2020 Peruvian protests

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2020 Peruvian protests
Part of 2017–2020 Peruvian political crisis
Top to bottom, left to right:
Demonstrations on 17 November at Plaza San Martín, protesters carrying a large Peruvian flag during the first National March on 12 November, demonstration in Plaza de Armas of Trujillo on 9 November and protesters gathered during the first National March in Lima.
Date9 November 2020 – ongoing
Location
Caused by
Goals
Methods
Resulted in
  • Manuel Merino resigns from presidency
  • Francisco Sagasti designated president until general elections
Parties to the civil conflict

Opposing parties:


Human rights groups:

  • National Human Rights Coordinator

Protesters:

Lead figures
Merino government:

Manuel Merino
Ántero Flores Aráoz


Union for Peru:
Antauro Humala

Édgar Alarcón [es]
Opposition:

Verónika Mendoza

Julio Guzmán
Number
Tens of thousands[1]
Casualties and losses

Injuries

11 police (12 Nov)[1]

Deaths

Injuries

The 2020 Peruvian protests are a series of demonstrations sparked after the removal of President Martín Vizcarra, beginning on 9 November 2020.[4]

The controversial removal of Vizcarra was recognized as a coup by many Peruvians,[5][6] political analysts[7] and media outlets in the country.[8][9][10][11][12] Protests were registered in several cities of the country, to show their outrage at the president's vacancy and reject the inauguration of the president of Congress, Manuel Merino.[13] Upon taking office, Merino formed a far-right government with the support of Peruvian Navy admirals.[14][15][16]

The protests have been described as the largest demonstrations in Peru in the past two decades and are organized by grassroots groups of young Peruvians on social media.[1][17] The disproportional response by authorities has been condemned by various human rights organizations, including United Nations Peru, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) and Amnesty International.[18][19][20]

After reports that protesters were killed by authorities on 14 November, the majority of ministers from Merino's government resigned from office[21] while Merino resigned the following day; he was president for five days.[22] On 16 November, the Congress of Peru elected Francisco Sagasti as the president of the legislature, automatically elevating him to the Peruvian presidency under the constitution.[23]

Background[edit]

Martín Vizcarra was elected as First Vice President of Peru in a 2016 general election, running with Pedro Pablo Kuczynski of the Peruanos Por el Kambio party. On 23 March 2018, Vizcarra was sworn into office as president of Peru following the resignation of President Kuczynski.[24][25] Upon being sworn into office, Vizcarra stated "we've had enough", vowing to combat corruption as president.[26]

Opposition from congress[edit]

Throughout Vizcarra's tenure, he faced opposition from the Congress of Peru.[27] He initially faced opposition from the Fujimorist congress when pushing for the constitutional referendum in 2018, an election that resulted with laws prohibiting the private funding of political campaigns and a ban on reelecting lawmakers.[28][29][30] Into 2019, the Fujimorist congress continued to delay Vizcarra's reforms, with Vizcarra later dissolving the congress after instituting a motion of no confidence, saying it was "clear the democracy of our nation is at risk".[31][32]

A legislative election was held later on 26 January 2020 which replaced the dissolved congress, with centrist parties replacing the Fujimorist majority in congress.[33] Analysts Diego Pereira and Lucila Barbeito of JPMorgan Chase & Co described the new congress as being "even more antagonistic to the [Vizcarra] government than the previous one"[34] while Americas Quarterly wrote that the four main right-wing parties of congress – Alliance for Progress, Podemos Perú, Popular Action and Union for Peru – feared Vizcarra's anti-corruption measures on campaign financing, political transparency and the participation of convicted persons in government.[35]

As Peru's economy declined due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru, Vizcarra faced increased political pressure from the newly inaugurated congress presided by Manuel Merino, with the majority of the legislative body being controlled by those opposing Vizcarra.[34] Finally on 5 July 2020, Vizcarra proposed a referendum to be held during the 2021 Peruvian general election to remove parliamentary immunity,[36] though congress quickly responded by assembling that same night to pass their own immunity bill that contained proposals to remove immunity from the president, constitutional court and the human rights ombudsman while also strengthening some instances of parliamentary immunity.[37]

