2020 Sri Lankan parliamentary election

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16th Sri Lankan parliamentary election

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All 225 seats to the Parliament of Sri Lanka
113 seats are needed for a majority
Turnout75.89%
  First party Second party
  Mahinda Rajapaksa.jpg Sajith Premadasa.jpg
Leader Mahinda Rajapaksa Sajith Premadasa
Party Sri Lanka People's Freedom Alliance Samagi Jana Balawegaya
Leader since 2019 2020
Leader's seat Kurunegala District Colombo District
Last election 95[a] Did not exist
Seats won 145 54
Seat change Increase50 New
Popular vote 6,853,690 2,771,980
Percentage 59.09% 23.90%
Swing Increase16.71% New

  Third party Fourth party
  R. Sampanthan.jpg AnuraKumara.jpg
Leader R. Sampanthan Anura Kumara Dissanayaka
Party Tamil National Alliance National People's Power
Leader since 2001 2020
Leader's seat Trincomalee District Colombo District
Last election 16 6[b]
Seats won 10 3
Seat change Decrease6 Decrease3
Popular vote 327,168 445,958
Percentage 2.82% 3.84%
Swing Decrease1.80% Decrease1.03%

Wahlbezirkskarte Parlament Sri Lanka 2020.svg
Polling divisions won by

– SLPFA – SJB – TNA – SLFP – EPDP

– Other parties

Prime Minister before election

Mahinda Rajapaksa
United People's Freedom Alliance

Prime Minister after election

Mahinda Rajapaksa
Sri Lanka People's Freedom Alliance

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This article is part of a series on the
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Parliamentary elections in Sri Lanka were held on 5 August 2020 to elect 225 members to Sri Lanka's 16th Parliament.[1][2][3] 16,263,885 people were eligible to vote in the election, 31.95% of whom were young voters.[4][5]

The incumbent Sri Lanka People's Freedom Alliance coalition claimed a landslide victory in the election, winning 145 seats,[6][7][8] while Samagi Jana Balawegaya won 54 seats, Tamil National Alliance won 10 seats and National People's Power won 3 seats.[9][10][11] The main opposition United National Party suffered the worst showing in its history following a split over party leadership, finishing in fourth place with only one seat.[12]

The election was postponed at least twice due to a surge in COVID-19 cases in the country, before the date was finalized as 5 August 2020.[13][14] Prior to the election, a coronavirus-proof mock election was conducted by the Election Commission in June 2020 as a trial run in order to comply with health guidelines.[15][16]

Initial reports revealed that the overall voter turnout was estimated at 70%, comparatively less than the turnout during the 2015 Sri Lankan parliamentary election, mainly due to the impact of COVID-19.[17] Vote counting started on 6 August 2020 at around 9 am.[18] The new parliament is expected to reconvene on 20 August 2020.[19][20]

In November 2018, the date was briefly moved forward by more than a year to 5 January 2019 after President Maithripala Sirisena dissolved parliament during a constitutional crisis and called for a snap election.[21] The Supreme Court later suspended the dissolution and ordered a halt to the snap election, effectively moving the election's date back to 2020.[22]

Contesting parties[edit]

The main parties and alliances contesting in the election included the alliance of Sri Lankan president Gotabaya Rajapakse, the ruling Sri Lanka People's Freedom Alliance (SLPFA), the main opposition United National Party (UNP) of Ranil Wickremasinghe, Samagi Jana Balawegaya (SJB) of Sajith Premadasa, former opposition TNA of R Sampanthan and National People's Power (NPP) of Anura Kumara Dissanayaka. President Gotabaya was previously elected president in November 2019.

