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2020 coronavirus pandemic in Europe

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2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Europe
Persons died due to coronavirus COVID-19 per capita in Europe.svg
Cumulative number of deaths per million inhabitants from COVID-19 in Europe.[1]
Red COVID-19 Outbreak Cases per capita in Europe.svg
Confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in relation to the population of the country (cases per million inhabitants).[1] The numbers are not comparable, as the testing strategy differs between countries and time periods.
COVID-19 death per infected in Europe.svg
Number of deaths per 100 confirmed COVID-19 infected inhabitants in Europe.[1]
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationEurope
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China[2]
Index caseBordeaux, France
Arrival date21 January 2020
(2 months, 2 weeks and 2 days ago)
Confirmed cases646,340[1]
Recovered123,295[1]
Deaths
49,227[1]
Territories
56[1]

As of 13 March 2020, the World Health Organization considered Europe the active centre of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Cases by country across Europe had doubled over periods of typically 3 to 4 days, with some countries (mostly those at earlier stages of detection) showing doubling every 2 days.[3]

As of 17 March 2020, all countries within Europe had a confirmed case of COVID-19, with Montenegro being the last European country to report at least one case.[4] In 18 countries, at least one death has been reported.

As of 18 March, more than 250 million people are in lockdown in Europe.[5]

Risk assessment for the pandemic in the EU/EEA and UK

As of 17 March 2020, there had been 2,740 reported deaths in the EU/EEA and UK from COVID-19[6] (25 March number: 10,049).

On 13 March 2020, the following COVID-19 related risks were assessed by the ECDC:[7]

Risk Level
risk of severe disease associated with COVID-19 infection for people in the EU/EEA and UK: general population moderate
risk of severe disease associated with COVID-19 infection for people in the EU/EEA and UK: older adults and individuals with chronic underlying conditions high
risk of milder disease, and the consequent impact on social and work-related activity, high
risk of the occurrence of sub-national community transmission of COVID-19 in the EU/EEA and the UK very high
risk of occurrence of widespread national community transmission of COVID-19 in the EU/EEA and the UK in the coming weeks high
risk of healthcare system capacity being exceeded in the EU/EEA and the UK in the coming weeks high
risk associated with transmission of COVID-19 in health and social institutions with large vulnerable populations high

EU coordination

Under the European Union subsidiarity principle, the European Union does not have the legal powers to impose health management policy or actions, such as quarantine measures or closing schools, on member states.[8]

On 28 February 2020, the EU opened a tender process for the purpose of purchasing COVID-19 related medical equipment. Twenty member states submitted requests for purchases. A second round procedure was opened on 17 March, for the purchase of gloves, goggles, face protectors, surgical masks and clothing. Poland was among the member states that applied for the second round tender procedure. The European Commission claimed that all the purchases were satisfied by offers. Commissioner Thierry Breton described the procedure as illustrating the power of EU coordination.[8] On 19 March, the EU announced the creation of the rescEU strategic stockpile of medical equipment, to be financed at the level of 90% by the Commission, to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.[9] Former European Central Bank president Mario Draghi stated that member states should absorb coronavirus losses, rather than the private sector. He compared the impact of coronavirus to World War I.[10]

Nine European countries—Italy, France, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Slovenia and Luxembourg—called for "corona bonds" (a type of eurobond) in order to help their countries to recover from the epidemic, on 25 March. Their letter stated, "The case for such a common instrument is strong, since we are all facing a symmetric external shock."[11][12] Corona bonds were discussed on 26 March 2020 in a meeting between heads of government of EU member states, but Germany and the Netherlands ruled out issuing such bonds. The summit dragged out for three hours longer than expected due to the "emotional" reactions of the prime ministers of Spain and Italy.[13][10] European Central Bank head Christine Lagarde, who plans (separately) to issue more than 1 trillion euros in bonds in response to coronavirus, urged the EU to consider issuing corona bonds.[10]

Statistics by country

COVID-19 cases in Europe  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases

