2020 Venezuelan National Assembly Delegated Committee election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
2020 Venezuelan National Assembly President Election

Sunday, 5 January 2020
  Juan Guaidó na embaixada americana no Brasil (cropped).jpg Luis Parra.png
Candidate Juan Guaidó Luis Parra[a]
Party Popular Will Independent

President of the National Assembly before election

Juan Guaidó
Popular Will

Elected President of the National Assembly

Disputed between Luis Parra and Juan Guaido

The 2020 Venezuelan National Assembly Delegated Committee election was the process to be carried out in the ordinary session of January 5, in which 160 deputies elect the period 2020-21 parliament's Board of Directors: the president, the first and second vice president, the secretary and the deputy secretary. It is the last election of the IV legislature.

The election was disrupted and resulted in two competing claims for the Presidency of the National Assembly: one by Luis Parra, an independent legislator, and one by Juan Guaidó, a legislator from the Popular Will party, and a claimant to the country's disputed presidency.[3] Parra was formerly a member of Justice First, but was expelled from the party on 20 December 2019 based on corruption allegations, which he denies. From inside the legislature, Parra declared himself president of the National Assembly. The opposition disputed this outcome, saying that quorum had not been achieved and no votes had been counted.[4] Police forces had blocked access to parliament to some opposition members, including Guaidó, and members of the media. Later in the day, a separate session was carried out at the headquarters of El Nacional newspaper, where 100 of the 167 deputies voted to re-elect Guaidó as president of the parliament.[4]

Guaidó took an oath of office at a session on 7 January after forcing his way in through police barricades. On the same date, Parra reiterated his claim to the presidency of the parliament.[5]

In 2019, nearly 60 countries recognized Guaidó as the Acting President of Venezuela, and these countries potentially face the question of recognizing his successor and their government over Maduro.[6][7] As of 8 January, Russia is the only foreign government to have officially recognized Luis Parra investiture, while the European Union, the United States, Canada and most Latin American countries recognized Guaido's re-election.[8]

On 13 January 2020, Venezuela's Supreme Tribunal of Justice ordered Parra's Board of Directors to submit the tally of votes and proof of quorum of the session made on January 5.[9][10][11]

Voting system[edit]

Article 194 of the Venezuelan Constitution reads:[12]

Artículo 194. La Asamblea Nacional elegirá de su seno un Presidente o Presidenta y dos Vicepresidentes o Vicepresidentas, un Secretario o Secretaria y un Subsecretario o Subsecretaria fuera de su seno, por un período de un año. El Reglamento establecerá las formas de suplir las faltas temporales y absolutas

Article 194. The National Assembly shall elect from its core a President and two Vice-Presidents, a Secretary and a Deputy Secretary, for a period of one year. The Regulation will establish ways to replace temporary and absolute absences

Distance voting[edit]

On 17 December 2019, the National Assembly approved the modification of the Interior and Debate Regulations, specifically section 4, article 13 and articles 43 and 56, so that deputies who are exiled can vote from their country of residence.[13][14][15] The proposal, presented by Democratic Action deputy Dennis Fernández and approved by 93 deputies, includes the admission of information and communication technologies (ICT) to guarantee the quorum and the discussions. The deputies of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela withdrew from the session and did not vote. They were joined by deputies José Brito, Conrado Pérez and Luis Parra, all former militants, representing Justice First. The Supreme Tribunal of Justice declared the modification void, since, according to Juan José Mendoza, president of the Constituent National Assembly, the reform had no "legal effect" when it would "collide" with the provisions of the Constitution.[16] The opposition reported that the system would be used anyway.[6]

Predictions[edit]

The incumbent president of the National Assembly, Juan Guaidó, announced he would run for re-election at the parliament headquarters, amid doubts about whether he would get the necessary votes (84).[17][18][19][20] Guaidó received support in his re-election as president from 27 political parties, including those with parliamentary representation: Encuentro Ciudadano,[21] Voluntad Popular,[22] Acción Democrática,[23] Un Nuevo Tiempo,[24] Primero Justicia,[24] La Causa R[25] and a faction of Copei.[26]

Guaidó said that he had enough votes for his reelection, even without a distance vote from the thirty deputies abroad or in hiding, citing as evidence the fact that the modification of the internal and debate rules had been approved with 93 votes, more than the 84 needed.[27]

The 16 de Julio (16 July) group, made up of Vente Venezuela and Convergencia, led by deputy Biagio Pilieri [es], did not offer details on who they would vote for in the 5 January election. They said they would respect the February 2016 governance agreement, which says that the presidency of the National Assembly would correspond to minority parties.[28]

Alternate deputy of Juan Pablo Guanipa, José Sánchez “Mazuco”, announced in the day of the election that he was operated and hospitalized, so he would not be able to attend to the session, but assured that his vote would not make a difference since the main deputy Guanipa would attend instead.[29]

Background[edit]

Operation Scorpion and Armando.info investigation[edit]

On November 2019, deputy José Guerra denounced a strategy to "bribe" opposition lawmakers in what he called "Green Suitcase", with the aim of breaking the qualified majority that the opposition had in the National Assembly.[30]

On 1 December, the website Armando.info published an investigation reporting that nine parliamentaries mediated in favor of two businessmen linked with the government. After the investigation was published, the deputies Luis Parra, José Brito, Conrado Pérez and José Gregorio "Goyo" Noriega were suspended and expelled from their parties Justice First and Popular Will.[31]