Samagi Jana Balawegaya, a breakaway faction from the United National Party, was formed by Sajith Premadasa in February 2020 following a rift and creative differences between Sajith and Ranil Wickremasinghe regarding the leadership of the UNP.[23][24][25] The party itself claimed a position as a main opposition party prior to the election despite being newly formed.[26]

Development[edit]

On 19 March 2020, president of the Election commission Mahinda Deshapriya revealed that the election would be postponed indefinitely due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[27][28] The Sri Lankan government initially insisted that scheduled forthcoming the election would proceed as planned on 25 April despite the COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka, and the authorities banned election rallies and meetings.[29] During the video conference with SAARC leaders, Sri Lankan President Gotabaya Rajapaksa initially confirmed that the parliamentary elections would be held as scheduled.[30] Even with the president's comments holding the elections as scheduled, the Election Commission in Sri Lanka put off the date to 20 June 2020, using its powers.[31] This created a crisis between the president's office and the Constitution, and the matter went to the courts.[32][33]

On 10 June 2020, Election Commissioner Mahinda Deshapriya confirmed that the postponed parliamentary elections would be held on 5 August 2020 with strict health measures and guidelines.[34][35][36]

According to various sources, vote turnout initially had a slow start, mainly due to the virus fears, but started to pick up gradually in late morning.[37][38] This was the first Sri Lankan general election held amid a disease outbreak;[39] the Election Commission recommended that voters bring their own blue or black ballpoint pen in order to make the proceedings easier along with precautionary distancing guidelines.[40][41] The authorities also required that voters wear face masks and use hand sanitizer upon entering and exiting polling stations.[42][43]

On election day, Election Commissioner Mahinda Deshapriya cast his vote by visiting the polling station rather than opting for a postal vote. This also marked his first voting appearance in a polling station in nine years.[44] Approximately 82,000 security personnel and more than 60,000 health officials were deployed during the election.[45] The Colombo Stock Exchange was closed early at around 12:30 pm.[46]

Exit poll opinions[edit]

Initial exit poll reports and opinions stated that the ruling SLPFA were favourites to emerge victorious in the elections, mainly owing to the predominant success in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic and due to the negative publicity about the UNP-led government, which was accused of a major intelligence failure which was triggered by the aftermath of the 2019 Easter attacks.[47][48]

Election campaigns[edit]

The candidates were reported to have spent 2.2 billion rupees during the election campaign, with SJB being reported to have spent a higher amount compared to other parties. Campaigns were mostly arranged by the candidates on social media platforms such as Facebook, due to the ban on public gatherings owing to the COVID-19 pandemic.[49][50][51] In June 2020, UNP became the first party to launch the digital election campaign.[52]

Sri Lanka's treasury department issued 8.5 billion rupees to the election department for election expenditures. In July 2020, President Gotabaya of SLPFA was awarded the Zero carbon certificate for conducting his election campaign representing SLPFA in eco-friendly manner.[53] His election campaign also became the first zero carbon election campaign in the world.[54]

SLPP's political campaign was primarily based on economic revival as well making changes to the constitution, including amending the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, controversially passed following the 2015 parliamentary election.[55] Rajapaksa brothers were critical of the 19th amendment as it reduced the major powers of the executive President.

All election campaigns were restricted on 2 August 2020 by the Election Commissioner.[56][57]

Timeline[edit]

