health at the University of Auckland, suggested the legislation would have helped regulate its strength, its cost and limit its accessibility by young people.
Supported Yes vote
- Israel Adesanya
- Helen Clark, former Prime Minister of New Zealand (1999–2008)
- Dr Hinemoa Elder, New Zealand youth forensic psychiatrist
- Abe Gray, founder of the Whakamana Cannabis Museum and high-profile cannabis activist and protester.
- Andrew Little, Labour Party MP and former Minister of Justice
- Shai Navot, then deputy leader of The Opportunities Party (TOP)
- Diane Robertson
- Chlöe Swarbrick, Green Party MP
- Tiki Taane
- Topp Twins
- Sam Neill
- Paul Wieland, consultant anaesthetist at Southland hospital.
- The Helen Clark Foundation. In September 2019, the Foundation issued a report analysing the impact of the current law and supporting legalisation.
- New Zealand Drug Foundation
- NORML New Zealand
- JustSpeak, a youth-focused group which advocates for criminal justice reform
- ActionStation Aotearoa
- Victoria University of Wellington Students Association. VUWSA endorsed a Yes vote after 75 per cent of students voted in favour at the annual association referendum.
Supported No vote
- Paula Bennett, former Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand (2016–17)
- Simeon Brown, National Party MP
- Eroni Clarke
- Efeso Collins
- Judith Collins, then National Party Leader and Leader of the Opposition (2020–2021)
- Patrick Drumm, Mount Albert Grammar School Principal
- James Farmer, Queen's Counsel
- Kate Hawkesby
- Mike Hosking
- Aaron Ironside, SAM NZ Spokesperson, counsellor, pastor and broadcaster.
- John Key, former Prime Minister of New Zealand (2008–2016)
- Jo Luxton, Labour Party candidate for Rangitata
- Dr Muriel Newman, former ACT New Zealand politician
- Wynton Rufer
- Nick Smith, National Party MP
- David Tua
- Family First New Zealand
- The Salvation Army agreed with the need for decriminalisation but did not support the legalisation of cannabis as proposed in the referendum.
- SAM (Smart Approaches to Marijuana) NZ Coalition, a collective of more than 25 groups and individuals, including drug addiction and testing services, the Sensible Sentencing Trust, family organisations, and faith-based organisations like the NZ Christian Network, the New Zealand Muslim Association, and Foundation for a Drug-Free World, a division of the Church of Scientology.
Official results for the general election and referendums were released on 6 November 2020. The number opposed to decriminalisation was 50.7% with 48.4% in favour. Preliminary results for the referendums were released by the Electoral Commission on 30 October 2020. Those results had 53.5% of people opposed to the legislation with 46.5% in support. Around 480,000 special votes were counted later reducing the percentage opposed to 50.7%.
Unlike the general election, a preliminary count for the cannabis and euthanasia referendums was not completed on election night (17 October). All voting papers, counterfoils and electoral rolls were returned to the electorate's returning officer for counting. During the count, the returning officer approved and counted any special votes, and compiled a master electoral roll to ensure no-one voted more than once. Special votes include votes from those who enrolled after the deadline of 13 September, those who voted outside their electorate (including overseas votes), voters in hospital or prison, and those voters enrolled on the unpublished roll. To simplify processing and counting, overseas votes were sent to and counted at the Electoral Commission's central processing centre in Wellington.
|Valid votes cast||2,881,608||99.09|
|Total votes cast||2,908,071||100.00|
|Registered voters and turnout||3,549,564||82.24|
|Cannabis referendum results (excluding invalid votes)|
By polling place location
As each polling place had only one ballot box for ordinary referendum votes, ordinary votes were broken down by the general electorate where the polling place was located. Special votes were broken down by electorate. Both ordinary and special votes have been combined in the following table.
|Bay of Plenty||21,410||46.51||24,625||53.49||295|
|East Coast Bays||18,105||41.09||25,958||58.91||290|
|Kaipara ki Mahurangi||24,040||48.03||26,015||51.97||379|
|Te Tai Hauāuru||5,127||81.08||1,196||18.92||81|
|Te Tai Tokerau||5,402||79.59||1,385||20.41||81|
|Te Tai Tonga||5,189||82.88||1,072||17.12||71|
Green Party MP Chlöe Swarbrick, a campaigner for drug reform, sarcastically told the winning No campaigners "Well done. It [cannabis] still exists" and said she would continue her fight for legalising cannabis. She labelled as hypocrites the majority of parliamentarians, who refused to publicly state they supported legalisation.