The Venezuelan opposition alleged that they were targeted by what they described as a "campaign of bribery and intimidation" by Nicolás Maduro's government in December 2019. Venezuelan lawmakers and the United States State Department said that opposition deputies, in parties led or allied with Guaidó, were being offered up to US$1 million to not vote for him.[6] Luis Parra and other opposition deputies were removed from their parties following allegations that they were being bribed by Maduro.[32] National Assembly deputies Ismael León and Luis Stefanelli directly accused Parra in December 2019 of attempting to bribe deputies to vote against Guaidó.[33] Parra denied the allegations and said he was open to being investigated for corruption.[32] Weeks prior to his investigation, Parra openly shared support for Guaidó and promoted his protest movement.[33]

Deputy Delsa Solórzano accused Nicolás Maduro on CNN Radio Argentina of directing the operation. According to her, the government resorted to this method after failing to incarcerate or suspend the parliamentary inmunity of the deputies, denouncing a considerable increase of political persecution as 5 January was approaching, explaining that security forces have gone to the houses of many deputies without alternates, and the only one with one, according to Solórzano, did accept the bribe.[34]

On 3 January 2020, Nicmer Evans, a Caracas-based analyst, alleged that Maduro had managed to cause 14 deputies to not cast a vote for Guaidó through these tactics. Guaidó theoretically controlled 112 seats in the Assembly at the time, needing 84 votes to win.[6]

Arrest and indictments[edit]

Additionally, the deputy Juan Requesens, who has been detained as a political prisoner since August 2018, had visitation rights removed for the day of the election, according to his sister Rafaela.[35] In December 2019, deputy Gilber Caro was also arrested with no charges.[36]

Events and contested results[edit]

Raid of deputies' hotel[edit]

In the early morning of 5 January, members of the police and intelligence service entered Paseo Las Mercedes, a hotel in which many opposition deputies were staying. The officials said that they found explosive devices in the hotel.[37]

Blockade of the Parliament[edit]

Bolivarian National Guard blocking the vicinity of the National Assembly of Venezuela

In the morning, deputies started passing the many entry checkpoints of the Legislative Federal Palace. There was a moment were the National Guard started allowing the entry one by one. Opposition deputies denounced that the officials were deliberately slowing down the entry, and many lawmakers spoke with the minority leader, Francisco Torrealba [es], to intercede, who went out several times. There was a moment where the opposition deputies in the last checkpoint were not allowed to enter.[38] Guaidó and other opposition deputies were blocked from entering to the by the Bolivarian National Guard.[39][40]

Independent journalists were also impeded from covering the event. Maduro's Ministry of Information, which has no relationship to the National Assembly, allowed reporters from state-run media to enter the legislative palace.[36][failed verification] Other reporters were not allowed in and told to watch it on a live feed from outside.[36][failed verification] The Venezuelan Press Workers Union published a list of nearly forty outlets that were denied entry to the National Assembly.[41]

Some diplomatic representatives, including from Germany, the Netherlands and Spain, were denied entry as well, and the delegates from Chile and Mexico were the only ones allowed access.[42]

Guaidó being prevented from entering the Legislative Federal Palace by the Bolivarian National Guard

After 11:00 am (VET), when the session was scheduled to have started, the pro-government deputies inside the session chamber started chanting "let the session begin". After chanting, singing and taking pictures, the deputies simulated the election of a new parliament leadership, jokingly appointing Óscar Figuera [es], deputy of the Communist Party of Venezuela, as "self-proclaimed" president of the Assembly. Figuera pronounced a speech and joked that the appointed group would be transitional, since a new leadership would be appointed in short.[38]

Deputy Nirma Guarulla was blocked from entering and had her parliamentary credential snatched away, and deputies Delsa Solórzano and Nora Bracho were assaulted after attempting to enter.[43] A rumor spread that Gilberto Sojo, alternate deputy of Gaby Arellano that had precautionary measures, could be arrested, causing Guaidó to decide to stay next to him. These events led to Guaidó to refuse when the National Guard asked him to enter if the remaining deputies, around twenty, did not enter. However, the officials never opened the entry access to him or asked for his credential, and on the contrary, reinforced the security in the perimeter.[1] Guaidó and the other opposition deputies were blocked from entering by the National Guard afterwards.[44][45]

Guaidó tried to climb over a fence surrounding the building, but was pushed back by members of the National Guard.[46]

Luis Parra declares himself president[edit]

Briefly before the session started, outside the Legislative Palace, José Brito postulated Luis Parra as an alternative candidate to Guaidó, as well as Franklyn Duarte [es] and José Gregorio Noriega as first and second vicepresidents, respectively.[47]

Francisco Torrealba assured that when Guaidó did not arrive at the scheduled time to open the session, the deputies inside the legislativee chamber applied the Internal and Debate Rules, establishing that the oldest deputy would assume the Assembly Chair to moderate the election of a new leadership.[48]

Luis Parra, who was granted access to the legislative palace before, announced by surprise that he would be appointed as president of the National Assembly.[1][49] The diplomatic delegates that were present withdrew.[1] Pro-government and opposition deputies started stepping up to the tribune and arguing, and deputies José Brito and Marcos Bozo had a scuffle.[1] A group of men accompanied by pro-government deputies Nosliw Rodríguez and Ileana Medina tried to open the sound control room of the session chamber forcefully, kicking the door, while deputy María Beatriz Martínez tried to prevent it.[1][50]

United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) deputies gave instructions to Parra, Franklyn Duarte and José Gregorio Noriega, assuring that there was quorum for the appointment and asking him to take the offices of the Assembly's Chair. Francisco Torrealba instructed Parra to remain seated and to call the secretary. Other PSUV deputies handed a megaphone to Parra to let him speaker, and when they managed to enter into the sound control room they let him know that the chamber had sound he could use the microphones.[1][51]

Luis Parra announced himself president of the National Assembly. Franklyn Duarte and José Gregorio Noriega were named first and second vice president of the National Assembly, respectively. Negal Morales was named secretary of the National Assembly.[40] The quorum was not confirmed, and contrary to Article 8 of the Internal and Debate Rules, the vote for each position did not take place.[1]