2018
  • 9 November 2018 – President Maithripala Sirisena dissolves parliament and calls general elections to be held on 5 January 2019.[58]
  • 13 December 2018 – The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka ruled unanimously that President Maithripala Sirisena's order to dissolve Parliament and hold new elections was unconstitutional.[59]
  • 16 December 2018 – Ranil Wickramasinghe was sworn back in as Prime Minister after the Supreme Court ruled that Mahinda Rajapaksa can not act as Prime Minister.[60][61]
2019
2020
  • 30 January 2020 – United National Party working committee approves Leader of Opposition Sajith Premadasa as its Prime Minister candidate.[63]
  • 10 February 2020 – Leader of the opposition Sajith Premadasa forms a new alliance called Samagi Jana Balawegaya following the rift between him and United National Party leader Ranil Wickremasinghe due to political creative differences.[64][65]
  • 17 February 2020 – Sri Lanka People's Freedom Alliance registered under the leadership of Mahinda Rajapaksa and Maithripala Sirisena named as chairperson.[66]
  • 3 March 2020 – The President dissolved Parliament, with elections set on 25 April 2020 and the nomination period ending 18 March.[67]
  • 19 March 2020 – Election Commission postpones the elections without announcing a new date due to the COVID−19 pandemic.[68]
  • 3 April 2020 – Elections Commission write to the president asking him to see advise for a new date or make an alternative since they are unable to hold the elections as per the Gazzete.[69]
  • 9 April 2020 – President's Secretary PB Jayasundara response to the commission that president will not get any advice from the courts on the elections, and it is the commissions' responsibility to hold the elections, warning of Constitutional Crisis.[70]
  • 20 April 2020 – Election Commission of Sri Lanka declared 20 June 2020 as the date of elections, after a member of commission Professor Ratnajeevan Hoole object to hold the election on 28 May 2020 with the government influence. [71][72]
  • 5 May 2020 – newspaper Editor Victor Ivan and seven others filed a Fundamental Rights petition in Supreme Court seeking an order quashing the Extraordinary Gazette notification declaring the General Election on 20 June.[73]
  • 6 May 2020 – Samagi Jana Balawegaya files a Fundamental Rights petition challenging the Gazette notification issued by the Elections Commission declaring the General Election to be held on 20 June.[74]
  • 9 May 2020 – Champika Ranawaka of Jathika Hela Urumaya and Kumara Welgama of New Sri Lanka Freedom Party files Fundamental Rights petition challenging the Gazette notification issued by the Elections Commission declaring the General Election to be held on 20 June.[75]
  • 18 May 2020 – Supreme Court's five-member judge bench started hearing 8 petitions against the 20 June general election date.[76]
  • 20 May 2020 – Elections Commission inform the Supreme court that 20 June fix date is no longer a possible date for the election.[77]
  • 22 May 2020 – Attorney General requests the supreme court to dismiss petitions submitted in relation to the general election without hearings.[78]
  • 2 June 2020 – The Supreme Court dismissed all Fundamental Rights petitions filed and denied granting leave to proceed with all petitions.[79]
  • 10 June 2020 – Election Commission announces 5 August 2020 as the new date of elections.[80]
  • 30 July 2020 – All election campaigning and propaganda activities for the Parliamentary Election 2020 must end at midnight on 2 August, the Elections Commission announced.[81][82]
  • 10 August 2020 Gotabaya Rajapaksa announced that the Subject Ministers and State Ministers are scheduled to be sworn-in at the Magul Maduwa on August 12, 2020. [83]

Background[edit]

During the constitutional crisis in 2018, Sirisena dissolved parliament and ordered a snap election after his nominee for Prime Minister, Mahinda Rajapaksa, failed to gain a majority in Parliament to back his nomination.[21]

However, after the constitutionality of the dissolution was challenged before Sri Lanka's Supreme Court, the dissolution was suspended, and the snap election was put on hold while the court case was ongoing. On 13 December 2018, the Supreme Court ruled the dissolution of the parliament unconstitutional, moving the election back to its original date.[84]

On 19 March 2020, the Election Commission postponed the elections without announcing a new date due to the COVID−19 pandemic.[68] On 20 May 2020, the Election Commission informed that the Supreme Court clarified a fix date 20 June 2020 for the election.[85] On 10 June 2020, Election Commissioner Mahinda Deshapriya confirmed that the postponed parliamentary elections were to be held on 5 August 2020. On 17 July 2020, the Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Indigenous Medicine issued a gazette regarding the health guidelines for the election after a long delay.[86]

COVID-19[edit]

On 19 March 2020, Sri Lanka reported an increase in cases from the COVID-19 pandemic, but the government went ahead with nominations for the election until 18 March 2020.[87] On 19 March, soon after the nominations ended, the Elections Commission with its powers postponed the elections.[68] The proposed date which was initially mentioned as 25 April 2020 was pushed back until 20 June 2020 due to the virus outbreak, and was later postponed further to its final date. Sri Lanka also joined countries such as Poland, South Korea, Singapore, Syria and Serbia to have held the elections in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic.[88][89] Sri Lanka is also the first South Asian nation to hold elections in the middle of the pandemic.[90]

The health authorities also made special arrangements regarding the safety of the voters by disinfecting the polling station including the internal and external booths of the station with sanitizers prior to the election.[91]

Election violations[edit]