After preliminary results for the referendum were released, prime minister Jacinda Ardern revealed that she had voted Yes in the referendum, and subsequently faced criticism, with Swarbrick suggesting that Ardern's refusal to offer public support showed she was not willing to stand up for her convictions. Aaron Ironside, spokesperson for SAM-NZ (who endorsed a "No" vote), agreed that Ardern's silence contributed to the result and said she had done the right thing letting voters decide, as that was the point of the referendum.
National MP Nick Smith described the preliminary result as a "victory for common sense" and that New Zealanders had "signalled opposition to the softening of drug crime". Family First director Bob McCoskrie of the "Say Nope to Dope" campaign said that he was "pretty stoked" with the preliminary referendum results and that New Zealanders "understood the perceived benefits of legalisation were not greater than the harms that were going to come on society". Ironside said that he was happy that New Zealand younger people would not be enlisted in a "social experiment."
Writing on Stuff, columnist Damien Grant pointed out that previous governments had ignored referendum results and thought the new Labour government should do the same. He said: "Not only is the idea that the electorate should decide any particular issue impracticable, the closeness of the cannabis vote means that the prohibition of the drug is now unworkable" and argued that parliament should, "consider the ethical merits of subjecting the minority of otherwise law-abiding citizens to criminal sanctions for smoking dried leaves at the behest of a puritan majority".
Parmjit Randhawa, director of Christchurch-based medicinal cannabis company Greenlab was glad the referendum didn't pass as he didn't think there was enough clinical evidence supporting recreational cannabis. Speaking of research and development into medicinal cannabis he said "Before we start running, we should start walking."
Victoria University Associate Professor, Dr Fiona Hutton, said she thought the No campaign advertisements were "based on outdated moralised notions of those who use drugs, influenced by rightwing religious groups from the US". Hutton also thought "the playing field was never level, [and] that absolutely fantastic academics, community groups, organisations and campaigners [...] sought to educate, to inform, to circulate evidence, to give people clear and balanced information, fought to get their voices heard amongst swirling misinformation and misdirection".
NewstalkZB radio broadcaster Mike Hosking spoke about research showing the media bias in favour of the Yes campaigners, saying "36 percent of all headlines promoted yes, 18 percent were for no. In other words, twice as much of what you saw was for one camp." Similarly figures on the number of reported quotes from advocates showed "the yes position was quoted twice as often as no". He said "worst offenders were The Spinoff, Stuff, Newshub, the Herald, TVNZ, and Radio New Zealand" and that he thought TVNZ & RNZ had "a statutory obligation to be fair and balanced".
- ^ The remainder of ballots returned were invalid or blank.
- ^ a b Cooke, Henry (7 May 2019). "Explainer: The cannabis referendum and why it isn't binding". Stuff. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- ^ a b c "Cannabis legalisation and control referendum". Referendums 2020. NZ Government. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- ^ "About the 2020 General Election | Vote NZ". vote.nz. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- ^ "Official count - Referendum results". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 9 November 2020.[permanent dead link]
- ^ Nadkarni, Anuja (3 September 2020). "Cannabis referendum: How legalisation could affect medicinal cannabis companies". Stuff. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
- ^ a b c Why are we having this referendum? The Spinoff
- ^ Policy series: where do the parties stand on cannabis and drug reform? NZ Herald, 4 September 2017
- ^ "New Zealand to hold cannabis referendum". BBC News. 20 October 2017. Archived from the original on 22 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- ^ "We could see legalised marijuana and free university under New Zealand's new PM". ABC News. 21 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- ^ "Confidence and Supply Agreement between the New Zealand Labour Party and the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand" (PDF). New Zealand Parliament. 24 October 2017.
- ^ "Legal cannabis in NZ? Green Party offers green light to pot smokers". Stuff.co.nz. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- ^ "Drug Law Reform Policy". Greens.org.nz. 12 April 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- ^ Phipps, Claire; Roy, Eleanor Ainge (23 September 2017). "NZ First's Winston Peters kingmaker in New Zealand hung parliament – as it happened". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- ^ Little, Andrew. "Proactive Release - 2020 Cannabis Referendum" (PDF). NZ Government. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- ^ Small, Zane (7 May 2019). "Government reveals details of cannabis referendum". Newshub. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- ^ Little, Andrew (3 December 2019). "Referendums website and initial cannabis Bill launched" (Press release). New Zealand Government. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- ^ "5. Question No. 5—Prime Minister - New Zealand Parliament". New Zealand Parliament. 19 February 2019.
- ^ Section 7(2)(b) Misuse of Drugs Act 1975
- ^ "Possession and use of controlled drugs". Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 No 116 (as at 08 September 2011), Public Act. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office/Te Tari Tohutohu Pāremata. 8 September 2011. Section 7(2). Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- ^ R v Terewi, 1999 NZCA 92 (25 May 1999).