Jan Jan Feb Feb Mar Mar Apr Apr Last 15 days Last 15 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-27
4(n.a.)
2020-01-28
8(+100%)
2020-01-29
10(+25%)
2020-01-30
11(+10%)
2020-01-31
20(+82%)
2020-02-01
23(+15%)
2020-02-02
25(+8.7%)
2020-02-03
27(+8.0%)
2020-02-04
28(+3.7%)
2020-02-05
28(=)
2020-02-06
29(+3.6%)
2020-02-07
32(+10%)
2020-02-08
37(+16%)
2020-02-09
38(+2.7%)
2020-02-10
43(+13%)
2020-02-11
45(+4.7%)
2020-02-12
46(+2.2%)
2020-02-13
46(=)
2020-02-14
46(=)
2020-02-15
47(+2.2%) 1(n.a.)
2020-02-16
47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-17
47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-18
47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-19
47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-20
47(=) 1(=)
2020-02-21
64(+36%) 2(+100%)
2020-02-22
106(+66%) 3(+50%)
2020-02-23
199(+88%) 4(+33%)
2020-02-24
277(+39%) 8(+100%)
2020-02-25
382(+38%) 11(+38%)
2020-02-26
541(+42%) 14(+27%)
2020-02-27
805(+49%) 19(+36%)
2020-02-28
1,101(+37%) 23(+21%)
2020-02-29
1,466(+33%) 31(+35%)
2020-03-01
2,203(+50%) 36(+16%)
2020-03-02
2,730(+24%) 55(+53%)
2020-03-03
3,359(+23%) 85(+55%)
2020-03-04
4,340(+29%) 114(+34%)
2020-03-05
5,739(+32%) 160(+40%)
2020-03-06
7,514(+31%) 216(+35%)
2020-03-07
9,651(+28%) 259(+20%)
2020-03-08
12,197(+26%) 411(+59%)
2020-03-09
14,979(+23%) 522(+27%)
2020-03-10
18,494(+23%) 716(+37%)
2020-03-11
23,506(+27%) 959(+34%)
2020-03-12
24,851(+5.7%) 966(+0.7%)
2020-03-13
36,348(+46%) 1,516(+57%)
2020-03-14
46,501(+28%) 1,812(+20%)
2020-03-15
54,865(+18%) 2,295(+27%)
2020-03-16
65,656(+20%) 2,802(+22%)
2020-03-17
76,927(+17%) 3,392(+21%)
2020-03-18
90,513(+18%) 4,011(+18%)
2020-03-19
108,980(+20%) 4,876(+22%)
2020-03-20
129,618(+19%) 6,065(+24%)
2020-03-21
151,525(+17%) 7,497(+24%)
2020-03-22
170,433(+12%) 8,836(+18%)
2020-03-23
194,465(+14%) 10,263(+16%)
2020-03-24
220,645(+13%) 12,139(+18%)
2020-03-25
250,939(+14%) 14,236(+17%)
2020-03-26
286,339(+14%) 16,464(+16%)
2020-03-27
321,506(+12%) 18,833(+14%)
2020-03-28
358,633(+12%) 21,580(+15%)
2020-03-29
386,469(+7.8%) 24,051(+11%)
2020-03-30
422,714(+9.4%) 26,784(+11%)
2020-03-31
462,047(+9.3%) 30,204(+13%)
2020-04-01
501,236(+8.5%) 33,658(+11%)
2020-04-02
541,244(+8.0%) 38,459(+14%[i])
2020-04-03
579,564(+7.1%) 42,491(+10%)
2020-04-04
637,158(+9.9%) 46,545(+9.5%)
Sources:
  • Real-time map by Berliner Morgenpost.
  • Last updated: 04.04.2020, 21:48 UTC. Note that due to different release times throughout the day, the shown steps do not always correspond to 24 hours.

Notes:

  1. ^ Includes 884 death cases from Établissement d'hébergement pour personnes âgées dépendantes (French Old People's Homes - EHPADs), previously not taken into account in France's Statistics
Cumulative number of deaths per million inhabitants for a selection of European countries, over time. The legend is sorted in descending order of these values. Logarithmic vertical axis. Data source: ECDC.[6]
Summary table of confirmed cases in Europe (as of 5 April 2020)[14]
Country Confirmed Deaths Recovered Ref
Spain Spain 135,032 13,055 40,437 [15]
Italy Italy 128,948 15,887 21,815 [16]
Germany Germany 100,017 1,575 23,192 [17]
France France 70,478 8,078 16,183 [18]
United Kingdom United Kingdom 47,806 4,932 [19]
Turkey Turkey 27,069 574 1,042 [20]
Switzerland Switzerland 21,037 712 6,415 [21]
Belgium Belgium 19,691 1,447 3,751 [22]
Netherlands The Netherlands 17,851 1,766 [23]
Austria Austria 12,206 220 3,463 [24]
Portugal Portugal 11,278 295 75 [25]
Sweden Sweden 6,993 428 205 [26][27]
Norway Norway 5,687 71 [28][29]
Russia Russia 5,389 45 355
Republic of Ireland Ireland 4,994 158 25 [30]
Czech Republic Czech Republic 4,543 67 96 [31]
Poland Poland 4,413 107 162 [32]
Denmark Denmark 4,369 179 1,327 [33]
Romania Romania 3,864 148 374 [34]
Luxembourg Luxembourg 2,804 36 241 [35]
Serbia Serbia 2,200 58 178 [36]
Finland Finland 1,927 28 [37]
Greece Greece 1,735 73 70 [38]
Iceland Iceland 1,486 4 428 [39]
Ukraine Ukraine 1,251 32 25 [40]
Croatia Croatia 1,182 15 125 [41]
Estonia Estonia 1,097 15 62 [42][43]
Slovenia Slovenia 977 22 79 [44]
Moldova Moldova 864 15 30
Lithuania Lithuania 811 13 7 [45]
Hungary Hungary 733 34 66 [46]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 654 23 30
Belarus Belarus 562 8 52 [47]
North Macedonia North Macedonia 555 18 23 [48]
Latvia Latvia 533 1 1 [49][50]
Bulgaria Bulgaria 541 21 39 [51]
Andorra Andorra 501 18 26
Slovakia Slovakia 485 0 8
Cyprus Cyprus 436 14 37
Albania Albania 361 21 104
San Marino San Marino 266 32 35 [52]
Malta Malta 227 0 5
Montenegro Montenegro 203 2
Kosovo Kosovo 145 1 23 [53]
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 77 1 0 [54]
Monaco Monaco 73 1 3
Vatican City Vatican City 7 0 [55]
Total 578,794 42,507 92,023

Pandemic by country and territory

Counting of cases are subject to the number of tested people.

Albania

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have reached Albania on 8 March 2020, a father and son who had travelled from Florence, Italy.[56] On 23 March, the total number of confirmed cases rose to 104.[57]

Andorra

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have reached Andorra on 2 March 2020, a 20-year-old man who had returned from Milan.[58] With a total population of 77,543 (as of 31 December 2019), on 6 April infection rate was 1 case per 147 inhabitants and death rate is 1 case per 3,693 inhabitants.

