2020 South Korean legislative election

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2020 South Korean parliamentary election

← 2016 15 April 2020 2024 →

All 300 seats in the National Assembly
151 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Lee hae-chan.jpg Hwang Kyo-ahn December 2016.jpg Son Hak-Gyu.jpg
Leader Lee Hae-chan Hwang Kyo-ahn Sohn Hak-kyu
Party Democratic Liberty Korea Bareunmirae
Leader since 25 August 2018 27 February 2019 2 September 2018
Leader's seat Sejong (Not standing)
Last election 123 seats 122 seats 38 seats (as People's Party)

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  하태경 대표 1.jpg 최경환의원.png Sim Sang-jung.jpg
Leader Ha Tae-keung Choi Gyung-hwan Sim Sang-jung
Party New Conservative New Alternatives Justice
Leader since 5 January 2020 12 January 2020
Leader's seat Busan Haeundae Gap Gwangju North 2nd Gyeonggi Goyang Gap
Last election 6 seats

  Seventh party
  Jungdongyoung2007 (cropped).jpg
Leader Chung Dong-young
Party Democracy and Peace
Leader since 5 August 2018
Leader's seat Jeonbuk Jeonju Byeong

Speaker before election

Moon Hee-sang
Democratic

Elected Speaker

TBD

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South Korea's 21st legislative election will be held on 15 April 2020. All 300 members of the National Assembly will be elected with 253 from first-past-the-post constituencies and 47 from proportional party lists. The electoral system and number of the members of the National Assembly could change before the election in 2020 due to the constitutional amendments and electoral reforms proposed by the incumbent president, Moon Jae-in.[1]

Electoral system[edit]

300 members of the National Assembly were elected in the 2016 elections, of whom 253 (84%) were elected from single-member constituencies on a first-past-the-post basis, and 47 (16%) from closed party lists through proportional representation by the Hare quota largest remainder method, in accordance with South Korea's Public Official Election Act.[2] To win seats through proportional representation, parties needed to pass an election threshold of either 5 single-member districts or 3% of the total list vote.[3]

Restrictions on candidates[edit]

Candidates for the National Assembly were required to pay a fee of 15,000,000 South Korean won (US$14,000 as of December 2017), and under the National Security Act the Constitutional Court may block the registration of "left-wing", "pro–North Korean" parties, though this provision has not affected recent elections.[4]

Date and process[edit]

The 2020 election for the National Assembly will be held on 15 April, in accordance with Article 34 of the Public Official Election Act, which specifies that Election Day for legislative elections is held on "the first Wednesday from the 50th day before the expiration of the National Assembly members term of office".[5] Eligible voters were required to be registered and at least 18 years old on the day of the election,[4] and needed to show an approved form of identification at the polling place. Polls on Election Day will be open from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. Korea Standard Time (21:00–09:00 UTC, 14–15 April).[6]

Since 2009, voters have been able to vote overseas.[4] The electorates can also cast early votes at polling stations in Korea without prior notice.[7]

Fast-track controversy and Assembly violence[edit]

The legislative process of changing the election law, ongoing since February 2019, based on the 85th Article of the National Assembly law so called 'Fasttrack' was considered controversial by the main opposition Liberty Korea Party party and also by Bareunmirae Party member Yoo Seong-min, due to the absence of agreement between all parties.[8] Sohn Hak-kyu, the leader of the Bareunmirae, and his decision to dismiss his fellow standing committee member Oh Shin-hwan, to pass the "Fasttrack" has stirred up legal controversy.[9][10] The Prosecution Service, however, declared Sohn's legal actions were not applicable to criminal charges.[11]

Physical disruption of the National Assembly Secretariat made by Liberty Korea Party on April 2019, in order to interrupt the legal maneuver has been a subject of investigation, as violence in the National Assesmbly, and violation of the National Assembly law by the Prosecution Service.[12][13][14][15] The Prosectuion Service indicted several important members of the LKP, including leader Hwang Kyo-ahn and floor leader Na Kyung-won at the time, for criminal charges, mainly violence and violation of order.[11] The indictment also included Democratic Party of Korea members.

Electoral reform[edit]

An election reform bill, including a hybrid mixed-member proportional system, was passed on 27 December, despite physical obstruction by Liberty Korea Party. The eventual number of directly elected seats and proportional-representation (PR) slots will be kept at 253 and 47, respectively, in the 300-member National Assembly. However, the majority of PR seats will be switched from a parallel system to a compensatory one.[16]

Not all PR seats will be distributed in a compensatory manner, however, with 17 of the 47 PR seats being distributed under the old parallel voting system, without reference to seats won at the constituency level, and the remaining 30 seats being distributed in the new compensatory system.[17]

Reaction of the opposition[edit]

The main opposition Liberty Korea Party opposed the move and declared its plan to set up a satelite party to deal with the new election system changes.[18]

Parties and candidates[edit]

Two negotiation groups are;

Other parties currently with lawmakers, as of January 2020;

Parties not represented in the current National Assembly but plan on running candidates include:


The parties sorted by number of seats.