- ^ "Changes to the Misuse of Drugs Act". Ministry of Health. Ministry of Health. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ "Misuse of Drugs (Medicinal Cannabis) Regulations 2019". Retrieved 3 July 2020.
- ^ "Medicinal Cannabis Agency Industry Information". Retrieved 3 July 2020.
- ^ "New Zealand Consumer Medical Information – Sativex, Oral spray" (PDF). New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- ^ "Medicinal Cannabis Background". Retrieved 23 July 2020.
- ^ "Medicinal Cannabis Agency Regulation". Retrieved 23 July 2020.
- ^ "Medsafe Medical Cannabis Scheme Update". Retrieved 23 July 2020.
- ^ "Minimum Quality Standard". Retrieved 23 July 2020.
- ^ Bennett, Lucy (11 December 2018). "Medicinal cannabis bill passes third reading". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- ^ Bateman, Sophie (11 December 2018). "Parliament passes medicinal cannabis Bill, promises regulated market and legal defence". Newshub. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- ^ Little, Andrew (1 May 2020). "Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill released". Beehive.govt.nz.
- ^ a b "Govt reveals final cannabis legislation to be voted on in referendum". Radio New Zealand. 1 May 2020.
- ^ "Summary of the proposed Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill". NZ Government. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- ^ Parliamentary Counsel. "Exposure Draft of the Cannabis Legalisation and Control Bill" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- ^ "A guide to the exposure draft Bill for referendum" (PDF). NZ Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- ^ Cannabis referendum: Teens overwhelmingly support legalising cannabis - but what could it mean for them? Stuff, 15 October 2020
- ^ "1 NEWS Colmar Brunton Poll: Support for cannabis legalisation dropping, End of Life Choice remains steady". TVNZ. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
- ^ Newshub (20 August 2017). "Support for cannabis reform getting higher". Newshub. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- ^ a b c Jones, Nicholas (19 August 2017). "National voters, wider public back cannabis law reform: poll". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- ^ "Support for cannabis law reform remains high in 2017". NZ Drug Foundation. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- ^ Cannabis referendum vote: lead builds for reform, Horizon Poll
- ^ Riordan, Benjamin; Raubenheimer, Jacques; Ward, Rose Marie; Merrill, Jennifer; Winter, Taylor; Scarf, Damian (6 October 2020). "Monitoring the sentiment of cannabis‐related tweets in the lead up to New Zealand's cannabis referendum". Drug and Alcohol Review. 40 (5): 835–841. doi:10.1111/dar.13184. PMID 33022132. S2CID 222184173.
- ^ "1 NEWS Colmar Brunton Poll: Support for cannabis legalisation dropping, End of Life Choice remains steady". TVNZ. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- ^ "Cannabis reform would pass if referendum held today: Poll". Stuff. 5 October 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- ^ Cannabis, NZDF
- ^ a b Vote Yes: Support the Cannabis Control Bill Archived 22 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine, NZ Drug Foundation
- ^ Why legalise. Archived 12 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine Drug Foundation
- ^ Why referendums are never likely to advance Māori interests, Stuff, 14 November 2020
- ^ a b Cannabis referendum: Annual tax-take of more than $1 billion if legalised - report, Newshub 8 September 2020
- ^ a b c Osbaldiston, Ryan (10 July 2020). "Cannabis referendum: Think marijuana is harmless? Think again". Stuff. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- ^ "LESSONS LEARNED FROM STATE MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION" (PDF). Smart Approaches to Marijuana. May 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ "Cannabis Report 2014-2018" (PDF). Oregon Poison Center. November 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ a b c "Election 2020 cannabis referendum: Mt Albert Grammar principal Patrick Drumm's plea to parents". NZ Herald. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ Marijuana Drug facts Archived 17 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, National Institute on Drug Abuse
- ^ a b Smoking cannabis in your teens linked to higher risk of depression - study, NZ Herald 14 February 2019
- ^ a b The Association Between Cannabis Use and Schizophrenia: Causative or Curative? A Systematic Review, Cureus. July 2020. Vol. 12(7): e9309.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Cannabis referendum: The arguments for and against legalising recreational cannabis". Stuff. 23 July 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
- ^ Reducing cannabis health harms, NZDF
- ^ Marijuana Drug Facts Archived 17 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, National Institute on Drug Abuse
- ^ Cannabis use and the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, World Psychiatry. 2008 Jun; 7(2): 68–71.