Around 340 minor incidents were reported regarding the election violations according to the survey of the Centre for Monitoring Election Violence. It reported around 167 cases of illegal campaigning, 59 cases of intimidation, 24 cases of illegal poster cutouts and some cases regarding health guidelines violations. SLPFA party recorded the highest number of complaints around 161, while SJB recorded complaints of 40 and 18 complaints were recorded against the UNP.[92]

Alleged manipulation attempts[edit]

Candidate Sashikala Raviraj accused Jaffna District candidate M. A. Sumanthiran who was representing Tamil National Alliance of misconduct during the preference vote count in the Jaffna District and being seated inside the vote counting centre after the conclusion of the parliamentary election in contrast to the regulations as candidates are restricted from entering the counting centre during the process of counting votes after the election.[93] However Center for Monitoring Election Violence (CMEV) noted that the claims of manipulation are false and is driven by social media misinformation and ignorance of the counting process. [94]Sumanthiran denied the accusations noting that counting is done at different locations and brought to the electoral district's primary counting centre and that counting booth has agents from all parties who must provide their verification and agreement for the results to be finalised. Sumanthiran revealed that he was at his house during the counting and was not present in any counting centre and only visited the announcement area when the results were going to be released and that other candidates including Sashikala Raviraj were also present and spoke with the Returning Officer. [95][96]

Allegations of unlawful action against the UNP[edit]

The SJB accused the head of the UNP, Ranil Wickremesinghe, of attempting to save his seat in the parliament through preference votes and SJB claimed that the UNP didn't attain at least 5% of the total votes in order to secure a national seat in the parliament.[97][98]

Electoral system[edit]

196 MPs were elected from 22 multi-member electoral districts using the D'Hondt method with an open list, a proportional representation system.[99][100] The remaining 29 seats were allocated to contesting parties and independent groups in proportion to their share of the national vote.[101][102] The electoral commission announced that voters can vote for one main party and can cast votes to a maximum of 3 individuals as preferential votes.[103]

Results[edit]

The first official results were released on 6 August 2020 in the afternoon starting with the postal votes in the Galle District.[104]

The SLPFA became the largest group in Parliament after securing 59.09% of votes and 145 seats, winning in 18 electoral districts, whilst the main opposition SJB won 23.90% of votes and 54 seats.[105][106][107] The SLPFA managed to exceed the majority cutoff of 113, obtaining 128 seats from districts and 17 seats from the national list, for a total of 145 seats.[108] The result is expected to further increase the influence the Rajapaksa family has over Sri Lankan politics, and the SLPFA only requires five seats from collaborating smaller parties to reach the majority needed to enact constitutional changes, including some that may overturn amendments enacted in 2015 (which included strengthening the role of Parliament and the Prime Minister, as well as putting independent commissions in charge of judiciary appointments, police, public services and the conduct of elections). A total of four other members of the Rajapaksa family (aside from Mahinda) were elected as MPs, including his son Namal, his eldest brother Chamal and his son Sashindra, and his nephew, Nipuna Ranawaka.[109] The SJB, which received second highest number of votes and seats in the election, is set to dethrone the UNP as the main opposition party of the country despite being newly formed following a split over disagreements on party leadership.[110][111] Parties aligned with the Tamil minority lost a few seats, likely weakening their influence and putting into doubt any progress toward their desire for autonomy within a federal state.

The Election Commission revealed that Mahinda Rajapaksa received the highest number of preferential votes during the election with 527,364 votes.[112]

National[edit]