Impeachment and removal of Vizcarra[edit]

First attempt at removal[edit]

President Martín Vizcarra in 2018

In early 2020, investigations began surrounding a contract for a little-known singer by the name of Richard Cisneros to perform speeches for the Ministry of Culture.[38] The first impeachment process was led by the imprisoned Antauro Humala and his Union for Peru (UPP) party, according to reports in Peru.[39] Humala was sentenced to 19 years in prison following his Andahuaylazo uprising against President Alejandro Toledo that resulted in the deaths of police.[39] From his cell, Humala reportedly orchestrated the impeachment process with members of congress and his UPP supporters.[39] Edgar Alarcón, a UPP congressman and a close supporter of Humala, took charge of the impeachment process against Vizcarra.[39] Alarcón himself, according to Vice News, was protected from criminal charges of embezzlement and illicit monetary gains due to parliamentary immunity, charges that could have resulted with seventeen years in prison.[39]

It was alleged that an inexperienced Cisneros was able to receive payments totaling US$50,000 due to contacts in the Government Palace.[38] Investigators searched offices in the Government Palace on 1 June 2020 regarding the alleged irregularities.[38] Vizcarra responded to the release of the recordings stating "I am not going to resign. I am not running away" and that the "audios have been edited and maliciously manipulated; as you can see, they purposely seek to turn a job-related claim into a criminal or political act, wanting to take words out of context and intend to accuse me of non-existent situations. Nothing is further from reality".[40]

Peru's democracy is, unfortunately, sinking further and further into crisis, ... The removal of the president is a really big deal, and it requires serious deliberation, public debate and investigation. There has been none.

Steve Levitsky[41]

President of Congress Manuel Merino was criticized by critics regarding how he hastily pushed for impeachment proceedings against Vizcarra.[42] If Vizcarra were to be removed from office, Merino would assume the presidential office given his position in congress and due to the absence of vice presidents for Vizcarra.[a][42] On 12 September 2020, renowned reporter Gustavo Gorriti wrote that Merino had contacted the Commanding General of the Peruvian Navy, Fernando Cerdán, notifying him that he was going to attempt to impeach Vizcarra and was hoping to assume the presidency.[49] Minister of Defense Jorge Chávez confirmed that Merino had tried to establish support with the Peruvian military.[49] A second report was later released that Merino had contacted officials throughout Peru's government while preparing to create a transitional cabinet.[42][50] Following the release of these reports, support for impeaching Vizcarra decreased among members of congress,[42] with congress voting not to remove Vizcarra from the presidency.[51][52]

Removal of Vizcarra[edit]

Martín Vizcarra, flanked by his ministers, announcing his return home on 9 November following the vacancy vote

After the first attempt failed, the Union for Peru bench raised a new vacancy request in October 2020, based on the alleged acts of corruption committed by Vizcarra when he was regional Governor of Moquegua, which includes the testimony of an applicant to an effective collaborator in the "Construction Club Case" who stated that the Obrainsa company paid him 1 million soles and three other aspiring effective collaborators also point out that he received 1.3 million soles from the Ingenieros Civiles y Contractors Generales SA consortium (ICCGSA), and Incot for the tender of the project for the construction of the Regional Hospital of Moquegua in 2013.[53] On 2 November, impeachment was initiated by the Congress of Peru with 60 votes in favor, 40 against and 18 abstentions. Vizcarra attended the plenary session in Congress on 9 November to defend himself against the accusations.[54]

On 9 November 2020, a total of 105 members of Congress voted to remove Vizcarra from office, exceeding the 87 votes (out of 130) that were still needed to impeach him. Merino, who succeeded him as president the following day, with a mandate to serve as president until July 2021.[55] Vizcarra called the accusations baseless and false, but still accepted the vote by Congress and promised not to take any other legal action.[56]

Timeline[edit]

9 November[edit]

A demonstration at the Plaza de Armas of Trujillo following the removal of Vizcarra on 9 November