- ^ "Change in regulated period | Elections". elections.nz. Archived from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- ^ "2020 General Election and referendums Register of promoters for the 2020 General Election and Referendums". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- ^ a b Palmer, Scott (3 September 2019). "Helen Clark Foundation report gives cannabis legalisation green tick". Newshub.
- ^ a b The case for YES in the 2020 referendum on cannabis Archived 12 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Helen Clark Foundation, p.7
- ^ "Government accuses big American anti-cannabis group of interfering in NZ politics". One News. TVNZ. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ a b "MPs concerned over anti-drug campaign's similarity to US group". RNZ. Radio New Zealand. 2 July 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ a b "Cannabis referendum: Medical Association admits not consulting members on issue". RNZ. 6 October 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- ^ a b Strang, Ben (13 October 2020). "Cannabis referendum: Medical Association now neutral". RNZ. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
- ^ New Zealand's ‘Cannabis Legalisation and Regulation Bill’: an evidence-based assessment and critique of essential regulatory components towards policy outcomes, NZMA
- ^ "NZ Medical Association's U-turn on cannabis causes backlash from doctors". One News. TVNZ. 13 October 2020.
- ^ Cannabis referendum: More than 100 doctors back legalising recreational use, RNZ, 15 October 2020
- ^ Helen Clark criticises Medical Association after 'very late' clarification on cannabis stance, One News 12 October 2020
- ^ "Cannabis referendum: Andrew Little, Auckland University researchers trade barbs over NZ Government's 'unrealistic' voting material". Newshub – via www.newshub.co.nz.
- ^ "New Zealand's 'Cannabis Legalisation and Regulation Bill': an evidence-based assessment and critique of essential regulatory components towards policy outcomes | OPEN ACCESS". journal.nzma.org.nz.
- ^ "Cannabis referendum: Justice Minister says prohibition has failed as new report reveals scale of use in New Zealand". Newshub – via www.newshub.co.nz.
- ^ "Recreational cannabis regulation and harm reduction | BERL". berl.co.nz.
- ^ "Drug Foundation stands by ad campaign after being labelled 'misleading'". NZ Herald.
- ^ a b ZB, Newstalk. "Mike's Minute: We're waking up to the dangers of cannabis". ZB.
- ^ Braae, Alex (25 September 2020). "A night in Gore with New Zealand's most formidable conservative campaigners".
- ^ Ardern becomes New Zealand's most popular PM in a century: poll, Reuters 18 May 2020
- ^ Election 2020: If Jacinda Ardern supports cannabis legalisation, she should say so, Stuff 28 September 2020
- ^ I want people to make their own choice: Ardern on backing euthanasia bill. NZ Herald, 25 June 2020
- ^ Election 2020: Jacinda Ardern refuses to say how she will vote in cannabis referendum, NZ Herald 11 August
- ^ PM defends no comment stance on cannabis referendum, NZ Herald, 31 October 2020
- ^ "Public health experts urge a 'yes' vote in cannabis referendum". New Zealand Doctor. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
- ^ Ainge Roy, Eleanor. "New Zealand narrowly votes no to legalising cannabis in referendum". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
- ^ Foote, Stephen (25 May 2020). "UFC: Israel Adesanya lends support to cannabis legalisation in New Zealand". Newshub.
- ^ Clark, Helen (4 September 2019). "Cannabis prohibition doesn't work anywhere. It's New Zealand's turn to legalise it". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
- ^ Sadler, Rachel (29 September 2020). "Cannabis referendum: Helen Clark part of 60-strong group kicking off 'yes' vote campaign". Newshub. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
- ^ "My Mum was in excruciating pain, our family gave her cannabis". Stuff. 2 March 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ Neville, Alice (5 August 2020). "Everything you need to know about the 2020 cannabis referendum". The Spinoff. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ NZ Drug Foundation on Facebook Watch, archived from the original on 7 December 2020, retrieved 15 August 2020
- ^ "How Abe Gray became New Zealand's 'Gandalf of Weed'". Stuff. 23 October 2020.
- ^ "A cannabis cafe on Cuba St? Why not, says TOP leader". Stuff. 3 September 2020.
