2020 Thai protests

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2020 Thai protests
Protest in 2020 Democracy Monument (I).jpg
มศว คนรุ่นเปลี่ยน ประท้วงการยุบพรรคอนาคตใหม่ 02.jpg
Harry Protest Thailand 03082020.jpg
Dispersal of protests in Bangkok, 16 October 2020.jpg
'ออแร ตานิง ตาเละห์เอาะ' เยาวชนนัดแฟลชม็อบ 'ปาตานีจะไม่ทน.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Date
  • Phase 1: February 2020
  • Phase 2: Since 18 July 2020 (2020-07-18)
    (3 months and 1 day)
Location
Thailand, including some overseas protests.
Caused by
Goals
  • Dissolution of the House and fresh legislative elections
  • Ending intimidation of the people
  • Drafting a new constitution
  • Abolition of the military-appointed Senate
  • Amendment of royal prerogative and lèse majesté law
  • Increasing civil, economic and political rights
MethodsDemonstrations, sit-ins, flash protests, online activism, petition, protest art
StatusOngoing
  • Halted for five months due to academia shut down.
  • "Severe" state of emergency declared in Bangkok on 15 October, in addition to the Emergency Decree in force nationwide since March.
Concessions
given
  • Study committee on constitutional amendment set up.
  • Parliamentary dialogue forum scheduled.
Parties to the civil conflict

Protesters:
(no centralised leadership)

  • Khana Ratsadon 2563
  • Free People (from Free Youth)
  • Democracy Restoration Group
  • Student Union of Thailand
  • Free Thoey
  • Campaigning Group for Constitution of the People
  • National Labour Assembly
  • Assembly of the Poor
  • Vocational College Protection of Democracy of Thailand
  • 'Bad Students' Group
  • University, college, and high school students of

Sympathetic media


Sympathetic media

Lead figures
Number
  • 18 July:
  • 2,500
  • 16 August:
  • 20,000–25,000
  • 19 September:
  • 20,000–100,000


Casualties
Injuries9+ [b]
Arrested167+[c]
Charged63+[d]

The ongoing 2020 Thai protests are a series of protests against the government of Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha, which have included demands for reform of the Thai monarchy, unprecedented in the contemporary era. The protests were initially triggered by the dissolution of the Future Forward Party in late February 2020. The party was critical of Prayut and the country's political landscape designed by the current 2017 constitution. This first wave of protests was held exclusively on academic campuses and was brought to a halt by the COVID-19 pandemic.

The protests erupted again on 18 July in a large demonstration organized under the Free Youth umbrella at the Democracy Monument. Three demands were presented to the government: the dissolution of parliament, ending intimidation of the people, and the drafting of a new constitution. The July protests were triggered by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and enforcement of the lockdown Emergency Decree and spread nationwide.

Periodic mass demonstrations followed. On 3 August, two student groups publicly raised demands to reform the monarchy, breaking a long taboo of publicly criticizing the monarchy. A week later, ten demands for monarchy reform were declared. MPs tabled motions to reform the Constitution, and a parliamentary dialogue forum involving proposals of monarchy reform was set up. A 19 September rally saw 20,000–100,000 protesters and has been described as an open challenge to King Vajiralongkorn. A government decision to delay voting on a constitutional amendment in late September fueled nearly unprecedented[23] public republican sentiment. Following mass protests on 14 October, a "severe" state of emergency, which gave more emergency powers to the authorities compared to those given by the Emergency Decree since March, was declared in Bangkok on the 15th, citing the alleged blocking of a royal motorcade. Protests continued despite the ban, prompting a crackdown by police on 16 October.

Government responses have included filing criminal charges using the Emergency Decree; arbitrary detention and police intimidation; delaying tactics; the deployment of military information warfare units; media censorship; the mobilization of pro-government and royalist groups; which have accused the protesters of receiving support from foreign governments or NGOs as part of a global conspiracy against Thailand; and the deployment of thousands of police at protests. The government has ordered university chancellors to prevent students from demanding monarchy reform and to identify student protest leaders. Protests in October, when the King returned to the country from Germany, have resulted in the deployment of the military, riot police, and mass arrests.

Background[edit]

Direct causes[edit]

As the head of junta National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), the 2014 Thai coup d'état brought Prayut Chan-o-cha to power, with him eventually being appointed Prime Minister. The NCPO ruled the country for five years unchecked, during which political and civil rights were restricted, and economic inequality widened.[24][25] Following a disputed, unfree and unfair referendum,[26] the current 2017 Constitution gave rise to many anti-democratic elements, including a junta-appointed Senate who can vote Prime Minister for five years, meaning the military is able to select two prime ministers in the future.[27] It also bind future governments to abide by 20-year national strategy 'road map' laid down the NCPO, effectively locking the country into the period of military guided democracy, with a much reduced role for politicians at both national and local levels.[28]

The 2019 Thai general election, which was considered "partly free and not fair" and as electoral authoritarianism, and has been described as a 'political ritual',[27] nominally brought an end to the NCPO, but the political system continued in the form of a Myanmar-style civil-military party, Palang Pracharat Party, which essentially continues the NCPO's policies and orders as a form of competitive authoritarianism.[27] The coalition government is composed of pro-Prayut camps and smaller parties who benefited from multiple technical interpretations of the election law by a military-controlled Election Commission, including a 44-day hiatus while the election laws were reinterpreted to pave way for a coalition with the state military party at the helm.[29][30][31] Via NCPO mechanisms, Prayut has appointed allies to the Senate, Constitutional Court, various Constitutional organizations, including the Election Commission, and the National Anti-Corruption Commission[27] as well as officials at the local government level. Substantively amending the Constitution is almost impossible as it would require both Senate support and a referendum.[32] Numerous generals, as well as people with historical links to organized crime (e.g., Thammanat Prompao[33]) hold key ministerial positions in Second Prayut Cabinet.[27][34][35]

During the 2019 general election, the Future Forward Party (FFP) was received well by progressives and youths, who viewed it as an alternative to traditional political parties and as against the NCPO,[36] revealing a socio-political cleavage along generational lines,[27] i.e., between Thai youth and the ruling Thai gerontocracy. After eleven months of the coalition, an opposition FFP became short-lived when it was dissolved by the Constitutional Court, as the House about to debate on motion of no confidence.[37] Former FFP members stressed the regime's corruption and were active in exposing the junta's involvement in the 1MDB scandal.[1]

Underlying causes[edit]

Further sources of grievance, many of which the FFP championed, include abortion rights; authoritarianism in Thai schools (including hazing); education reform; labour rights (trade unionism); military reform (e.g., ending conscription and reducing the defense budget, including the purchase of submarines[38]), monopolies (e.g., alcohol), and women's rights.[39]

The king has enjoyed an enormous increase in personal wealth and power since the previous reign of approximately USD$40 billion,[40] making him one of the world's richest monarchs,[41] and has also intervened publicly in political affairs. Vajiralongkorn publicly voiced his opinion on the Constitution, leading to an amendment on the power of the monarchy in the version that had already been accepted in the referendum.[42] In 2018, he was granted personal ownership of royal assets from the Crown Property Bureau, which was formerly legally considered publicly owned.[40] The king has also consolidated the Privy Council, Office of the Royal Household and Royal Security Office into a single personal office;[41] in 2020, the government, seemingly acting in his name, transferred two army units to his personal command.[43]

On the eve of the 2019 election, Vajiralongkorn issued a royal announcement urging people to vote for "good people" (Thai: คนดี; RTGSkhon di; i.e., the junta parties), which was re-broadcast the following morning, in an "unprecedented intervention by the palace".[44]:97 This sparked a massive, immediate, negative reaction on Twitter by Thai youth, using the hashtag "We are grown-ups and can choose for ourselves" (Thai: โตแล้วเลือกเองได้; RTGSto laeo lueak eng dai).[45][44] Following the election, on 19 July, 2019, when the new cabinet was sworn in, they pledged their allegiance to the monarchy, but left out an oath to the constitution, and despite protests, did not correct what was widely seen as a serious breach of the traditional oath of office and a tacit admission of the increasingly absolutist nature of the Thai monarchy.[34] Subsequently, in a ceremony on 27 August, each minister was presented with a framed message of support from the King.[34] He has also been accused of rewriting history as monuments associated with Khana Ratsadon and the Siamese revolution of 1932 were demolished.[34]

The implementation of lèse majesté law has been controversial since the previous reign. The number of cases peaked to an unprecedented scale after 2014 coup.[46] Critics viewed it as a political weapon to suppress dissent and restrict freedom of speech. Even though there have been no new cases since 2018, as Prayut said was the wish of the King, other security laws had been invoked in its place, such as the sedition law, the Computer Crime Act, or the offense of being a member of an organized crime group (อั้งยี่); all of which incur comparably severe punishment. In June 2020, the forced disappearance of Wanchalearm Satsaksit, assumed to be related to accusations of lèse majesté, gained online attention and sympathy.[47] In July 2020, Tiwagorn Withiton, who wore a shirt with the slogan "I lost faith in the monarchy", was subjected to political psychiatry.[48]

Several historical events are seen as intrinsically fuelling the protests, including the 1932 revolution, together with the 6 October 1976 Thammasat University massacre and the 2010 Thai military crackdown and the related issue of impunity for the latter two events.[49]

Concurrent developments[edit]