Austria

The 2019–2020 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Austria on 25 February, a 24-year-old man and a 24-year-old woman travelling from Lombardy, Italy, who were treated at a hospital in Innsbruck.[59][60][61][62] As of 6 April 2020, Austria has reported 12,206 cases of which 220 have died and 3,463 have recovered.[63]

Belarus

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Belarus, when the first case of COVID-19 in the country was registered in Minsk on 28 February 2020.[64]

Belgium

Map of Belgium and its provinces with the spread of COVID-19 as of 5 April 2020[65]

The 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic was first confirmed to have spread to Belgium on 4 February 2020, when a Belgian national out of a group of nine Belgians repatriated from Wuhan to Brussels tested positive for the COVID-19 virus.[66][67] Transmission within Belgium was then confirmed early March at the end of the school holidays (spring break) around carnival, when many tourists back from Northern Italy returned to work or school,[68][obsolete source] leading to an epidemic with a rapid increase in cases in March–April 2020. By the end of March, cases had been registered in all 10 provinces of the country.[citation needed]

As of 6 April 2020, there have been 20,814 confirmed cases reported by the Belgian authorities, with a total of 1,632 deaths and 3,986 discharged patients. Currently, 5,840 people in Belgian hospitals are suffering from COVID-19, including 1,257 in intensive care.[69] The actual number of infections, however, is likely to be much higher than the number of diagnosed cases, as laboratory tests are being limited to specific people and/or people with severe symptoms, as well as many people with mild or no symptoms do not seek medical help while they are likely to be transmitting the virus.[70]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Map of municipalities with confirmed coronavirus cases (as of 6 April)

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have reached Bosnia and Herzegovina on 5 March 2020 in Banja Luka, who had been in Italy during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic. Later the same day, a second case who was the son of the first case.[71] On 21 March, the first death in the country from COVID-19 was announced in a hospital in Bihać. The patient was an elderly woman who had been hospitalized two days before.[72]

As of 6 April 2020, in Bosnia and Herzegovina there were 696 confirmed coronavirus cases, of which 304 were in Republika Srpska,[73][74] 379 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[75][76] and 13 in Brčko District.[77]

On 17 March 2020, the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared a state of emergency in all of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[78]

Bulgaria

Number of confirmed cases by province (as of 4 April)[79]
  0 confirmed
  1–9 confirmed
  10–49 confirmed
  50–99 confirmed
  100+ confirmed

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Bulgaria when the country's first case was confirmed on 8 March 2020, a 27-year-old man from Pleven and a 75-year-old woman from Gabrovo. Neither of the two had traveled to areas with known coronavirus cases. The man tested positive for the virus after being hospitalized for a respiratory infection, and authorities announced plans to test several people who were in contact with the two individuals.[80] Two other samples in Pleven and Gabrovo were positive on 8 March.[81] Patient zero remains unknown.[82]

After the number of patients in the country had reached 23, the Bulgarian Parliament voted unanimously to declare a state of emergency from 13 March until 13 April.[83] A 14-day preventive house quarantine was introduced for citizens who have been in contact with a COVID-19 patient or have returned from an overseas region with a high number of cases. For patients tested positive for the virus a 21-day house quarantine was introduced. This time span is counted from the day a subsequent test comes out negative after they have been treated in a hospital or at home. After the WHO has established that COVID-19 is more resilient than the initial data was showing, the National Crisis-management Staff increased the recovery house quarantine by a week to 28 days.[84] With the continuing increase of COVID-19 cases on a daily basis, on 1 April the Bulgarian government requested that Parliament extends the state of emergency by one month until 13 May.

As of 6 April 2020, there are 549 confirmed cases in 25 out of 28 Bulgarian provinces, with 22 recorded deaths and 39 recoveries. A total of 15,899 tests had been performed by 5 April.

Croatia

On 25 February, Croatia confirmed its first case, a 26-year-old man who had been in Milan, Italy.[85] On 26 February, two new cases were confirmed, one being the twin brother of the first.[86] In March 2020, a cluster of cases were reported in numerous Croatian cities. On 12 March, the first recovery was reported, and on 18 March the first death from the virus was confirmed. On 19 March, the number of recorded cases surpassed 100. On 21 March, it surpassed 200. On 25 March, it surpassed 400. On 31 March, it surpassed 800. The pandemic in Croatia occurred during the Croatian Presidency of the Council of the European Union.[87]

On 22 March, an intense earthquake hit Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, causing problems in enforcement of social distancing measures set out by the Government. The earthquake could also be felt across much of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Slovenia, and Austria.[88][89]

According to Oxford University, as of 24 March, Croatia is the country with the world's strictest restrictions and measures for infection reduction in relation to the number of infected.[90]

The government set up a website for all information about the virus and a new phone line 113 that has volunteers answering questions.[91]

Cyprus

On 9 March, Cyprus confirmed its first 2 cases, one in Nicosia and one in Limassol.[92][93][94]

Czech Republic

It is forbidden to enter front section of buses of the Prague Public Transport during the pandemic (14 March 2020)

The first case was reported in the country on 1 March.[31] As of 22 March, there have been 1120 confirmed cases with 1 lethal outcome.[31]

On 12 March, the Czech Republic declared a 30-day state of emergency and barred entry to non-residents from China, South Korea, Iran, Italy, Spain, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, UK, Norway, Denmark and France.[95]

The Czech Republic banned going out in public without wearing a face mask or covering one's nose and mouth.[96]

Denmark

On 27 February, Denmark confirmed its first case.[97]