Parra told reporters 140 lawmakers were present in the session and that his candidacy was approved with 81 votes. Ruling party deputy Pedro Carreño told AFP that the vote took place with 150 deputies present and that Parra received the simple majority of 84 needed to win.[52] Nicolás Maduro recognized Parra as the new president of the National Assembly, saying that "there was a rebellion inside the National Assembly" and that "the National Assembly has made a decision".[53][54][55] Regarding the controversy of the opposition attempting to enter the Palacio Federal Legislativo, Maduro said "if the failed Guaidó did not want to enter it was because he did not have the votes", dismissing that Guaidó and his supporters were prevented from entering.[55] Parra told state media that they started the session before Guaidó arrived, which is why he was not there.[56] Francisco Torrealba described the proclamation as "unusual", but "valid" and "historic".[48]

The opposition said that the election did not achieve quorum, and that Parra declared himself president without any votes counted.[4] When reporters asked Parra for the official tally of votes–usually released the same the day–he said that it "was not available" and there was not a date for its release.[57]

Opposition election[edit]

After being blocked from entering the Palacio Federal Legislativo, Guaidó announced that a separate session of the National Assembly was to take place at the headquarters of El Nacional, a Venezuelan newspaper.[58] National Assembly deputies signed their names on an attendance list upon entering the facility.[59]

Stalin González, appointed as incidental secretary, explained that there were two attendance lists: the first one being that of those who could not start the session in the Legislative Federal Palace, 127 deputies, meaning that there was quorum but they were not allowed to enter. In the second list there also was quorum.[60]

At the session, Guaidó was re-elected president of the National Assembly; there were 111 total votes from deputies, with 100 approving of Guaidó being reappointed president.[61][62] Juan Pablo Guanipa [es] and Carlos Berrizbeitia [es] were elected as first and second vice-presidents, respectively,[63] taking oath at the scene.[56]

During Guaidó speech, he announced his resignation from Popular Will to secure more autonomy in his actions.[64]

Several deputies abroad followed and endorsed the vote remotely from Madrid, Spain.[65]

Aftermath[edit]

The 16 July group, which previously said that they would vote based on the February 2016 governance agreement, voted to appoint Guaidó as president of the National Assembly after Parra's proclamation.[66]

After Parra's proclamation, Negal Morales, Parra's-appointed-secretary, tweeted:

#AsambleaNacional aún sin quórum, y sin la mayoría de los parlamentarios en el hemiciclo, hoy decidimos tomar la @AsambleaVE por la fuerza, en alianza con el Psuv y @NicolasMaduro para lograr un cambio en Venezuela, con participación de todos. Pedimos al pueblo su respaldo!

#NationalAssembly still without quorum, and without the majority of the parliamentarians in the chamber, today we decided to take over the @AsambleaVE by force, in alliance with the PSUV and @NicolasMaduro to accomplish a change in Venezuela, with the participation of everyone. We ask support to the people!

—Twitter, 5 January 2020

The tweet was deleted and Morales later tweeted that the statement was false, but the tweet was archived in Wayback Machine before being deleted along with several responses about an hour after being published.[67]

The COPEI party announced that deputies Franklyn Duarte and Manuel González would be sent to the party's disciplinary council for their involvement in Parra's proclamation.[68] Franklyn Duarte was subsequently expelled from COPEI on 6 January 2020.[69]

Follow-up session and re-investiture of Guaidó[edit]

On 7 January, Luis Parra and his allies started a legislative session on the national gas shortages.[5] Parra started the meeting without the attendance figures that are ordinarily required to start a session.[70] Guaidó and other opposition lawmakers were prevented from entering due to police barricades. Parra's session was stopped as opposition lawmakers forced their way in, and Parra was seen running away from the Legislative Palace as the opposition deputies entered.[71] After electricity was cut in the parliament, Guaidó initiated a new parliamentary session and was sworn in to continue his role as president of the National Assembly.[5] When leaving the parliament, police forces fired gas canisters.[5] After these events, Parra reaffirmed his claim to the presidency of National Assembly.[5]

Sanctions by the United States[edit]

The United States Department of the Treasury sanctioned seven individuals, "who, at the bidding of Maduro, attempted to block the democratic process in Venezuela,” according to US Secretary of Treasury Steven Mnuchin on 13 January 2020.[72] The sanctioned have their assets in the US frozen and are not allowed to do business with US financial markets nor with US citizens. The list includes the members of Parra's appointed board of directors and his supporters: Franklyn Duarte, José Gregorio Noriega, Negal Morales, José Brito, Conrado Pérez, Adolfo Superlano and Luis Parra himself.[72]

Hours later, Maduro's Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza published a statement saying that the sanctions imposed by the US Treasury seek to "interfere and undermine the proper functioning of democratic institutions, with the unusual intention to designate from Washington the authorities of the legislative power." The statement also argues that these tactics are "contrary to international law and undermine the stability, peace and self-determination of the Venezuelan people."[73]

Investigation on Parra's tally[edit]

A report on the tally of votes–usually released the same the day of an election–was not available after Parra's took oath.[57][74] On 13 January 2020, Venezuela's Supreme Tribunal of Justice (TSJ) ordered Parra's Board of Directors to submit the tally of votes and proof of quorum. The TSJ gave it five days to provide the report and ruled that provisionally, both Parra and Guaidó, as well as the vice-speaker designates declared by both sides, would enjoy legal immunity[9][10][11] The TSJ did not ask for Guaidó's tally.[11] Ten days after the oath, the report was still missing.[75] When asked, Parra's has given several versions on why the report is unavailable, including that the report might have been stolen.[76][75]

Disrupted sessions and attack on deputies[edit]