The government has invoked Emergency Decree since 26 March and issued a COVID-19 related curfew in order to limit the spread. The government has additionally issued a travel ban for all foreigners entering Thailand.[50] Even though the country has a relatively successful response to date, contributed by its robust public health infrastructure,[51][52] the state of emergency and the government's severe economic restriction have not been cancelled. The country's significant tourism industry has been heavily affected. The International Monetary Fund has predicted Thailand's GDP to shrink by 6.7 percent in 2020.[53] The government borrowed and announced a 1.9 trillion-baht (US$60 billion) stimulus package, though few people have actually received it.[54]

Shortly before the second wave protests, on 15 July, netizens were infuriated by privileged treatment to "VIP guests" who were later revealed to be positive for the coronavirus,[55] as well as its failure to boost the heavily effected tourism industry.[56][57] On the same day, Prayut Chan-o-cha made a visit to Rayong Province. Two protesters held signs calling for his resignation prior to the arrival; both were immediately arrested and reportedly beaten by the police, infuriating many Twitter users.[58]

Other related developments include the suicide of a senior judge over his frustration due to pressure on his verdicts in favour of military officers, surgical mask profiteering by Thammanat Prompao, delayed COVID-19 welfare money transfers, the government's approval of the Civil Partnership bill (which does not recognize equal status of same-sex couples), and the case against Red Bull heir Vorayuth Yoovidhya.[39]

First wave (February)[edit]

Protests at Srinakharinwirot University Ongkharak Campus on 25 February. The crossed out number is the popular vote count of dissolved FFP

The first wave protests were triggered by the Constitution Court decision to disband the Future Forward Party, an opposition party popular amongst youths, on 23 February 2020.[59] Demonstrations since erupted in various high schools, colleges, and universities nationwide. These student-organised protests also came with various hashtags unique to their institutions. The firsts began at Thammasat University, Chulalongkorn University, Ramkhamhaeng University, Kasetsart University, Srinakharinwirot University and Prince of Songkhla University on 24 February. Various high school students also organised protests at Triam Udom Suksa School and Suksanari School . The protests, however, were limited to individual institutions.[60][61] A Thai historian scholar noted that street protests have never created political changes if the military sided with the government.[1] The protests, which was organized exclusively on the academia grounds, were halted in late February due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with all universities, colleges, and schools shut down.[1]

Hashtags[edit]

The use of online media, such as Tiktok and Twitter, including various hashtags, has characterized the protests.[62] Hashtags have emerged for protests at each institution. For example:

  • Protests at Chulalongkorn University used #เสาหลักจะไม่หักอีกต่อไป (lit. The pillar will not be broken longer; an analogy to the university's tagline as “the pillar of the land.”)
  • Protests at Triam Udom Suksa School used #เกียมอุดมไม่ก้มหัวให้เผด็จการ (lit. Triam Udom doesn't bow to dictatorship)
  • Protests at Srinakharinwirot University (SWU) used #มศว คนรุ่นเปลี่ยน (lit. SWU generation of change)

Some have mentioned their distaste of the pro-military conservatives (dubbed Salim — สลิ่ม; the word was derived from Thai dessert sarim) such as[61]

  • Protests at Kasetsart University (KU) used #KUไม่ใช่ขนมหวานราดกะทิ (KU is not coconut milk dessert [referring to sarim.])
  • Protests at Khon Kaen University (KKU) used #KKUขอโทษที่ช้าโดนสลิ่มลบโพสต์ (KKU is sorry for being late; [our] posts were deleted by salims)
  • Protests at Mahidol University (located in Salaya) used #ศาลายางดกินของหวานหลายสี (Salaya stops eating multi-coloured dessert [referring to sarim.])
  • Protests at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology[disambiguation needed] (Phra chom klao) used #พระจอมเกล้าชอบกินเหล้าไม่ชอบกินสลิ่ม (Phra chom klao loves eating [drinking] liquors but not salim)

Second wave (July–present)[edit]

Protests under Three Demands[edit]

Seri Thoey group flew the LGBT flag during the protest on 25 July

On 18 July, Thailand saw the largest street demonstration since the 2014 Thai coup d'état[63] at the Democracy Monument in Bangkok with around 2,500 protesters. The protesters, organised under the name Free Youth (Thai: เยาวชนปลดแอก; RTGSyaowachon plot aek), announced the three core demands,[64] which include: dissolution of the House, ending intimidation of the people and drafting a new constitution. A Free Youth leader stated that they do not aim to overthrow the monarchy.[65] The gathering was planned to last overnight, but it was cancelled by midnight for security reasons.

Sits-in at Nakhon Ratchasima Province on 24 July

After 18 July, the protests soon spread across the country. The first were in Chiang Mai province and Ubon Ratchathani Province on 19 July.[66] By 23 July, demonstrations had been organised in more than 20 provinces.[67] Some major demonstrations include one in Maha Sarakham Province on 23 July, of which its hashtag #IsanSibothon quickly trended first on Twitter in Thailand,[68] and one in Nakhon Ratchasima Province on 24 July saw one of the largest crowds amongst them.[69]

On 27 and 29 July, Thais in Paris, New York City and London also protested against the Prayut government.[70]

On 25 July, a LGBT activist group Seri Thoey (lit. Free Thoey; parody to the Seri Thai - Free Thai Movement), demonstrated at the Democracy Monument calling for legalisation of same-sex marriage in addition to the three demands.[71]

On 26 July, an event called “Let’s run, Hamtaro” was organised at the Democracy Monument. Having begun in a protest at Triam Udom Suksa School in Bangkok, but later spread on Twitter, and eventually gathered around 3,000 people.[72]

Further demands of monarchy reform and subsequent protests[edit]

Lawyer Anon Nampa was arrested for giving a speech on reform of the monarchy.
Summary of Demands on Reform of the Monarchy[73]

  1. Revoke the King's immunity against lawsuits.
  2. Revoke lèse majesté law, give amnesty to every persecuted individual.
  3. Separate the King's personal and royal assets.
  4. Reduce the budget allocated to the monarchy.
  5. Abolish the Royal Offices and unnecessary units e.g. Privy Council.
  6. Open assets of the monarchy to audit.
  7. Cease the King's power to give public political comments.
  8. Cease propaganda around the King.
  9. Investigate the murders of commentators or critics of the monarchy.
  10. Forbid the King to endorse future coups.

On 3 August, a Harry Potter-themed demonstration was held, which 200 people joined, featured a public speech by Anon Nampa which openly criticised the monarchy, and demanded amendment of increasing royal prerogative and lèse majesté law.[74] Paul Chambers, Southeast Asian politics scholar, noted, "Such open criticism of Thailand’s monarch by non-elites at a public place within Thailand with the police simply standing by is the first of its kind in Thai history."[75] The police arrested Anon and another Free Youth leader on 8 August.

On 7 August, watchdog organisation iLaw launched a petition campaign to gather 50,000 names to amend the whole 2017 Constitution and set up elected constitutional assembly.[76]

On 10 August, there was a counter-protest by the Coordination Centre of Vocational Students for the Protection of National Institutions (CVPI) which accused the protesters of being manipulated with an aim to cause a regime change.[77] The group also vowed to set up their branches in all provinces[78] and use a social pressure approach to dissuade the movement.[77] Later that evening, there was a rally at Thammasat University, Rangsit campus in Pathum Thani Province named "ธรรมศาสตร์จะไม่ทน." (lit. Thammasat will not tolerate.)[79] Totaling about 3,000 people, it employed the slogan "We don't want reforms; we want revolution."[80] Among the events was the declaration of ten demands to reform the monarchy.[81][82] According to AP, the protesters at the site had mixed reaction to the demands.[83][80][dead link]

The 10 August Thammasat University protest at Rangsit Campus where victims of forced disappearance were recognized.

On 14 August, BBC Thai reported that there had been protests associated with Free Youth in 49 provinces, while in 11 provinces saw activism associated with pro-establishment groups.[84] In the same day, student activist Parit “Penguin” Chiwarak was arrested, leading to calls from Human Rights Watch to immediately release him and drop all charges against all activists.[85]

On 16 August, a large gathering which around 20,000–25,000 people joined[86] was held at the Democracy Monument and reiterated calls for a revised constitution and reforms to the monarchy.[87]

On 18 August, approximately 400 members of Bad Students held a rally at the Ministry of Education, calling for the resignation of the government. The group publicly scolded the Minister of Education, Nataphol Teepsuwan, a former PDRC core leader.[88]

On 20 August, two large-scale student protests of approximately 1,000 people each were held in Nakhon Ratchasima and Khon Kaen. Activists announced a “major rally” planned on 19 September 2020, at Thammasat University’s Tha Prachan campus.[89][90][91]

Formal submission of demands and responses[edit]

On 26 August, student groups presented submissions, including the 10 demands, to the House of Representatives. Two Free Youth group leaders were arrested the same day.[92] Subsequently, the opposition and the coalition submitted constitutional amendment motions, including to amend the clause governing the constitution amendment procedure.[93][94]

On 27–28 August, approximately 15,000 people gathered at 14 October Memorial for the first overnight protest, organized by the 'We are Friends' group.[95] On 28 August, as 15 anti-government activists from the 18 July rally arrived to face charges.[96]

On 5 September, approximately 300 members of the Bad Student group protested at the Ministry of Education for their three demands, i.e., an end to government harassment, reform of outdated regulations, and reform of the entire education system, delivering an ultimatum that the Education Minister should otherwise resign.[97] A few days later, a debate was held between the Bad Student group and Education Minister Nataphol Teepsuwan, where a student representative raised the issues of restriction of freedom of political expression, arbitrary and physical punishments, and failure to protect students from sexual predators. The minister agreed to some of the issues but rejected some points, such as abandoning uniforms.[98]

On 13 September, the House Committee on Political Development, Mass Communications and Public Participation responded to protesters' demands by agreeing to organize a dialogue forum set for 22 September, following the planned 19 September protest at Thammasat University, to discuss their proposals, including monarchy reform, the first time in the contemporary era that this matter has been raised in a Thai parliament.[93]

The occupation of Sanam Luang by demonstrators on 19 September 2020.