As of 16 March, there have been 898 confirmed cases in Denmark, including 11 in the Faroe Islands (see below).[33]

Numerous preventive measures gradually were implemented. Starting on 13 March, schools, universities and similar places were closed, while most people in non-essential functions have been sent home to work.[98] On 14 March, the borders were closed for all entries, except Danish citizens, people with a residence permit, people with an important reason for visiting, and transport of goods.[99][95]

Estonia

On 27 February Estonia confirmed its first case, an Iranian citizen, travelling from Iran via Turkey.[100]

As of 11 March there were 17 confirmed cases in Estonia. 12 of them had returned with the infection from Northern Italy, one from France, one from Iran and one from undisclosed risk area.[101][102] First two cases of virus transmitting locally were in Saaremaa after international volleyball competition involving a team from Milan.[103]

From 12 March the virus was spreading locally. The number of infected grew fast reaching 109 on 14 March.[104]

Finland

The first case was reported in the country on 28 January.[105][106]

France

Empty supermarket shelves in Annonay, France, on 14 mars 2020.

On 24 January, the first case in Europe was confirmed in Bordeaux. Two more cases were confirmed in Paris by the end of the day, all of them originated from China. A cluster of infections was discovered in Haute-Savoie which originated from a British national who had visited Singapore.[107][108][109]

From 31 January to 9 February, nearly 550 people were repatriated from Wuhan on a series of evacuation flights arriving at Creil Air Base in Oise and Istres-Le Tubé Air Base in Istres.[110]

On 14 February, an 80-year-old Chinese tourist died in Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, marking the first death from COVID-19 in Europe and France.[111]

According to regional council president Jean Rottner, the starting point for the first intense wave in Alsace was the Fasting Meeting of the Protestant Free Church of La Porte Ouverte in Mulhouse, with more than 2500 visitors, in mid-February.[112] On 12 March, French president Emmanuel Macron announced on public television that all schools and all universities would close from Monday 16 March until further notice. The next day, the prime minister Édouard Philippe banned gatherings of more than 100 people, not including public transportation. The following day, the prime minister ordered the closure of all nonessential public places, including restaurants, cafés, cinemas, and discothèques, effective at midnight.[113]

As of 14 March, there had been 4,499 confirmed cases (a near-four-fold increase over the number 5 days previously), and 91 deaths in France.[114]

As of 20 March, the number of confirmed cases had risen to 12,612, while the number of deaths reached 450.[1] As of March 30, more than six hundred doctors and other medical workers are suing the former Minister of Health and the Prime Minister for "culpable negligence" in failing to prepare for the epidemic.[115]

The daily update of the number of deaths in France includes only deaths in hospitals, deaths in nursing houses or at home are not included in the update. Therefore, it is difficult to know for sure the actual number of deaths due to the virus.[116]

Germany

Confirmed cases per 10,000 inhabitants by district

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have reached Germany on 27 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case was confirmed and contained near Munich, Bavaria.[117] The majority of the cases in January and early February originated from the headquarters of a car parts manufacturer there. On 25 and 26 February, multiple cases related to the Italian outbreak were detected in Baden-Württemberg. A large cluster linked to a Carnival event was formed in Heinsberg, North Rhine-Westphalia, with the first death reported on 9 March 2020.[118][119] New clusters were introduced in other regions via Heinsberg as well as via people coming from Italy, Iran and China,[120] from where non-Germans could arrive by plane until 17-18 March.

German disease and epidemic control is advised by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to a national pandemic plan. The outbreaks were first managed in a containment stage,[121] which attempted to minimise the expansion of clusters. The German government and several health officials stated that the country was well prepared and at first saw no need to take special measures to stock up or limit public freedom. Since 13 March, the pandemic has been managed in the protection stage with German states mandating school and kindergarten closures, postponing academic semesters and prohibiting visits to nursing homes to protect the elderly. Two days later, borders to five neighbouring countries were closed. On 22 March, the government announced a national curfew, almost identical to those in to Austria and Bavaria, where it had been implemented seven days and three days before, respectively. Individuals are only allowed to leave their living quarters for certain activities e.g. commuting to work, doing sports or for groceries, and not in groups of more than two people if they do not share the same household.

As of 6 April 2020, 101,178 cases have been reported with 1,612 deaths and approximately 28,700 recoveries.[122][123][124][125] The preliminary fatality rate in Germany was much lower than in Italy or Spain, leading to a discussion and explanations such as a higher number of tests, starting off with more intensive care beds with respiratory support, no post-mortem tests and more cases of younger people testing positive. The head of the Robert Koch Institute warned that the German death rate would increase over time.

Greece

On 26 February, the first case in Greece was confirmed, a 38-year-old woman from Thessaloniki who had recently visited Northern Italy.[126] The next day, the first patient's 9-year-old child and another 40-year-old woman, who had travelled to Italy, also tested positive.[127][128][129] Subsequent cases is Greece were mainly related to people who had travelled to Italy and a group of pilgrims who had travelled to Israel and Egypt, as well as their contacts.[130][72] Health and state authorities issued precautionary guidelines and recommendations, while measures up to that point were taken locally and included the closure of schools and the suspension of cultural events in the affected areas (particularly Ilia, Achaea and Zakynthos).[72] The first confirmed death from COVID-19 in Greece was a 66-year-old man, who died on 12 March.[131]