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polls have been carried out for the South Korean legislative election in 2020.

2019[edit]

Date(s) Conducted Polling firm Democratic Liberty Korea Bareunmirae Democracy and Peace Justice Others Lead
19–21 March Gallup Korea 37 21 7 1 9 1 16
18–20 March Realmeter 39.9 31.9 4.9 2.3 7.3 1.5 8.0
11–15 March Realmeter 36.6 31.7 5.9 2.1 6.9 1.7 4.9
12–14 March Gallup Korea 39 22 7 1 7 1 17
4–8 March Realmeter 37.2 30.4 6.2 2.1 7 1.6 6.8
5–7 March Gallup Korea 39 20 7 1 8 0 19
26–28 February Gallup Korea 38 20 7 1 8 0 18
25–28 February Realmeter 38.3 28.8 7.3 2.7 6.9 1.8 9.5
19–21 February Gallup Korea 40 19 6 1 9 1 21
18–22 February Realmeter 40.4 26.8 6.6 3.2 7.1 1.5 13.6
12–14 February Gallup Korea 40 19 8 1 8 1 21
11–15 February Realmeter 40.3 25.2 6 2.8 7 1.6 15.1
7–8 February Realmeter 38.9 28.9 6.8 2.9 6.2 1.9 10
29–31 January Gallup Korea 39 21 6 1 9 0 18
28 January – 1 February Realmeter 38.2 27.4 6.3 2.5 7.2 2.3 10.8
21–25 January Realmeter 38.7 26.7 5.5 3.1 8.1 2 12
15–17 January Gallup Korea 40 16 8 1 8 0 24
14–18 January Realmeter 39.8 24.3 6.3 2.7 7.5 2 15.5
8–10 January Gallup Korea 40 16 7 1 9 0 24
7–11 January Realmeter 40.1 23.9 6.4 2.2 9.1 2.2 16.2

2018[edit]

Date(s) Conducted Polling firm Democratic Liberty Korea Bareunmirae Democracy and Peace Justice Others Lead
15–17 October Realmeter 42.3 20 6.6 3.1 9.8 2.2 22.3
2–4 October Gallup Korea 48 11 7 1 9 1 37
28–30 September ResearchView 48 18 7 2 8 2 30
23 September R&Search 42.5 17.7 7.1 3 9.1 2.8 24.8
11–13 September Gallup Korea 40 11 8 0.5 12 0 28
3–4 September Research&Research 41.3 12.6 7 0.5 10 2.4 28.7
27–31 August Realmeter 41.4 18.8 6.6 2.8 11.8 2.1 22.6
21–23 August Gallup Korea 42 11 5 1 15 1 27
13–17 August Realmeter 39.6 19.9 7.3 2.4 13.3 1.7 19.7
4–5 August ResearchView 41.9 15.8 6.6 1.2 17 2.4 24.9
31 July – 2 August Gallup Korea 41 11 5 1 15 0 26
23–27 July Realmeter 44 18.6 7 2.9 12.5 1.6 25.4
10–12 July Gallup Korea 49 10 6 0.3 10 0 39
9–11 July Realmeter 44.3 16.8 6.3 2.8 12.4 2.6 27.5
2–6 July Realmeter 47.5 18.3 5.8 2.9 10.4 2.6 29.2
30 June – 1 July ResearchView 48 20 5 4 12 4 28
26–28 June Gallup Korea 52 10 5 1 9 1 42
25–27 June Realmeter 47.8 18.3 5.3 2.3 10.1 2.6 29.5
18–20 June Realmeter 53.6 17.4 5.2 2.7 7.9 1.9 36.2
13 June 2018 local elections
28 May – 1 June Realmeter 52.2 19.8 5.6 2.9 6.3 1.9 32.4
23–24 May Gallup Korea 53 13 5 1 4 0 40
14–18 May Realmeter 54.2 18.7 5.7 3.4 5.8 1.5 35.5
5–6 May ResearchView 55 20 7 2 6 2 35
28–29 April KSOI 58.8 11 6.8 0.6 4.2 2 47.8
9–13 April Realmeter 50.4 21.9 5.7 3.3 4.2 1.9 28.5
26–30 March Realmeter 51.3 20.7 6.8 2.4 5.2 2.2 30.6
20–22 March Gallup Korea 47 14 6 1 5 0 33
26 February – 2 March Realmeter 50 19.7 6.8 3 4.5 2.6 30.3
20–22 February Gallup Korea 48 11 8 1 6 1 37
11–14 February Kantar Public 47.9 14.9 8.1 1.6 5.6 1.3 33
5–9 February Realmeter 44.4 19.1 11 4.2 7 2.1 25.3