In a rally described as one of the largest protests in years,[99] on 19 September, protesters gathered at Thammasat University after university gates were opened following a stand-off.[100][101] Protesters occupied Sanam Luang in the afternoon[102] and stayed overnight, with attendance estimated at anywhere between 20,000 and 100,000,[103][104][105] while the police mobilized more than 10,000 officers.[106] On 20 September, the protesters installed a plaque symbolizing democracy at Sanam Luang, intended as a successor to the original memorial plaque installed at the Royal Plaza during the 1932 Siamese Revolution, which had disappeared in 2017.[107][108] The protesters shifted from their originally declared objective of moving to the Government House, which was heavily barricaded, and instead submitted their demands to the President of the Privy Council via the chief of the Metropolitan Police Bureau before dispersing,[109] and its leader declared victory.[110] There were no reports of violence; protest leader Parit Chiwarak called for a general strike on 14 October to commemorate the 1973 Thai popular uprising.[109] The plaque was removed less than 24 hours after it was installed;[111] however, it has since proliferated as an online meme.[112] Some international media described the rally as an open challenge to Vajiralongkorn's rule,[113] and complaints have been filed against the protest leaders, including an accusation of lèse majesté.[114]

On 23 September, pro-government group Thai Phakdee submitted to the Senate an unverified list of 130,000 names of people who it said opposed charter reform.[115] On 24 September, Parliament voted to set up a study committee, effectively delaying a scheduled vote on constitutional amendment by at least a month. Discontent prompted #RepublicofThailand to trend first in the country's Twitter, with more than 700,000 retweets, the first mass public expression of republican sentiment in the country.[116][117]

On 29 September, Prayut ordered state agencies to provide evidence to a treason case filed regarding the 10 August rally, which included demands for reform of the monarchy. It is reported that Nathaporn Toprayoon, the petitioner, hoped that a court decision would end further discussion of such reform in the protests and pave the way for prosecuting supporters of the movement.[118]

On 2 October, the Bad Student high school protest group organized protests at Bangkok high schools in Bangkok to protest against the abuse and mistreatment of school students, then assembled at the Ministry of Education to again call for the resignation of the Education Minister.[119]

Strengthened emergency powers[edit]

The 15 October protest at the Ratchaprasong intersection.

After no major events for nearly a month, on 13 October, the day before a planned demonstration date, a small group of protesters gathered at Ratchadamnoen Avenue near Democracy Monument, to protest the passing of the king's motorcade.[120] Twenty-one protesters were detained,[121] and while the royal motorcade passed, others raised the three-finger Hunger Games salute, a notable incident of open dissent to the Thai monarchy. A hashtag insulting the king trended on Twitter.[122] The planned protest rally on 14 October began at Democracy Monument, with the objective of moving to Government House to demand the resignation of Prayut.[123] Both the United States Embassy and the United Nations in Bangkok warned their staff of an elevated risk, the latter due to the arrest of the 21 protesters the previous day.[121] Authorities ordered "counter-protesters" to be trucked in using municipal vehicles,[124] some of whom subsequently joined the protests.[125] Right-wing groups, including the Thai Pakdee (Loyal Thais) and the Rubbish Collection Organization, launched counter-protests[126][127][128] Later in the day, tens of thousands of protesters,[129] some under the umbrella of "Khana Ratsadorn 2563" (a reference to the historical People's Party), in a largely peaceful rally, marked by some violent assaults on the protesters by pro-royalists,[130] marched to Government House and set up camps around it.[131] The protest coincided with a planned royal progression around the city, which the protesters stated they would not impede and did not.[130] The motorcade had no formal announcement, as the planned route was via another avenue. Meanwhile, Prayut ordered legal actions against the protesters for allegedly blocking the motorcade.[132] Anon Nampha accused the authorities of intentionally arranging the motorcade through the rally site. He gave an estimate of 200,000 participants before midnight.[133]

Police using water cannon to disperse protesters at Pathum Wan Intersection on 16 October.

On 15 October, the authorities declared a "severe" state of emergency from 04:00 local time, banned gatherings of five or more people, cleared the protests using riot police, in the process detaining 20 demonstrators, among them three protest leaders, and imposed a ban on any sensitive media stories.[134] The government indicated it would set up a state-of-emergency command center. During the day, troops were dispatched to guard Government House and Parliament,[135] raising alarm from an opposition MP of resembling pre-2014 coup days.[136] Opposition parties demanded the revoking of the Emergency Decree and an extraordinary session of Parliament.[137] Two activists were arrested on the charge of attempting an “act of violence against the queen’s liberty”, which incurs a possible life sentence,[138] but eyewitnesses confirmed that they only yelled at the motorcade.[139] Three senior policemen were transferred and investigated for the motorcade incident.[140] A smaller planned occupation[141] at 4pm at the Ratchaprasong intersection went ahead, involving at least 13,500 participants.[142] Twenty more protesters were arrested,[143] but the movement vowed to continue protesting with flash protest tactics.[144] A legal aid group reported at least 51 people were arrested between 13 and 15 October.[19]

On 16 October, the Thai cabinet confirmed a month-long state of emergency, reserving the right to impose a curfew and martial law.[145] Prayut's remark of the protesters "don’t be careless, because people can die today, or tomorrow [...] Do not trifle with the powerful Grim Reaper," paraphrasing Buddha's teaching, was viewed by protesters as threatening the use of deadly force and as the actions of "a tyrant".[146] Around 2,000 unarmed protesters, mostly teenagers, gathered at Pathum Wan Intersection, and two hours later were dispersed by the police. High-pressure water cannon with chemical-filled water and tear gas were used.[147][148] The leader of the opposition Move Forward Party unsuccessfully asked police to evacuate the injured. The Commander of the Metropolitan Police reported at least 100 people were arrested.[20] Protesters vowed to continue.[142] Within hours of the crackdown, students from many universities nationwide held flash protests in response.[149][150][151] Some right-wing personalities used an AFP video clip which showed a police officer in full riot gear being hit with pincers to question whether the protesters were unarmed.[152][153] The blue colour dye in the water was speculated to be methylene blue, Azure A, or Thionine, and used to track marked persons.[154] The police could not confirm the exact type of chemicals deployed and were criticized for not appearing more curious about the chemicals they had purchased.[155] The police claimed they were following "international standards" for crowd control;[156] however, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights guidance states water cannon should be used only against violent protests.[157]

On 17 October, an estimated 23,000 participants held rallies mainly at three different sites in Bangkok and several smaller sites, despite the government-ordered shutdown of the MRT and BTS rapid transit systems, which affected hundreds of thousands of commuters.[158] Protests were also held in at least six other provinces. Two demonstrators who were charged with attempting "violence against the queen’s liberty" were granted bail.[159] On social media, a new trend of the symbol ||| (|||) is used to show support to the protests; the symbol came from the three finger salute from Hunger Games.

On 18 October, according to police figures, approximately 4,000 protesters demonstrated at Victory Monument, with over 2,000 attending rallies at two Bangkok intersections; protests continued in several provinces.[160]

Financing[edit]

The protests are financed by private donations,[161][162] mainly from Actress Intira Charoenpura[163][164] and the K-pop fandom in Thailand[165][166] — the latter alone donated over ฿3,600,000 (around US$115,399) on 18 October 2020.[167] There have been attempts to prosecute the donors.[168] A conspiracy theory accusing foreigners, including the United States government and American organisations such as Human Rights Watch and Netflix, of funding the protests has been voiced by the royalist group Thailand Vision and campaigners at pro-government rallies, leading the United States embassy in Bangkok to issue a formal statement of denial.[169]

Reactions[edit]

State response and arrests[edit]

A student protester receiving first aid after being hit by chemicals on 16 October.
External video
video icon Arrest of student leader Parit Chiwarak on 14 August (3:09, in Thai), YouTube video.
video icon Arrest of student leader Pai Daodin on 13 October (0:39), Youtube video.