By 30 March, there were 1212 confirmed cases in Greece, 43 deaths and 53 recoveries.[132] The Greek National Public Health Organization (NPHO), in collaboration with local authorities and doctors, is tracking and testing everyone who came in close contact with the patients.[133][134] By March 10 the government decided to suspend the operation of educational institutions of all levels nationwide and then, on 13 March, to close down all cafes, bars, museums, shopping centres, sports facilities and restaurants in the country.[135][136] On 16 March, all retail shops were also closed and all services in all areas of religious worship of any religion or dogma were suspended.[137][138] On 18 and 19 March, the government announced a series of measures of more than 10 billion euros to support the economy, businesses and employees.[139] On 22 March the Greek authorities announced significant restrictions on all nonessential transport and movement across the country, starting from 6 a.m. on 23 March.[140]

Guernsey

On 9 March, the first case in the crown dependency was confirmed.[141]

Hungary

On 4 March Prime Minister Viktor Orbán announced that two Iranian students had been infected with the virus.[142] The students are asymptomatic and have been transported to Saint Ladislaus Hospital in Budapest.[142]

Iceland

The first case was confirmed in Iceland on 28 February, an Icelandic male in his forties who had been on a ski trip to Andalo in Northern Italy and returned home on 22 February.[143]

Iceland's Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management declared a state of emergency on 6 March after two cases of community transmission in Iceland were confirmed, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 43.[144] On 13 March, it was announced at an official press conference that a four-week ban on public gatherings of more than 100 persons would be put into effect as of Monday 16 March. Universities and secondary schools will be closed for four weeks. International airports and harbours will remain exempt from these measures.[145]

Ireland

The National Public Health Emergency Team of Ireland announced that a case in Ireland has been confirmed on 29 February.[146][147] Response to the outbreak has included cancellation of St Patrick's Day parades and all festivals.[148] On 12 March, all schools, universities and childcare institutes were closed until 29 March. On 20 March emergency legislation was signed into law by Michael D. Higgins giving the state permission to detain people, restrict travel and keep people in their homes to help combat the spread of the pandemic.[149]

As of 28 March, there have been 2,415 confirmed cases and 36 deaths.[150]

Italy

On 31 January, the first two cases were confirmed in Rome. Two Chinese tourists, who arrived in Milan on 23 January via Milan Malpensa Airport and travelled to Rome on a tourist bus, tested positive for and were hospitalised in Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases.[151]

On 6 February, one of the Italians repatriated from Wuhan, China tested positive, bringing the total number of cases in Italy to three.[152] On 22 February, the repatriated Italian recovered and was discharged from the hospital.[153] On 22 and 26 February, the two Chinese tourists hospitalized in Rome tested negative.[154]

On 21 February, a cluster of cases was detected starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy,[155] with additional 60 cases on 22 February,[156] and Italy's first deaths reported on the same day.[157] As of late February, Italy was hit harder than anywhere else in the EU by the COVID-19 outbreak.[158]

As of 17 March 2020, there have been 2,503 deaths and 31,506 confirmed cases.[159]

Lockdown

8 March: In the early hours of Sunday, Italian prime minister Giuseppe Conte signed a decree enacting forced quarantine for the region of Lombardy – home to more than 10 million people and the financial capital, Milan – and multiple other provinces, totalling around 16 million residents. The lockdown decree included the power to impose fines on anyone caught entering or leaving Lombardy, the worst-affected region, until 3 April.[160]

On 9 March in the evening, the lockdown orders were extended to the whole of Italy, effectively quarantining more than 60 million people.[161]

Kosovo

The first two cases were reported in the country on 13 March. In the ten-day period March 13–23, the number of positive cases with coronavirus rose to 35. In midnight of 23 March, 26 new cases were confirmed, bringing the total number of cases to 61.[162] On March 25, the government collapsed with a vote of no confidence in Prime Minister Albin Kurti after the Prime Minister refused to call a state of emergency to deal with the COVID-19 crisis.[163]

Latvia

Map of cases of COVID-19 in Latvia by municipality.[164]

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have reached Latvia on 2 March 2020.[165][166]

On 13 March, the government closed all educational institutions and banned mass gatherings until 14 April. Many concerts and events were cancelled and moved to other dates. As of 20 March at least 1,600 culture and entertainment events had been disrupted.[167]

Liechtenstein

The first case was reported in the country on 3 March.[citation needed]

Lithuania

The first case was reported in the country on 28 February. By March 17 there were 21 cases, mostly in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. The first infected Lithuanian recovered on 14 March.[citation needed]

Luxembourg

The first case was reported in the country on 29 February.

Malta

On 7 March, Malta reported its first 3 cases of coronavirus: an Italian family consisting of a 12-year-old girl and her parents, who arrived in Malta on 3 March from Rome after a holiday in Trentino.[168]

Moldova

On 7 March, the first case was confirmed in the Republic of Moldova: a 48-year-old woman who had recently returned from Italy.[169] Three days later, another two cases were confirmed.[170]

On the other hand, on 21 March, the first two cases of the unrecognized republic of Transnistria (officially part of Moldova) were confirmed.[171]

Monaco

The first case was reported in the country on 29 February.[citation needed]

Montenegro

Map of cases of COVID-19 in Montenegro.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Montenegro when its first case was confirmed on 17 March 2020,[172][173] making it the last European country to register a case of SARS-CoV-2.[174]

In one week (24 March), 51 cases were reported and after two weeks there was totally 120 cases (31 March). Indexed cases count 18% out of reported, 72% cases were infected due to contact with primary cases, while the origin of infection of the rest 10% cases are not certain. [175] The Government of Montenegro estimates that the country needs EUR 59.2 million private and international relief to address health, social and economical issues of CoVID-19.[176]

As of 5 April 2020, the total number of cases in Montenegro is 223.[177]