Guaidó called for a rally to follow him to a parliamentary session to be held on 11 January, but after police forces barricaded the parliament the session was held in the headquarters of El Nacional.[77]

Police forces returned to barricade the legislative palace in follow-up session scheduled by Guaidó on 15 January.[78][79] Colectivos, pro-Maduro civilian paramilitary groups, appeared on the scene and attacked the caravan of the lawmakers that tried to reach parliament.[78][79] Gunshots were heard and a car carrying lawmakers, transporting Guaido's vicepresident Berrizbeitia, got its windows shattered, but no injuries were reported.[79][78] Guaidó decried what he called an "ambush against the Federal Palace".[78] The session was moved to El Hatillo Municipality in Caracas.[78][79] Diosdado Cabello, president of Constituent National Assembly, a different legislative body, congratulated colectivos for "defending these spaces belonging to the Bolivarian Revolution.”[79]

Opposition deputies were were denied entry to parliament for a third time by police forces and colectivos on 21 January.[80]

Justice First complaint[edit]

On 16 January, José Brito and Conrado Pérez filed a complaint in the Supreme Tribunal of Justice against the leadership of Justice First, the party they were expelled from. The deputies asked to be restituted in the party, saying that there was no justification to be expelled from Justice First and their due process, right of defense and presumption of innocence. They also asked the high court to appoint a new leadership "that was in Venezuela", since the current one was in exile, and to summon new internal elections.[81]

The deputies were received by the president of the Constitutional Chamber and the meeting lasted a little more than an hour. Outside the Supreme Tribunal, a group of around two hundred people met in support of the deputies. El Pitazo reported that earlier in the morning, some persons were handing out shirts of the party, most apparently new. Several demonstrators interviewed by the outlet expressed ignoring the reasons of the meeting or the contents of the complaint introduced. In some cases, they affirmed having been taken by bus, could not say for long they were part of Justice First, did not know that Luis Parra was not present or declared being paid for assisting.[82][83] The party's secretary general, Tomás Guanipa, declared that the deputies sought to give the party's electoral card to Nicolás Maduro.[84]

Media censorship[edit]

State communications service CANTV reportedly blocked access to social media sites Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube on the day of the election. Block tracking website NetBlocks reported that the block began as the National Assembly session did, criticizing this.[37]

Reactions[edit]

Domestic[edit]

  • Vice President Delcy Rodríguez told US Vice President Mike Pence to "abstain from your vulgar interference and address the serious problems suffered by your country caused by the irrational warmongering" and that the "United States cannot impose its arrogance on the decisions that only belong to sovereign Venezuela."[85] Her statement comes after Pence congratulated Guaido on his reelection.[86]
  • Movimiento Estudiantil confirmed their support for Juan Guaidó, condemned Parra's proclamation and assured that they would accompany the deputies for the scheduled parliamentary section on 7 January.[91][92] Guaidó endorsed the call to assist by the Student Movement.[93]
  • The members of the Constitutional Law Faculty of the Central University of Venezuela (UCV) described in a press conference the vote where Guaidó was elected as "legal and legitimate". Its director, Tulio Álvarez, warned and advised that the National Assembly had to declare a "parliamentary emergency" as possible, which is established in the Internatal and Debates Rules of the Assembly and based on the agressions that the Assembly has suffered since 2015 and that his Faculty had documented.[94]
  • The presidency of the Episcopal Conference of Venezuela warned that Luis Parra election was "a new manifestation of the totalitarian ideology of those who hold political power. They have promoted and protected the non-recognition of the lack of autonomy of the legitimate National Assembly; and, at the same time, they intend to recognize leadership invalidly elected against all constitutional legality".[95]

International[edit]

UN member states[edit]

  •  Argentina: Foreign Minister Felipe Solá tweeted "Forcibly preventing the functioning of the national assembly means condemning oneself to international isolation".[96]
  •  Austria Chancellor Sebastian Kurz refairrmed Austria's support for Guaido, stating that his calls for free and fair presidential elections to restore democracy is crucial.[97]
  •  Bolivia: Foreign Minister Karen Longaric rejected the "manipulation and intervention of Nicolás Maduro" and reiterated its support to Juan Guaidó.[98] Interim president Jeanine Áñez strongly rejected the intervention of the Maduro regime against the National Assembly of Venezuela and reiterated support for Guaido and its members.[99]
  •  Canada: Foreign Minister François-Philippe Champagne condemned that security forces did not allow deputies to meet in the National Assembly.[100]
  •  Brazil: Foreign Minister Ernesto Araújo accused Maduro of forcefully preventing Guaidó's re-election and tweeted "Brazil will not recognize any outcome of this violence and this affront to democracy".[96]
  •  Chile: Foreign Minister Teodoro Ribera condemned the "intimidatory acts" of "Maduro's dictatorship" against opposition deputies.[101]
  •  Colombia: The Colombian Foreign Ministry rejected Parra's proclamation, considering the process as "fraudulent" and without guarantees and condemning that it was done without the presence of Guaidó and other opposition deputies.[102]
  •  Costa Rica: The Foreign Ministry of Costa Rica "strongly condemns violence against democracy in Venezuela."[103]
  •  Czech Republic: Foreign Minister Tomáš Petříček supported Guaido's reelection and stated that actions against a democratically elected National Assembly constitute another violation of the rule of law.[104]
  •  Ecuador: President Lenín Moreno condemned the "abuse" against Guaidó at the National Assembly and expressed his support for the opposition.[105]
  •  Georgia: Foreign Minister David Zalkaliani congratulated Guaido on his reelection and condemned unlawful acts against democracy and Constitution of Venezuela as "unacceptable."[106]
  •  Germany: The German Foreign Office congratulated Guaido on his reelection.[107] It has also urged the Maduro regime to respect the democratic rights of the National Assembly of Venezuela.[108]
  •  Japan: The Government of Japan reaffirmed its support of Juan Guaidó as interim president of Venezuela. It also expressed concern about acts against democracy in the country.[109]
  •  Mexico: The Mexican Foreign Ministry urged Venezuela to democratically decide the leadership of the National Assembly "in accordance with the constitution".[110]
  •  Netherlands: Foreign Minister Stef Blok welcomed the reelection of Guaido and reaffirmed that the Kingdom "supports Guaido's efforts for a peaceful solution to the crisis in Venezuela."[111]
  •  Paraguay: Foreign Minister Antonio Rivas condemned the "violent repression" against opposition deputies.[112]
  •  Russia: Russia's Foreign Ministry considered the "new leadership of parliament to be the result of a legitimate democratic procedure conducive to the return of the Venezuelan political struggle to the constitutional field".[113]
  •  United Kingdom: The Foreign & Commonwealth Office reiterated its support to Juan Guaidó as interim president of Venezuela and condemned the actions taken by Maduro's government to "frustrate the democratic process of the Venezuelan National Assembly on 5 January".[114]
  •  United States: Secretary of State Mike Pompeo congratulated Juan Guaidó's re-election and condemned "the failed efforts of the former Maduro regime to negate the will of the democratically elected National Assembly".[115] Vice President Mike Pence called Guaido congratulating him on his reelection and reaffirmed his "support to the Venezuelan people".[86] The US government later implemented sanctions against Luis Parra and six of his parliamentary backers.[116]
  •  Uruguay: Both the incumbent and the recently elected administration decried Maduro's government actions. President-elect Luis Lacalle Pou described it as a "new coup to democratic institutions".[117]