An Isaan Record analysis found that the government response has included force and intimidation, arbitrary detention, arrests and changes, disinformation, the deployment of military Information and Operations units, media censorship, delaying tactics, obfuscation, support for pro-government groups, gaslighting, and negotiation,[170] as well as mobile jamming devices.[171] The Government Public Relations Department of Thailand released two propaganda YouTube videos attacking the protesters.[172] In the early morning of 15 October, a severe state of emergency was declared in Bangkok.[173]

The Asia Times quoted a government official stating that the King was not bothered by the 'children's' protests,[174] but an Al Jazeera article reported that the Thai monarchy has asked Thai media to censor mention of the ten demands.[175] Prayut blamed the protesters for further damaging the country's economy.[176] Key military personnel, such as General Apirat Kongsompong, the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Thai Army, condemned the protesters, even accusing them of lése majesté,[177] while the new Army commander Narongpan Jittkaewtae told the protesters to "reform yourselves first."[178] Public Health Minister Anutin Charnvirakul, a notable politician from a junior coalition partner, expressed concern about implications for COVID-19 spread whilst signaling his own neutrality.[179]

The authorities have intimidated protesters via the state academic system. The Thai authorities, referencing the Thammasat University Massacre and 1992 protests, ordered universities to prevent students from demanding monarchy reform and to compile lists of protest leaders.[180] Some universities and schools responded by forbidding their staff and students to join the protests and by banning gatherings on their grounds, claiming COVID-19 concerns, while police issued warning letters.[181] On 18 August, a Ministry of Education department allowed students to hold rallies in state schools.[182] However, in late August, student groups reported that at least 109 schools had suppressed or intimidated political expression.[183]

As of October 2020, at least 167 people were arrested, with charges including sedition;[c] five were arrested without charges.[184] In early August, watchdog organization iLaw reported at least 78 incidents of intimidation of protest sympathizers.[84] In early September, the police summonsed the first schoolchild protester for violating the security laws.[185] At least 63 protesters have been charged under the controversial and repeatedly extended COVID-19 emergency decree, in 17 cases, despite the government claiming it would not be employed in this way.[186]

The state has attempted to severely restrict online freedom of speech. On 24 August, in response to a Thai government order, Facebook blocked access in Thailand to the million-member main Facebook page critical of the monarchy, Royalist Marketplace.[187] Facebook is challenging the order in the courts.[188] The authorities attempted to block more than 2,200 websites ahead of the 19 September rally.[189] Following the rally, a minister filed a complaint to prosecute Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube for allowing anti-government content, the first time the Computer Crimes Act has been used against foreign service providers.[190] A Thai media provider was reported to be censoring a foreign news network reporting the protests.[191]

After the declaration of a severe state of emergency, police moved to ban or block independent and critical media under the emergency decree, specifically Prachathai.com, The Reporters, The Standard, and Voice TV, together with the Free Youth movement Facebook page. The Free Youth and the United Front for Thammasat and Demonstration reacted by switching from their Facebook pages to the Telegram messaging app; government critic and former finance minister Thirachai Phuvanatnaranubala criticized police actions as regressing to "complete dictatorship".[192] The police seized books criticizing the monarchy.[193] Ministry of Digital Economy and Society stated it intended to prosecute internet service providers and online platforms which allows prohibited content. It also reported about 320,000 illegal messages.[194]

On 18 October, House Speaker Chuan Leekpai asked parliament officials to schedule an unofficial meeting with government and opposition representatives on 23 October to discuss an extraordinary parliamentary session, which would require a royal decree, to consider amending the constitution.[195]

Support[edit]

In August, a Move Forward Party MP stated that some references to the monarchy in the protests were inconvenient truths that required attention. He received stark responses from Manager Online and General Apirat Kongsompong, who insisted that some protesters intended to overthrow the monarchy, or had fallen victim to third-party manipulators.[196] In early September, the leader of the Pheu Thai Party, Sompong Amornwiwat, stated a motion from the opposition coalition to amend Article 256 was aligned with the demands of the protesters.[197]

Despite threats to their careers,[198] many Thai celebrities have publicly expressed support for the protesters.[199][200][201][202] A group of 147 university faculty members has issued a statement saying the protesters' demand for monarchical reform did not violate the law. The Thai Academic Network for Civil Rights, another group of 358 scholars, has also expressed full support for the protesters.[86] A physician was sacked for signing petition in support of the movement.[203]

In August, UNICEF issued a statement invoking the Convention on the Rights of the Child that called for schools and learning institutions to be safe havens and forums for children's freedom of expression.[204][205] Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and Amnesty International recognized the peaceful nature of the rallies, and condemned police crackdowns.[206][207] The Human Rights Watch Asia director stated, "Criminalizing peaceful protests and calls for political reform is a hallmark of authoritarian rule" and called for governments and the United Nations to condemn the repression of the protests and urge the release of protesters.[142] Some international groups and individuals expressed their support for the movements, include Tuen Mun Community Network[208] and Hong Kong activist Joshua Wong.[209]

Opposition[edit]

State-sponsored[210] organized opposition to the protests emerged in August and included the accusation of a global conspiracy being funded or masterminded by a foreign government or NGOs. On 10 August, the Thai Move Institute released a diagram of an alleged 'people's revolution network' linking student protests to former Future Forward Party leader Thanathorn Juangroongruangkit and former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra.[211][212] In the same month, a pro-government Facebook page, 'Thailand Vision', asserted the existence of a 'global conspiracy' to overthrow the Thai monarchy.[213] The police and right-wing group also targeted Thanatorn and his allies for being accused of masterminding the protests.[214][215]

Rightist media and organizations quickly attacked the August demands for monarchy reform, stating that the call to reform the monarchy was an act of evil, causing disunity and undermining the monarchy, and accusing Pheu Thai and the former Future Forward Party of manipulating protesters.[216] Most politicians expressed a negative reaction to the demands, including Sudarat Keyuraphan, an influential Pheu Thai politician.[217] On social media platforms, user accounts, including ones coordinated by the ultra-royalist Rubbish Collection Organization,[218] which has been characterized as fascist, attacked protesters,[e] some going so far as to urging child rape.[222] In mid-September, Thailand's Constitutional Court accepted a complaint of treason against the 10 Demands protest leaders.[223][224] Right-wing groups and media quickly attacked the protesters from the royal motorcade incident on 14 October.[225][226]

At least 103 cases of harassment of students have been reported,[227] and protesting tactics have been condemned; some considered a protester's act of hurling paint at police officers to be violent.[228][229] Opponents also find vulgar language used by protest leaders unacceptable.[230]

Polls[edit]

A national Suan Dusit poll from 16–21 August of 197,029 people found that 59.1% stated the students were making demands as permitted in a democracy, 62.8% agreed with the demand for reform of the Constitution and 53.9% agreed that the Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha should "resign or dissolve parliament", while 59.5% agreed that the government should "stop intimidating" people. Overall support for the protests stood at 53.7%, with 41.2% opposed.[231]

Analysis[edit]

Protestor tactics and demands[edit]

Protesters on 15 October at Ratchaprasong calling for reform and the release of their friends.

Some commentators say demands for monarchy reform before have only been made by fringe groups, yet there is consensus that this protest is the first time such demands have been discussed publicly. The calls may drive away some sympathisers, but if the government crack downs, it could bring more support to the movement.[232] In mid-August, Atith Keating wrote that student protests lack a coherent strategy; they do not have plans beyond day-to-day demonstrations. This may be caused by the lack of a centralised structure, as in the peak of student movements in the 1970s.[233] Student protesters are seen as being more creative, networked, and technologically savvy than the government and as having time on their side, as well as being the targets of disproportionate persecution that could sway public opinion, with at least a chance of causing the government to collapse provided the anti-monarchy element does not provoke a backlash.[234] One Bangkok Post columnist wrote that republican sentiment has never been stronger in Thailand,[235] while another opined that the 19 September protest was a critical juncture for the movement, with the protesters needing to broaden their agenda again to wider societal reforms if it were to succeed.[105] A political scientist professor opined that an absence of protest leaders increased the risk of the movement getting out of control and could further no strategic initiatives.[236]

Possibility of a coup[edit]

By September, protester pressure meant speculation about the possibility of a Thai military coup against Prayut increased, as his administration began to be viewed as increasingly untenable,[237] and rumours became rife when a tank was spotted in the streets; the military stated, as is usual on such occasions, that this was part of a previously scheduled military exercise.[238] However, this does not guarantee a more receptive audience to the protesters' demands as a palace-backed military faction is in ascendance.[239] BBC correspondent Jonathan Head wrote that the authorities could end their tolerance of the protests since the King had returned to Thailand and might actively pursue those who they believed to fund the protesters.[240]

Calls for government resignation[edit]

The Severe State of Emergency led to an October 17 Khaosod English editorial calling for Prayut to resign on the basis he had lost all legitimacy. The editorial's analysis noted that police had attacked and dispersed protesters outside Government House on October 15, while the protesters were dispersing as requested by protest leaders, and that any public challenges against Prayut's government were now banned and incurred up to two years in prison. It further noted that the authorities had threatened mass arrests,[241] thereby indicating the government could no longer distinguish between protesters and criminals, and that the deployment of soldiers at Parliament and suspension of all sessions mentioning politics had effectively terminated legislative power. It further noted up to 101 law professors and political scientists had issued an open letter questioning the legality of the Severe State of Emergency due to the lack of a national security threat such as terrorism or widespread violence. The editorial criticized the level of violence in the police dispersal of peaceful demonstrators on October 16 and mass arrests and the arrest of an accredited reporter for its effect on media freedom.[242]