Netherlands

On 27 February, the Netherlands confirmed its first case, a man who had been in the Lombardy region of Italy.[178]

On 6 March, RIVM announced the first death.[179]

On 9 March, RIVM announced 56 more confirmed cases in addition to the total of the 77 infected patients declared in the previous day, bringing the total to 321 infected and 3 dead.[180]

On 15 March, the Dutch government announced in a press conference that all schools, day care facilities, colleges, universities, and universities of applied sciences would close until 6 April. Though children of parents in vital industries could still go to school or the day care if they could not be taken care of otherwise.[181]

As of 16 March, the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 had risen to 1,413. The total number of confirmed deaths had risen to 24. This was an increase of 278 infections and 4 deaths in comparison to 15 March.[182]

On the same date, the Minister President, Mark Rutte, of the Netherlands had announced that the country would not go into complete lockdown. Instead the situation would be controlled as much as possible by delaying the spread of the virus, relying on measures taken earlier by the government, such as social distancing and prohibiting gatherings of 100 people and over.[183] It is expected the coronavirus will keep spreading and a large part of the population will become infected. Instead of opting to lockdown the Netherlands for the time required, which would have a lot of (negative) consequences while the benefits remain uncertain and would have to stay in place, it will be attempted to build herd immunity in a controlled manner. Depending on how the virus behaves, the government will decide if additional measures are required.[183][184]

Further measures were introduced on 23 March. All events will be banned until 1 June. Gatherings of more than three people, except for families, are prohibited. City mayors received greater authorisation to enforce the rules. Fines will be issued to those not complying with the new rules.[185]

North Macedonia

On 26 February, North Macedonia confirmed its first case, a woman that had returned from Italy.[citation needed]

Norway

Separation of an area near the driver, bus in Trondheim, 15 March

On 26 February, Norway confirmed its first case, in a person who had returned from China the previous week.[186][187]

On 7 March, there were 147 confirmed cases in Norway. Most of the cases could either be linked to outbreaks abroad or close encounters with these. Altogether 89 have been infected on travel in Italy.[188]

On 12 March 2020, all kindergartens, schools, colleges and universities were closed until at least 26 March 2020.[189]

Poland

Map of powiats with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases[190]

In February and March 2020, during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, Polish health authorities carried out laboratory testing of suspected cases of infection by SARS-CoV-2, one of the seven known human coronaviruses, as well as home quarantining and monitoring.[191][192] The first case of a laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Poland was that of a man hospitalised in Zielona Góra, with confirmation announced officially on 4 March 2020.[193][194] The local transmission phase of SARS-CoV-2 in Poland was declared to the World Health Organization on 10 March.[195][196] The first death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Poland was that of a 56-year-old woman on 12 March.[197] Polish authorities did not participate in the 28 February 2020 European Union tender procedure for purchasing COVID-19 pandemic related medical equipment, in which 20 other member states participated. Poland applied on 6 March for the 17 March tender for the purchase of gloves, goggles, face protectors, surgical masks and clothing; the European Commission stated that all requests in the tender were satisfied by offers.[8]

As of 6 April 2020, there were 4,413 laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases[198] and 107 deaths[198], and there were 162 recoveries as of 6 April 2020.[199]

Lockdown-type control measures started on 10–12 March, closing schools and university classes and cancelling mass events,[200][201][202] and were strengthened on 25 March, limiting non-family gatherings to two people and religious gatherings to six and forbidding non-essential travel.[203] On 20 March, the Ministry of Health tried to prevent medical personnel from commenting on the pandemic. The Polish Ombudsman Adam Bodnar defended medical personnel's right to speak publicly about the epidemic on constitutional grounds of freedom of speech and the right of the public to information. Doctors opposed the self-censorship orders.[204] Fatality counts initially only included deaths from lab-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (U07.1[205]).[206] Starting on 1 April 2020, fatalities that were clinically or epidemiologically diagnosed as COVID-19 (U07.2)[205]) were also considered as COVID-19 deaths by NIPH–NIH.[207] As of 28 March 2020, people in Poland who died in quarantine from suspected COVID-19 were not tested post mortem for SARS-CoV-2.[208] As of 29 March 2020, there were 269,307 people under quarantine for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection and 42,783 SARS-CoV-2 tests had been made since the beginning of testing.[209] The lockdown restrictions were tightened starting on 31 March–1 April by a government regulation, requiring individuals walking in streets to be separated by two metres, closing parks, boulevards, beaches, hairdressers and beauty salons, and forbidding unaccompanied minors from exiting their homes. The same regulation loosened the restrictions on public gatherings starting from 12 April, allowing religious and other gatherings to be held for up to a maximum of 50 people.[210]

Portugal

On 2 March, the first two cases were confirmed in Portugal, both in the city of Porto. One was a doctor that had returned from holiday in northern Italy and the other a worker from Spain.[211][212]

On 18 March, the President of the Republic, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, declared the entirety of the Portuguese territory in a state of emergency for the following fifteen days, with the possibility of renewal, the first since the Carnation Revolution in 1974.[213]

On 24 March the Portuguese Government admitted that the country could not contain anymore the COVID-19 as it is wide spreading and will enter the 'Mitigation Phase' on 26 March.[214]

Romania

Cases in Romania by county.