Non-UN member states[edit]

  •  Kosovo: Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Behgjet Pacolli congratulated Guaido on his reelection according to the Venezuelan constitution. Pacolli reaffirmed its support to him and the Venezuelan people for its calls to restore democracy & prosperity.[118]
  •  Taiwan: Taiwan's Minister of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) congratulated Guaidó on his reelection and reiterated its support for free elections in Venezuela. The ministry says that Taiwan is ready to work with like-minded partners in further assisting the people restore the country's democracy & prosperity.[119]

Supranational bodies[edit]

  •  United Nations: Secretary General António Guterres ask “to lower tensions and to work towards a peaceful and sustainable solution to the political crisis”.[120]
  •  European Union: Peter Stano, Foreign Affairs and Security Policy spokesperson, catalogued the "irregularities" as "not acceptable" and "not compatible" with Venezuelan law. Stano reaffirmed European Union's recognition to Juan Guaidó as the legitimate president of the National Assembly.[121]
  •  OAS: The General Secretariat welcomed the re-election of the "interim President and President of the National Assembly Juan Guaidó" and "reiterates its condemnation of the fraudulent attempt to strip Juan Guaidó, with the use of violence and intimidation, of his powers as interim President of Venezuela and President of the National Assembly of the country."[122]
  • International Contact Group on Venezuela: In a joint statement from 12 countries of the Contact Group on Venezuela (not including Mexico and Uruguay), reiterated its support for Juan Guaidó as leader of the National Assembly and considered Parra's election as illegitimate and undemocratic.[123]
  • Lima Group: The Lima Group (except for Argentina and Mexico) backed Juan Guaidó re-election and condemned the "force and intimidation tactics" against the deputies.[124]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Parra announced his candidacy by surprise the day of the election.[1][2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h González, Gabriela (6 January 2020). "Lo que usted no vio en la sesión de instalación de la Asamblea Nacional". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  2. ^ Krygier, Rachelle; Faiola, Anthony (6 January 2020). "Venezuela's last democratic institution falls as Maduro attempts de facto takeover of National Assembly". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  3. ^ "Two Venezuela lawmakers declare themselves Speaker". 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  4. ^ a b c Sánchez, Fabiola (5 January 2020). "Guaidó blocked from congress as Venezuelan conflict deepens". Associated Press. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  5. ^ a b c d e Sanchez, Fabiola (7 January 2020). "Venezuela opposition leader takes new oath amidst standoff". Associated Press. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  6. ^ a b c d Wyss, Jim; Delgado, Antonio Maria (3 January 2020). "Will Venezuela's 'Operation Scorpion' sting Guaidó in Sunday's key election?". Miami Herald. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  7. ^ Rapoza, Kenneth. "With Guaido Out, Who Will Be Washington's 'President' Of Venezuela Now?". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  8. ^ Armas, Mayela (8 January 2020). "Venezuela's Maduro seeks oil contract changes with congressional shakeup: lawmakers". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-01-09.
  9. ^ a b "Tribunal Supremo Venezuela pide a Parra documentos de Junta Directiva del Parlamento". Voz de América (in Spanish). 13 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  10. ^ a b "TSJ de Venezuela pide verificar la elección de Guaidó y Parra". elPeriódico (in Spanish). 14 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  11. ^ a b c Donmez, Beyza Binnur (14 January 2020). "Venezuela: Court orders papers on parliament head vote". Andalou Agency. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  12. ^ Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela (PDF). 20 February 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  13. ^ "Asamblea Nacional aprueba voto a distancia de los diputados perseguidos para defender la decisión expresada en la mayoría parlamentaria electa". Asamblea Nacional (in Spanish). 17 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  14. ^ "AN aprobó modificación del Reglamento de Interior y Debate". El Universal (in Spanish). 17 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  15. ^ "Oposición reformó Reglamento de la AN y facilita voto virtual". cronica.uno. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  16. ^ "TSJ se valió de imprecisiones para declarar nula reforma del Reglamento de la AN". TalCual (in Spanish). 19 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  17. ^ "Guaido sobre su reelección en la Asamblea Nacional: "Tenemos esos votos"". diariolasamericas.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  18. ^ "Guaidó aseguró tener suficientes votos para la reelección al Parlamento". El Universal (in Spanish). 26 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  19. ^ "Guaidó amarra los votos para su reelección como presidente de la Asamblea Nacional". cronica.uno. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  20. ^ Nacional, El (26 December 2019). "LVL: El escenario del 2020 para el parlamento es la reelección de Guaidó". EL NACIONAL (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  21. ^ "Guaidó reiteró llamado a la unión y a dejar de lado las diferencias". Panorama (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  22. ^ "Directiva de la AN 2020 reforzará el eje Voluntad Popular–Primero Justicia". Panorama (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  23. ^ "Ramos Allup:". www.noticierovenevision.net. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  24. ^ a b Moleiro, Alonso (27 December 2019). "El chavismo lanza una ofensiva para frustrar la reelección de Guaidó como presidente del Parlamento" (in Spanish). El País. ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  25. ^ "Causa R apoya que Guaidó continúe como presidente de la AN durante el 2020". El Universal (in Spanish). 9 September 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  26. ^ "27 partidos políticos apoyan ratificación de Guaidó como presidente de la AN en 2020". TalCual (in Spanish). 