On October 19, the Bangkok Post editorial called for Prayut to "listen to the young" in order to defuse the increasing political tension to prevent it escalating into violence that could severely destabilize the entire country and urged him to address reform of the constitution and of the senate.[243]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Later found to be associated with a minor junior coalition partner Action Coalition for Thailand.
  2. ^ Compiled from multiple sources:[8][9][10]
  3. ^ a b Compiled from multiple sources:[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]
  4. ^ Compiled from multiple sources:[21][22]
  5. ^ See its characterisation in: [219][220][221]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "แฟลชม็อบนักเรียน-นักศึกษา ประกายไฟในกระทะ หรือ เพลิงลามทุ่ง" [Student flash mobs: sparks in pan or spreading fire?]. BBC Thai (in Thai). 28 February 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  2. ^ "Banned Thai opposition party says junta helped 1MDB cover-up". Reuters. 23 February 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  3. ^ "Thailand's unprecedented revolt pits the people against the King". CNN. 16 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  4. ^ a b "คุม 'ทนายอานนท์ - ไมค์' ส่งศาลแล้วทั้งคู่ ทามกลางมวลชนนับร้อย". Bangkok Biznews/. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  5. ^ "ผู้สนับสนุนเรียกร้อง ตร. ปล่อยตัว "เพนกวิน" พริษฐ์ ชิวารักษ์". BBC News ไทย (in Thai). Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  6. ^ "Arrests heighten rally concerns". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  7. ^ "The student daring to challenge Thailand's monarchy". BBC News. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  8. ^ "สภาวุ่น! ม็อบปิดทางออกรัฐสภา-บุกปีนรั้วเจ็บ 1 คน". ไทยพีบีเอส. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  9. ^ ข่าวสด https://www.khaosod.co.th/politics/news_5109779. Retrieved 14 October 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ "คณะราษฎรเดินหน้าชุมนุมต่อวันที่ 4-สรุปบาดเจ็บ 7 คน". Thai PBS. 17 October 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  11. ^ "ออกหมายจับแกนนำชุมนุมต่อต้านรัฐบาล-ปราศรัยวิจารณ์สถาบันกษัตริย์". BBC News ไทย (in Thai). Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  12. ^ "จับแล้ว! 'ภาณุพงศ์ จาดนอก' กำลังถูกนำตัวไป สน.สำราญราษฎร์". Bangkok Biznews/. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  13. ^ English, Khaosod (10 August 2020). "Anti-Govt Protesters Detained, Given 'Attitude Adjustment' in Jungle". Khaosod English. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  14. ^ "Thai police arrest another leader of student protests". Reuters. 14 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  15. ^ "โดนแล้ว! ตำรวจบุกรวบ 'เพนกวิน' หลังถูกแจ้งจับ ผิดมาตรา116". Thai Post (in Thai). Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  16. ^ "รวบ 'บารมี ชัยรัตน์' คดีชุมนุมเยาวชนปลดแอก 18 ก.ค." VoiceTV (in Thai). Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  17. ^ "หยุดไม่อยู่ แฟลชม็อบทุกวัน ตร.จับ 9 แกนปลดแอกส่งฝากขัง-ศาลให้ประกัน ตั้งเงื่อนไขห้ามผิดซ้ำ". มติชนออนไลน์. 21 August 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  18. ^ ""ทัตเทพ-ภานุมาศ" ได้รับการปล่อยตัวแล้ว นักวิชาการ-ส.ส. ช่วยประกัน". BBC ไทย (in Thai). Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  19. ^ a b "Prayut Refuses To Resign, Police Crack Down on Protesters". Khaosod English. 16 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  20. ^ a b "พรรคก้าวไกล เจรจา ผบช.น. เข้าพื้นที่ชุมนุม พาคนเจ็บออกจากม็อบ". ประชาชาติธุรกิจ (in Thai). 16 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  21. ^ "Emergency Decree used against anti-government protesters despite authorities' claim, says TLHR". Prachatai English. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  22. ^ admin010 (27 August 2020). "เปิดสถิติคดีพ.ร.ก.ฉุกเฉินฯ อย่างน้อย 17 คดี 63 ราย แม้รัฐบาลอ้างไม่ใช้กับการชุมนุม". ศูนย์ทนายความเพื่อสิทธิมนุษยชน (THAI LAWYERS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS) (in Thai). Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  23. ^ Jory, Patrick (31 December 2019). "Chapter Five. Republicanism in Thai History". In Peleggi, Maurizio (ed.). A Sarong for Clio. Cornell University Press. pp. 97–118. doi:10.7591/9781501725937-007. ISBN 978-1-5017-2593-7.
  24. ^ Montesano, Michael John, III, 1961- editor. Chong, Terence, editor. Heng, Mark, editor. (7 January 2019). After the coup : the National Council for Peace and Order era and the future of Thailand. ISBN 978-981-4818-98-8. OCLC 1082521938.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ Kongkirati, Prajak; Kanchoochat, Veerayooth (2018). "The Prayuth Regime: Embedded Military and Hierarchical Capitalism in Thailand". TRaNS: Trans -Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia. 6 (2): 279–305. doi:10.1017/trn.2018.4. ISSN 2051-364X.
  26. ^ McCargo, Duncan; T Alexander, Saowanee; Desatova, Petra (31 December 2016). "Ordering Peace: Thailand's 2016 Constitutional Referendum". Contemporary Southeast Asia. 39 (1): 65–95. doi:10.1355/cs39-1b. ISSN 0129-797X.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Sawasdee, Siripan Nogsuan (12 December 2019). "Electoral integrity and the repercussions of institutional manipulations: The 2019 general election in Thailand". Asian Journal of Comparative Politics. 5 (1): 52–68. doi:10.1177/2057891119892321. ISSN 2057-8911. S2CID 213208424.
  28. ^ Montesano, Michael J. (2019). "The Place of the Provinces in Thailand's Twenty-Year National Strategy: Toward Community Democracy in a Commercial Nation?" (PDF). ISEAS Perspective. 2019 (60): 1–11.
  29. ^ "EC to push ahead with formula". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  30. ^ "EC seat move is hijacking". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  31. ^ Ricks, Jacob I. (1 September 2019). "Thailand's 2019 Vote: The General's Election". Pacific Affairs. 92 (3): 443–457. doi:10.5509/2019923443. ISSN 0030-851X.
  32. ^ "Senate must give way". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  33. ^ Evans, Michael Ruffles, Michael (8 September 2019). "From sinister to minister: politician's drug trafficking jail time revealed". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  34. ^ a b c d McCargo, Duncan (2019). "Southeast Asia's Troubling Elections: Democratic Demolition in Thailand". Journal of Democracy. 30 (4): 119–133. doi:10.1353/jod.2019.0056. ISSN 1086-3214. S2CID 208688810.
  35. ^ McCargo, Duncan; Alexander, Saowanee T. (2019). "Thailand's 2019 Elections: A State of Democratic Dictatorship?". Asia Policy. 26 (4): 89–106. doi:10.1353/asp.2019.0050. ISSN 1559-2960. S2CID 208625542.
  36. ^ McCARGO, DUNCAN (2019). "Anatomy: Future Backward". Contemporary Southeast Asia. 41 (2): 153–162. doi:10.1355/cs41-2a. ISSN 0129-797X. JSTOR 26798844.
  37. ^ News, A. B. C. "Court in Thailand orders popular opposition party dissolved". ABC News. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  38. ^ "Subs plan could sink govt fortunes". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  39. ^ a b "All you need to know about Thai protests". Prachatai English. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  40. ^ a b Reed, John (13 October 2020). "The king's money: Thailand divided over the $40bn question". Financial Times.
  41. ^ a b "Thais question king's spending as economy takes hit from Covid-19". Financial Times. 16 September 2020.
  42. ^ "Thai parliament approves king's constitutional changes request, likely delaying elections". Reuters. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  43. ^ "Thai king takes control of five palace agencies". The Business Times. 2 May 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  44. ^ a b McCargo, Duncan; Alexander, Saowanee T. (2019). "Thailand's 2019 Elections: A State of Democratic Dictatorship?". Asia Policy. 26 (4): 89–106. doi:10.1353/asp.2019.0050. ISSN 1559-2960. S2CID 208625542.
  45. ^ McCargo, Duncan (29 March 2019). "Opinion | 'We Are Grown-Up Now and Can Choose for Ourselves'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  46. ^ 2014 coup marks the highest number of lèse-majesté prisoners in Thai history. Prachatai.
  47. ^ Wright, George; Praithongyaem, Issariya (2 July 2020). "The satirist who vanished in broad daylight". BBC News. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  48. ^ "After court rejects petition to free dissident, he is released from mental hospital". The Isaan Record. 22 July 2020.
  49. ^ "The unjust massacre that is fuelling the democratic movement". Prachatai English. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  50. ^ Pulitzer, Greeley (2 April 2020). "National curfew announced. Takes effect tomorrow". The Thaiger.
  51. ^ Abuza, Zachary (21 April 2020). "Explaining Successful (and Unsuccessful) COVID-19 Responses in Southeast Asia". The Diplomat. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  52. ^ Bello, Walden (3 June 2020). "How Thailand Contained COVID-19". Foreign Policy In Focus. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  53. ^ Paweewun, Oranan (16 April 2020). "IMF: Thai GDP down 6.7%". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  54. ^ Theparat, Chatrudee (7 April 2020). "Cabinet gives green light to B1.9tn stimulus". Bangkok Post.