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have reached Romania on 26 February 2020.[215]

As of 6 April, the Government of Romania reports that 23,849 people are in institutionalized quarantine, and 106,463 are in isolation at home under medical supervision. 40,987 tests have been processed.[216]

Russia

Russian President Vladimir Putin visits coronavirus patients at Moscow hospital on 24 March

Russia implemented preventive measures to curb the spread of COVID-19 in the country by imposing quarantines, carrying raids on potential virus carriers and using facial recognition to impose quarantine measures.[217]

On 31 January, two cases were confirmed, one in Tyumen Oblast, another in Zabaykalsky Krai. Both were Chinese nationals, who have since recovered.[218][217]

On 2 March, the first case in the Moscow region was confirmed.[219][220]

On 7 March, four new cases were confirmed, three was in Lipetsk and one in Saint Petersburg. All people visited Italy in the previous two weeks.[221]

On 8 March, three news cases were confirmed, in Moscow, Belgorod and Kaliningrad Oblasts. All people returned from Italy.[222]

On 10 March, Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin signed a decree for banning mass events in Moscow with more than 5000 participants from 10 March to 10 April.[223]

San Marino

On 27 February, San Marino confirmed its first case, an 88-year-old man with pre-existing medical conditions, who came from Italy. He was hospitalised at a hospital in Rimini, Italy.[224] As of 25 March 2020: With 208 confirmed cases out of a population of 33,344 (as of 2018), it is the country with the highest percentage of confirmed cases per capita at 0.62% – 1 confirmed case per 161 inhabitants.[225] Also, with 21 confirmed deaths, the country has the highest rate of confirmed deaths per capita at 0.063% of the total population – 1 death per 1,588 inhabitants.[225]

Serbia

Disinfection of housing in Serbia during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic

On 29 February, a massive infection occurred in the town of Valjevo after a private party involving a guest from Austria who had previously stayed in Italy.[226][227] On 6 March, the first case was confirmed in Serbia by Minister of Health Zlatibor Lončar,[228] of a man who had traveled to Budapest.[229] President Aleksandar Vucic and the Government of the Republic of Serbia introduced a state of emergency on March 15. Two days later, curfew and quarantine were introduced as safeguards against massive infection.[citation needed]

Slovakia

A queue of cars and trucks waiting to cross the Slovak border on 13 March
People in Bratislava wearing masks on 16 March

On 6 March Slovakia confirmed its first case, a 52-year-old man coming from a small town nearby Bratislava. He had not travelled anywhere in recent weeks but his son had visited Venice.[230] His son didn't show any symptoms. On 7 March, the virus was also confirmed in his wife and son.[231]

Slovenia

On 4 March Slovenia confirmed its first case. A patient of about 60 years of age had returned from Morocco few days earlier (via Italy) and was admitted to a hospital in Ljubljana.[232][233]

On 6 March total 8 cases reported, three of them medical professionals, who contracted the virus on holiday in Italy. By 9 March 16 people were confirmed to be infected.[citation needed]

Spain

Television cameras covering the first coronavirus cases in a Hospital in Valencia.

On 31 January Spain confirmed its first case, in the Canary Island of La Gomera. A tourist from Germany tested positive and was admitted to University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria.[234][235][236] On 19 February, 2,500 soccer fans from Valencia attended a Champions League game in Bergamo, the hot spot of the outbreak in Italy.[237]

On 24 February, a medical doctor from Lombardy, Italy who was vacationing in Tenerife, tested positive at the University Hospital of the Nuestra Señora de Candelaria in Spain.[238][239] Afterwards, multiple cases were detected in Tenerife involving people who had come in contact with the doctor. Other cases involving individuals who visited Italy were also discovered on Spanish mainland.[240]

On Saturday 14 March, the Spanish government imposed a nationwide quarantine, banned all trips that are not necessary and announced that companies may be intervened to guarantee supplies.[241][242] However, with universities and schools closed earlier that week, bars and parks were full, and due to slow enactment "part of the population of Madrid and other cities had dispersed across the country".[237] As of 17 March 2020, there had been 11,826 confirmed cases with 1,028 recoveries and 533 deaths in Spain.[243]

On 28 March, the Spanish government tightened up its national lockdown, ordering all non-essential workers to stay at home for the next two weeks.[244] Nearly 900,000 workers lost their jobs in Spain since it went into lockdown in mid-March 2020.[245]

Sweden

On 31 January, Sweden confirmed the first case. A woman in her 20s, who visited Wuhan, tested positive and was admitted at Ryhov County Hospital in Jönköping.[246][247]

On 26 February, following the outbreak in Italy and in Iran, infection clusters originating from these two countries appeared in Sweden.[248] A number of individuals in Västra Götaland, Jönköping, Stockholm, Uppsala tested positive and were admitted to the infectious disease units in the respective counties.[249]

As of 11 March, first fatality. An elderly man in Stockholm over 60 who had other illnesses prior to infection.

As of 12 March, National testing strategy shifted to only elderly, severely ill, and healthcare personnel. The official recommendation is as of 13 March to stay at home for symptoms that are not serious and not visit healthcare. This makes statistics becoming less useful[250]

As of 14 March, 924 people reported infected. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden made the recommendation to refrain from unnecessary travel to all countries.