- ^ a b c "National caucus to vote against cannabis at referendum - Judith Collins". RNZ. 11 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
- ^ "Candidates quizzed in Silverdale youth-focused event". LocalMatters. 13 October 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
- ^ "Cannabis referendum: 'Time we legalise something commonly used' - Dame Diane Robertson". Radio New Zealand. 29 September 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
- ^ a b "Cannabis referendum: Chloe Swarbrick and Nick Smith get fired up over cannabis". Newshub. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
- ^ a b Swarbrick, Chloe (1 May 2020). "Green Party says Kiwis now have clear decision to make on legal and controlled cannabis". Greens.org.nz. Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- ^ a b Weaver, Georgia (29 August 2020). "'Stoner' stigma unfair, say Kiwis planning to tick yes in upcoming cannabis referendum". Stuff. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
- ^ "Election 2020: The cannabis vote is still too close to call". Stuff.co.nz. 10 October 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
- ^ "Election 2020 cannabis referendum: Sam Neill urges Kiwis to vote 'yes'". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
- ^ Fowlie, Chris (21 October 2017). "New Zealand Govt to hold cannabis referendum". NORML New Zealand.
- ^ "Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party – Truth Freedom Justice". Retrieved 14 August 2020.
- ^ "The Real Deal Cannabis Reform". TOP. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ "'It's because of the unknown' - Paula Bennett to vote 'no' to legalising cannabis". TVNZ. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- ^ "Chloe Swarbrick and Simeon Brown offer different views on upcoming referendums". One News. TVNZ. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ a b c "Why are we voting NO to legalising recreational cannabis?" (PDF). Say Nope To Dope. Say Nope To Dope. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ "Cannabis referendum: Auckland Councillor Efeso Collins of Say Nope to Dope camp backs decriminalisation". nzherald.co.nz. New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
- ^ "Cannabis referendum: Judith Collins tries to smoke out Jacinda Ardern on how she'll vote". Stuff. 11 August 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- ^ "Cannabis legal reform – arguments for and against". Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- ^ "Cannabis Bill Not the Right Reform". Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- ^ a b c Muriel, Newman. "Two referenda: Euthanasia and the recreational use of cannabis". Star News. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- ^ Hawkesby, Kate. "Kate Hawkesby: Listen to the professionals on the harms of cannabis legalisation". ZB.
- ^ Hawkesby, Kate. "Kate Hawkesby: I can't predict which way the cannabis referendum will go". ZB.
- ^ Hosking, Mike. "Three reasons why legalising cannabis is a dopey idea". NZ Herald. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- ^ "Anti-marijunana lobby group denies US interference in its campaign". Newshub. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
- ^ ZB, Newstalk. "Aaron Ironside from Say Nope to Dope on why cannabis shouldn't be legalised". ZB. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
- ^ Tapaleao, Vaimoana (8 October 2020). "Election 2020: Sir John Key's resounding no on cannabis referendum". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
- ^ "Labour MP Jo Luxton against cannabis legalisation". Stuff. 17 September 2020. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ^ Cheng, Derek (11 August 2020). "Election 2020: A National-Act Govt may not legalise cannabis following a 'yes' vote". The New Zealand Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
- ^ "SayNopeToDope.nz Website Will Oppose Legalisation - Say nope to dope Say nope to dope". saynopetodope.org.nz. 23 October 2017.
- ^ The Salvation Army does not support the legalisation of cannabis, Salvation Army
- ^ New Conservative Party's policy on marijuana Archived 7 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine, ISidewith
- ^ a b c "About the 2020 General Election". vote.nz. Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
- ^ "Referendum preliminary results: Yes to euthanasia reform, no to cannabis". Radio NZ. 30 October 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
- ^ "How are general election votes counted?". Elections.nz. Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
- ^ "Can't get to a voting place?". Elections.nz. Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
- ^ "Party Secretary Handbook - 2020 General Election and Referendums" (PDF). Electoral Commission.
- ^ "Official referendum results released". Election Commission of New Zealand (Press release). 6 November 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
- ^ "2020 Referendum Results by electorate". Electoral Commission. 6 November 2020.
- ^ a b Satherley, Dan (31 October 2020). "Chlöe Swarbrick's message to cannabis haters after failed referendum: 'Well done - it still exists'". Newshub. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ^ a b Whyte, Anna (30 October 2020). "Chlöe Swarbrick optimistic in light of unsuccessful cannabis referendum". 1 News. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ^ Referendum results: Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern voted 'yes' for both cannabis and euthanasia, Stuff 30 October 2020
- ^ Ardern silence on cannabis sways NZ poll, Young Witness 30 October 2020
- ^ Defying cannabis referendum result the right thing to do - and PM knows it, Stuff, 15 November 2020
- ^ "Medicinal cannabis companies have mixed feelings about referendum outcome". Radio New Zealand. 11 November 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- ^ New Zealand's rejection of legalising cannabis is a triumph for fear-mongering, The Guardian, 9 November 2020
- ^ Mike, Hosking. "Mike's Minute: Media bias exposed in cannabis referendum coverage". NewstalkZB. Retrieved 7 June 2021.