  55. ^ "ปชช.กังวลทหารอียิปต์-ครอบครัวซูดาน ทำ COVID-19 ระบาดใหม่" [Ppl. concerned [about] Egyptian solider-Sudanese family to cause new COVID-19 pandemic]. Thai PBS (in Thai). 19 July 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  56. ^ "หละหลวม ปล่อยทหารอียิปต์ติดโควิด เข้ามา ท่องเที่ยวระยองพังหนัก รอวันตาย" [Careless. Let COVID infected Egyptian soldier in. Rayong tourism heavily damaged, waiting to die.]. Thairath (in Thai). 15 July 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  57. ^ "ท่องเที่ยวระยองพังพินาศ แห่ถอนจองโรงแรมรีสอร์ท90%" [Rayong tourism devastated. 90% hotel-resort booking canceled]. Dailynews (in Thai). 14 July 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  58. ^ "โซเชียลเดือด ดันแฮชแท็ก #ตํารวจระยองอุ้มประชาชน ปม 2 วัยรุ่นชูป้ายไล่นายกฯ" [Social boiled. Push hash tag 'Rayong police arrest people' in incident of two teens holding signs.]. Thairath (in Thai). 15 July 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  59. ^ "Thailand's Future Forward Party Has the Support of Young Thais. A Court Could Disband It Entirely". Time. 20 January 2020. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  60. ^ "A Popular Thai Opposition Party Was Disbanded. What Happens Next?". CFR. 27 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  61. ^ a b "จุดติด-ไม่ติด : แฮชแท็กและการชุมนุมประท้วงของนิสิตนักศึกษาบอกอะไรเราบ้าง" [Sparked or not: What do hash tags and student protests told us?]. The Momentum Co. (in Thai). 26 February 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  62. ^ Ratcliffe, Rebecca; correspondent, South-east Asia (24 August 2020). "'We want a true democracy': students lead Thailand's protest movement". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  63. ^ "Anti-government rallies spreading across Thailand". Coconut Thailand. 20 July 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  64. ^ "'เยาวชนปลดแอก' เปิดแถลงการณ์ข้อเรียกร้องฉบับเต็ม" ['Free Youth' released full declaration]. Bangkok Biz News (in Thai). 18 July 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  65. ^ "วังวนการเมืองเน่าสุด จุดไฟม็อบ#เยาวชนปลดแอกลงถนน ยืนยันไม่ "ล้มเจ้า"" [Rotting political cycle. Spark 'Free Youth' mob to streets, affirms not to "overthrow monarchy"]. Manager Online (in Thai). Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  66. ^ "Chiang Mai, Ubon rally against Prayut, government". Bangkok Post. 20 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  67. ^ "ประท้วงดาวกระจายลามกว่า 20 จังหวัด เปิดไทม์ไลน์จุดเริ่มจาก 'เยาวชนปลดแอก'" [Protest spread to more than 20 provinces. Show timeline starting from 'Free Youth']. The Bangkok Insight (in Thai). 23 July 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  68. ^ "#อีสานสิบ่ทน พุ่งติดเทรนด์อันดับ 1 แห่ขบวนหมอลำ ม่วนหลายก่อนปราศรัย". Thai Rath (in Thai). 22 July 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  69. ^ "4 มหาวิทยาลัยในโคราช นักเรียน ประชาชน แสดงพลังทวงคืนประชาธิปไตย". Thairath (in Thai). 24 July 2020. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  70. ^ "คนไทยในปารีส นิวยอร์ก ลอนดอน จัดกิจกรรมประท้วงรัฐบาล" [Thai in Paris, New York, London held government protest.]. BBC Thai (in Thai). Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  71. ^ ""กลุ่มเสรีเทยพลัส" จัดกิจกรรมม็อบไม่มุ้งมิ้งแต่ตุ้งติ้งค่ะคุณรัฐบาล". MGR Online (in Thai). 25 July 2020. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  72. ^ "Hamtaro Uncaged! Reinventing the wheel of political protest". Thisrupt. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  73. ^ "[Full statement] The demonstration at Thammasat proposes monarchy reform". Prachatai English. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  74. ^ "Harry Potter-themed protest openly criticises Thai monarchy". ABC. 4 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  75. ^ "Thailand protesters openly criticise monarchy in Harry Potter-themed rally". The Guardian. 4 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  76. ^ "เตือน!คนรุ่นใหม่ลุกฮือสู้เผด็จการ ล่า5หมื่นชื่อแก้รธน.60ตั้งส.ส.ร." [Warn! New gens rise to fight dictatorship, gather 50 thousand names to amend 2017 Constitution, set up constitutional assembly]. Daily News (in Thai). 7 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  77. ^ a b "ครช.ยื่นร่างพ.ร.บ.ออกเสียงประชามติ ร่าง รธน.ใหม่ ฝ่ายค้านรับเร่งเสนอในสัปดาห์นี้". prachatai.com. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  78. ^ ""ประชาชนปกป้องสถาบันฯ" ผุด ศอปส. ทุกจังหวัด จับผิด-เปิดเผยตัวตน "คนชังชาติ"" ["People Protect Monarchy" plans CVPI in every province. Get after-reveal identity of "Nation-haters".]. BBC News ไทย (in Thai). Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  79. ^ "ม็อบนศ.ฮือต้าน"รัฐบาลลุงตู่"แน่น ม.ธรรมศาสตร์" [Student mobs amass to resist "Uncle Tu government" in Thammasat U.]. Post Today. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  80. ^ a b Press, Associated (11 August 2020). "Student Protest at Thammasat the Largest Rally in Months". Khaosod English. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  81. ^ "ประมวลชุมนุม #ธรรมศาสตร์จะไม่ทน 'เราไม่ต้องการปฏิรูปเราต้องการปฏิวัติ'" [Summary of demonstration Thammasat will not tolerate 'We do not want reforms; we want revolution' }language=th]. prachatai.com. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  82. ^ "The ten demands that shook Thailand". New Mandala. 2 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  83. ^ "Unprecedented open criticism of king aired at Thai protest". AP NEWS. 10 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  84. ^ a b "สำรวจแนวการชุมนุมประชาชนหนุน-ต้านรัฐบาล" [Investigate protest line support-against government.]. BBC ไทย (in Thai). Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  85. ^ "Thailand: Drop Charges, Release Student Activist". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  86. ^ a b "Thailand's youth demo evolves to largest protest since 2014 coup". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  87. ^ "Thai protesters stage fresh pro-democracy rally". BBC News. 16 August 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  88. ^ "Students Jeer Education Minister as Protests Escalate". Khaosod English. 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  89. ^ Record, The Isaan (21 August 2020). "Black magic and calls for change at large protest at Khon Kaen's Democracy Monument". The Isaan Record. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  90. ^ English, Khaosod (21 August 2020). "Large Protests Hit Isaan, Major Rally Announced for Sep. 19". Khaosod English. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  91. ^ "Anti-govt rally in Khon Kaen". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  92. ^ "Students submit manifesto". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  93. ^ a b "First ever dialogue on Thai monarchy arrives in Parliament's 'safe zone'". www.thaipbsworld.com. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  94. ^ Sattaburut, Aekarach; Chetchotiros, Nattaya. "Govt pleads for charter support". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  95. ^ "Apologies, demands made at first anti-dictatorship overnight protest". Prachatai English. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  96. ^ "Chaos as anti-government protesters remove police barriers". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  97. ^ "Students rally at ministry to repeat demands". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  98. ^ Associated press. "Student Activists Seeking Reforms Debate Education Minister". Khaosod.
  99. ^ "Thais hold huge protest demanding reforms". BBC News. 19 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  100. ^ "Protesters from around the country arrive in Bangkok for anti-government rally". The Nation Thailand. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  101. ^ "Protesters defy Thammasat ban and surge into football field for mega pro-democracy rally". The Nation Thailand. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  102. ^ "Pro-democracy crowds rally in the rain". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  103. ^ "Massive Crowd Turns Out in Bangkok for Weekend of Pro-Democracy Protests". BenarNews. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  104. ^ "Scenes From Thailand's Massive Protests Demanding Reform". Diplomat. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  105. ^ a b Pongsudhirak, Thitinan. "Reforms need broadening of the agenda". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  106. ^ "'ปรับแผน-เพิ่มกำลัง' รับมือชุมนุมวันนี้ ตร.ตรึง 1 หมื่นนาย ม็อบลั่นปิดเกมก่อนเที่ยง 20 ก.ย." Bangkokbiznews (in Thai). Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  107. ^ "Thai activists challenge monarchy by laying plaque". BBC News. 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  108. ^ "Protesters install 'new plaque' at Sanam Luang". Bangkok Post. 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  109. ^ a b "Activists end rally after submitting demands". Bangkok Post. 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  110. ^ CNN, Helen Regan. "Thai protesters declare 'victory' in monarchy reform rallies, after delivering their demands to authorities". CNN. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  111. ^ "Plaque installed by Thai protesters near palace removed". Al Jazeera. 21 September 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  112. ^ "Less Than a Day Old, Democracy Plaque Lives On In Memes, Fanart". Khaosod English. 22 September 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  113. ^ "Protests continue to target Thai monarchy". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  114. ^ "Rally leaders face charges". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  115. ^ "Royalist Group Submits 130,000 Names Opposing Charter Rewrite". Khaosod English. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  116. ^ Reed, John. "#RepublicofThailand trends as protesters maintain push on monarchy". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  117. ^ "Getting Radical? Thai netizens call for the "Republic of Thailand"". thisrupt.co. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  118. ^ "เปิดคำร้องคดี 10 สิงหา กับข้อกล่าวหาล้มล้างการปกครองฯ" [10 August case complaint revealed, and charge of overthrowing regime.]. BBC ไทย (in Thai). Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  119. ^ "Students protest against abuse in schools, call for Education Minister to resign". Prachatai English. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  120. ^ "Early rally site cleared, protesters arrested". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  121. ^ a b Ashworth, Caitlin (14 October 2020). ""Elevated risk of unrest" after 21 activist arrests, UN department says". The Thaiger. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  122. ^ Johnson, Panu Wongcha-um, Panarat Thepgumpanat, Kay (13 October 2020). "Thai protesters clash with police, call out as king's motorcade passes". Reuters. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  123. ^ "Protesters gathering at Democracy Monument". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  124. ^ "Anti-Gov't Protest Plans Complicated by Royal Itinerary". Khaosod English. Retrieved 14 October 2020 – via Reuters.