President Martín Vizcarra was summoned to testify and present his defense to Congress at 10 AM PET. After hours of parliamentary debate, the Congress of Peru voted to convict the President with 105 votes in favor, surpassing the 87 vote threshold for conviction.[57] Following the vote, crowds began to gather at Plaza San Martín in protest.[58] An incident occurred in Plaza Bolívar, outside of Congress, in which congressman Ricardo Burga was assaulted by a protestor when giving a press conference regarding the impeachment vote.[59] Demonstrations spawned in other parts of the country and continued well into midnight, past the 11 PM curfew imposed by the government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[60]

10 November[edit]

Following the inauguration of congressional leader Manuel Merino as president, demonstrations increased from early in the morning to the evening. Under the slogan "Merino does not represent me", from early in the morning they began to mobilize in the direction of the Legislative Palace, which was stopped by the National Police of Peru (NPP).[61]

A large number of protesters were mobilized to Plaza San Martín, where the NPP impeded protestors using tear gas and making multiple arrests.[62] There were other confrontations between protesters and the NPP in Jirón de la Unión, while the former were dispersed when trying to approach en masse the Government Palace of Peru.[63] Various demonstrations and arrests were recorded in regions and cities of the country, such as Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Huancayo and Iquitos.[64] Hundreds of people gathered in the main squares and streets of Huancayo, Cuzco, Apurímac, Tacna and Puno.[65] In Lima there were at least 16 arrested, according to Congresswoman Carolina Lizárraga.[66]

11 November[edit]

In the morning, news outlets reported that Merino called his predecessor's Minister of Internal Affairs, César Gentile, suggesting that he was concerned that the protests were not being controlled. Gentile responded to Merino's hint by exclaiming "I am no longer the Minister of the Interior!" and resigning the post in his phone call with Merino.[14]

As a way to maintain measures of social distancing, hundreds of protesters in Lima and the other major cities of the country carried out cacerolazos in multi-family residential buildings and "honks" in the streets against the Merino and in support of the ousted president Martín Vizcarra.[67]

During this day, there were peaceful demonstrations in city center of Lima,[68] and other districts such as Miraflores[69] and Surco, where groups of young people came to the front of the National Superintendence of University Education (SUNEDU) to demand that SUNEDU respect the autonomy in the licensing of universities and the autonomy of this institution.[69][70] In Huancavelica, about 5,000 residents tried to take control of the Mantaro hydroelectric plant, they were dispersed with tear gas bombs thrown by the police.[71] In Puerto Maldonado, more than twenty people were detained and one journalist was injured during demonstrations.[72]

The Justice and Human Rights Commission of the Congress of the Republic refused to summon the Deputy Commander General of the National Police of Peru to testify for the arrests in the midst of the protests.[73]

12 November[edit]

Protests at Plaza San Martín on 12 November

The National March, beginning at 5 PM PET, occurred throughout Peru to demand the resignation of President Manuel Merino, with a primary location being at Plaza San Martín.[74] Richard Cisneros, who was the singer involved in Vizcarra's first impeachment scandal, arrived at the plaza minutes before the march began, angering protesters who threw objects at him until he took refuge inside a nearby fast food store.[75] The newly named Minister of Justice, Delia Muñoz, described calls for protests as "propaganda" while new Minister of Labor Juan Sheput falsely said "the protests are waning" and told the public that businesses would be hurt by the protests.[76]

Protests occurred in the major cities of Peru, including Arequipa, Chiclayo, Chimbote, Cuzco, Huaraz, Iquitos, Lima, Tacna, Trujillo and Tumbes.[77][78] In Cuzco, at least 18,000 people gathered in the city square where dancers and bands performed among the crowds.[79] Merino's home state of Tumbes saw more than a thousand protestors against his government.[80] Protesters in Tacna demanded a radical change in what they described as a neoliberal Constitution and expressed their rejection of the government of Manuel Merino.[81]

In Lima, the large crowds overwhelmed police who began to indiscriminately disperse tear gas at protesters.[82] In an incident caught on video, an alleged undercover TERNA agent of the National Police of Peru fires his weapon into the air to repel protesters who were following him.[83]