Switzerland

On 25 February, following the outbreak in Italy, Switzerland confirmed its first case, a 70-year-old man in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, who had previously visited Milan.[251][252] Afterwards, multiple cases related to the Italy clusters were discovered in multiple cantons including Basel-City, Zürich and Graubünden.[253][254][255] Multiple isolated cases not related to the Italian clusters were also confirmed.[256]

On 28 February, the Federal Council announced an immediate ban on all events with more than 1,000 participants.[257]

As of 10 March, there were 500 confirmed cases in Switzerland.[258] On 16 March 2020, the Federal Council announced[259] further measures, and a revised ordinance.[260] Measures include the closure of bars, shops and other gathering places until 19 April, but leaves open certain essentials, such as grocery stores, pharmacies, (a reduced) public transport and the postal service.[261]

Turkey

Number of confirmed cases by provinces (as of 3 April):

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was officially confirmed to have spread to Turkey on 11 March 2020, a Turkish man who had contracted the virus while travelling in Europe.[262]

On 12 March, the government announced that schools and universities in Turkey would be closed starting from 16 March.[263]

The first death due to coronavirus disease in the country occurred on 17 March 2020.[264] On 23 March 2020, the Minister of Health Fahrettin Koca announced that cases of coronavirus had spread all over Turkey.[265]

On 5 April 2020, Minister Koca confirmed that the total number of cases increased to 27,069 and that the death toll reached 574. The total number of tests performed as of 4 April was 181,445.[266]

Ukraine

Number of confirmed cases by oblast (as of 31 March):

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Ukraine when its first case was confirmed to be hospitalized in Chernivtsi Oblast on 3 March 2020,[267] a man who had travelled from Italy to Romania by plane and then arrived in Ukraine by car.[268]

As of 20 March, an emergency situation was established in Kiev Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast, Zhytomyr Oblast, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast and in the city of Kiev.[269]

United Kingdom

Man in London wearing a face mask on 19 March

On 31 January, England confirmed the first two cases, both members of a family of Chinese nationals staying in a hotel in York who were taken to specialist facilities in Newcastle upon Tyne.[270] Afterwards, several confirmed cases were detected across the UK.[271][272][273]

The UK government implemented preventive measures to curb the spread of infections which included contact tracing, isolation and testing, some of which were related to the Italy clusters.[274][275][276] The NHS set up drive-through screening centres at several hospitals to test members of the public showing symptoms.[277][278] This effort was later replaced with screening focused on diagnosing patients in secondary care.

On 2 March, Ministers approved the Department of Health and Social Care coronavirus action plan,[279] which sets out actions to date, future measures, cooperation between devolved political and health authorities, and the level of preparedness of the country's four National Health Services. It outlined the government's objectives to deploy phased actions to Contain, Delay, and Mitigate any outbreak, using Research to inform policy development.[280]

On 25 March, the UK Parliament legislated to provide the government and authorities with emergency powers to handle the 2020 coronavirus pandemic, such as the power to restrict public gatherings, order businesses to close, and the ability to detain those suspected of having the virus.[281] The Coronavirus Act 2020 received Royal Assent on 25 March and came into force on the same day.[282]

As of 30 March, there were 22,141 confirmed cases and 1,408 deaths in the United Kingdom.[283]

Vatican City

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Vatican City in March 2020.[284] There are 7 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and no associated deaths.

Due to Vatican City's small population of 618 people at the time of the outbreak,[285] the country's 7 cases give it a case per capita percentage of 1.1%; the highest of all states in the world.

Pope Francis became ill with symptoms of a cold, but tested negative for COVID-19.[286]

Daily confirmed cases and deaths in major EU vs South Korea and mainland China development

Total confirmed cases since Day 1 of Outbreak

Rate Comparison

Syncing the start date, comparing the Daily growth

Syncing the start date till first 500 cases:

Syncing the start date till first 100 cases:

Criticism of response to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic

Although by 7 March some European politicians such as France's Marine Le Pen had called for Europe's internal borders to be temporarily closed,[287] the European Union by 13 March continued to reject the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel area and introducing border controls with Italy.[288][289][290][291] The deputy leader of the Swiss Ticino League, Lorenzo Quadri, by 29 February had criticised the decision: "It is alarming that the dogma of wide-open borders is considered a priority."[292] United States President Donald Trump said by 12 March the European Union had "failed to take the same precautions and restrict travel from China and other hot spots" as the US had implemented.[293]

By 9 March Czech Prime Minister Andrej Babiš stated that "European countries cannot ban the entry of Italian citizens within the Schengen area. The only possible way is to have the Italian prime minister call on his fellow citizens to refrain from traveling to other countries of the European Union."[294]

After Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Denmark announced complete closure of their national borders, the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said by 12 March that "Certain controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not seen as being the most effective by the World Health Organization. Moreover, they have a strong social and economic impact, they disrupt people’s lives and business across the borders."[295] European Union leaders condemned the US decision to restrict travel from Europe to the United States. European Council President Charles Michel and Ursula von der Leyen said in a joint statement: "The European Union disapproves of the fact that the US decision to impose a travel ban was taken unilaterally and without consultation."[296] Ursula von der Leyen admitted by 17 March that "all of us who are not experts initially underestimated the coronavirus."[297]

The Italian government has criticised EU's lack of solidarity with Italy.[298][299][300][301] Politico reported on 7 March that "EU countries have so far refused Italy's plea for help fighting coronavirus, as national capitals worry that they may need to stockpile face masks and other medical gear to help their own citizens, officials and diplomats said."[302] Maurizio Massari, Italy's ambassador to the EU, said that "Only China responded bilaterally. Certainly, this is not a good sign of European solidarity."[303] Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić said that "European solidarity does not exist. That was a fairy tale."[303]

The planned NATODefender 2020” military exercise in Germany, Poland, and the Baltic states,[304] the largest NATO war manoeuvres since the end of the Cold War, were to be held on a reduced scale because of the coronavirus pandemic.[305] The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's general secretary Kate Hudson critisiced the Defender 2020 exercise: "In the current public-health crisis, it jeopardises the lives not only of the troops from the US and the many European countries participating but the inhabitants of the countries in which they are operating."[306]

See also

Notes

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