  125. ^ "Imposters Among Us: Royalists Showing Support for Protest Go Viral". Khaosod English. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  126. ^ "Bangkok On Edge as Royalists Face Off With Anti-Gov't Protesters". Khaosod English. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  127. ^ "Arrests heighten rally concerns". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  128. ^ "Arrests heighten rally concerns". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  129. ^ "Anti-government protesters reach Government House, criticize monarchy". Prachatai English. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  130. ^ a b "Thai protests: Thousands gather in Bangkok as king returns to country". BBC News. 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  131. ^ "Protesters vow to stay 3 days at Govt House to oust Prayut". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  132. ^ "PM ORDERS PROSECUTION OF PROTESTERS WHO 'BLOCKED ROYAL CONVOY'". Khaosod English. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  133. ^ "เกาะติด "คณะราษฎร" ชุมนุม 14 ตุลา "ราษฎรจะเดินนำ ที่ราชดำเนิน" - บีบีซีไทย". BBC Thai (in Thai). Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  134. ^ "Twenty protesters arrested, planned Thursday rally prohibited". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  135. ^ "Prawit-led centre likely to handle situation". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  136. ^ "'รังสิมันต์ โรม'โพสต์ภาพทหารเข้าประจำการรัฐสภาหวั่นคล้ายสถานการณ์ปี57". Siam Rath (in Thai). 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  137. ^ "ฝ่ายค้านจี้ยกเลิกประกาศสถานการณ์ฉุกเฉินทันที เสนอเปิดประชุมสภาสมัยวิสามัญ". Thai Rath (in Thai). 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  138. ^ Regan, Helen (16 October 2020). "Two Thai protesters could face life imprisonment for violence against the Queen". CNN. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  139. ^ Beech, Hannah (16 October 2020). "Thailand Steps Up Response as Antigovernment Protests Escalate". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  140. ^ English, Khaosod (15 October 2020). "3 Senior Policemen Removed for Motorcade Bedlam". Khaosod English.
  141. ^ "Activist Leaders Arrested But Ratchaprasong Rally to Go Ahead". www.khaosodenglish.com. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  142. ^ a b c "Water cannon used on protesters". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  143. ^ "Thai protests: Demonstrators gather again in Bangkok, defying crackdown". BBC News. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  144. ^ "Protesters occupy Ratchaprasong intersection". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  145. ^ "Cabinet confirms state of emergency, curfew if protests escalate". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  146. ^ "'Everyone Can Die Any Moment,' Outrage at Prayut's Protest Remark". Khaosod English. 16 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  147. ^ "Thai police resort to teargas, arrest warrants against protesters". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  148. ^ "Thailand protests: Riot police fire water cannon as protesters defy rally ban". BBC News. 16 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  149. ^ "นักศึกษาธรรมศาสตร์ จัดแฟลชม็อบ ประณามสลายการชุมนุม". Prachachat Turakij (in Thai). 16 October 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  150. ^ "นศ.ลุกฮือประณามรัฐ ต่อต้านใช้ความรุนแรง". Bangkokbiznews (in Thai). Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  151. ^ "นักศึกษา ม.ขอนแก่น รับไม่ได้ ลุกฮือจัดชุมนุม ประณามการกระทำจนท". Khaosod (in Thai). 16 October 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  152. ^ "'หมอวรงค์'งัดภาพม็อบทำร้ายจนท.ด้วยคีมตัดเหล็กขนาดใหญ่ แฉขบวนการบิดเบือน". Siam Rath (in Thai). 17 October 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  153. ^ "อัษฎางค์ เปิดประเด็น ม็อบมือเปล่าจริงหรือ ด่าสถาบันฯ กลางราชประสงค์...เรียกชุมนุมสงบจริงหรือ". TNews (in Thai). 17 October 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  154. ^ "ไขข้อสงสัย สลายม็อบ 'แยกปทุมวัน' ทำไมต้อง 'น้ำสีฟ้า' !?". ฺBangkokbiznews (in Thai). Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  155. ^ "Police insist water cannons did not fire harmful chemicals". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  156. ^ Yuda, Masayuki (18 October 2020). "Thailand's crackdown on protests turns violent: Five things to know". Nikkei Asian Review.
  157. ^ Human Rights Watch (17 October 2020). "Thailand: Water Cannon Used Against Peaceful Activists". Human Rights Watch.
  158. ^ "Protesters pick 3 sites as mass transit shut down". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  159. ^ Thepgumpanat, Patpicha Tanakasempipat, Panarat (17 October 2020). "Tens of thousands protest across Thailand in defiance of ban". Reuters. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  160. ^ "House mulls meet to end unrest". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  161. ^ "เปิดบทสนทนาของนักศึกษากลุ่ม "ไทยภักดี" กับ "ประชาชนปลดแอก" ว่าด้วยท่อน้ำเลี้ยง-เพดาน-สิ่งศักดิ์สิทธิ์". BBC ไทย (in Thai). BBC. 28 August 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  162. ^ "กัดไม่ปล่อย จ่อร้อง "สรรพากร" สอบท่อน้ำเลี้ยงม็อบ". ฐานเศรษฐกิจ (in Thai). Bangkok: ฐานเศรษฐกิจ. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  163. ^ Komkrit Duangmanee (22 September 2020). "ทราย เจริญปุระ โพสต์โต้ปมควักเงินหนุนม็อบ ลั่น "จะตรวจสอบอะไร ไม่ได้รับบริจาค"". สนุก! นิวส์ (in Thai). Bangkok: เทนเซนต์ (ประเทศไทย). Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  164. ^ "มาแล้ว! "ทราย เจริญปุระ" ตั้งโรงครัวให้ชาวม็อบ บริเวณสนามหลวงใกล้พระแม่ธรณีฯ". สนุก! นิวส์ (in Thai). Bangkok: เทนเซนต์ (ประเทศไทย). 19 September 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  165. ^ "ปังมาก! แฟนคลับเกาหลี โดเนทท่อน้ำเลี้ยงม็อบ ไม่กี่วันทะลุล้าน ผุดแคมเปญ เลิกซื้อโฆษณารฟฟ". มติชน (in Thai). Bangkok: มติชน. 17 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  166. ^ "สุดปังพลังติ่ง แฟนคลับศิลปินเกาหลีระดมเงิน 2.3 ล้านสนับสนุนม็อบ". ประชาชาติธุรกิจ (in Thai). Bangkok: ประชาชาติธุรกิจ. 17 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  167. ^ "เหล่าแฟนคลับศิลปินเกาหลีร่วมระดมทุนท่อน้ำเลี้ยง ยอดทะลุล้านในเวลาอันรวดเร็ว!". Kornews (in Thai). Bangkok: Kornews. 18 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  168. ^ กองบรรณาธิการวอยซ์ออนไลน์ (16 September 2020). "'ศรีสุวรรณ' ร้องสอบ 'ท่อน้ำเลี้ยงม็อบ' รับหาหลักฐานเอาผิด 'กปปส.' ยาก". Voice Online. Bangkok: Voice. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  169. ^ English, Khaosod (31 August 2020). "U.S. Embassy Denies Funding Anti-Govt Protests". Khaosod English. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  170. ^ Chotanan, Patawee. "Dancing with dictatorship: how the government is dealing with the Free Youth movement".
  171. ^ "รอง ผบช.น.รับออกหนังสือคำสั่งใช้รถตัดสัญญาณจริง". Komchadluek (in Thai). 24 August 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  172. ^ "แห่ดิสไลค์ คลิปกรมประชาฯ โวยรัฐใช้ภาษีทำคลิปดิสเครดิตม็อบเยาวชน". ไทยรัฐ (in Thai). 22 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  173. ^ "Thailand latest: Bangkok's big malls brace for afternoon protest". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  174. ^ Crispin, Shawn W. (18 August 2020). "New generation of daring resistance in Thailand". Asia Times. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  175. ^ "Thai PM says protesters' call for monarchy reform 'went too far'". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  176. ^ "Prayut says the economic situation will not recover because of the protesters". Thai Enquirer. 12 October 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  177. ^ ""บิ๊กแดง" น้ำตาคลอ! เปิดใจถึงม็อบ นศ. เตือนอย่าใช้วาจาจาบจ้วง". Channel 8 (in Thai). 24 July 2020. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  178. ^ "ผบ.ทบ. ลั่นโอกาสรัฐประหาร "เป็นศูนย์"". BBC ไทย (in Thai). Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  179. ^ "จับตา! #ม็อบไม่มุ้งมิ้งแต่ตุ้งติ้ง ทวง 3 ข้อรัฐบาล". ThaiPBS (in Thai). 25 July 2020. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  180. ^ "Exclusive: Thailand tells universities to stop students' calls for monarchy reform". www.msn.com. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  181. ^ "ด่วน! ตร.พัทลุง ทำหนังสือถึงโรงเรียน สั่งห้าม นร.-นศ. ชุมนุมไล่รัฐบาล". Khaosod (in Thai). 24 July 2020. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  182. ^ "ให้ทุกรร.สังกัดสพฐ.อนุญาตเด็กจัดชุมนุมแต่ห้ามคนนอกร่วม". เนชั่น (in Thai). 18 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  183. ^ "เปิดชื่อ 109 รร. คุกคาม นร. "ผูกโบว์ขาว-ชู 3 นิ้ว"". BBC Thai (in Thai). Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  184. ^ "Anti-Govt Protesters Detained, Given 'Attitude Adjustment' in Jungle". Khaosod English. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  185. ^ "High school student summoned for Ratchaburi protest". Prachatai. 10 September 2020.