10 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  27. ^ Vinogradoff, Ludmila (25 December 2019). "Juan Guaidó: "Tenemos muchos más votos de los necesarios para mi reelección"". ABC. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  28. ^ "Biagio Pilieri: "Hay que ir a la ruta de la fuerza para deponer a Maduro"". PanAm Post (in Spanish). 15 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  29. ^ "Diputado José Sánchez "Mazuco" fue operado de emergencia: Guanipa asistirá a la AN". Versión Final (in Spanish). 5 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  30. ^ "Perfil Quién es el diputado José Noriega, involucrado en la operación Alacrán". El Pitazo. 19 December 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  31. ^ "Venezuela: denuncian a siete diputados de corrupción". Infobae. 20 December 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  32. ^ a b "Luis Parra aclaró los motivos de su viaje a países europeos en abril junto con otros diputados". El Nacional (in Spanish). 2019-12-04. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  33. ^ a b Pitazo, Redacción El (2019-12-23). "CLAVES | Luis Parra: la bisagra en el mecanismo de traición a Guaidó". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  34. ^ Vidal, Pepe Gil (18 December 2019). "Venezuela: ¿qué es la Operación Alacrán?". Por CNN Radio Argentina. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  35. ^ "Sebin suspende visitas a Juan Requesens del 5E: Rafaela Requesens - Noticiero Digital". www.noticierodigital.com. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  36. ^ a b c "Venezuela opposition pushes to re-elect Guaido as congress chief". Reuters. 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  37. ^ a b "Cantv bloquea las redes sociales para censurar la Asamblea Nacional". EL NACIONAL (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  38. ^ a b González, Gabriela (6 January 2020). "Lo que usted no vio en la sesión de instalación de la Asamblea Nacional". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  39. ^ "Guaidó rival declares himself Venezuela Speaker". BBC. 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  40. ^ a b "Golpe del régimen de Maduro: Bloqueó el ingreso de la oposición a la AN e instaló a Luis Parra como su presidente". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  41. ^ "SNTP presentó lista de medios a los que les niegan acceso a la AN". El Carabobeño (in Spanish). 5 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  42. ^ Rojas, Ymarú (5 January 2020). "El régimen de Maduro impide el acceso de Guaidó al Parlamento venezolano" (in Spanish). ABC. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  43. ^ Macías, Basyl (5 January 2020). "Agredidas las diputadas Delsa Solórzano y Nora Bracho (Video)". El Carabobeño (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  44. ^ "Guaidó rival declares himself Venezuela Speaker". BBC. 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  45. ^ "Golpe del régimen de Maduro: Bloqueó el ingreso de la oposición a la AN e instaló a Luis Parra como su presidente". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  46. ^ Sanchez, Fabiola; Goodman, Joshua (6 January 2020). "Venezuela Opposition Leader Guaido Blocked From Congress". Time. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  47. ^ Martínez, Deisy (5 January 2020). "Diputado Brito asegura que la AN tendrá nuevo presidente y postula a Luis Parra #5Ene". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  48. ^ a b Martínez, Deisy (5 January 2020). "De "inusual" pero válida e "histórica" califica Torrealba juramentación de Luis Parra al frente de la AN". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  49. ^ Krygier, Rachelle; Faiola, Anthony (6 January 2020). "Venezuela's last democratic institution falls as Maduro attempts de facto takeover of National Assembly". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  50. ^ "Vándalos accedieron a patadas hasta equipos de sonido de la AN para que Parra hablara (Video)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  51. ^ "El gesto que evidencia el plan de la dictadura de Nicolás Maduro para evitar la reelección de Juan Guaidó en el Parlamento". Infobae (in Spanish). 5 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  52. ^ "Guaido and rival Perra both declare selves speaker of Venezuelan parliament". France 24. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  53. ^ "Maduro reconoció a Luis Parra como "presidente" de la Asamblea Nacional". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  54. ^ "Nicolás Maduro: «Hubo una rebelión dentro de la Asamblea Nacional»" (in Spanish). El Pitazo. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  55. ^ a b "Maduro insultó el criterio de los venezolanos y afirmó que "en la AN decidió la oposición"". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  56. ^ a b "Two Venezuela lawmakers declare themselves Speaker". 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  57. ^ a b Ellsworth, Brian (7 January 2020). "Little-known Venezuela legislator becomes Maduro's choice for opposition leader". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  58. ^ "Guaidó anunció que la AN se instalará legalmente en la sede de El Nacional #5Ene". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  59. ^ "Diputados firman lista de asistencia para la sesión de la AN en la sede de El Nacional #5Ene (Fotos)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  60. ^ Delgado, Elkis Bejarano (5 January 2020). "Guaidó es reelecto como presidente de la Asamblea Nacional con 100 votos". Diario Las Américas (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  61. ^ "Guaidó superó la arremetida chavista y fue reelegido como presidente de la Asamblea Nacional". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2020-01-05. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  62. ^ Sánchez, Fabiola (5 January 2020). "Guaidó blocked from congress as Venezuelan conflict deepens". Associated Press. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  63. ^ Leon, Ibis (6 January 2020). "5 de enero, el día que la Asamblea Nacional tuvo dos presidentes". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  64. ^ "Guaidó se separa de Voluntad Popular para enfocarse en la presidencia". El Nacional (in Spanish). 