2016 to 2017[edit]

Date(s) Conducted Polling firm Democratic Liberty Korea People's Bareun Justice Others Lead
18–22 December Realmeter 52.0 17.8 4.9 5.7 5.2 1.6 34.2
5–7 December Gallup Korea 46 11 5 8 5 0 35
18–19 November Research & Research 49.0 11.8 5.5 6.3 5.4 0.8 37.2
30 October – 1 November Realmeter 50.9 17.5 6.6 4.4 5.7 2.3 33.4
13–14 October KSOI 49.7 12.2 6.9 5.2 5.6 1.7 37.5
18–20 September Realmeter 49.8 17.0 6.0 6.3 4.7 2.8 32.8
28–30 August Realmeter 52.2 16.8 6.2 6.5 6.0 1.7 35.4
4–6 July Gallup Korea 50 14 4 8 6 0 36
10–12 May Realmeter 44.7 13.0 8.8 8.3 9.6 1.3 31.7
9 May 2017 presidential election
26 April Research & Research 38.8 12.9 20.3 5.7 6.3 0.3 18.5
11–13 April Gallup Korea 41 9 24 4 4 0 17
14 March Hankook Research 39.4 10.5 9.3 4.8 5.2 2.9 28.9
10 March Impeachment of Park Geun-hye
1–2 February Realmeter 36.4 11.6 12.1 7.9 4.8 2.7 24.8
28–30 January JoWon C&I 36.9 12.3 11.9 8.8 5.0 3.0 24.6
10–12 January Gallup Korea 41 12 10 7 3 0 29
2016
2 November 2016 South Korean political scandal begins
24–26 October Realmeter 30.5 26.5 14.4 4.5 3.9 4.0
26–30 September Realmeter 28.8 33.0 13.9 4.5 3.6 4.2
27–28 August ResearchView 30.6 27.6 14.3 7.4 0.7 3.0
31 July – 1 August R&Search 23.0 33.5 11.8 5.6 10.5
28–30 June Gallup Korea 23 30 14 6 0 7
30 May – 1 June Realmeter 29.8 30.1 17.7 7.6 2.9 0.3
19–21 Apr Gallup Korea 24 30 25 7 0 5
13 April 2016 2016 elections (PR) 25.5 33.5 26.7 - 7.2 6.9 8.0
General notes
  • Gallup Korea provides poll results only to the nearest whole number.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "지방선거 득실 계산… 민주당-한국당, 접점없는 '개헌' 대치". The Dong-a Ilbo. Naver. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  2. ^ Article 189, subsection (3), Public Official Election Act, "Legislation & Judicial Decision". Republic of Korea National Election Commission. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  3. ^ "Election Districts and Representation System". Republic of Korea National Election Commission. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "South Korea". Sustainable Governance Indicators. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  5. ^ Article 34, Public Official Election Act, "Legislation & Judicial Decision". Republic of Korea National Election Commission. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  6. ^ "National Assembly elections: April 13, 2016". Republic of Korea National Election Commission. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  7. ^ Lee, Rachel (8 April 2016). "Early voting begins for general election". The Korea Times. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  8. ^ "유승민 "여야 합의 없는 선거법 개정은 다수의 횡포"". hankyung.com (in Korean). 29 April 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  9. ^ "오신환 사보임 가능? 불가능?…'국회법 48조' 여야 상반된 해석". hankyung.com (in Korean). 24 April 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  10. ^ "오신환 사보임 가능할까… 국회법 48조 엇갈린 해석". 한국일보 (in Korean). 24 April 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  11. ^ a b MoneyToday (2 January 2020). "검찰 '패스트트랙 동물국회' 황교안·나경원 불구속 기소(상보)". m.mt.co.kr (in Korean). Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  12. ^ 방현덕 (26 April 2019). "패스트트랙 극한충돌, '육탄전' 이어 '고소고발전'으로 비화". 연합뉴스 (in Korean). Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  13. ^ Kim, Bo-gyung. "[KH Explains] What is behind political impasse, violence at National Assembly?". The Korean Herald. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  14. ^ "검찰, 패스트트랙 직접 수사…수사대상 의원 109명". The Dong-a Ilbo (in Korean). 9 September 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  15. ^ Herald, The Korea (29 April 2019). "[KH Explains] What is behind political impasse, violence at National Assembly?". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  16. ^ Herald, The Korea (27 December 2019). "National Assembly passes electoral reform bill". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  17. ^ 김광태 (23 December 2019). "(2nd LD) Opposition party launches filibuster against electoral reform bill". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  18. ^ 김수연 (24 December 2019). "Main opposition to set up satellite party for more proportional representation seats". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 27 December 2019.

External links[edit]