  186. ^ "The politics of decree". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  187. ^ Rojanaphruk, Pravit; Writer, Senior Staff (30 August 2020). "Opinion: The Irony of a Facebook Group Critical of the Monarchy". Khaosod English. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  188. ^ "Facebook blocks group critical of Thai monarchy". BBC News. 25 August 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  189. ^ "Thailand to block 2,000 websites ahead of pro-democracy protests". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  190. ^ Ngamkham, Wassayos. "Govt taking legal action against major social media providers". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  191. ^ "โซเชียลตั้งคำถาม ทีวีไทยเซ็นเซอร์ ตัดสัญญาณออกอากาศสื่อต่างประเทศ". มติชนออนไลน์ (in Thai). 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  192. ^ "Police move to silence news, Facebook platforms". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  193. ^ "ตำรวจบุก "ฟ้าเดียวกัน" ตรวจยึดหนังสือวิจารณ์สถาบันกษัตริย์". Manager Online (in Thai). 19 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  194. ^ "ช่วงม็อบพบโพสต์ผิดพรก. 3.2 แสนข้อความ จ่อฟันคนโพสต์-สื่อ-นักการเมือง". Khaosod (in Thai). 19 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  195. ^ "House mulls meet to end unrest". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  196. ^ "ยอมรับแล้ว! "ปิยบุตร" ยืมปาก "พิธา" เฉลย "ล้มเจ้า" ในม็อบ "สาธิต" นักธุรกิจอินเดียรักในหลวงขอถก "บิ๊กแดง"". mgronline.com (in Thai). 23 July 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  197. ^ "เพื่อไทย แถลงการณ์ ของเสียงทุกฝ่ายให้ครบ 250 ดัน ตั้ง ส.ส.ร.แก้รธน". Thairath online (in Thai). 8 September 2020.
  198. ^ Tun-atiruj, Choltanutkun (28 August 2020). "Maria Poonlertlarp: the price of having political opinions". thisrupt.co. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  199. ^ S, Achi (20 July 2020). "เอก HRK และ โบ๊ะบ๊ะแฟมมิลี่ ออกมาแสดงจุดยืนทางการเมือง ถึงกลุ่ม เยาวชนปลดแอก". Bright Today (in Thai). Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  200. ^ "Time to call out. Thai stars show solidarity with protest leader". workpointTODAY. 13 August 2020.
  201. ^ "คอมเมนต์สนั่น! ปรากฏการณ์โซเชียลมูฟเมนต์ จากไอดอลสาว BNK 48". Amarin (in Thai). 19 July 2020.
  202. ^ "ดารา-คนบันเทิง แห่โพสต์สนับสนุนเสรีภาพ ต้านการคุกคามประชาชน". Prachachat (in Thai). 14 August 2020.
  203. ^ "Doctor sacked for opposing govt's dispersal of protesters". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  204. ^ "UNICEF calls for the protection of children and young people amid protests in Thailand". www.unicef.org (in English and Thai). 18 August 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  205. ^ "Unicef reminds Thailand of young people's right to safety, freedom of expression". The Nation. 18 August 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  206. ^ "Thailand: Bangkok shuts public transport as protests persist | DW | 17.10.2020". Deutshe Welle. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  207. ^ "Thailand: Police disperse pro-democracy protesters outside PM's office". Euro News. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  208. ^ "Tuen Mun Community Network:Let the totalitarian end in our generation". Tuen Mun Community Network. 14 August 2020. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  209. ^ "โจชัว หว่อง ฝากถึงชาวโลก ให้ช่วยยืนเคียงข้างชาวไทยหัวใจประชาธิปไตย". Khaosod (in Thai). 16 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  210. ^ "Cool heads must prevail". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  211. ^ "สถาบันทิศทางไทย เปิดผังเครือข่ายปฏิวัติประชาชน(เพ้อฝัน)". Nation (in Thai). 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  212. ^ "Thai protest icon is 'prepared' to cross kingdom's forbidden line". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  213. ^ "A global conspiracy against the Thai Kingdom". thisrupt.co. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  214. ^ {{cite news |title=ตำรวจ บุกไทยซัมมิท กลางวงแถลงข่าวคณะก้าวหน้า |url=https://www.bangkokbiznews.com/news/detail/902934 |accessdate=16 October 2020 |work=Bangkokbiznews |language=th
  215. ^ "บุก 'ไทยซัมมิท' หนสอง ศ.ป.ป.ส.ไล่ 'ธนาธร' พ้นแผ่นดิน จี้ถือธงนำหน้า อย่าแอบหลังขบวนการ น.ศ." Matichon (in Thai). 12 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  216. ^ "หยุดจาบจ้วงพระมหากษัตริย์". Naewna (in Thai). Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  217. ^ "'สุดารัตน์'ติงไม่ควรก้าวล่วงสถาบัน วอนยึด3ข้อเรียกร้อง". เดลินิวส์ (in Thai). 11 August 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  218. ^ Neumayer, Christina (22 December 2015), "Nationalist and Anti-Fascist Movements in Social Media", The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics, New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 296–307, doi:10.4324/9781315716299-22, ISBN 978-1-315-71629-9
  219. ^ Sombatpoonsiri, Janjira; Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2018). "Conservative Civil Society in Thailand". In Youngs, Richard (ed.). The mobilization of conservative civil society (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. pp. 27–32. OCLC 1059452133.
  220. ^ Correspondent, Our. "Thailand Blocks Overseas Opposition Voice". www.asiasentinel.com. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  221. ^ "New Social Media and Politics in Thailand: The Emergence of Fascist Vigilante Groups on Facebook". ASEAS - Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies (in German). 9 (2): 215–234. 2016. ISSN 1999-2521. OCLC 7179244833.
  222. ^ ""Whores" & "Sluts": why "good people" love these insults". thisrupt.co. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  223. ^ "Constitutional Court accepts treason complaint against protest leaders". Prachatai English. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  224. ^ English, Khaosod (17 September 2020). "Court To Rule Whether Protest Leaders Committed Treason". Khaosod English. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  225. ^ "ม็อบ3นิ้วเหิมเกริมหนักล้อมขบวนเสด็จ-ยึดทำเนียบฯไล่นายกฯ". Manager Online. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  226. ^ "เอาแล้ว! 'ลุงกำนัน' เหลืออดม็อบคุกคามขบวนเสด็จ ชวนพี่น้องร่วมอุดมการณ์ปกป้องสถาบัน". Thai Post (in Thai). Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  227. ^ "11th grader summoned by teacher, asked not to give protest speeches". Prachatai. 11 September 2020.
  228. ^ "'อ.เจษฎา' ชี้ม็อบสาดสีใส่ตร. 'รุนแรง-คุกคาม' ยกตัวอย่างสากลประท้วงสันติวิธีด้วยภาพวาด". Thai Post (in Thai). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  229. ^ "เพจโปลิศไทยแลนด์ ตำหนิม็อบสาดสีใส่ตำรวจไม่เกิดผลดีเลย แสดงออกถึงตัวตนเป็นเช่นไร". Thai Post (in Thai). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  230. ^ "หมอสุกิจ อัดม็อบหยาบคายใส่ 'ชวน' ยันเป็นกลาง ไล่ไปด่า ส.ส.-สว.ตัวเอง". ข่าวสด (in Thai). 25 September 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  231. ^ "Majority agree with Free People group's demands: Poll". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  232. ^ Helen Regan; Kocha Olarn. "Thailand's monarchy was long considered God-like. But protesters say it's time for change". CNN. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  233. ^ "Opinion: Student Protest Leaders Lack a Coherent Strategy". Khaosod English. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  234. ^ Atiya, Achakulwisut. "Crackdown on student protest is a wasted effort". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  235. ^ Cunningham, Philip J. "An unexpectedly successful protest". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  236. ^ "Loss of protest leaders 'critical'". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  237. ^ Ruffles, Michael (9 September 2020). "Putsch to shove? Thai PM led a coup but won't talk about the chance of another". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  238. ^ "Anti-coup instructions spread as speculation runs riot". Prachatai. 10 September 2020.
  239. ^ ""Red rim soldiers": the changing leadership of Thailand's military in 2020". New Mandala. 21 September 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  240. ^ "Thai protests: Demonstrators gather again in Bangkok, defying crackdown". BBC News. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  241. ^ English, Khaosod (16 October 2020). "7 Arrested for Fresh Protest, Cops Threaten to Charge Everyone". Khaosod English. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  242. ^ English, Khaosod (16 October 2020). "Editorial: Prayut Has Lost All Legitimacy. He Must Go". Khaosod English. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  243. ^ "Listen to the young". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 October 2020.

External links[edit]