6 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  65. ^ Vásquez, Luis David (5 January 2020). "Diputados en el exilio respaldaron la reelección de Guaidó en la presidencia de la AN". Caraota Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  66. ^ "Juan Guaidó es reelegido presidente del Parlamento de Venezuela en una sesión paralela". 20 Minutos (in Spanish). 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  67. ^ Scelza, Bruno (6 January 2020). "Aunque dijo que era falso, Negal Morales sí publicó un tuit afirmando que se tomó "por la fuerza" la Asamblea Nacional" (in Spanish). Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  68. ^ "Copei envía a Franklyn Duarte a tribunal disciplinario luego de traicionar a la oposición y venderse a la dictadura". Alberto News. 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  69. ^ Duque, Mariana (6 January 2020). "Franklyn Duarte fue expulsado de Copei y del Frente Amplio en Táchira". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  70. ^ Martínez, Daisy (7 January 2020). "Directiva de Parra hizo su primera sesión ordinaria en la AN". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  71. ^ "Así escapaba Luis Parra del Palacio Legislativo mientras Juan Guaidó y los opositores recuperaban la Asamblea". Infobae (in Spanish). 7 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  72. ^ a b "U.S. targets Maduro-picked top legislator, six others in fresh Venezuelan sanctions". Reuters. 2020-01-13. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  73. ^ Martínez, Valentín Romero (13 January 2020). "Executive denounces "coercive" US measures against Venezuelan deputies". El Universal (Venezuela) (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  74. ^ Sánchez, Fabiola (6 January 2020). "Venezuela's would-be congress leader shrugs off accusations". Associated Press. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  75. ^ a b "Torrealba dice que "sí existe" acta que demuestra quorum parlamentario del 5 de enero". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). 14 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  76. ^ Itriago, Andreína (13 January 2020). "Supremo venezolano llama a Luis Parra a rendir cuentas por su posesión". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  77. ^ Ellsworth, Brian; Sequera, Vivian (12 January 2020). "Venezuela's Guaido calls for more protests against Maduro". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  78. ^ a b c d e Sánchez, Fabiola (15 January 2020). "Government backers block Venezuela legislative meeting". Associated Press. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  79. ^ a b c d e Buitrago, Deisy (16 January 2020). "Venezuelan opposition barred from congress as armed group attacks lawmakers". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  80. ^ "Venezuela lawmakers again blocked from congress session". Associated Press. 21 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
  81. ^ Coscojuela, Sarai (16 January 2020). "José Brito, Conrado Pérez y Luis Parra empiezan la pelea por la directiva de Primero Justicia". Runrun.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  82. ^ González, Gabriela (16 January 2020). "Comienza la batalla por el partido Primero Justicia". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  83. ^ "Hombre afirmó que recibió 15$ por asistir a concentración de Parra". El Pitazo (in Spanish). 16 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  84. ^ Leonett, Vanessa (16 January 2020). "Tomás Guanipa: "Diputados expulsados buscan entregarle a Maduro tarjeta de PJ"". El Pitazo (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  85. ^ Delcy Rodríguez [@DrodriguezVen] (7 January 2020). "@VP Pence only Venezuelans are going to decide our destiny! The United States cannot impose its arrogance on the decisions that only belong to sovereign Venezuela. Abstain from your vulgar interference and address the serious problems suffered by your country caused by the irrational warmongering" (Tweet) (in Spanish) – via Twitter.
  86. ^ a b Mike Pence [@Mike_Pence] (7 January 2020). "Spoke today with @jguaido and congratulated him on his re-election as Interim President of Venezuela. Told him estamos con ustedes and we will stand with you and the people of Venezuela until your #libertad is restored!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  87. ^ "Canciller Arreaza rechaza vulgar intervencionismo de Trump ante elección de nueva directiva en la Asamblea Nacional". Vicepresidency of Venezuela (in Spanish). 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  88. ^ Jorge Arreaza M [@jaarreaza] (8 January 2020). "Mr @SecPompeo, accept once and for all that your strategy against Venezuela failed. You showed no abilities as puppetmasters and you lost the main puppet. Respect International Law and the sovereignty of the Venezuelan people. Return to the path of civilized diplomacy" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  89. ^ Walls, Yuleni (13 January 2020). "PSUV summons to march to be held this Tuesday 14-E". El Universal (Venezuela) (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  90. ^ "Bertucci plantea repetir elección de la junta directiva del Parlamento". El Pitazo (in Spanish). 14 January 2020.
  91. ^ García, Leonardo (6 January 2020). "Movimiento estudiantil de la UCV acompañará a Guaidó y diputados este martes en la AN" (in Spanish). Noticiero Digital. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  92. ^ Lozano, Daniel. "En medio de extrema tensión, Juan Guaidó intentará recuperar hoy el control del Parlamento" (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  93. ^ Mozo Zambrano, Reynaldo (6 January 2020). "Guaidó: El día de mañana iremos al Palacio Federal Legislativo" (in Spanish). Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  94. ^ Fermin Kancev, Maria Victoria. ""AN debe declarar la emergencia legislativa", advierte Tulio Álvarez" (in Spanish). Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  95. ^ Flynn, J.D. (9 January 2020). "Venezuelan bishops denounce contested election of legislative speaker". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 2020-01-12.