Popular Action congressman Hans Troyes revealed that representatives from his party were under pressure from its alternate spokesman, Ricardo Burga, to vote in favor of Vizcarra's removal under threat of not having certain projects they favored processed.[84]

13 November[edit]

Merino's prime minister, Ántero Flores Aráoz, thanked the National Police for their response to protests stating "I thank you for always proceeding in compliance with human rights and protocol, logically avoiding harm, but reacting when you have to react."[85]

In the evening, cacerolazos occurred and at Merino's home in San Borja District, protesters used a projector on his apartment building shining images denouncing him.[86] Protesters attempted to march to Flores Aráoz's home in La Molina District, though several streets surrounding the area were blocked by National Police, resulting in clashes.[87]

14 November[edit]

Protests near the Palace of Justice on 14 November

A second National March occurred against the Merino government, with tens of thousands of demonstrators gathering throughout Peru.[5][88] Protesters attempted to march to the Legislative Palace and were blocked by police, with authorities firing tear gas into the crowd while some demonstrators fired fireworks at officers.[89] Percy Castillo, a representative of the ombudsman, called for the cessation of tear gas usage, stating "Our staff have also been affected by gas, if there has been no motivation, there is no justification for tear gas. It is a demand of the ombudsman".[89]

At least two died during clashes,[2] with the father of Jordán Inti Sotelo Camargo, who was killed earlier that day, saying in an interview "Four pellets. He was bleeding from a gunshot wound to the heart and his heart has exploded. ... Ántero Flores-Aráoz said 'nothing happens, nothing happens' here something is happening, my 24-year-old son, a tourism student, is dead, ... Gentlemen, I ask you from the bottom of my heart to retire".[90] When news reports emerged of the deaths, spontaneous cacerolazos and shouting condemning Merino began in Lima.[5]

Following the reports of deaths, resignations of multiple Merino government officials begin to occur, these included: [21][91][92]

Prime Minister Ántero Flores-Araóz refused to resign, stating "The president took me as premier, if he stays, I'll stay with him, if he leaves and resigns, I'll go with him".[93] The prime minister also supported the actions of authorities, saying "I defend the police because they attack them and it is unfortunate for everyone. It is not a question of who did this or that" and "The demonstrations end very badly because there are antisocial people and there have been acts not only of violence but also of destruction of public, private, and commercial works".[93][94]

Calls from congress for Merino's consideration of resigning also occur, with president of congress Luis Valdez stating that the Board of Spokespersons would meet on 15 November at 8:00am PET to discuss Merino's possible resignation.[5][91]

15 November[edit]

In the early morning, speculation of Merino fleeing the country emerged after it was reported that Jorge Chávez International Airport was closed by its operator, Lima Airport Partners.[95] Merino later appeared before congress and presented his resignation, only five days after taking office.[96]

16 November[edit]

The funeral procession and burial of Jordan Sotelo occurred in the cemetery Campo Fe in Huachipa. Words of his mother: "my son said goodbye to me and told me. I'm going to give my life for my country."

During the evening hours, protesters marched demanding a new constitution and called for justice of those injured and killed during demonstrations.[97]

17 November[edit]

A crowd in Lima on 17 November gathers at a memorial for the two killed during protests

Francisco Sagasti was officially inaugurated as President of Peru, with his first act as president being a minute of silence for the two young men killed during the protests, stating, "Let it be my first words to ask for a minute of silence in tribute to young citizens Jack Bryan Pintado Sánchez and Jordan Inti Sotelo Camargo, unfortunately killed during the last days of citizen mobilization, carried out in legitimate exercise of the fundamental right to protest".[98] After the minute of silence, he spoke to the parents of the deceased seated in congress, "On behalf of the State, we apologize to their families, to them and to all the young people who marched to defend democracy, and who made us remember what the vocation of service is".[98]

18 November[edit]

President Sagasti officially appointed members of his cabinet and Violeta Bermúdez is appointed the new Prime Minister.[99]