Summary of the 2020 Sri Lankan parliamentary election[113][114][115]
16th Sri Lanka Parliment August 2020.svg
Alliances and parties Votes % Seats
District National Total +/–
  6,853,690 59.09 128 17 145 Increase50
  2,771,980 23.90 47 7 54 New
  327,168 2.82 9 1 10 Decrease6
  445,958 3.84 2 1 3 Decrease3
  67,766 0.58 1 1 2 Increase2
  Eelam People's Democratic Party 61,464 0.53 2 0 2 Increase1
  United National Party 249,435 2.15 0 1 1 Decrease105
67,758 0.58 0 1 1 Increase1
  Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal 67,692 0.58 1 0 1 Increase1
  Sri Lanka Freedom Party[iv] 66,579 0.57 1 0 1 Increase1
55,981 0.48 1 0 1 Increase1
  51,301 0.44 1 0 1 Increase1
  All Ceylon Makkal Congress[vi] 43,319 0.37 1 0 1 Increase1
  National Congress[i] 39,272 0.34 1 0 1 Increase1
  Sri Lanka Muslim Congress[vii] 34,428 0.30 1 0 1 Steady
United Peace Alliance 31,054 0.27 0 0 0 Steady
  All Lanka Tamil Mahasabha 30,031 0.26 0 0 0 Steady
  National Development Front 14,686 0.13 0 0 0 Steady
  Frontline Socialist Party 14,522 0.13 0 0 0 Steady
Social Democratic Party of Tamils 11,464 0.10 0 0 0 Steady
  Tamil United Liberation Front 9,855 0.08 0 0 0 Steady
Socialist Party of Sri Lanka 9,368 0.08 0 0 0 Steady
People's Welfare Front 7,361 0.06 0 0 0 Steady
Sinhalese National Front 5,056 0.04 0 0 0 Steady
  New Democratic Front 4,883 0.04 0 0 0 Steady
United Left Front 4,879 0.04 0 0 0 Steady
  Liberal Party of Sri Lanka 4,345 0.04 0 0 0 Steady
  National People's Party 3,813 0.03 0 0 0 Steady
  Democratic United National Front 3,611 0.03 0 0 0 Steady
National Democratic Front 3,488 0.03 0 0 0 Steady
  Sri Lanka Labour Party 3,134 0.03 0 0 0 Steady
  Democratic Left Front 2,964 0.03 0 0 0 Steady
New Sinhala Heritage 1,397 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
  United Socialist Party 1,189 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
Motherland People's Party 1,087 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
  Eelavar Democratic Front 1,035 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
  Socialist Equality Party 780 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
  Lanka Sama Samaja Party[iii] 737 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
All Are Citizens All Are Kings Organization 632 0.01 0 0 0 Steady
  Democratic Unity Alliance 145 0.00 0 0 0 Steady
  Independents 223,622 1.93 0 0 0 Steady
Valid votes 11,598,929 100 196 29 225 Steady
Rejected votes 744,373 6.03
Total votes 12,343,302
Registered electors/turnout 16,263,885 75.89

District[edit]