  96. ^ a b correspondent, Tom Phillips Latin America (2020-01-06). "Maduro accused of parliamentary 'coup' after replacing Guaidó as president of assembly". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  97. ^ Sebastian Kurz [@sebastiankurz] (8 January 2020). "We reaffirm #Austria's support to @jguaido as President of the National Assembly of #Venezuela and Interim President of Venezuela. Your fight for free and fair presidential elections to restore democracy is crucial. ¡Animo, ustedes pueden" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  98. ^ "Bolivia rechaza elección en el parlamento de Venezuela por intervención de Maduro". Opinión (in Spanish). 5 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  99. ^ @JeanineAnez (6 January 2020). "I strongly reject the intervention of the Nicolás Maduro regime to the National Assembly of Venezuela, violating its independence. I reiterate my support for @jguaido, to the members of the @AsambleaVE and all the brave Venezuelans, so that they can soon recover their democracy" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  100. ^ "Canadá condenó que el régimen de Maduro no permitiera la sesión de la AN" (in Spanish). Caraota Digital. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  101. ^ "Chile condena "actos intimidatorios de dictadura de Maduro" contra diputados" (in Spanish). El Mostrador. EFE. 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  102. ^ "Colombia desconoce a rival de Guaidó como presidente del Parlamento de Venezuela" (in Spanish). Infobae. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  103. ^ Cancillería Costa Rica [@CRcancilleria] (5 January 2020). "Costa Rica #condena enérgicamente #violencia contra la #democracia en #Venezuela" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  104. ^ Tomáš Petříček [@TPetricek] (6 January 2020). "Chci znovu podpořit prozatímního prezidenta Venezuely a předsedu Národního shromáždění @jguaido. Akce proti demokraticky zvolenému Národnímu shromáždění představují další porušení zásad právního státu. #Venezuela potřebuje co nejdříve demokratické prezidentské volby" (Tweet) (in Czech) – via Twitter.
  105. ^ "El presidente de Ecuador reprocha el atropello a Guaidó en el Parlamento venezolano" (in Spanish). EFE. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  106. ^ David Zalkaliani [@] (6 January 2020). "Congratulations to @jguaido on his re-election as the President of the @AsambleaVE. Unlawful acts against democracy and Constitution of Venezuela are unacceptable. Georgia stands by the people of Venezuela and Interim President Guaido in their strive for freedom and democracy" (Tweet) – via Twitter. Missing or empty |user= (help)
  107. ^ German Foreign Office [@GermanyDiplo] (6 January 2020). "We congratulate Juan #Guaido on his reelection as President of the National Assembly of #Venezuela. For the German government he remains the legitimate interim president to call for free and fair presidential elections as soon as the general conditions allow" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  108. ^ German Foreign Office [@GermanyDiplo] (6 January 2020). "The German government calls on the Maduro regime to respect the democratic rights of the National Assembly of #Venezuela. You can find the complete statement of the #EU here" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  109. ^ "Japan reaffirms its support for Guaidó and criticizes acts against democracy". El Nacional (Caracas) (in Spanish). EFE. 14 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  110. ^ "Mexico urges Venezuela to democratically elect leadership of national assembly". Reuters. 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  111. ^ Stef Blok [@ministerBlok] (7 January 2020). "We welcome the re-election of @Jguaido as President of the National Assembly of the Venezuelan Parliament. An important step for democracy. Kingdom of the Netherlands continues to support interim-president Guaido in his efforts for a peaceful solution to the crisis in Venezuela" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  112. ^ "Paraguay condena "represión violenta" contra diputados opositores en Venezuela" (in Spanish). Hoy. EFE. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  113. ^ "Russia says election of new parliament leader in Venezuela was democratic". Reuters. 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  114. ^ "Crisis in Venezuela: Foreign Office statement, 6 January 2020". GOV.UK. 6 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  115. ^ Long, Gideon (5 January 2020). "Juan Guaidó ousted in chaotic Venezuelan parliamentary vote". Financial Times. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  116. ^ "U.S. targets Maduro-backed legislator and allies in fresh Venezuelan sanctions". Reuters. 2020-01-14. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  117. ^ "Uruguay condenó la actitud de Maduro por bloquear ingreso de Guaidó al Parlamento". Diario El País (in Spanish). 6 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  118. ^ Behgjet Pacolli [@pacollibehgjet] (5 January 2020). "Congratulations to @JGuaido on his re-election to the @AsambleaVE and so interim President of #Venezuela per the constitution of #Venezuela. #Kosovo stands with him & the #Venezuelan people as they strive to restore democracy & prosperity. Only Free & fair elections w/#Maduro out" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  119. ^ 外交部 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ROC (Taiwan) [@MOFA_Taiwan] (6 January 2020). "#Taiwan stands with @JGuaido & supports free elections in #Venezuela. We're ready to work with like-minded partners in further assisting the people restore the country's democracy & prosperity" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  120. ^ "U.N. chief Guterres concerned by events in Venezuela: spokesman". Reuters. 2020-01-07. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  121. ^ "Venezuela: Statement by the spokesperson on the events in the National Assembly". EEAS - European External Action Service - European Commission. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  122. ^ OAS (2009-08-01). "OAS - Organization of American States: Democracy for peace, security, and development". www.oas.org. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  123. ^ BATTU-HENRIKSSON, Virginie; PUGLISI, Daniel (9 January 2020). "Venezuela: Statement by the International Contact Group". European External Action Service - European Commission. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  124. ^ "Lima Group backs Guaido re-election as Venezuela's Congress splits". Reuters. 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-01-06.