21 November[edit]

Protesters gather in Plaza San Martín a week after the two deaths occur, demanding justice for the men killed and calling for a new constitution.[100] President Sagasti tells protesters that he will ensure their safety and prohibit the National Police from confronting peaceful protesters.[100]

Protest violence[edit]

A protester injured on 12 November after police dispersed tear gas at Plaza San Martín

Casualties[edit]

During demonstrations on November 12th, the use of rubber bullets and tear gas was reported near the large protests in the Lima District.[101][102] Reports emerged that protesters and journalists were injured from authorities firing rubber bullets.[103] The Press and Society Institute (IPYS) condemned the injuries of at least three journalists who were directly fired at by police[104] while the Peruvian Press Council denounced the detention and attacks on at least twenty press workers.[105] Two protesters were seriously injured, with a total of fourteen individuals reported injured, according to the Minister of Health.[106]

The first deaths occur on 14 November, with two killed; a 25-year-old and Jordán Inti Sotelo Camargo, who was 24 years old.[2] Both were killed after being shot by police.[5]

Human rights concerns[edit]

Amnesty International demanded on 10 November that the authorities stop the repression of the demonstrations and that people's rights be guaranteed.[20]

Following the National March on 12 November, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) and the United Nations Peru condemned the disproportional use of force by authorities.[18][19] In a statement, the IACHR said, "According to the information received, the Police have used tear gas and pellets on a massive scale against protesters and journalists. This contravenes the IACHR standards on the right to protest" and that demanded the Merino government "to refrain from engaging in indiscriminate detention practices".[19] Christian Sanchez, National Information Officer of United Nations Peru, described the protests as "mostly peaceful in nature", stating:[18]

"As a result of the police action in recent days, and particularly in the massive marches on Thursday 12, there have been injuries, including protesters and journalists. It is necessary to remember that the arbitrary and indiscriminate use of non-lethal weapons violates the principle of proportionality and violates international standards, which require precaution, necessity and proportionality in police action. Likewise, there have been violations of the detainees' right to due process, including arrests of adolescent protesters."

Following the deaths on 14 November, Americas director for Amnesty International, Erika Guevara, stated, "We demand an end to the repression and the investigation and punishment for all the human rights violations which are being registered".[5] Also that evening, Human Rights Watch director of the Americas José Miguel Vivanco also released a statement, saying, "We continue to document cases of police brutality in downtown Lima. Everything indicates that the repression against peaceful protesters is intensifying. The Police must suspend the use of pellets".[107]

Reactions[edit]

International[edit]

International bodies[edit]

Governments[edit]

  • Argentina – The foreign ministry stated "We trust in the commitment to carry out a democratic transition and to respect the ongoing electoral process", considering it a "difficult transition".[111]
  • Brazil – The foreign ministry released a statement expressing support for the Merino government.[112]
  • Chile – The foreign ministry released a statement supporting President Merino.[113]
  • El SalvadorPresident of El Salvador Nayib Bukele released a statement saying that El Salvador does not recognize Merino's government, calling it a "coup government".[114]
  • Paraguay – The foreign ministry released a statement supporting President Merino.[115]
  • Uruguay – The foreign ministry released a statement supporting President Merino.[116]
  • Venezuela – Disputed President Nicolás Maduro expressed support for the protesters and youth of Peru.[117]

Domestic[edit]

Institutions[edit]

The Ombudsman's Office pointed out that the police should make a proportionate use of force and should not exceed it.[118] The Public Ministry ordered the prosecutors to carry out urgent actions to guarantee the rights of the people during the days of protests.[119] The National Human Rights Coordinator denounced that the rights of people detained in police stations are not being respected.[119] The National University of San Marcos, through a statement, indicated that it rejects "any political act that violates governance and constitutional order".[120]

Politicians[edit]

The presidential pre-candidate Verónika Mendoza referred to the current situation, stating that if Manuel Merino assumes the presidency of Peru, his mandate will be illegitimate.[121]