Districts won by SJB
Districts won by SLPFA
Districts won by TNA
District results for the 2020 Sri Lankan parliamentary election[113][114][115]
Electoral
District
Province SLPFA SJB TNA NPP Others Total Turnout
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Ampara Eastern 126,012 32.65% 3 102,274 26.50% 2 25,255 6.54% 0 5,060 1.31% 0 127,396 33.00% 2 385,997 100.00% 7 78.28%
Anuradhapura North Central 344,458 67.95% 7 119,788 23.63% 2 - - - 24,492 4.83% 0 18,164 3.58% 0 506,902 100.00% 9 78.19%
Badulla Uva 309,538 62.06% 6 144,290 28.93% 3 - - - 19,308 3.87% 0 25,659 5.14% 0 498,795 100.00% 9 80.43%
Batticaloa Eastern 33,424 11.22% 1 28,362 9.52% 0 79,460 26.66% 2 348 0.12% 0 156,418 52.49% 2 298,012 100.00% 5 76.83%
Colombo Western 674,603 57.04% 12 387,145 32.73% 6 - - - 67,600 5.72% 1 53,428 4.52% 0 1,182,776 100.00% 19 73.94%
Galle Southern 430,334 70.54% 7 115,456 18.93% 2 - - - 29,963 4.91% 0 34,299 5.62% 0 610,052 100.00% 9 74.43%
Gampaha Western 807,896 65.76% 13 285,809 23.27% 4 - - - 61,833 5.03% 1 72,936 5.94% 0 1,228,474 100.00% 18 73.01%
Hambantota Southern 280,881 75.10% 6 51,758 13.84% 1 - - - 31,362 8.39% 0 10,016 2.68% 0 374,017 100.00% 7 79.68%
Jaffna Northern - - - 13,564 3.78% 0 112,967 31.46% 3 853 0.24% 0 231,746 64.53% 4 359,130 100.00% 7 68.92%
Kalutara Western 448,699 64.08% 8 171,988 24.56% 2 - - - 33,434 4.77% 0 46,135 6.59% 0 700,256 100.00% 10 76.79%
Kandy Central 477,446 58.76% 8 234,523 28.86% 4 - - - 22,997 2.83% 0 77,612 9.55% 0 812,578 100.00% 12 77.02%
Kegalle Sabaragamuwa 331,573 66.29% 7 131,317 26.25% 2 - - - 14,033 2.81% 0 23,284 4.65% 0 500,207 100.00% 9 76.70%
Kurunegala North Western 649,965 66.92% 11 244,860 25.21% 4 - - - 36,290 3.74% 0 40,128 4.13% 0 971,243 100.00% 15 75.45%
Matale Central 188,779 65.53% 4 73,955 25.67% 1 - - - 7,542 2.62% 0 17,797 6.18% 0 288,073 100.00% 5 76.69%
Matara Southern 352,217 73.63% 6 72,740 15.21% 1 - - - 37,136 7.76% 0 16,286 3.40% 0 478,379 100.00% 7 75.95%
Monaragala Uva 208,193 74.12% 5 54,147 19.28% 1 - - - 11,429 4.07% 0 7,116 2.53% 0 280,885 100.00% 6 80.93%
Nuwara Eliya Central 230,389 54.47% 5 132,008 31.21% 3 - - - 5,043 1.19% 0 55,537 13.13% 0 422,977 100.00% 8 80.49%
Polonnaruwa North Central 180,847 73.66% 4 47,781 19.46% 1 - - - 6,792 2.77% 0 10,099 4.11% 0 245,519 100.00% 5 78.99%
Puttalam North Western 220,566 57.26% 5 80,183 20.81% 2 - - - 9,944 2.58% 0 74,528 19.35% 1 385,221 100.00% 8 67.47%
Ratnapura Sabaragamuwa 446,668 68.86% 8 155,759 24.01% 3 - - - 17,611 2.72% 0 28,576 4.41% 0 648,614 100.00% 11 77.38%
Trincomalee Eastern 68,681 32.25% 1 86,394 40.56% 2 39,570 18.58% 1 2,226 1.05% 0 16,121 7.57% 0 212,992 100.00% 4 78.62%
Vanni Northern 42,524 20.46% 1 37,883 18.23% 1 69,916 33.64% 3 662 0.32% 0 56,852 27.35% 1 207,837 100.00% 6 78.34%
National List 17 7 1 1 3 29
Total 6,853,693 59.09% 145 2,771,984 23.90% 54 327,168 2.82% 10 445,958 3.84% 3 1,200,133 10.35% 13 11,598,936 100.00% 225 75.89%

Swearing-in[edit]

Mahinda Rajapaksa was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka for the fourth time on 9 August 2020 at Kelaniya Temple on the outskirts of Colombo.[116][117]

International reactions[edit]

Nations[edit]

  •  India – Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi phoned Mahinda Rajapaksa and congratulated his party for the election win.[118]
  •  United States – The US embassy issued a statement congratulating the SLPP for the victory and praised the smooth as well as peaceful conduct of the election.[119]
  •  Vietnam - Prime Minister of Vietnam Congratulated Mahinda Rajapaksa[120]
  •    Nepal - Prime Minister of Nepal Congratulated Mahinda Rajapaksa[121]
  •  Maldives - President of Maldives Congratulated Mahinda Rajapaksa[122]
  •  Bangladesh - Prime Minister of Bangladesh Congratulated Mahinda Rajapaksa[123]
  •  Russia - Prime Minister of Russia Congratulated Mahinda Rajapaksa[124]
  •  Singapore - Prime Minister of Singapore congratulated Mahinda Rajapaksa[125]
  •  Iran - President of Iran Congratulated Mahinda Rajapaksha[126]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Represents seats won by the now-defunct United People's Freedom Alliance (UPFA) at the 2015 parliamentary election.
  2. ^ Represents seats won by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) at the 2015 parliamentary election.

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