The presidential pre-candidate Julio Guzmán, leader of the Purple Party, in the morning of November 10, 2020, stated the following on Twitter: "The Morada Bank will not attend the swearing-in of Manuel Merino to the presidency of Peru. We will not participate in an illegitimate seizure of power".[122]

Former president Ollanta Humala considers that it is foolish to impeach Martín Vizcarra given the situation in Peru, partly due to the pandemic, although he must be investigated.[123]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Peru has two Vice Presidents, a First and Second Vice President. The most recent holders of the office of First and Second Vice President were Vizcarra and Mercedes Aráoz, respectively, who were elected in the 2016 election.[43][44] Vizcarra left the office of First Vice President vacant after he succeeded Kuzcynski as President, leaving Aráoz as the sole Vice President,[43] while Aráoz resigned as Second Vice President on 1 October 2019 after the Congress of Peru named Aráoz acting President the day before after having declared Vizacarra temporarily unfit for office,[43][44][45] despite Congress having itself been dissolved earlier that day by President Vizcarra, resulting in a constitutional crisis.[43][44][45][46][47] However, her resignation was not official until it was accepted on 7 May 2020 by the new Congress of Peru sworn on 16 March 2020, since in Peru the resignation of the vice president has to be accepted by Congress and that institution was not celebrating meetings given its dissolution.[48]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Qué hay detrás de las masivas protestas en Perú tras la salida de Vizcarra de la presidencia". BBC Mundo (in Spanish). 13 November 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  2. ^ a b c PERU21, NOTICIAS (15 November 2020). "Inti Sotelo Camargo | Marcha Nacional: Confirman segundo muerto en manifestación contra Manuel Merino | POLITICA". Peru21 (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  3. ^ "EN VIVO | Ciudadanos participan este sábado en la segunda Marcha Nacional contra el Gobierno de Manuel Merino | Ántero Flores-Aráoz | Congreso de la República | Vacancia presidencial". RPP (in Spanish). 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  4. ^ "Vacancia presidencial de Martín Vizcarra: grupos de personas se congregaron en la plaza San Martín tras votación del Congreso" [Presidential vacancy of Martín Vizcarra: groups of people gathered in Plaza San Martín after a congressional vote] (in Spanish). Lima: El Comercio. 9 November 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Collyns, Dan (15 November 2020). "Two killed as huge pro-democracy protests continue in Peru". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  6. ^ "Peru's swears in new leader as political turmoil hits nation". Star Tribune. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  7. ^ "They threw out the president. Now Peru's anti-corruption drive looks in doubt". Los Angeles Times. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  8. ^ "Golpe de estado editorial". La República (in Spanish). 10 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  9. ^ "Manuel Merino presentó al Gabinete de Antero Flores-Aráoz en medio de protestas NNAV |TVPE |VIDEO |VIDEOS |PAIS | VIDEOS". El Comercio (in Spanish). 12 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Manuel Merino: crean pedido para rechazar vacancia contra Martín Vizcarra y el golpe de Estado". Líbero (in Spanish). 11 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  11. ^ "Trujillo: miles de ciudadanos marchan contra gobierno de Manuel Merino". El Popular (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  12. ^ "Inconformes consideran toma de protesta de Manuel Merino como golpe de Estado". Noticieros Televisa (in Spanish). 10 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  13. ^ "Martín Vizcarra: Así fueron las protestas en varias ciudades del país tras vacancia del presidente" [Martín Vizcarra: This is how the protests were in several cities of the country after the president's vacancy] (in Spanish). RPP Noticias. 9 November 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  14. ^ a b "Cómo derrocar un Presidente". IDL-Reporteros. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020. Spanish: Aposentado en Palacio, respaldado por una organización de ultraderecha con una larga lista de almirantes, ... Merino ha pasado su primera noche como ‘presidente’ English: Resting in the Palace, backed by a far-right organization with a long list of admirals, ... Merino has spent his first night as 'president'
  15. ^ Noriega, Carlos (12 November 2020). "Perú: la ultraderecha copó el gobierno | Bajo la presidencia de Manuel Merino tras el derrocamiento de Martín Vizcarra". Página/12. Retrieved 13 November 2020. Spanish: El gabinete ministerial del nuevo presidente Manuel Merino ... es encabezado por un miembro de la descreditada vieja guardia política, vinculado a la extrema derecha. English: The ultra-conservative right wing has taken over the Peruvian government . The ministerial cabinet of the new president Manuel Merino ... is headed by a member of the discredited political old guard, linked to the extreme right.
  16. ^ ""No sé qué les fastidia", dice el primer ministro de Perú ante las masivas protestas". EFE (in Spanish). 12 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020. Spanish: ... un Ejecutivo de "ancha base" pero que finalmente es de corte conservador, con miembros de derecha y ultraderecha. English: ... an Executive with a "broad base" but that is ultimately conservative, with members of the right and far right.
  17. ^ "Peru president's ouster sparks wave of youth-led protests". Associated Press. 14 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  18. ^ a b c "ONU Perú manifiesta preocupación sobre eventos ocurridos durante las protestas | Naciones Unidas en Perú". United Nations Peru (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  19. ^ a b c "La CIDH preocupada por el "uso excesivo" de la fuerza policial en las protestas en Perú". EFE (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  20. ^ a b "Al menos 27 detenidos en el centro de Lima y manifestantes denuncian abuso y represión policial" [At least 27 detainees in the center of Lima and protesters denounce abuse and police repression] (in Spanish). Lima: RPP Noticias. 10 November 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  21. ^ a b PERU21, NOTICIAS (15 November 2020). "CRISIS POLíTICAL : Titular del Interior y la mayoría de ministros renuncia a Gabinete de Ántero Flores-Aráoz | POLITICA". Peru21 (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  22. ^ "EN VIVO | Junta de Portavoces se reúne para evaluar renuncia de Manuel Merino tras las muertes de dos jóvenes en la Marcha Nacional | Ántero Flores-Aráoz | Congreso de la República | Vacancia presidencial". RPP (in Spanish). 15 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  23. ^ "Peru's Congress Selects Centrist Lawmaker To Be New Leader". Associated Press. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  24. ^ Quigley, John (21 March 2018). "Vizcarra Set to Become Peru's New President Facing Daunting Challenges". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  25. ^ Collyns, Dan (22 March 2018). "Peru president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski resigns amid corruption scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  26. ^ "Martin Vizcarra Sworn In As Peru's New President". NPR. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  27. ^ Burt, Jo-Marie (17 September 2020). "Vizcarra May Survive. But Peru's Politics Look Fragile". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  28. ^ "Vargas Llosa: "Las credenciales de Martín Vizcarra son bastante buenas"". La República (in Spanish). 13 May 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  29. ^ Tegel, Simeon (12 August 2018). "Corruption scandals have ensnared 3 Peruvian presidents. Now the whole political system could change". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  30. ^ Briceno, Franklin (9 December 2018). "Exit polling indicates Peruvians vote to fight corruption". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  31. ^ "Peru's president dissolves Congress to push through anti-corruption reforms". The Guardian. 1 October 2019. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  32. ^ Briceno, Franklin (27 September 2019). "Peru leader pushes vote that could let him dissolve congress". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  33. ^ "The difficulty of reforming Peru". The Economist. 30 January 2020. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  34. ^ a b Quigley, John (10 September 2020). "Peru's Congress to Consider Impeaching President Over Tapes". Bloomberg. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  35. ^ Burt, Jo-Marie (17 September 2020). "Vizcarra May Survive. But Peru's Politics Look Fragile". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  36. ^ "Peru President to call referendum on elimination of parliamentary immunity". Andina (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  37. ^ Tegel, Simeon (20 July 2020). "In Peru, Congress' Move Against Immunity Isn't What It Seems". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  38. ^ a b c Quigley, John (10 September 2020). "Peru's Congress to Consider Impeaching President Over Tapes". Bloomberg. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  39. ^ a b c d e "A Notorious Rebel Leader Just Got Peru's President Impeached From Prison". Vice News. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  40. ^ "Peru: President Vizcarra denounces plot against democracy". Andina (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 September 2020.
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